for in many in Latin respects . clearer. and. of course. It is not. and have only been imperiectly explored. work. wrote either in Hebrew or Arabic however. the less corrupt of the two. which differ considerably from one another. There are two codices or recensions of The Turba Philosophorum. manuscripts treating early chemistry are in numbers in the considerable preserved of various libraries of Europe. but they are both 2094035 .PREFACE. on the whole. certain that the original the Arabic and Syriac is irretrievably lost. What is called in the following pages the second recension. Unfortunately. but seemingly during the six or seven centuries when it was quoted as an authority by all the alchemical adepts. is appreciably shorter. the . not only at the present day. has been familiar only in its Latin garb. originally written compiler or editor. but it was not. the it can scarcely be regarded as an original composition. so far as can be ascertained. *lpHE Turba Phiksophorum is indisputably the most ancient extant treatise on Alchemy in the Latin tongue. the present editor has neither the opportunity nor the qualifications for undertaking such a task.

and that with perfect whom all because derived from Greece. it seemed desirable to give the work The in its entirety. to Alchemy first We time. those ancient the Latin literature makes . has Greek Science. forming " Essai sur la Transmission de Antique au Moyen Age. that Science follows Latin referred connects which which Alchemy. some of It is to this owe which are very devoted part la to of his clearly indicated in a chapter the and subject. the editor has occasionally substituted that of the alternative and has in most cases indicated the version. to illustrate the striking analogies between the Greek Hermetic century and the Turba. but where the reading of the text is so corrupt as to be quite untranslatable. Berthelot's researches. writers of the fourth great scholar and scientist that we the discovery of these analogies. Monsieur Berthelot's invaluable text and translation of the Byzantine Alchemists has been largely made use of. in a because state. are also enabled to identify. certainty. variations of the second recension are appended usually in foot-notes. Preface. bad The longer recension has been chosen for the text of the following translation.ii. rightly with preceded the latter was an to the Arabian itself always been Arabian source." It from M. course pursued. for the sages.

and . chief printed versions of The Turba Philo- " sophorum. treatise on Alchemy. are Zosimus. requent and reverent allusion that they tion. and the other writers preserved in the Byzantine collecBerthelot. the adepts of the school of Democritus." and in the " Tro's in Anciens Traictes de la Philosophic Naturelle. M. direct mediately Philoso- influence. which The exists in the Latin language. Those in the latter language are Auriferae Tractatus. infers that the Greek influence found was not a phorum was derived in The Turbo." and that of the smaller collection entitled " Artis There are some translawork existing in German and some French. as it is the most ancient. Preface. from the French. are those of the Theatrum Chemi" cum. we now know the Panopolite." One English version manuscript is known to the present editor. and is therefore the most valuable. however. versions contained in Salmon's " Bibliotheque des Philosophes Alchimiques." tions of the also in specially remarkable for the very slender way The which they represent the original.iii." the Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa. in amongst the treasures of the Sloane It is collection. and it will be found in the British Museum are instances in point. however. . rendered. through but channels which are now unknown In any case the Turba summarises the author's preceding Geber.

which the limits of the present volume preclude him from utilising. commentaries. It may be added that the great collections of " " Alchemy. also that the editor has collected a consider- amount of material concerning this curious work.iv. able ARTHUR EDWARD WAITE. While they are of a considerably later date. contain colloquies. and enigmas which pretend to elucidate mysteries of The Turba Philosophorum. such as the Theatrum Chemicum and Mangetus. they at the same time belong to the early the It may be added period of Latin Alchemy. . has been found useless for the purposes of this translation. Preface.

and of the Exercitationes on the Turba. ARISLEUS. learning from the seat of knowledge. and the are mutilated in the fact that most names Turba. same being as here follows and the : begotten of Pythaa disciple of the disciples goras. the sophist of the time of Antoninus. prefixed to the Words of the Sages. Berthelot supposes him to be synonymous with the Aristenes of the second recension (Eleventh Dictum) Abladus. The Epistle of Arisleus. B . concerning the purport of this Book. TAKEN FROM AN ANCIENT MANUSCRIPT CODEX. * An I testify that my ancient gloss describes Arisleus as the son of M. unto all who come after wisheth health and mercy. for the Benefit of Posterity. MOKE PERFECT THAN ANY EDITION PUBLISHED HERETOFORE. Beyond in the first the similarity of the name.* by the grace of thrice great Hermes. which are found volume of the Bibliotheca Chemica.THE TURBA PHILOSOPHORUM. there seems no reason to suppose that the compiler intended to connect Pythagoras with alchemical traditions through Aristeus.

to the treatises of El describes Habib. that The book by Master is also called the Third Pythagorical Synod. Prophets. in which Arisleus has gathered together the sayings of the introducing more prudent Pythagoras the among the Philosopher. who council. had a greater and Wisdom of gift God of than was granted to Therefore Hermes. where alchemical writings attributed to this sage are freely quoted. and had been constituted the chief ciples. Pythagoras. t The variations French version of Salmon has the following distinct " : The beginning of the book. instituted concerning . Italian. and the true Geber. the Turba of the Philosophers. the Kitab-al-Firhirst. be the first speaker. and the tradition which him as an adept of the Hermetic Mystery must be referred to an Arabian origin. that words their be might He a then foundation for commanded of highest Iximidrus. to posterity. collecting the opinions of the scholars. scholars. said :f * The Greek make no mention alchemists of the Byzantine Collection of Pythagoras.* the master of the wise and chief of the master. any one after he had a mind to assemble his dis- who were now greatly increased. persons throughout all regions for the discussion of this most precious Art.The Turba Philosophorum.

extent." The second recension varies the last " The actions and passage. to some Here. the terms by attained unto. the chief variation " " Occult the original being that instead of Philosophy " reads the vegetable stone. and are kept If the within bounds by the air.The Turba Philosophorum. . IXIMIDRUS saith of beginning Nature. he follows mainly the text of the second recension. coequalling and that the visible natures. 3 The First Dictum. and which the universal nature nourishes and decocts. his and to have put them. to But the air did of commanded Pythagoras begin the discourse. as follows passions thereof are known and understood only by {hose to whom a : knowledge of the Sacred Art is given." * The same French Translation interprets this obscure " The passage as follows beginning of all things is a it is perpetual. with their births and decay. which I : all is testify things that the a Certain is perpetual. moned. his The French translator seems to have summarised the recensions which he had collected." &c. : . infinite it nourishes and certain nature But this nature and the times of decocts all things. humidity and density Occult Philosophy. instruct I you that the stars are igneous. scholar.* Now. in own words. which it is as it were. are times wherein the ends to which that nature brings them are beheld and sumall things. Eximidrius." B2 . however. corruption and generation are.

and the humidity its own humidity. which thus conquers because it unites the heat of the in Sun to its own heat. 4 not exist to separate the flames of the sun from living things. breathe forth air did not those winds whereby creatures are generated. But God has provided the separating air. the Sun by its heat would certainly destroy all that lives. which thus If the helps the water against itself? of water did not nourish the air by such tenuous moisture. lest that He has created Do you not up.The Turba Pliilosophomm. from the upper to the lower parts of the heaven the air? presently If. But the Sun is kept check by the air. which should be burnt observe that the Sun when it rises in overcomes the air by its and that the warmth penetrates heat. The fire. assuredly the Sun would overcome the air. . then the Sun would consume all creatures. the then. Have not water remarked how tenuous you is drawn up into the air by the action of water to the heat of the Sun.

water. by means of which the air conquers the fire itself. to the humour. for the fire is hot and dry. fire the air lish peace. but the water is cold and moist. which is warm there is and moist. 5 extracts moisture from the therefore. is thus placed to establook ye all how there And from the tenuous shall arise a spirit "vapour of the being joined because the heat air. there necessarily issues something tenuous. The air. even as thou knowest . disposed in such manner by the will of God.The Turba Philosopher um. which also becomes spirit and life to all creatures. however. fire and water are between enemies which no consanguinity. joins these together by its between the concording medium humidity of water and the heat of . For the heat of the Sun extracts something tenuous out of the air. which will become a wind. the is Sun touches and breaks up a cloud. and a coruscation appears when the heat of All this. The TURBA saith: Well hast thou described the fire. Thus.

The air is inspissated. cold. The Second Dictum. for the work is improved thereby.* warm nor according to the mutation of the con* A Crates. Book of enjoined that the operation of the similar comparison is used in the Arabian where philosophical regulated it fire is upon the philosophical matter should be same manner as Nature regulates the after the influence of the four moreover. EXUMDRUS do magnify the air according to the mighty speech of Iximidrus. the rarefied. For the distinction Spring. thereof takes place in heaven by the Sun . and the same treatise. and thou hast believed the word of thy brother. represents seasons still . 6 concerning it. It comparable with the complexion of in which neither is of time. . heaven. and made also it is saith and becomes I : thin its .The Turba Philcsophorum. It is probableTurba in its original form antedated the Book of that the Crates. older expositions of alchemical philosophy as using the same illustration. it when warm inspissation it is divided elongation of the rarefaction is when. by the Sun becomes warm and exaltation of the in air is is grows The cold.

Piezo. the that spissitude of the four elements reposes in the earth for the spissitude of . signifying compactness. all ye Turba. when the Sun removed from it. and the weight and spissitude of the earth is manifest in proportion but . so is Winter The altered. * The original of the term pietas is pietas et ratio. to press or squeeze Compare also the Greek verb down. but the technical use by the obviously to connect it Hebrew or Arabic original seems with the sense of the Hebrew Paz. therefore. and given account of what thou knowest to be therein. and then cold supervenes upon men. weight is not found except And know. . is inspis- air.* for weight rules all things. 7 stituted disposition with the altering distinctions of the soul. sated Whereat is TURBA the said Excel- : lently hast thou described the air. in body.The Turba Philosophorum. ANAXAGORAS saith make known I : that the beginning of all which God hath created is those things weight and proportion. The Third Dictum.

The Turba Philosophorum. spissitude fire. : : cold and moisture inhere therein. is more inspissated than all. and thereunto cometh what is rare of these four. Verily the more inspissated than are the rest. therefore. But it is air is less rare warm and than moist. Have you not observed how the spissitude of the air. four elements is conjoined in earth ? The same. of spissitude into falls the spissitude also of water. water . is the most rare of the four elements and is most earth is worthy to possess the rarity of these four ? He answereth : Fire is the most rare among all. Then saith the TURBA : Thou hast well spoken. and . while because fire is warm and dry now that which is warm and dry is more rare than the warm and moist. increased by the spissitude of fire and reposes in earth. Which. They say unto him Which element is of less rarity than air ? He answereth Water. 8 fire falls into air. since . fire. therefore. the together with received from the the air.

[elements] rise up and two elements are fire and are earth and water.* out of which saith God hath created all things. They Direct every one to take our speech in turn. there- perfect our discourse. is he greater than his fore. Blessed. Pandolfus Speak thou. because it is therefore. : Well have ye provided. O Sons of the Doctrine. . Then do they say unto him: Thou hast spoken truly. who comprehends what have declared. that it is by means of these four elements that humid and dry things are constituted. He is cold and dry. told Know . fall down.The Turba Philosophorum. What. and that which is cold and dry is of less rarity than that which is PYTHAGORAS cold and moist. air . . the description of these four natures. as also things warm and cold. for from the apex of ye the world he shall not find an intention therefore. that the ancients discoursed . every cold humid g of less rarity than is warm humid. a of less rarity than water ? answereth : Earth. reply make : own Let ! us. Two The two ascending the two descending elements Olympiodorus On the Sacred Art. up O ! *"You have been of four elements." the male and the female.

water and earth. moreover. from It it. They answer Thou : hast said well But complete. this air did not exist. to constituted a hostile things. it : If you would be . dividing these. should be plunged into the and it. namely. and it is is.The Turba Philosophorum. they destroy one The TURBA saith illustration hereof. therefore. TO The Fourth Dictum. preventssaid water the earth from being overflowed by lest it . and that it is not separated remains above the dry earth. the earth would not remain above the humid water. The province of the air fill up and to make between diverse separation things. that water. the air hidden in the If water. which is under the earth. But PANDOLFUS saith : I signify to- posterity that air is a tenuous matter of water. therefore. thy speech. to wit. that is to say. gave an between peacemaker water and fire. lest another. he continueth hidden is in the that The : which air is water under the earth which sustains the earth.

is yolk oily part But the egg. which is composed of four elements. or air. being cold and dry iron. A short treatise Egg.as described the image of the shell is likened to of the egg native sulphur. &c. is The white . water of alum. representing. Philosophorum. the chicken) is sometimes the similitude of a likened to the skin which covers the the white and the yolk are the flesh. is fire. the stone which Armenian tin. is still and another on the Nomenclature of is. the earth. the separating medium between earth and water. . &c. represents the earth. is is after it divine water. that air which divides the earth from the The yolk also of the egg cortex which the represents fire . for therein four things are conjoined the visible cortex or shell . contains the yolk corresponds to that water. the described as the Mystery of the Art. * The allegory of the philosophical egg can be traced Greek alchemists. But a or white part. symbolical. (? copperas. and the watery the breath. part is The the shell symbolically. and the albumen.* very thin inner cortex is joined to the outer cortex. namely. is the water. He stand. it The The seed . because world. mercury.n The Turbo. as I have signified to you. seed . to the under this title. is it the It is has been named copper. It is copper. &c. itself extant not a stone. lead. water of the sea. who do not under- those clearer to answereth An egg : an is illustration. the stone of stone.

the upper air is more rare and lower air and air. is in the centre of the this is the chicken. 12 other air which separates the water from the fire. rise in a moment over the whole earth. But the thicker than the upper air. the sun would all . The Fifth Dictum. being nearer to the fire the lower air than In the egg. that which separates things frigid. these fire. But they are both one and the same namely. and yolk. water. which same thing they have set over their work. are four things earth. and that which separates the from water the fire. all philosophers in this most excellent art have described the egg as an example. and But the point of the Sun. air. therefore. four excepted. Conse- quently. for which Sun does not ascend over the zones of the earth in a single hour but if it were flat.The Turba Philosophorum. ARISLEUS is a hill saith : Know and not a reason the that the earth plain. is subtle. the earth from the water. .

LUCAS You speak only about saith: four natures . DEMOCRITUS. the In these into them. The Sixth Dictum. PARMENIDES O briefly. O . answereth : the Thou disciple of LUCAS. and that the head of all things after Him earth and is tenuous and because fire. hast well spoken. sustains all things which are ruled by fire. being ponderous and gross.The Turba Philosophorwn. and light. but the earth. it fire rules is all things on earth. having never engendered or been begotten. saith : Arisleus ! 13 Thou hast spoken He answereth : anything the Master has left which bears witness otherwise ? Is there us Yet I that testify God is one. I testify unto you that all things which God hath created are from these and things which have been created out of them return four natures. and all things take place as God hath predestinated. and each one of you observes something concerning these. Now. living creatures are generated and die.

The TURBA answereth attains to that age* he : When he will give no small satisfaction. that knowledge was derived from the philosophers of the Indies and from I think he the Babylonians surpasses those of his own age in this learning. but the entire episode is remarkable when it is borne in mind what great importance evidently attached to the Democritic school of Greek seems to indicate that the TURBA PHILO- alchemy. since thy knowledge was derived from Lucas. of which one is neither * Whether the age indicated is that of the Indian and Babylonian adepts does not appear. when dealing with the four Then saith ARISLEUS natures O ! : Democritus. but being youth he should keep silence. LOCUSTA saith : All those creatures which have been described by Lucas are two only. 14 Lucas. . It SOPHORUM represents a tradition hostile to the tradition of . in his The Seventh Dictum. it is presumption to speak among those who are well LUCAS acquainted with thy master answereth: Albeit Democritus received ! from me the science of natural things.The Turba Philosophonim.

which is not known. taste. nor known. smell. a wholesome odour cannot be separated by reason from one which except through the sense of smell. nor can sweetness be discriminated from bitterness save by means of is fetid. what is this thing which is neither felt.The Turbo." " the . Philosophorum. accordingly. figures merely as a promising tyro. thou wilt describe State. Then he : It is that seen. in fact. Crowd the Philosophers. O hearing. and hearing only which can discriminate between a good and bad word ! Similarly. the deliberations. remains For silent throughout the rest of " those of his own age second recension reads " his contemporaries. PYTHAGORAS Thou : hast entered upon a subject which. of not that it distinguish know you is only sight which can white from black. not seen or felt. who. taste. nor smooth from rough unless Democritus. 15 known nor for it is saith expressed. if completed. and. therefore. which are sight. because in this world discerned by reason without it is the clients thereof. except by piety. subtly. and touch.

They nor felt. which light living But if beings may is so ordered that attain this subtle light to vision. of which reason Nature confesses that God is a partaker. TURBA answereth : Thou hast well spoken. . which causes all creatures to give light. yet hast thou omitted to treat of that particular thing which is not known. hath a same the Sun. seeing nothing. and. Are ye then in such haste ? Know that the creature which cognised in none of these five ways is a sublime creature. except the light of the moon. as such. that is to say. they would become darkened. is which is natures.The Turbo. or described f Saith he : except by reason and piety. answer and : is Thou hast excellently. And spoken he : I truly will now give a further explanation. is neither seen but is perceived by reason alone. all which are derived from the light of the Sun. Philosophorum. Know that this creature. 16 The by touch. or of the stars. and the more subtle than all other light. or of fire. were removed. the world.

For 17 God has appointed the Sun to be the light of the world. by reason of the attenuated nature of the Sun. they have taken from the light of God. : good Master. And answereth if. boon !* great thing * offers The shortened version oi some conspicuous the second variations. which now are mortified by thou wilt confer upon us a folly. and is Recension literally as B . which more is lucid than the light of the Sun. but nothing of the world and also sublime Sun creature. dense is composed the in is Consequently the inferior all the created that of two dense things two rare things.The Turba Philosoplwnnn. because the Sun is beneath that creature. this And know that the sublime creature before mentioned has no need of the light of this Sun. rarer than is The creatures. This light. TURBA Thou hast excellently described what thou hast related. which is more subtle than their Know light. which is more subtle and more lucid. thou shalt utter any- whereby our hearts may be vivified.

who made the light which is the Sun. substantially the same as the text. Know that the Sun is more . save not seen and is But there seen. one known nor neither the other whatsoever is in by piety and not described. Understand. subtle than all creatures. because rare than the Sun and all inferior . was nothing. will of this heaven or earth. that when God was alone. and earth. PYTHAGORAS saith existed before all I : affirm that God and with Him things. at which no one can God. reason perceives What ensues is by the help of the five senses. for is it is a third connected nature. .The Turba Philosophorum. Two : of which is natures alone are described by Lucas. the same is sublime reason and piety only. which is perceived it is known by by none of these. that I Philosophers. to the end that it may light the world. is which contains that is Now. and is God Most High. heaven. all at But first. felt. out of which things He afterwards by the arrive save " follows reason . as He was know. as well as in the sciences thereof. Nothing He of the himself creatures. &c. to that nature . which is as follows : As ." is dense more is in the sublime creation. which and known. T8 The Eighth Dictum. He created four things fire. and is realised. till towards the close. which consists of two dense things and two rare. declare this in order that I may fortify your opinion concerning these four ye elements and arcana. water. air.

with this dictum and air are the one of the genuine Arabian a passage which has some analogy " After God had created all things of of Geber. then.* The Which are these. which is cold and dry. which has . that is to say.The Turba Philosophorum. . out of which created what He willed. and of these elements produced The combination dryness. before He all. created all and the inferior. whom He created out of fire. cold. there the four elements fire : . which contains heat and dryness water. . these elements God created the superior and inferior worlds. .warmth and humidity earth. sesses cold . Consequently. is He from the ancient worlds : caused the four qualities to issue namely. created the four ele- He afterwards ments. . from tinated 19 because He predesall that beginning the creatures extracted from water should multiply and increase. both the sublime others. heat." . By the help of fire. some diverse creatures. O And he: They are the angels. moisture. of which were produced from a single element. are created out of two ? And he Out of TURBA saith: Master? : : the elements of * In the works Book oj Balances. But the TURBA Which. which posand moisture air. that they might dwell in the world and perform His judgments therein.

namely. and stars. because they are created from one substance. the second of the rarer things. air. and earth. and Hence the angels stars are composed. which dense than two. more lucid than the sun. TURBA The concerning Then he the Heaven ? God created the Heaven out of water and air. beasts. and earth. air. 20 moon. some out of fire.The Turba Philosophorum. moon. But the TURBA saith : Distinguish these divers crea- . out of water. But the other answereth God : hath further I notify to made of three and out of four you that creatures out . sun. which are life to the dead. And they Master. which is air. whence this is also composed of creation of : two. and some of these are created vegetables . out of three are created flying things. while the sun and the stars are created from a com- is less position of fire saith And : and what air. continue thy dis: course concerning these three. and rejoice our hearts with thy sayings. which is water. and the second of the denser things.

saith Let us assume that a fire. for in vegetables there is no they are created out of earth. and Yet fire. and water. Whereat the TURBA. while all brute animals are from earth. air. and among vegetables which have a all are created out of water. And he : the truth. have signified that a thin fire is present in the air. the Sacred Art the issue of the four elements. elements our father Adam were created. air. spirit. : and air.* that * The treatise observes that But out is. and . And one from another. does reside in Ye have spoken vegetables. and air. water. fire. tures Beasts are created out of earth he fire. air. because flying things. 21 fire. with : your reverence's pardon. except in things which fire is have spirit and soul. of Olympiodorus Adam was and of On of four his sons fire.The Turbii Philosophorum. and tain And fire. flying things out of . He fire ? I affirm that they conWhence is that they : answerelh of the air which is : Out of the heat concealed therein . but the elementary for I concerning which you were in doubt not produced.

The substitute for his true * The nature name signifies light and fire.The Turba Philosophorum. of the angels. drinks. in the separation of the soul from the body.* terms him virgin earth. and sanguineous earth. because in all things which have a spirit fire is that which eats. and this is death. that substance which lacks no complex fire eats. the alchemist himself acknowledges to be undiscoverable. or four components must disintegrate. but is no disjunction of that which is there Death consists simple. and that mysterious personage. every- thing which God hath created out of one essence dies not until the Day of Judgment. does not seem to have been discussed by Greek. Understand. by But the carnal Adam of Zosimus signifies material humanity in general. whom he There are similar references is identified with death. three. or Arabian alchemists. in libraries of Zosimus. 22 and water. carnal earth. and the question whether they eat and sleep. whose name no one knoweth except Nicotheos. Zosimus either narrates that the art of alchemy was revealed to mortals by . making reference to the Ptolemy. because anything formed out of two. Syriac. for it is one. how ye that are wise. and therein is contained the spiritual man. or sleeps. all likewise Under- earth. further. is The death definition of the disjunction of the composite. stand. igneous earth.

The Turbo. The TUKBA answereth 23 How : is it. it is to them that the tradition of the art must be referred as to a primary source . for by God's assistance we have the fallen angels. therefore. I agree with all whose judgment it is that simple fire eats not. and ye are become opponents. Philosophorum. but out of the thinnest of very thin fire of that which being created. seeing thou assertest that fire is Hence that which eats ye ! each doubt. ye would not deny these things. are not created out of thick fire. nor sleep. is exceedingly thin. The angels. the TURBA : Master. Isis to Horus. drink. that the angels. . most they And simple and neither eat. do not eat. who desired to possess her. but thick fire. our faculties are able to perceive. but if ye truly knew the elements. It will be remembered that magic was also one of the mysteries In the discourse of unfolded by the same intelligences. and it was they also who wrote the primeval books of alchemy. . Master. the Mother of the Gods appears as a prophetess who obtained initiation into the mysteries of alchemy from the great angel Amnael. being created of fire. 'And he : his having opinion. then.

ignorant that Wise have propounded God. And he: If please you.The Turba Philosophorum. to avoid omissions for the sake of future genera- becomes tions. I will begin the disposition here. I think that no explanations will be more useful than definitions of those four elements which thou hast taught None of you us to attain. I suppose. And he : are. the thou wilt not to Judge Seeing fail come that of recompense ! which to receive from ARISLEUS thou hast the saith : us gathered together for the advantage of posterity. 24 exhausted thy sayings. since envious men in their books have it separated that. since it is with the object instructing future generations that thou hast summoned us together from our countries. but our faculties of hearing and of sight are unable to May God carry such great things. The TURHA all the definitions in answereth : Should your disciples pass over anything. or otherwise I will put . O Master. it you. reward thee for the sake of thy disof ciples.

t The reader will not which this passage betrays the whole dialogue as a literary composition. the perfection and the end. and fire. water. earth.* at the TURBA think saith Whereat where it clearest And he for the you future will place it will not be recognised by the generations.! I : nor ignored by the Sons of the Doctrine. fail to observe the artless way in .The Turba Pkilosophorum." says nothing clearly to any [unDemocritus in the Epistle of Synetius to Dioscorus. sworn to secrecy been required initiated] of us to reveal person. for it is the key. and things contrary were commingled. by Hermes. which He coagulated. it end of the book. by the height anl the depth. for we see that fire is hostile to water. and by the bowlings of Kerkoros. by " An oath has Anubis. water * The is one of the Isis herself is necessity of concealing the Art chief anxieties of the Greek alchemists. The Ninth Dictum. by heaven and earth and hell. by the four elements. EXIMENUS saith : God hath created all things by his word. with the : four other elements. having said unto them Be. air. it be will it where Place : 25 foolish. and they were made.

. earth and sea. Yet God hath united them peacefully. they lose their own natures. 26 and both are hostile to earth and air. and not alike. because they were created out of diverse elements. things created heaven all and the throne thereof. for with all their natures God. and stars-. is more than each of these natures ture. are of these four elements. and diversity have been made diverse by also the creations. Out another. Had they been created out of one element. things that are in the sea.The Turba Philosophorum. therefore. moon. because the dry being mixed with the humid and the cold combined with the hot. the angels. which indeed are various. they would have been But diverse elements agreeing natures. so also the humid being mixed with the dry becomes neither dry nor . become neither cold nor hot . I is But the have stated and by a legion of diversities nature of each diverse. so that they love one hostile to fire. of diverse na- Now is the this di- versity subsists in all creatures. being here mingled. the sun.

is t meditate very carefully. namely. and of these the operation and virtue are well known. they agree. humid. when the four elements are not com- mingled. God further completed his creation by means of increase.The Turba Philosophomm. nor are their opera- and known. and thence proceed creatures which never attain to perfection. except they be left by night to putrefy and become visibly corrupt. not without purpose have I described to you the disposition of these four elements. save in the former elements. Sons of the Doctrine. But when the 27 four elements are commingled. But there are two other elements which are neither visible nor tangible. and government. are perceptible to the sense of touch and vision. And the . they become Over these let us another thing. departing plished. from their own natures. whereof the place is never seen. These are earth and water. earth and water now tions force . which yield naught. for in them is a secret arcanum two of them . life. no desire of men accomBut being mixed. food.

but it must be remembered that it is one of the Hermetic Methods to describe the pro- work in the language of cosmology. For example. lest ye fill I will give your hearts with sorrow. has It appears from the same treatise soul. that the term is symbolical. that unless you turn the aforesaid copper! into * At this point there appears to be a sudden transition from cosmology to alchemy.The Turba Philosophomm. that and I have now discoursed. t The and hence is composed of the philosophical copper reference throughout all is alchemy. the Byzantine fragment entitled The Nomenclature of the Egg affirms that the egg is the image of the world. thorities. : you : well. we Then will give heed to your words. exhaust copper. speak only useful words as true from our that present. like man. made except is spoken. white copper is Another passage describes it as the Gold is said to transform only with The Lexicon of Chrysopeia crude sulphur. four elements. and only in the Latin mediaeval writers. essential substance.* your brains and your money. will I which all tincture follow will ye Know. but also in the cesses of the great this not Greek. a subject of continual Among the earliest au- Book of Crates says that copper. and applies to a stage of the alchemical process. and body. lead and copper. 28 speak. the a spirit. explains that . he TURBA if Master. no Do not therefore. you a fundamental axiom.

as. and elsewhere in many places. the Combination of the White Preparation Address of Isis to Horus. and that which pro- duces a superficial colouring. addressed to Dioscorus. Asem. is According and coction of the mineral of to Synesius. J The Greek Lexicon of Chrysopeia distinguishes two species of tincture. the Philosopher. imbuing. that which so permeates and scaks into a substance as to change its nature. the process of whitening a calcination. break it up. the copper. verily. . rule it. deprive it of blackness by cooking. as also the softening copper. Numerous preparations be found is whitening and reddening Ancient Greek Alchemists. and make visible coins" 29 and then afterwards again turn it into redness. t until a Tincture} results. until the same becomes white. The book addressed by Democritus to Leucippus says that the alchemical work comprises the process of making white and making yellow (red).The Turba Philosophorum. Berthelot has pointed out that term nummus by the Latin alchemists of the meaning of anterior writers. ye Burn therefore accomplish nothing. its Then * M. and making yellow is an igneous regenera- tion. for in the Collection of example. and washing. the recipe in the twentyparagraph of the Natural Questions of Democritus. for in the first again in the Book of Synesius. It is invariably an operation with copper. white. an alloy of gold and t will the use of the a misconception The reference is to silver.

azure water. and afterwards (arsenic) into silver. Rulandus says that it is the philosophical solution of two perfect bodies. * In this instance the term appears to be used as the the thin strips into which equivalent ot tablets or lamina later is alchemy frequently directs a metal to be cut before it subjected to a given treatment. aeriform water. is to it in alchemy. J water The Book ofEl-Habib is says that the virtue of eternal that of a spiritual blood. It is also said that copper is water of silver. Interpreting later writers. the to Water. saith: is body which I have shewn reduce it to thin tablets. after preparation. apparently to the closing of the .* Take. becomes eternal water. which. t Pelagus.The Turba Philosophorum. boiled. and he enumerates the contradictory names which have been assigned The reference mouth of the vessel. after over a gentle fire it is covered. cited by Olympiodorus in the Treatise on the Sacred Art. ARISLEUS this work Know that the key of the art of Coins. quotes Zosimus in definition of the sea as the hermaphrodytic element.t which is permanent therefore. 30 The Tenth Dictum.! and. When also primal sulphur. set it until the tablets are melted and become waters or Etheliae. and you Next immerse the said tablets in the Water of our Sea. It is identified with and water of sulphur. it It is transforms the male into gold.

until the same becomes red. therefore. where it is many persons prepare it by means of sulphur.* which is the Leaven of Gold Cook the and the Flower thereof. until it be deprived of blackness. Cook it. and simmer in a gentle fire Brodium until Saginatum. Then rub it. Etheliae until is Then it produced. 31 which are one and the same thing. coins which has preceded from it. which also is Permanent Water. stir in its like to water of be coagulated. same with Permanent Water. Imbue the Ethelia with its own water. mix with the Gum of Gold. and cook until Use patience it becomes red Ethelise." whitening) and tinged within and . in pounding lest you become weary.The Turba Philosophorum. This. then. which we call the Flower of Salt. Mix. is Burnt Copper. preserved noted that and a process with sulphurated iron is quoted with high approbation from Democritus. which is * is A short excursus On the Diversity of Burnt Copper among the writings of Zosimus. Burnt copper is elsewhere the same author as " the metal rendered blooddenned by colour (in view of without. and the become variegated. and the whiteness appear. cook.

letting these stand for the grease. out of this our copper. Know ye. until the water be dried Continue the operation until all up. taking copper and lead. ye improperly and effect nothing. which act . therefore. PARMENIDES that saith : Ye must men have envious dealt know volu- minously with several waters. because Nature is ruled by Nature. and rejoice. brodiums. and tin for the liquefaction. because natures will meet their natures. seeking you who to deceive after knowledge. The Eleventh Dictum.The Turba Philosophorum. follow them. all these. and harmonize well together further. and make the white red. aspire Leave. For in them they putrefy and are generated. the water is consumed. that unless complexions and compositions. and it becomes a most subtle powder. all and metals. ye rule the Nature of Truth. and the first with the first. or blackness. stones. 32 always with it. the consanguineous with the consanguiits neous.

there- the teaching of the Wise. manifold and superfluous things. Leave. therefore.The Turbo. that may know the Nature of Truth. it 33 into dust. how they have declared the whole work in this fore. disaster. and Nature contains Nature. In these words there is shewn forth unto you the saying : whole work. set your hands to the work. Nature rejoices in Nature. what neighbours it naturally has. ye Therefore look in books. reduces and finally herself renews repeats. until they become what putrefies in gentle the it fire in similar fashion. and sadness. and take D . Having. since there will follow nothing but harm. same. destroys turns it. and what renews. ye know not the Natures of Truth. what savour it possesses. and frequently produces the to nothing. Philosopliorum. If indeed. and how these natures should be united one to another and made at peace. noticed the facts in this Art. Consider. therefore. and how they love each other. it. do not approach the work. how also after love enmity and corruption intervene.

it them by digests coction. it becomes you that it turns the sea red and the colour of gold. and the later adepts.* in Mercury. are the inspiration of the Turba Philosophorum. when it becomes white. t and who is not common Magnesia. itself into Know ye also that gold is not turned into redness save by Permanent Water. | The formulas which are so frequently repeated in the Turba Philotophorum : Nature rejoices in Nature : Nature . tell I gold. remark applies equally to the Greek Alchemists. Zosimus has a special treatise with reference to the method by which it is mentioned whitened.* coagulate in the Magnesia.f in Kuhul. it becomes red. because Nature rejoices * is Nature. And if ye cook still more.The Turba Philosophorum. and place it upon our Copper. to The Magnesia of Alchemy this that treatise. nature white. which readily assumes any colour that is it. in the discourse of According to Synesius it signifies the mixture of substances. 34 quicksilver. and on the Metallic Body of Magnesia. and takes complete possession of them. when if ye proceed to coction. In one of the Democritus the sign The body of Magnesia of is Synesius and Dioscorus. according to the Greek Epistle of Synesiusi wax. or in body of Sulphur make the same which does not burn . for Mercury whitens all bodies and attracts like imparted to their souls. to treatises belonging to the school of Cinnabar follows the term.

multiplying the natures of truth by the God O that potent Nature. those celestial natures. or are formed literally on the model of precisely similar exclamations in those " O. and caused its natures to rejoice and be glad This.The Turba Philosophorum. If. or the like degree to be found. we glorify and that [species] . cooking. imbuing. until the hidden nature appear. * These alchemical Grand Antiphons in O are either borrowed from the Greek alchemists. and washing. seven times imbue the same with water. the same by means of cooking into a humour. is that spiritual nature to which !* special and God the cannot. overcomes nature ruled by Nature : : in the true in the smallest This is that truth Nature contains Nature : are derived literally from Nature is the Greek Alchemists. therefore. ! . most happy and writers : Sovereign Matter. Supreme Wonder O. will of ! which overcame and conquered natures. therefore. until it become O red. it be manifested externally. magnify nothing thereof can give what fire Consequently. therefore." &c. than which is more precious tincture. 35 Reduce.

Mercury. but this does not appear so plainly in earlier and especially in Greek Authors. what great thanks ye would give me Learn. The Turba Thou hast spoken excellently Sulphur. you must destroy those that are mixed. that one matter overcomes four. the the joined to the other Know also. the If ye highest operation is effected. vapours have whitened the surfaces. . knew the truth. And if one be volatile but the other endure the endures if either fire. and Salt figure in all Hermetic ature as the most indispensable principles of the liter- Magnum Opus. For it overcomes those which are mixed. liquefied with bodies. and changes them to its own colour. 36 which those investigating wisdom For when it is love. therefore. even so mastered the it interior. that ! while you are tingeing the cinders. consumes answereth * : all further. And as it visibly overcame the surface.The Turba Philosophorum. all things. The later writers never weary of affirming that they are not the substances commonly so called. they will certainly whiten the Know ye seekers after Wisdom. that fire. and our Sulphur* alone interiors.

The Turba Philosophorum.



Parmenides, but thou hast not
demonstrated the disposition of the



to posterity, nor






The Twelfth Dictum.






speak at this

time, following the steps of the ancients.
Know, therefore, all ye seekers after


that this treatise


not from

the beginning of the ruling !* Take
quicksilver, t which is from the male,

and coagulate according to custom.
Observe that I am speaking to you in


with custom,


has been already coagulated. Here,
therefore, is not the beginning of the
ruling, but



prescribe this method,


further insight into the artificial character of the

afforded at this point.

designed to be conveyed


The meaning which is
common with many

that in

alchemical works, the instruction begins

middle of the process

for the



more complete confusion

of the uninitiated.
t It


be noted


this connection that the

planets is not
never spoken of

attribution of the seven metals to the seven

found in the Turba.

Thus, quicksilver

as Mercury, nor gold as Sol, &c.


The Turba Philosophorum.


namely, that you shall take the quicksilver from the male, and shall either

impose upon
copper, and it

tin, or governed
be whitened.*



White Magnesia



in the


way, and the male is converted with
But forasmuch as there is a





between the magnet
therefore our nature

Take, then, the vapour


which the Ancients

commanded you

and cook the same with

to take,


own body until tin is produced. Wash
away its blackness according to custom,
and cleanse and roast at an equable
fire until it be whitened, But every body
whitened with governed quicksilver,
for Nature converts Nature. Take,thereis

Magnesia, Water of Alum, Water
of Nitre, Water of the Sea, and Water
whiten with smoke. J Whatof Iron



The second

upon copper, that














alternative reading is: " Therefore Nature also

rejoices in Nature."

Hermes, as quoted by Olympiodorus, defines smoke
warm and the dry.

as intermediary between the

The Turbo, Philosophorutn.


soever ye desire to be whitened
whitened with this smoke, because








Mix, therefore, the
with its faeces until




Roast this white copper till





when whitened does not
















Take, therefore,


ye Sons of the


Doctrine, the white sulphureous nature,
whiten with salt and dew, or with the

Flower of White


Salt,+ until

alternative reading



" until





become a

white coin or tablet."


The shadow

of copper


the flower of copper,

Berthelot explains, protoxide, verdegris.




of Democritus to Leucippus explains that a metal without



a brilliant metal.


Zosimus says that the act

called the destruction of the shadow.



shadow of copper as the black tinge which it
produces in silver. Democritus also gives a recipe for the
removal of the shadow from copper.

defines the


The second

recension in the edition of Mangetus
it is a printer's error.

reads Sol throughout for Sal, but

The Turba Philosophorum.


And know ye, that
excessively white.
the Flower of White Salt is Ethel

The same must be









like gleaming marble, for when
has reached this condition it is a


Arcanum, seeing that
mixed with
Sulphur is
whence an excellent work is accomvery


by reason of the affinity
between them, because natures rejoice
in meeting their own natures.
therefore, Mardek and whiten the same
with Gadenbe,* that is, wine and
vinegar, and Permanent Water. Roast
and coagulate until the whole does not

liquefy in a fire stronger than its own,

namely, the former



Cover the

of the vessel securely,


let it

be associated with


its neighbour, that it
thereof, and





blaze up, for in


Though Martinus Rulandus endeavoured honestly
all the barbarous terms of Alchemy in his
laborious lexicon, and though he was evidently well

to explain

acquainted with the Turba, he omits both Mardeck and


if have they will to be wholly briefly. because beginning of the ruling you this case and in 41 it this will profit the require the white. it more quickly con- verted from nature into nature. TURBA the saith Wise you speak as spoken. and that follow you who do not Master. For ye need not a number of deal with the things. Know that fire when is it the Soul. The Thirteenth Dictum. PYTHAGORAS saith We : government which is posit another not from another . you nothing.The Turba Philosophorum. which in each and every grade of your work is The changed into another nature. but one thing only. wish : shut in with darkness. because one thing makes it but many operate therein. and we coagulated it is therefore. those . becomes red prematurely. sufficient is call This. Afterwards coagulate the same until you attain the red. Let your be gentle in the whitening.who for Art of Coins. until coagulation take place.

. iron. companion without colours to appear for this reason. that whatsoever the envious all enjoined in their books conthe composition of natures may have cerning which agree together. . this Science and ye seekers after Wisdom. causes And its many when embracing it. and also not a stone common and precious hidden and concealed. that the said one thing enters into every regimen. being a stone. this same thing. according as it is governed in every regimen. .The Turba Philosophorum. that the thing which they have described in so many ways follows and attains its companion without magnet follows the even as the fire. and is found everywhere. the subject in question causes many colours to appear in complexion. for it is also like unto these. 42 root. but it differs in name. And know.* is in savour there only one." According to the second recension. nor to a matrix. albeit to sight they are as diverse as possible. The mony f shorter recension reads : " concerning the har- of the elements. nor to a seed. which follows! fire. to which the said thing is not vainly compared. Know. also.

but has revealed only to the initiates. which of of Spume Moon. and they were fond of recurring to it. not a stone. more precious . may inquirer after take his choice among does not follow that the Lexicon a correct exponent of Zosimus. the Turba at this point are. saltpetre. is a process upon the stone Alabastron by means of vinegar. . By the Lexicon of Chrysopeia in the By/antine Collection that earliest dictionary of alchemy. because it is therefore. known by everyone yet and . 43 many names. indicated is the Mythraic Mystery. not a stone. the unknown thing which the despised thing which is is most precious. therefore. it appears that the stone Alabastron. name its is we have called it by many names on account of the excellence of one. a device of the Greek alchemists. without it Nature is never operates anything. is the symbolical encephalous stone which known by is all. it The salt.The Turba Philosophorum. and common the uncommunicated secret these substances. which has remained un- known is to all later Hermetic lexicographers a variety of natron. yet its nature. and is Alabastron defined to be the calx obtained from eggshells. However this may be. The preparation The perplexities of the thing given and not given by God. the name of one is This the stone. either before or after the operation with vinegar.* The TURBA answereth wilt thou not O : Master ! ! mention some of those * Zosimus explains that the uncommunicated mystery which no one among the prophets has dared to divulge by word.

like so much of the terminology of the Turba. the White Stone. which assimilates the work and drinks it. It will be found in the discourse of of Greek origin. therefore. that same gum.* Then pound the calx in the mortar." most .t This. t The second recension has a preferable reading shall find the stone formed. I which is from the all * The second that milk is recension adds : " that coagulated." J The second recension says " : Gum of Scotia." The is. Cook it shall also with become of Spume Luna and regulate. and that which flies from the fire and alone whitens copper. after the manner symbolical use of milk in alchemy is. therefore. late it in the vessel until a cinder. is the stone which we call by all names. 44 names And for he: the guidance of seekers ? called White Ethelia. which imbue with : its " Ye own water. Synesius. Break up. Take. therefore. taking care that the humidity does not escape from the vessel but coagu. and already imbued with its own water. It is White Copper. and is the stone out of which also colours appear. For ye shall find the stone broken. and afterwards coagulate it with milk.The Turba Philosophorum.

moreover. therefore. but the treatise on the Nomenclature of the Egg says that the white of egg among is gum. when it coagulated. Rulandus with Ferment. Mercury. or the Spume of Luna. and do as ye are bidden. speaking also philosophically. The Turba Philosophorum is not very clear on the subject of the philosophical gum. and without regard to the Lexicon. other things. which you have ruled. but without explanatory context.The Turba Philosophorum. the and becomes a stone. but it is as clear as the Chrysopeia defines Greek Alchemists. many same is stone. &c. and the more the colours vary all the more suffer them to be heated. probably a philosophical misprint gum for Scoria. Then look and see whether it has become a powder. which you know. roast in a fire stronger than faeces the first fire. identifies The term is much used in alchemy. Know. Out is of this broken up. . moistening with permanent water. 45 and mix with cinder of calx. and with the scoriae. that if you take white quicksilver. Then imbue with permanent water. and is found in Zosimus. breaking up with a gentle fire. until be it pounded. gum for the Lexicon of as the yolk of the egg. But colours will appear to you. speaking philosophically and not literally . but if not.

I The theriac and poison of the stone are favourite subjects of discourse Petrus Bonus seems with all among early Latin Alchemists. from envy of O Assembly the Wise. even as became thee. what is : In the second recension the A Tell humidity ? a venom. us. The TURBA O answereth therefore. t The envious. and for the same may God saith PYTHAGORAS reward thee ! God deliver also : saith : May ACSUBOFEN. that sulphurs are contained in sulphurs. indeed. if and so ye find your purpose. herein. is it Assuberes. thou hast spoken without envy. Then he Ye must know.The Turba Philosophorum. like the sovereign remedy authors to have had a destructive as well as and. and I t ! this And he Humidity is when venom penetrates * have Acsubofen. and humidity thee. do as ye are bidden. : ! in humidity. ruling the same until a white and coruscating stone shall be produced. uttered something like unto this : name a body. Formula of the Greek Alchemists : Sulphurs are mastered by Sulphurs. ACSUBOFEN* Master. . The Fourteenth Dictum. 46 any ambiguity occur to you in our discourse. &c.

repeat my words in Tyrian Take the Animal which is dye. * This process. The Greek references equivalent is ios. nor flees from the fire. then one seizes upon the other. Berthelot as belonging to the tenth or eleventh century. and in no wise permits the soul to be separated from the body. the envious have said When one flies and : the other pursues. and they destroy one For this reason. may be compared with a similar recipe for the purple tincture.The Turba Philosophorum.* a constructive aspect. and this is recurring continually in the Byzantine Alchemical collection. A Syriac treatise. 47 tinges it with an invariable colour. hold of its because Nature has laid equal. which varies not." and Arabian alchemy contains to the venenum ignis. sulphureous mixed sulphur is produced a most precious colour. worded in the language of the Tyrian dye. " the elixir resembles a says that poison . after the manner of an enemy. because it is equal thereto. when the soul enters into the interior of the body and holds the body together and tinges I will it. out of the another. Concerning this. because of its violence many and subtlety. fixed by M. and afterwards they no longer flee. which occurs at the beginning of the Natural and .

with I ! Myftic Questions of Democritus. adding that tincture whereof the colour was disagreeable to you. in which there will be a little colour. t Afterwards moisten with that humour. to cook. The use of sea water is specified in one of the Democritic treatises. until it shall become earth. days in Then leave its own vessel. as is customary. urine plays part. since all water its is a Tyrian colour. take the humidity which that thing has ejected. t The second moistened. and rule the same with a gentle fire. also. and place therewith gradually in a vessel. 48 called Kenckel. Observe how describe the regimen to you Prepare it with the urine of boys.The Turba Philosophorum. Then it cook with that same marine water* until become dry. But if you wish to obtain the Tyrian tincture. it several for until the most precious Tyrian colour shall come out from it to the surface. an important * In this. and to dry." become . until it be imbued with all its it shall humour. dry gradually. after recension reads : " until it shall which evaporate the moisture. and cease not to imbue it.

49 water of the sea. own humour until it clothe itself with a red colour." water of talc. place permanent water. according to the rule of sight mix the same with permanent water sufficiently. imbue the same with continual* water. and mix. E . and with permanent clean water. and it be easily pounded. as ye know to be sufficient. and The second recension reads The alternative reading is : : " with water of snow. But if therefore. be a the still gum which ye * t if ye wish that more exalted in the shall it should colour. with dye it alternately. and do I tell this day by day. water of desiccated calx .t cook until it imbibe sea the its own moisture . so that it may be tinged. and decoct with a gentle until the fire.The Turba Philosophorum. and decoct until rust absorb the water. you that a colour will thence appear to you the like of which the Tyrians have never And made. it. blackness altogether shall depart from Decoct. which which is thou hast prepared. in its ye wish to bring it to the Tyrian colour. Then wash with the water of .

your intent in the said water . restore to the aforesaid water Then and the black Tyrian colour is intensified. Know also that the Philosophers have called the force which proceeds from that water the Flower. But know that ye do not tinge the purple colour except by cold. The second Moon recension substitutes Luna for Lana. until it be clothed with a most precious Tyrian colour. is must be followed one. Take.. for wool.The Turba Philosophorum. and one is also the way which . t The one nature. * i. The Fifteenth Dictum.e. the one way. is one only. and steep wool* therein until it extract the force of the tincture from the water. there- fore. the one matter. the conceptions of Greek Alchemy.t There is this Art. water which is of the nature of cold. therefore. FRICTES saith : Wisdom. are all " The furnace is one. know O all ye seekers after that the foundation of on account of which many have perished. therein place what is in the vessel for days and nights. 50 afterwards desiccate in the sun. Seek.

nature triumphs over nature nature masters nature and this not for one such nature opposed to another such. * The Greek Assembly of that the philosophical vinegar the Stone.The Turba Philosophorum. proceeding by chemical from itself with pain and great labour. none of us would ever attain this thing. for whichye would die if ye knew it I swear you that if kings were familiar with it. and overPYTHAGORAS saith Name she presides over comes all : ! this Nature. How is a thing which we unto all ye fools ! ignorant are ye of this Art. for . but the explanation is to the by no . but ." says the Atsembty of the Philosophert. one only and same nature. nature charms nature . furnishes blood to the OTHER." The process Serpent Ourobobot. is 51 stronger than more sublime all the in opinion of philosophers. ! to O how this nature changeth body into O how admirable is Nature. is O Frictes ! And he It : a very sharp vinegar. spirit ! how all. us it Woe reverence. and the ONE engenders the OTHER. Nature rejoices nature . whereas with fools it is But for more common than anything.* which makes " The ONB work. It is the Philosophers explains obtained by the coction of appears to be an oil which rises surface during the process. one thing which and natures.

that . nor redness. pour on flower of salt. diluted in the urine of a person : Take unburnt who has not reached then taking an equal quantity ot brine. and then it becomes incombustible. Know. neither whiteness. * The Greek Alchemists give the following recipe for the production of incombustible sulphur Sulphur. Be careful. dilute as . without which vinegar. And know ye that when it is mixed with the body. the sulphur rises to the surface. Berthelot supposes a clear. it will be burnt and if And know. 52 gold into sheer spirit. until no longer burns. and becomes one therewith it turns the same into a spirit. and tinges with a spiritual and invariable tincture. also.* The Wise : means M. it is contained therein. the first humour is cold. Take the same incom- it bustible water (of sulphur). reference to the Mercurial Water. that is to say. is inimical Wise have said Rule gently until the sulphur becomes incombustible. the to cold. ye place the body over the fire without vinegar. boil till .The Turba Philosophorum. further. which Accordingly. Prove it by reasoning and examining (? with puberty fire) until it you see that becomes incombustible. which is indelible. that corrupted. therefore. nor rust can be made. of the fire. nor blackness.

but the perfection of the this. if ye cook well and deprive of blackness. O disciples of incombustible sulphur. and the son of this verts Adam thus described burns it. by means of after vinegar. This is the . the and be disintegrated. and the best point of their Art. that the beginning of the whole work is the which succeeds the whitening. there- it Know water of the sea. which. and also whitens the body. that a little of this sulphur burns a strong body. there follows a complete perfection. Now. and by the will of Gcd. in the case of the divine mystery. fore. to redness. also. the For con- vinegar body. I have shewn to you. Philosophorum.The Turbo. so that it becomes a coin of most intense whiteness. dissolve and temper with stone until then Cook. is. is changed into a stone. Accordingly they venerate it and name it in the beginning of their book. it into a cinder. 53 men have already shewn to those who possess reason the dispositionof this Art. finally work . which they mentioned.

that no tincture can be produced without Lead. and the more I did read books. whereby I vinegar. while I prayed also to God that he would teach books so that I me what it is. Have ye not seen. knew pure The Sixteenth Dictum. SOCRATES O crowd of those that still remain of the Sons of the Doctrine. and I swear to you by God that I have searched for a long time in precious.The Turbo. which is more perfect. Have ye not seen Hermes infused the the required virtue. how thrice-great red into the body. My prayer was heard. 54 Turba. the disposition of the one thing. the same body is changed into an invariable colour ? thrice-great reads : that so often as . says it is infused into the Hermes. and it was changed into an invariable colour ?* Know. than all natures. therefore. more this and more honourable. that the first virtue * The second recension " is vinegar. which possesses saith: Know. " body. might arrive at the knowledge of this one thing. He shewed me clean water. Philosophorum. the more was I illuminated.

tinges them with an invariable colour.. pound the same with Water of Nitre until it is thick like grease. renders all unchangeand able. Berthelot seems to be from Alcool of wine. which he explains common with a number of other simple bodies and metallic alloys. Zosimus. and tin. the Substances t The is he . and cook again in a very bright spissitude of the body is the until fire destroyed. . Take. to be found in Syriac or more alchemy . * M. Then all . says : may it possesses in be cited All substances produced by lead alone. therefore. Rulandus explained by The Alcohol mentioned by M. 55 and the second is the Lead" of which the Wise have spoken. Lead which is made out of the stone called Kuhul t let it be of the best quality. iron. On in is of the term Kuhul.The Turba Philosophorum. is the to be Lead of the Philosophers. it the equivalent of alcool and sulphurated antimony in the form of an impalpable powder. or Koheul. and let it be cooked till it becomes black. in Part of any body separated from that which different fact. Kuhul. it is from lead that the three copper. for i. and is. is the pure impure. significance accurately Kohol. Zosimus and Non-substances of Art.e. Berthelot tells us that lead was regarded by the Egyptian alchemists as the generator of the other metals and the first matter of transmutation. which if it be infused into bodies. confirmation of this point were recognised by the Egyptians as other bodies are derived. the by the appearances Panopolite.

and the an important part in the ros philosophorum certainly plays Great Mystery. Kindle. however. because it ' The second it humour is burnt lead.The Turba Philosophorum. and with sea and rain water for 21 days. and 10 days with fresh water. Berthelot suspects . 56 water the therefore. and become dry. connection with a fragment name on the of the white M. Take it be burnt. and yet again with fresh water for 10 The explanation of all Rosicrucian mysteries has days. for 10 days with salt water. comes being above clean. But faction. and exceedingly white. until the stone be- it abounding in precious Pound metal. for been referred to the dew of the alchemists. Thus we up what remains of care. know when that drinks swiftly." salt. lest with dew. of Democritus. it afterwards with dew and the sun. process In the Natural and Mysterious Questions dew is of whitening. rejected. but here the additions of a later hand. becomes dry it recension reads and rain water : its " Afterwards pound it 29 days.* when ye shall find the same like to a metallic stone. again with salt water for 20 days. Cook same once more with water until it become tin by lique- the of nitre Again cook until it be deprived of moisture. Philosophical Egg it is mentioned and in in the tabulated as a or philosophical albumen.

but there is a fifteenth century translation from Latin to Greek of the Semita Recta. but I have shewn you the male in the lead. But the male receives a tingeing spirit from the female. Mix them. * M. also. ascribed to Albertus Magnus. Greek indentifies orpiment with the arsenic The word itself does not occur in the writers.The Turba Philosophorum. assisted by the male. Pound same with the sharpest vinegar. 57 incombustible sulphur. that the arcanum of the work of gold proceeds out of the male and the female.* with the orpiment female rejoices in strength of the male. receiving the because she is in Mix. in like manner. which it is found. therefore. therefore. taking call it the care lest the vinegar be changed into smoke and perish continue this coction . I have the disposition of the which afterwards follows all being no more than women's work and child's play. demonstrated white lead. for 150 days. in . Now. Know. the for the lead. orpiment. and cook till it becomes thick. I have discovered for you the female therefore. Berthelot of the ancients. who reappears as Peter Theoctonicos. while.

. now hast thou spoken about making into white. by which things God perfects the take work. Do not shew these unto the evil. The Seventeenth Dictum. all ye seekers after Otherwise Zenon. cook for seven days. seeing already dry. for they will laugh. and leave throughout the night. 58 together. taking care lest the arcanum smoke away. and they become spiritual. place in a glass vessel. according to the second recension. with vinegar. ZIMON* saith : O Turba of Philosophers and disciples. whereby also spirits is possession of bodies. and pound with Ethelia and very sharp vinegar . vinegar which It is the Ethelia of placed in the preparation. the woman by whom is ac- notified to which is complished the most great arcanum.The Turba Philosophorum. But again imbue therefore. but it yet remains to treat concerning the reddening * ! Know. if ye (colour). I have you the power of orpiment. wish that to put it it is on mud Now.

that make cannot 59 unless ye whiten. this Art. Having. and this is Spring then follows the third. and is of the complexion of . in given this example. blame no one save yourselves. which is Autumn. wherein matured. !* also. namely. is of the complexion of air. fruits are the fourth. white. and to gather and tinge the fruit in autumn. therefore. to cook in spring. Thou The TURBA answereth : hast treated the matter extremely * A commentary introduced into the text of Zosimus on Virtue and Interpretation. because the two natures are nothing other than red and Whiten. redden the white the year the first is Know. . season is of a frigid comthis is Winter the second and plexion. that divided into four seasons . which is summer. fire lastly. therefore. there is . ye are to rule your natures. In this manner. the yellowing will be perfect. the red. but if ye err. observes If thou dost com: mence by making perfect and solid. . to dissolve in winter. therefore. to coagulate summer. rule the tingeing natures. and white.The Turba Philosophorum. ye red.

and cook it until it becomes thick congeal also and desiccate until it becomes red." : " becomes a mighty . gold be roasted with them. . From the composite turned into a red spirit is of the world. Berthelot. t the male and the female are conjoined there is not produced a volatile wife. but some of iron. produced the beginning * The substances various founded under the names of which alchemists Minium. are enumerated by M. not only oxydes t spirit vermillion. becomes a So when tingeing spirit in spirits. Take red.The Turba Philosophorum. Here certainly is the Red Lead of which the wise spake copper and lead become a precious stone mix them . combine lead therewith. 60 add.. in addition to the sur-oxyde of lead. let equally.* the Master at the the copper ordered you of beginning to his which take book. . con- etc. ye rule well.. cinnabar. The second among recension reads spirits. including. Rubric. but a spiritual composite. which is the modern name of minium. for if this. realgar. another teaching of this kind for the sake of posterity. therefore. etc. And he : I will speak of making lead well .

and without which nothing is effected called ! The Eighteenth Dictum. when Mundus in identifies Gum with Permanent Water he agreement with the same authority. Behold this is the lead which 61 we have Red Lead. that with the addition of a little [philosoAnd phical] gum any species of body may be tinged. MUNDUS saith seekers after this TURBA The Art must know that the to : the Philosophers in their books have described gum in many ways. and how few there are it ! Know that this gum is not ameliorated except by gold alone. of the passage just cited That which tinges find the following words : and things tinged is Divine The gum of gold is mentioned tinctures water. and they find certain things. the great mystery. . out of which our precious stone is generated. in a we is for in the context fragment attributed to Agathodemon. but it is none other than permanent water.* after this who find O how many are the seekers gum. For there be very many who investigate these applications. yet they cannot sustain the labours because they are dimi- * It appears from Zosimus on The Detailed Exposition of the Work.The Turba Philosophorum. which is of our work.

and having become familiar to fools. Take. which has already nished. lest every one should become acquainted therewith. part of the most intense white one gum . held the labours. is for Philosophers more precious and more sublime than pearls. Consequently. Our gum. the Philosophers. my words. and the arcanum existing therein. because out of gum with a little we buy much. Understand. tincture. 62 But the applications which are made out of the gum and out of the honourable stone. have not set forth in their books the manifest disposition. and know it do hold it all those who more honourable than gold. therefore. for without it the gum cannot be improved.The Turba Philosophorum. Know ye that our gum is stronger than gold. . therefore. yet gold we also honour. and are they sustain the never diminished. therefore. for I unto you the applications will explain of this gum. when committing these things to writing that the same might gold not perish. the same would not sell it at a small price.

and the entire is body be deprived . until the milk fail .The Turbo. and cock it it with milk of the moisture that till be dried up in the composite. afterwards extract it. mixed dried. 63 one part of the urine of a white calf. When these things have been done. Also imbue with perit manent water. without which it cannot be improved . and again cook Then moisten until it be dry. Philosophorunt. mix these por- and cook for forty days. and cook strongly until the whole force of the water perish . Having done these things. congeal by the heat of the sun till they are Then cook the same. which afterwards mix with milk of the root of grass. and desiccate until it become of the most intense dryness. with rainwater. tions with milk of ferment. and until it become dry evaporate the moisture by Then mix heat. mix the same with the gum which equipped with all manner of colours. fig. then sprinkle with water of dew. part of the body of gum. one part of the gall of a fish and one . and cook until it be dried.

The Turbo. purposed. until the dryness of its Then thereof be kindled. For by this regimen the made corporeal. the Greek Alchemists. it behoves one who is introduced to this Art to attempt nothing till he is familiar with the power of this Per* The reference to the Masters. DARDARIS saith : It is common knowledge that the Masters* before us have described Permanent Water. forty days. which occurs twice in this dictum. humidity. open the vessel. lest the composition spirit is and fly off in pass fumes. in the . arcanum therefore. but of the older philosophers. namely. vessel. is to be understood not of previous speakers Assembly. The Nineteenth Dictum. which the Philosophers have concealed in their books. These things being accomplished. is the of gum. and ye will find that which ye This. Let it remain dismiss for in that tritura- tion or decocting until the spirit penetrate the body. therefore. Philosophorum 64 . Now. and the body Observe the is changed into a spirit. while ye imbue the same by cooking.

body spirit. it contrition." F into . having pounded it with the body. He. whence the Philosophers have called it Per- thereof manent Water.* For these. manent Water. there- not Permanent Water. by the will of God it for. The force is a spiritual blood. And know ye. blood also this therefore. turns that body into spirit. behoves 65 us to use famous Permanent who does fore. and in commixture. arcanum * hath Remember. as the Masters before me have explained to you. and sable regimen. and the spirit the same the incorporates spirit incorporates the body into tinged spirit. invariably this Water. like blood. ! The second recension adds : " and the spirit body.The Turba Philosophorum. because nothing is effected without the Permanent Water. and the whole regimen. transform each other the . may understand its indispennot enter into this Art. that whatsoever hath as well. being mixed together and reduced to one.

lest I should them make them equal with him. Then Those who. that precious thing which has no value. its Nevertheless.The Turba Philosophorum 66 . it it is has no it. they have frequently described Permanent Water." For this stone is not a stone. why hast thou called phers. and the making of * The whole of this Dictum recalls a passage in It is for these Zosimus. no falsehood . have composed this book which is called the Turba. which has many names and has no name. ye have PYTHAGORAS discoursed excellently !* answers : Seeing that they are philosoO Belus. I nature. . or is uttered. that polymorphous object which is without form. that unknown thing which is known to everyone. so that whether flees the fire. Democritus. and while same time name one. He answereth : It is disciples ? in honour of their Master. : Master. many denominations have been white smoke. makes him. at the money value its nature is one. or white copper. On Virtue and Interpretation reasons that my excellent master. self the following distinction " . I refer to aphroselinon. in con- PYTHAGORAS saith : junction with us. Take that stone which is not a stone. The Twentieth Dictum. but according it is called the being which given to its exceedingly precious. do not say absolutely speaking. ought Then he not to be termed disciples. BELUS saith : O disciples.

should recognise foolish Certain wise after called men have it. according the place where it is generated others have adopted another. sold for coins by lapidaries who are called saven . albeit under many names but in the modes after which they have conjoined the .* by yet others its descriphas been further varied. they agree with the hidden truth." Sputum Lunse does not seem to be a term which : t found favour with Latin alchemy. and accordingly it is . namely. 67 White and the Red in many ways. not to be mixed it with bodies tion . and regimens. termed the Green Stone by other some it is called the Stone of the most intense Spirit of Brass. some have named it it is Spume * of Luna . ! and that it the lest is by many names. founded upon its colour. designated it one fashion.The Turbo. what is said concerning this A report has gone despised thing abroad that the Hidden Glory of the Philosophers is a stone and not a stone. compositions.t some have distin- The second recension reads " Green Lion. Behold. weights. some of whom have to . because . Philosophorum.

The Turba Philosophorum. " That which a : produced out of metals. " you will find it with me and with Agathodaimon. Lapis Arabicus. O : It very curious to note that is quite frequently quotes the Turba. and how is is has the quality of resisting the fire. it Berthelot supposes this passage to volatilisation Turba recalls mythology of allegorise upon the But the expression in the the passage of Synesius. On Virtue and Interpreta" that from Hermes tion. Rulandus. says Hermes." . and yet others have declared it to be that which is is brought forth out of quicksilver with the milk of volatile things. PANDOLFUS much said so wanting saith who Belus." and he is to be found. seems seldom to have troubled himself about the significance of its bizarre terms. Note also the of mercury. thou hast concerning the despised in the Lexicons. Aphroselinum." So also others have called it the Heart of the Sun. supposed not only to reflect the likeness of the but to be " Rulandus. Moon.. made from dew by the foam of the Moon. The Twenty -first Dictum. In Zosimus. In fact." M. 68 it guished astronomically arith- already received of which the best is has it metically. &c. or thousand titles. there is a concerning prescription which falls from the moon when referred to as describing where it it waning. Selenite.

and know.t Nature contains Nature. and Nature overcomes Nature. the idea is derived from of a Christian compiler. ! posterity that this despised a permanent water. life. . is more precious or purer than the Sun." The symbolism of the venom of the philosophers also found : in is Zosimus. verily. f J The second recension reads " clean water. Philosophers have stated that Nature rejoices in Nature. The Philosophers have constituted this short dictum the principle of the work for reasonable And know ye that no body persons. concerning the uncommunicated mystery of the encephalous stone. in his dictum on the subject of calx. and not from the as Zosimus himself New Testament. Treating. water that per- mundane of because. and that no tingeing venomt * The Turba Philosophorum does where the hand is gene- not betray any- and although the reference to the despised stone suggests the stone which the builders have rejected. stone* that thou hast left added by thy brethren I teach stone all is 69 nothing to be Howsoever. it the despised thing which and so on through a number is most of contradicting denominations. ye seekers after manent water is Wisdom. Zosimus. commenting upon Democritus. the Greek adept calls precious.The Turba Philosophorum. except in may have drawn it so far from that source.

and recovered : after having undergone the same process several times. there- .The Turba Philosophomm. 70 Sun and its shadow. A quotation from Mary (the first) in Zosimus On the Measure of Yellowing runs thus Copper when burned with sulphur. Zosimus. and the venom of serpents. . But he who has tinged the venom of Sun and its shadow* the wise out of the has arrived at the highest Arcanum. t his This oriental term Essay on explanation of its referred to significance. therefore. Berthelot and it is in without not found in any Alchemy. becomes an excellent gold without shadow. the of bodies. says an M. is the Transmission of Ancient Science of an adept. who attempts to make rated without the He. the rouille of metals. treated with oil ot natron. In an ancient alchemical entitled The Code of Truth. and has fallen into that pit wherein his sadness remains. already errs. The Arcanum answereth Thou : hast TURBA even now intel- The Greek word signifies. venom the of the Philosophers without these. Know also that our coin when it becomes red. it figures as the name of the Lexicons of treatise. Berthelot. body. it is On annotation specific of virtue According to the spirit separated from the substance of a Virtue and Interpretation. by M. is called gold who knows fore. already revealed. of the Cambart him is the the hidden to Philosophers. * he.

for the Then. which is White Magnesia. black stone. ligibly described this stone. place in a vessel of burnt clay.* and the same is mixed and pounded with wine.The Turba Philosophorum. closed up with The Chemistry of Moses gives the following process " Taking Magnesia and an equal quantity of Cappadocian salt. but furnace. therefore. He saith : I direct you description. extracting. to the composition. Let it stay there from evening till morning. until * it becomes Kuhul. yet hast not narrated its 71 thou regimen nor its Return. for it let it it be cooked till it in a glass-maker's whitens. if it has become a see and. better to cook this mystery. is far whitening of Magnesia: if it be black. which is a great arcanum." t It does not appear that the conception of the Philosopher's Stone as a medicine of metals and of men was familiar to Greek alchemy. an occult and honourable arca- to take num. t very great ruled excellently well. . in which case ye have stone. and pray God He may grant you the that sight of this Then cook gradually. finally place it in its vessel. but take care not to make use of this except it be pure and clean . But rule it thus for the white. it Hide comprises everything which concerns whitening by decoction.

make sense The second . until its colour turns into that which ye desire. which of the is I is required to following. and imbue gum that remains. And know accounts. the stone Atitos. appended to most printed It is no doubt really a mis- immediately recension confirms this view. therefore. Now. will * The I complete that which authenticity of this sign and the marginal note which editions does not help it out. 72 blackness. that is. have is reading of the word Hoc. therefore. gold of the Indies whose root is one. God After these days will show you the principle (or beginning) of this stone. of a crocus. that is. Pound the same. therefore. sentence extremely doubtful. or T? . fixed exalted alum. with its confections. and a certain extract of an unguent. permanently for 40 or 42 days. of which favoured sight of God there are many which is Cook strongly. which are the said flower of copper.The Turba Philosophorum. with the ye that so often as ye imbue the cinder.* cook the four. so often must it be desiccated and again humectated. which blackness see that it does not remain longer than forty days.

bibe them on a hot all. fire until flower and be are ye if I will * original emendation given is its Blessed satisfactory. the matter be cerated. if not. .* the that work of the to God if begun. and is only introduced to provide a meaning. let the gluten of gold. Know also will look kindly rule perfection of this precious stone is with it on us. imbue the rest of the work seven times until the other two- and true earth imFinally. in the text the conjectural has no authority.! be more intense than the former. ye understand repeat to The the earth extract But. Cook. t The substituted. and to part preserve the two other parts for imthird of buing and cooking alternately the till Let the fire required colour appears. and when it is desiccated it coheres. place the same thirds be finished.The Turba Philosophorum. 73 the residue the of the medicine. which being desiccated. the wax until it imbibes therefore. the you perfection of ! untranslatable. reading of the second recension has been owing to the corrupt state of the longer text.

and be not envious. Then he : O all ye seekers after this science. will appear to you. which sand is is the imbue sand therewith. and close the mouth of the vessel effectually. which a most great arcanum. THEOPHILUS saith: intelligently and Thou hast spoken elegantly. For that which ye seek of it by the favour of God. Now. 74 Take the the work. Saith the and art TURBA : Let your discretion. which is the stone of Tyrian colour. made out of the stone seven times imbued. that you your truth. is clean white. therefore. explain to us what the instructing Pandolfus has stated. therefore. so this great wicked the God and show not arcanum. and no one . have I fulfilled do I conjure you by sure Master. held free from envy. and beware of the ! The Twenty-Second Dictum. until it drink up the whole. the arcanum of gold and the art of the coin is a dark vestment. as you have often been told. wherein true tincture.The Turba Philosophorum.

because the boritis of the Wise liquefies the copper. Thou thus some are more lucid The TURBA hast truly spoken. answereth And he : : I announce to posterity that between boritis and copper there is an affinity. and albeit some have dealt with it intelligibly which and it have treated well. liquefy the copper. but preserve the other to pound and imbue the same. and it changes as a fluxible Divide.The Turba Philosophorum. until it is drawn out into plates . with one of which water. 75 knows what the narrated in Philosophers have books without their reading. than others. and of the Wise. certain others obscurely . therefore. For that questionings frequent they have concealed is more sublime and obscure than it is possible to make known in words. cook two to seven in two. experiments.* is better rendered in the " Cook with the former part of the venom . cook again with to seven in its * first own water This unintelligible passage recension : for 42 days . the venom into two equal parts. cook the former part of the venom.

and do this seven times. * Boritis. is the White Stone reduces earth to water. A late French Lexicon observes that the name was applied by Philosophers to their Mercury when it had reached the extreme black stage. according to after the black state. open the and ye vessel.* cook. great until it shall Saith the TURBA : have absorbed both. that becomes a matter like mucra. This. . with the other and cook portion. finally. whitened. therefore. wash the same by cooking until it be deprived of its blackness. and it Rulandus. the Philosophers have called this stone Boritis. and become as copper without a shadow. it Ac- cordingly.76 The Turba Philosopherum. that is to say. it is congealed becomes a very great arcanum. find copper turned into shall quicksilver. cook it continuously until it be con- For when gealed. therefore. Lastly. The word is It is the Laton which must be of Oriental origin. the very great putrefaction which extracts (or contains in itself) the very its *s arcanum." ebibat does not agree with the subsequent But donee duas directions found in each version. it many times until colours manifest. Then imbue it with the Permanent water which I directed you coagulated stone until it to reserve.

But dividing this water into two parts. forty days. and white pound strongly by cooking. in the one part of the water cook it for eleven. ye permanent water. otherwise." : . there will thence result the very great arcanum in the following Take fashion.* Magnesia and mix with the male. until there be a white flower. not with the hands. ! If. deprive continue the cooking until its whole nature be disintegrated. " Take quicksilver . also exists assuredly between copper and Return to thine exposition.The Turba Philosophorum. until the de* The second recension reads mixed with the male. and cook for forty days. rule copper and permanent water as I have directed. therefore. until the water become thin. when ye will find it of it water whiter than milk all blackness by cooking . quicksilver. as the flower of salt in its splendour and coruscation : but strongly close the mouth of the vessel. 77 O TheoAnd lie: It is to be known philus that the same affinity which exists between the magnet and iron.

which I have given you. that which Theophilus saith : hath told you. that there exists an affinity between the magnet and the * The name Bellus. CERUS* Understand. The Twenty-third Dictum. colour which the Philosophers have magnified shall truly appear. But if ye wish that the whole arcanum.The Turba Philosophorum. weight of the humidity shall fail. you to For the Iksir pounds (or contains) itself. until there appear a crocus. wash the same with water. the other part which I counselled clean. cook. until be it found and is wholly broken up (or becomes wholly clean). until by decoction and by water it be pounded and become like imbue it. namely. a syrup of pomegranates and until the therefore. imbue also with the residue of the water. all ye Sons of the Doctrine. and leave in its own vessel. and the . 78 filement perish. substituted by the second recension is . be accomplished. preserve. that is to say.

" " " The proper end of the whole art. are you incensed against me ? I Fear the Lord. This affinity and combination is given to them in the space of one hundred days. is : \ to obtain the semen of the male secretly. that your The TURBA Master may believe you answereth : Say what you will. " The nature According to the alternative version of the one does not agree with the nature of the other. while the ruled for is fitly copper one hundred days :* what statement can be more useful to you than that there no is affinity between tinf and The TURBA answerelh : quicksilver ?! Thou hast ill spoken. Here M. that why And he : I testify say nothing but what is true . Berthelot observes that the reference is to sublimed mercury or the sulphur thereof. and that cinnabar is sublimed vapour obtained by coction in cauldrons. seeing that all . having disparaged the true disposition. 79 by the alliance of composites existing between the magnet and the iron." t The definition may not be important. iron. as well to state that the Greek Lexiconof Chrysoptia explains that tin alchemically is cinnabar. but it is. all ye Turba.The Turba Philosophorum." says Horus. The second recension adds : " Between the copper and water of the Philosophers. perhaps. in the male potency or strength . And he : ! I direct which * is you to take quicksilver.

which grated. until all for already burnt. until each shall be coagulated and stone. Know also that in the time of forty-two days the whole is changed into earth . and is its defilement. without this nothing can succeed. times. charms Nature. companion. Then cook until it be congealed and become like to tin. of which one is for liquefying and cook- become a ing the body. nitre until it become as a liquefied coin. Then take the water which you had divided into two parts. as a fact. by cooking.The Turba Philosophorum. is sought . therefore. when it is a most things are male and female." &c. and you which process of reunion. for Nature Olympiodorus On the Sacred Art. 8o cook the same with becomes a fluxible its body until it water. . certain place will : find that Hence Horus says in a Join the male and the female. cook the masculine together with the vapour. it be disinte- body be purged from become and earth. and cleanse. liquefy the same until it become as true water. but the second cleansing that which and its made is are [two] Imbue the stone seven one. which is Then wash with water of quicksilver.

water reserved by you until you attain your purpose. of crocus. as the Philosophers have ordained. O saith Thou : hast spoken I follow Belus. and imbue with the residual desiccated with its name given the therefore. The Twenty-fourth Dictum. a also most excellent that unto water companion we have Cook it. G .The Turba Philosophorum. and. until a stone is produced . thy steps and ! answereth thus. and therefore He As it may please you. the great arcanum stone which is out of two things. Rule the same by cooking and pounding. until becomes it Know crocus. then rule the stone with gluten of gold and syrup of pomegranates until it be broken up. 81 that is to say. therefore. liquefy. the Doctrine. I Take : direct the Sons of lead. . imbue. And BOCASCUS: Thou speakest the truth. and afterwards congeal. for that is not the part of the Wise. But you * The name in the second recension is Boratis. but do not become envious. BOCASCUS* well.

mortal. all employed etherised one met with rarely. to the subject. become an hemisphere of the above . until. as I have said. Zosimus understands molybdochalchos. The TURBA answer-eth Thou : hast done nothing but pile up ambiguous words. Return. therefore. It is that easily volatilised. with one and liquefied the lead." it is Fabrication of the All.* earth . the same be dried and have become as water. avoiding the action quitting its role of fugitive. that I refer to roasting. An the fixation of Mercury by by which unassigned fragment of the Byzantine collection has the following poetical reference to the fixation of Mercury " Mercury is obtained in like manner with artificial : cinnabar." t The Greek alchemists claim to have accomplished * means of the Body of Magnesia. it reaches a it fire. difficult to retain. a rare substance. its printer's choice Until and . way and a suitable which is termed dried and in the testing of souls. it has become cook. \ is. 82 have already divided the water into of which you have two parts.The Turba Philosophorum. it Having darts towards the upper descends and ascends. cinnabar obtained by the dry " With is it has attained this condition. state of wisdom." says the second recension between compari and corpori. it is a .t it coagulate quickwith its equal. spirit. as you have been frequently ordered. And he Ye who wish : to must mix silver. body.! Otherwise: " Rule frequently. until it then pound with the water reserved until it acquire a red colour. therefore.

and then poundt until it becomes a crocus like to the colour of gold.The Turba Philosophorum." t more The second in its vessel.* by in your vessel ye understand. and place what is necessary. since thou speakest ! For thou hast illuminated thy words. MENABDUS the for the truth May God saith: reward thee regimen. this be desiccated with its own water until this it equal vapour. recension merely says and pound. until it it The Twenty-fifth Dictum. cook be coagulated. posterity to * The second make bodies not recension reads : bodies. do not be inferior to him." : " Place it once . be coagulated. Afterwards cook it 83 diligently until both become permanent water. And they : It is said because thou praisest him for his sayings. " Let the whole be coagulated into quicksilver. cook But let again. And he : I know can utter nothing but that which he hath uttered however. and. because ye have found the whole quicksilver to be coagulated If itself. I counsel that I .

that to convert and transmute incorporeal.t the woman also with the man.The Turba Philosophomm. and unless you two bodies achieved. concludes that Body of Magnesia is molybdochalchos. The confusion of old chemis[See note on p.* For by regimen the composite prepared. through which bodies are coloured assuredly. . and by means of this there is extracted our secret Ethelia. the try on the subject of the last substance is well known. and But Mary is incorporeal substances into corporeal. no " divine " Zozimus also quotes same fashion. understand this regimen. bodies become not bodies." into The in precisely the one body. corporeal state. or black lead. desired result make will be Hermes and he observes elsewhere is to impart body to the The Body of Magnesia. 84 but these incorporeal things bodies. If ye diligently fire and digest The Byzantine fragment upon The contains this statement : Philosophical " Unless bodies lose their and unless bodies again corporeal state. is is its these bodies accordingly join quicksilver and the body of Magnesia. 82. and the hidden part of this nature With extracted. commenting upon Mary. that which is assume their desired will not be attained. and incorporeal if I things become pound the things in the * Egg bodies.] f Zosimus. ." quoted by Olympiodorus in terms which " Except correspond literally with the text of the Turba : you convert corporeal substances into incorporeal.

and the more it is mixed and pounded with the body. breaking up." " all bodies. when it becomes a body and soul with- " one according to the second recension. the more the body is disintegrated. a fixed nature* and colour. 85 become And know ye (or join to) the Ethelias. For breaks." " all it holds and things when . has been recension says that because Ethelia tinges itself tinged. ye will possess Ethel. they clean and fixed things. subject to every tincture. and being coloured this reason unless it it it And know colours. while the quicksilver comes is attenuated and be- For when ye living.t does not colour things be coloured. * That is. which also overcomes.The Turba Philosophonim. which does not flee from the fire. shall dili- gently pound fiery quicksilver and cook it as required. that quicksilver is a fire burning the mortifying and bodies." which seems a preferable t Alternatively. and constrains the fire. with one regimen. \ The second colours once it all spirits. reading.! that no body can tinge itself unless its spirit be extracted from the secret belly thereof.

but it tinges by its combinacites tion with other bodies. that unless first it Hence has the copper does not be tinged. if this combination be wanting. out of which colours have is manifested. can one succeed in tingeing objects made subject to the action of " fire ? . The purifying influence of fire preserves the spirit when the operation has been conducted according to the rules of Art. f In his treatise On Democritus to the <&c. The Four Metallic Bodies. effect that How then. 86 which a spiritual out the spirit. who follows Democritus. seeing that a dense thing does not tinge a tenuous. but a tenuous nature colours that which enters into a body. ye have ruled the body of copper. Virtue and Interpretation. however. and have extracted a most tenuous (subject). and before the copper has been tinged. Zosimus copper does not tinge. but that copper burnt by means of oil of natron. And that those four bodies which you This distinction between the soul and the spirit is recognised by Zosimus.The Turba Philosophorum. The soul is the primitively sulphureous and caustic nature. t it is said. The spirit is the useful part. and having undergone this treatment repeatedly. Copper does not tinge so long as it preserves an unique essence. then the latter is changed into a tincture by from it which man wise tinge know coloured. the tingeing element. becomes more " beautiful than gold. When.* tincture.

Know. and then to * the The second humid recension reads: are these two joined with the humid. which your Master by no The TURBA means ordered you to do ! answereth : Inform us according O your own in to this Zenon. The Twenty-Sixth Dictum. have conjoined two bodies. that it behoves you to allow the composition to putrefy for forty days. to and that the tinctures which I have signified unto you are the condensed and the humid. opinion.The Turba Philosophorum. envy he : Know that the colours which shall ! appear to you out of it are these.* but the condensed is a conjoined vapour. and constrains. and the humid is the water of for sulphur. ZENON saith: I perceive that you. the condensed being . O Sons of the Doctrine. and overcomes." "The condensed and tinctures. and rightly by these things Nature rejoices in Nature. are directed 87 rule are this copper. O crowd of the Wise. sulphurs are contained by sulphurs. Then and beware of matter.

* finally. ture. the purple colour will appear to you the ferment . therefore. the same as an Ixir. a tincture extracted out of imposed upon coins. Know also that wherein there it is called a body But when ye is gold.The Turba Philosophorum. lor " Beware lest : perchance it will perish. and the coin of the vulgar shall be then is the Ixir composed imposed out of the humid and the dry." t you The second extract the recension substitutes spirit in haste. on the third like unto a dry crocus." the soul shall many things. are composing the Ixir. second black red. join to a fire of dung. t were. as it lingers. because it is a soul extracted out of many things. for it Extract. " Crocus : like unto sericus. For this venom is. 88 sublimate five Next times in a vessel. birth and life. beware lest you extract the same hastily. and imposed upon * The preferable coins reading its :I is tincture. and then it tinges with an invariable tinc. and cook. when these colours shall appear to you On : the first black day on the citrine. and ." | The second recension reads: "And remain.

t it venerable the called find favour with to speak with complete authority. and if any one. no vocabulary mentions it. he would sustain the tediousness of cooking until he gained his purpose accord- God. among in made its It may be use of it. until its is Chambar. The most second recension. be observed that the envious GREGORIUS* it to is have to like be ruled marble * The name t Antimony. I Turba did not Efflucidinus coruscates it second recension the in bizarre terms of the stone and they have ordered Efflucidinus. should know these natures. from which it rebut it is death to the bodies Accord- extracted. is And splendour. the Stone J The comparison of gleaming marble is Western a special instance in point. saith : O all ye Turba.The Turbo. but said almost certainly that no later author Moreover. in in the Alchemists is difficult . therefore. Philosophorum. to those things with life is is it 89 said that between them there exists the same desire as between male and female. is it have Masters the ingly. ing to the will of The Twenty -Seventh Dictum. found. which moves evil. it splendour to other of the Greek . from which joined. being introduced to this Art.

until it it and disintegrated is repeatedly cook and imbue shall rule when red. he again. in alchemists. unto marble. It behoves you. a thus. transport." in Work. it : is it with until until he that commingled ruled what therefore. therefore. having cited is : If the there a great Stephanus. and especially Exposition of the Democritus. he that which tinges tinctures and tinged same is divine water. however. red Willingly .The Turba Philosophorum. the which is like his Detailed is quoting the Philosopher. when it will become gold of a Tyrian colour. : Then posterity. Then gold. and water. O Mark proceeds on the subject of And " : Now. " all ye investigators of Zosimus. which. when marble." . then mystery. the copper be congealed. and it a coruscating stone with a let Finally. the great mystery. seized with a divine this white sulphur preparation become like unto marble. it it re- peat the process. where. because When colour. must you is know remains vinegar. substances. is cooked till it becomes earth. becomes it it brilliancy like ye see thus. direct I becomes to you is it turned assume the aforesaid become hidden into ye see it and colour. go they to Show.

certain body also work." anecdote of the alchemists. if ye rule it Know that shall see ignorantly.The Turbo. when the redness was somewhat slow in appearing." " until the hidden colours shall appear. ye knew a person who commenced this nothing of those colours. 91 when ye have observed that Stone is coruscating. the conjunc- work. as Norton's Ordinal of Alchemy. . such variations. imagined that he had made a mistake. to pound this Art. and operated I natures the of who. quires some degree of redness take the remainder* of the which envioust the ac- it . and truth." t opprobrious term is omitted by the second recension.|| how ye make " a small quantity. J The second Otherwise |l with : A common many recension substitutes " sand. and ye shall imbibe themt several times until the divide into colours which are hidden by no appear unto you. then water ordered you to two parts. Philosophorum. and the reference seems to be to the division of * Otherwise : The the water indicated in an earlier part of the colloquy. this and turn into it until earth. reproduced and even in Hermetic poems. Observe. so relinquished the therefore.

liquefies. Hence. Finally. whereupon it be thought to be bad. take place. and next into powder. it is then most excellent. the second recension. the redness does not delay in coming. : to . and disintegrates the same. congeals." according * The second t That is. and if ye find it impalpable as water." " intenser in congelation. for the braced his spouse. I order that the fire should be gentle in will when it is turned to make the same intense. for when it has entered into the said body. GUSTOS Turba ! saith at I O am all ye surprised. passes swiftly into her body. breaks up.! and liquefaction. and if ye effect death will it without the weight.The Turba Philosophorum. recension reads " the male. but earth imbue it until colours for us God shall extract the and they appear. 92 punic dye. the very great force and : nature of this water.* having em- tion. it turns it first into earth. The Twenty-eighth Dictum. which take in to test the perfection of the hand.

when they thus directed you to cook in a gentle fire. nor is it at all certain that the envious had less wisdom than the wise. ye rule our If. that Nature rejoices Nature. In either case. the en- : obscurity when us to take lead and little they commanded white quicksilver. ye shall find all But that has been promised by us. repeat the cooking until it is brought to the required condition. or the wise less envy than the envious. they were all . and affirmed that there should be produced the said coinlike stone. till Then it becomes he: They meant our copper and our permanent water. 93 otherwise. And know that if ye use any substance other than our copper. concerning which the Wise have also observed. on the copper with our water. by reason of the affinity which they know to exist between the in * is a The distinction little difficult between the Wise and the Envious to follow. and to rule the same with dew and the sun a coin-like stone. the TURBA answer eth vious* created no Father. it will profit you nothing.The Turba Philosophorum. other hand. Greeks indifferently. and rule with our water.

copper and permanent water. and be held together so that they may become one. that only which is unto begotten from brute ani- and so also with This reference is like is flying creatures. 94 two bodies. and roasted until it has become gold ? The Twenty-Ninth Dictum. without which they would not so swiftly unite. Therefore. Moses may be a misprint for Gustos. Philosophorum. seekers after this doctrine. Know. omitted from the second recension. or vice versa. as became thee . Saith the TURBA: Why do the envious direct us to take the copper which we have now made. for between them there is a mixed affinity. DIAMEDES saith Thou hast spoken in an Moses*. . this disposition most precious in their eyes.The Turbo. I will also : O confirm thy words. passing over the hardness of the elements which the wise desire to remove. already. that is to say. O ye that man does not proceed except being from a man themselves mals * . ungrudging manner. . the nature of these two is one.

is charms nature.The Turba Philosophorum. Nature dog procreates the dog. and the same hath no consistence. and man gold serves for the increase of gold. it is a monster which is engendered. illuminated by the fruit of the prayers of Isis. The adepts having participated in the divine power. man in man. to the underway of a preliminary. that is to say.* See. and know that man man. said that mystery been revealed." Isis to Horns. Thus they succeeded by means of the substantial nature in triumphing over the matter in the preparations. and like things Now hath the generally for the reproduction of their like. and the able to bring forth Should it happen that & creature produced contrary to nature. for out of her Art cometh. the lion begets the lion. consider standing of these things by creation is and generation as a whole. without having recourse to other (unsuitable) substances. and nature triumphs through nature. who yourselves omit prolixity. my child. seeing that thou thyself art not improved except in thy son. I have treated these matters 95 in com- pendious fashion. even as employed have previously sows man. so also I wheat begets wheat. but make use of venerable Nature. exalting you towards the truth. and * " When thou hast attained. made preparations with certain metallic minera. for Nature is truly not improved by Nature. . save with her own nature. and having succeeded by the divine assistance. In fact. therefore. that ye do not neglect the precepts concerning her.

which having been done. powder nor anything else conception is sufficient for us. The fugitive role of Mercury is referred to in the Greek ment on The Fabrication of the All. the the ascribed to Hermes. g6 Know out of no other. produced between them matter unto these foreign Art is neither . f The second begotten. also that un- Nature and seize hold of this obtain nothing. it running water and fire dead is and frozen It is . as already cited. will ye therefore. the swift and the stable In fire . Join. treatise lexicons. that who male. Red Servant is According to other the matter from which the Philosophers extract their Mercury." some &c. less you rule it. Rulandus attributes it to made. which of course is an obvious symbolism. son to is the red slave. the thing which makes and is Speculum Majus of Vincent de Beauvais it appears as a synonym of Mercury." recension reads " : A true frag- son is . nearer is it is How the nature of is precious still. yet the son exceeding that . t * The allegory ot the Serous Fugitivus abounds in alchemy.* in marriage with his fragrant wife. which must therefore be the marriageable son mentioned in the text above. and is found also in old Arabian treatises. add no things. for near. burning hard stone and . soft stone.The Turba Philosophorum. such as the Twelve Chapters of Ostanes: "They have later defined this Stone by saying that permanent water earth . the flying slave.

it to die lest then give .* and * According to Rulandus. thou hast publicly re: ! vealed this disposition He ! answereth : even shed more light upon it. lest they be deprived of sense and motion . become a certain unity. unto you who fear not God. cause them to remain in the bath until shall body. but there are many meanings. us. therefore. . the King is the spiritual water which gives moisture to the female. Venerate the king and his wife. and the colour thereof. you deprive are therefore. of art this ! envious you towards your brethren ? They answer : We do not flee except from fools tell . red that without slave. 97 which the regimen cannot endure BACSEN saith Diomedes. which H is . for 1 will Woe He may Why. This passage is the fountain-head of the whole symbolism of the alchemical marriage. what is thy will ? And he : Place Citrine with his wife after the do not conjunction into the bath kindle the bath excessively. ye evaporate them by in too strong a fire.The Turba Philosophorum. it rest. where- upon restore unto their again suffer it and beware burning them the sweat thereof.

always with royal personages. but I hast spoken do not see that concerned. so that if my duty. until they become black. afterwards red. for if God knew that ye possessed a faithful mind. then white. but if ! yourselves. illustrate and the innumerable Latin Alchemy. if after ye this under- not. which improve the king and his wife. Compare the Sponsus and Sponsa of the Chemical Nuptials of Christian Rosy Cross. I have established you therein. 98 you know not when you may have need of these things. therefore. is produced. error ! The Thirtieth Dictum. I have still performed and that briefly. Cook them. the Wise. it is God who hath concealed the truth from you Blame not. therefore. It pictorial emblems which does not appear to be trace- .The Turba Philosophorum. Science. able to a Greek source. most certainly he would reveal unto you the Behold. BACSEN well. since O seekers happy are ye. saith: Thou O Diomedes. ye remain ignorant. and have extricated you from truth. and finally until a tingeing venom do not burn them. but stand.

and not the beginning of the work.t for to cording the true beginning hereof cometh after the completion. ac- thy opinion in these matters. therefore. explain that Corsufle. which might be a mutilated version produced in a German printing office. and it is not found in the collections of Arabian or Syrian alchemy published by M. to future seekers after this Art. Under neither form Rulandus is after the term to be found in Rulandus himselt. however. or with the The origin of the word is subsequent vocabularies. His dictionary. a definition which does not correspond either with the text of the Turba. It signifies impurity of bodies. t The speaker also is different. i. Nephitus. me. is the Sulphur of the Philosophers fixed at the Red Stage. BACSEN saith : I give notice.e. or as they sometimes wrote it. the crown. though he was well acquainted with the Turba. Corsufle is the head. includes Cor Fuffla.. therefore. namely. Carsufle. O it Then he : Bacsen.The Turba Philosophorum. . According to the second recension. Berthelot. and have confused many with Tell manner all of names. The it lexicographers of com- must be roasted alchemy who followed a long interval. 99 thou hast demonstrated the disposition of Corsufle* to posterity Of this same Corsufle the envious have spoken ! in ways. and I swear by thy father that this is the head of the work. that Corsufle is a and that posite. the obscure.

BONELLUS saith: According to O Pythagoras. all thee. tin. until that colour TURBA be deprived of The and become Ixir. for example. and also the name of lead. PYTHAGORAS saith How : does the discourse of Bacsen appear to you. gold. O have also among the others it Thou Pythagoras spoken ! hast spoken And well. since he has omitted to name the substance And they by Name : Pythagoras artificial its And ! therefore. things die and live . he : names ? oh Corsufle being composition. because when it arrives at perfection it tinges the whole body. The TURBA answereth spoken the truth. ioo seven times. answereth: well.The Ttirba Philosophorum. those of coin. may he and : Ye some discourse con- cerning the residual matters. O Thou : Bacsen hast ! The Thirty-First Dictum. they have applied to it all the names of bodies in the its world. The Thirty-Second Dictum. it. iron. as. copper.

O ye Sons of the Doctrine.The Turba Philosophorum. even as a man becomes stronger after resurrection and younger than he was in this world.* God . as a man tomb. will of by the 101 God. because that nature from which the humidity is removed. does indeed seem that dead is (again) is left left for in his powder. will restore and the unto something then turned and like unto it spirit thereof. and is imbued corrupt and unintelligible. The second " Therefore that nature from which the is : humidity has been removed. both the soul and the weak- ness being taken away. and after corruption will be improved. in fire until the spirit of that becomes dust like body returns and then in his tomb. Therefore it behoves you. to consume that matter with become a boldly until fire cinder. that matter will be made strong. for that cinder receives the * when know it spirit. is it certain nights. when it becomes a These things being done. that nature which is left by nights." unto one dead . is like to one dead and then that nature is wanting . it . have mixed it The text recension reads shall that ye excellently well. when it has been left for nights.

many much ye rule it subtly proceed from it. similarly. cooking some of them to a cinder. while others they grind with their hands. even for things will it if proceeds from the smallest things in the world. ye will know that I speak the truth. . the philosophers cannot combine medicines for the sick slaves until they also turn them into powder. has a body and a as men cometh God is their soul. The case is the same with those who compose the images of the ancients. But if ye understand what has already been said. which after and similarly the copper is inspired by the humour from which that same life. Consider. for the inspiration of from the air. therefore. with the fairer humour until colour than it assumes a it previously possessed. and hence I have ordered you to burn up the body and turn into a cinder. It is thus because copper like man. that artists are unable own tinctures until them into a powder to paint with their they convert .IO2 The Turba Philosophorum. ye Sons O of the Doctrine.

as the envious it is have termed it. when ye must roast it in a fire more intense than the former. the more is it thickened until it becomes a stone.The Turba Philosophorum. it is augmented and multi- plied. larly. was. O Bonellus. becomes water . therefore. but it is really an egg It is tending to become a metal. afterwards broken and imbued. better is multiplied other things. cooked. and because God extracts many things out of one thing. since He hath created nothing which wants its own regimen. that consumed with fire and when copper is several iterated like 103 than it times. copper receiving strength and augmented the Hence. becomes The Turba it answereth: Show. philosophers add. then the more its cooked. manwas to future generations after what ner it becometh better than it A nd he because : will I it is do so willingly ! . and those qualities by which Simihealing must be effected. until it shall be coloured and shall become like blood . when it is our first copper.

104 in combustion. is work to the suggested by the common to all found also in the Greek writers. and adepts. which in fact. ye shall be princes people of your time.The Turba Philosophorum. there will in no wise proceed from it that colour which ye desire. for unless it be cooked diligently until it shall become a powder. and Latin among . public. Do according to the Divine pleasure. when placed on is it and changes them coins into gold. of the progress of the ol the embryo. But if ye arrive at the conclusion of this regimen. is is. among the The Thirty-Third Dictum. NICARUS saith: this arcanum * The comparison Now ye have made The TURBA. not produced be diligently is has acquired which no after change takes place in that sperm ?* It is the same with our work. you not see that sperm from the blood unless cooked in the liver an intense red it till it colour. and afterwards be putrefied until it shall become a spiritual sperm. and so obtain your pur- pose. development above reference.

Not the whole. answereth And he: But they 105 : Thus did the Master order. by . but there diplosis" imitation are also are traces that the Egyptian goldsmith believed. He ordered us to clear away the darkness therefrom do thou. * M. nevertheless. in Comarius. tell us. who says that the test of the material as the embryo is fire nourishes nourished in the mother's womb. he : I counsel pos- terity to take the gold which they wish to multiply and renovate. should deter- to produce the like. And they : Distinguish. after the manner of mine the fermentations destined is necessary leaven. is called the ferment of Gold. then to divide the water into two parts. this was the operation of It is found in the Leyden papyrus. the alliance of gold or silver with a more or less considerable quantity ot some less precious metal . or at any rate sought to was reaiiy fermentation. dissolved in that water. " that the true metal multiplied by an operation The places by comparable to is mentioned fermentation of metals the Greek writers: " It that this water.The Turba Philosophornm. to burn up our copper with one part. for example." in many make others believe.* if For the these. when they divide But he : It behoves them the water. there: . said copper. And fore. designed for the accomplishment of a " Recipes more profound met with. therefore. Berthelot traces the original notion of the fermentation of metals to the sophistication called diplosis.

106 For the same in manner are cooked and liquefy ye rule well. For this somewhat bizarre reading the second cension substitutes : " It seems needful to lay stress some matters which have been already mentioned. like as water ." literal * morsel of gold ferment all the dry is repeated in terms essential and little This notion by innumerable Latin alchemists. then for forty days until the whole shall putrefy. crumble. all the moisture being dried up. BACSEN saith : On account of thy the Philosophers said beware." re- upon . so also will this matter. ferments a great mass of paste.The Turba Philosophorum. by cooking they are the red congealed. finally. until they absorb all the water. after the a small quantity. and appears. The Thirty-Fourth Dictum. and. which is like to the redness of copper. in the metallic tact. But then it behoves you to imbue seven times with the residual water. and pound dicta Take in the urine of a calf until the nature means in body to be tinged. used of the like.* the regal Corsufle. and its colours appear. they are turned into dry earth kindle a fire and place therein . As a same manner that the leaven of dough.

: Shew. poured upon it seven it absorbs the whole : humour. therefore. " It was different in the days of Zosimus. belly saith : nature which And And is. of a colour like burnt blood. and hath coloured with an This. but not found.The Turbo. who tells us that in Egypt the divine art of operating on minera belonged to the Kings. is they : A tingeing spirit and coinlike. then it is called rust. save only to whom God has granted it. and receives a force which is equal to the hostility of the fire. therefore. And extracted. have kings sought. which the fire overcoming hath introduced into the receptive belly of spiritual Nature. and water times he hath from permanent water. Philosophorum. King's riches was the only end in view. Putrefy the same diligently until it becomes a powder. of the Corsufle 107 converted. for the true nature has been hidden in the The TUREA Explain to posterity what the of the Corsufle. it which is is is until coruscates. . he how it It is pounded. and the alchemists of the Nile no more worked in their The increase of the own interest than theminters of coin.* But indelible colour.

The Turba Philosophorum.








Finish your speech,






whiten copper with white water, by

which also they make




not to introduce any foreign matter.
And the TURBA: Well hast thou

spoken, O Bacsen,
also has spoken well




and Nictimerus
Then he: If I
do one of you


The Thirty-Fifth Dictum.




Hast thou


anything to be said by another ? And the
TURBA Since the words of Nicarus and


Bacsen are of



to those


seek after this Art, tell us, therefore,
what thou knowest, according as we
And he : Ye speak the
have said.


ye seekers after this Art
Nothing else has led you into error but
the sayings of the envious, t because what


for this


reason the priests


who were

acquainted with

the mineral secrets did not dare to disclose

In the second recension







t The second recension has an important variation
" The words of the
Egyptians have led us into error."


The Turbo, Philosophorum.

ye seek

sold at the smallest possible




men knew


and how


great was the thing they held in their

hands, they would in no wise sell it.
Therefore, the Philosophers have glori-

venom, t have treated of it
variously, and in many ways, have
taken and applied to it all manner of
fied that

names, wherefore, certain envious persons have said It is a stone and not a

stone, but






sequently, the Philosophers have conFor this
cealed the power thereof.

which ye seek, that ye



concealed in the body,
and hidden away from sight, even as



the soul in the

This passage recalls

effect in the






Greek alchemists,

But ye

statements to the same

as, lor

example, that the

not to be obtained by money, " for the Lord


has delivered the same gratuitously, by reason of the
beggars and the despairing." But this passage from the

Byzantine Assembly of the Philosophers
an interpolation.

The second





in part at least

" that useful


abject thing."




" Therein

tinges, vivifies, gives


the spirit which you seek,

health and


to bodies."


The Turba Philosophorum.

seekers after the Art, unless ye disinthis


body, imbue and pound

cautiously and diligently, until
ye extract it from its grossness (or
grease), and turn it into a tenuous and


have your labour in
vain. Wherefore the Philosophers have


Except ye turn bodies into notbodies, and incorporeal things into
bodies, ye have not yet discovered the
But the TURBA
rule of operation.













posterity how
into not-bodies.



pounded with
they become

And know

not take



that this does

by an exceedingly strong decoction, and continuous



a moderate

The second






not with

becomes dust," but






it is

evidently corrupt.
similar : " The fire

t The counsel of Olympiodorus is
must burn with moderation and gentleness,


the vapour
" Know

should escape in smoke and be lost," And, again
that this Art is not practised by means of a fierce






alchemists say that the Mzgnum Oput
J Some Latin
a work of the hands, which others deny, and a very pretty


The Turba Philosophorum.

with imbibition and putrefaction, with
exposure to the sun and to Ethelia.


envious caused the vulgar to err in
this Art when they stated that the thing
is common in its nature and is sold at

a small price.
They further said that
the nature was more precious than all
natures, wherefore they deceived those

who had

recourse to their books.

same time they spoke the




and therefore doubt not these things.
But the TURBA answereth : Seeing that






envious, explain, therefore, to posterity









the two


you that Art


requires two natures,

for the precious

not produced without the

diversity of opinion has risen





up among interpreters

partisans of the



view, denying the

metallic object of the Art, affirm that the mystery of the

manual operation was the mystery of animal magnetism.
The Turba in the passage above, and in other



against the use of the hands, whatever that may
" Think not

signified, here following

thou, as do some, that




superior to man's."


manual action


of itself and alone

also required that of Nature, an action


the Sacred Art.

: water by reason of the heat of the fire. thereis in the them the disposition of the vapour. then all things have been made vapour. Nothing : the TURBA else helps water : and The whole vapour and the sublimation of water. therefore. and that the whole body of Magnesia is liquefied as water. to follow the sayings of Victimerus. and that they have been purified. nor the common It without the precious. other. And lie When ye shall perceive that the natures have become to fore." says the second recension.* when he said to his disciples save you work sublimate to And vapour." a variation which.H2 The Turba Philosophorum. . is significant. its own equal. in its way. although flight be essential to * f " Of the elders. behoves you. The second recension substitutes " The Philoso- phers. wherefore the envioust call either are joined vapour. because both in and one contains the Thus our stag finds no path to decoctions. escape. O all ye investigators of this Art. Demonstrate. and for then the vapour contains rightly.

thus our work. then. gold. They makes them have also called it the black humid and forasmuch as in humidity and dryness. and its God nature from the prohas infused into His alienates it it. lest it flee. both . with it coins. the therefore. but when a and follows its spouse. The one keeps back it. placed beauty is befall itself it For this reason. falls. it is free it its spouse . . and its colour varies. rust and properly speaking. is nothing else wanting perlution man there are . so has no opportunity to it for 113 fly. that favourable colour its it may is not as was. But the blackness and redness appear. which the envious have concealed. and extracts it perties which elect. that no place to escape finds made permanent. Philosophers have called the spirit and the soul vapour. it all when the one being hidden in the body. a not and dies by it although it is desirous to escape servitude then when it flight. and falls into sickness. and hence . are the other. it is congealed with it. putrefaction has .The Turba Philosophorum.

TURBA The and I say that the work the envious have vapour composed out of two. but by others stone. wherein are and spirit dryness and humidity. then a stone.* the Philosopher. every that the humidity become water. indeed. : The Thirty-Sixth Dictum. that the copper was called sand. And know formerly ye. the regimen. AFFLONTUS. . and. and without envy. nature and names Know in vary further. ye have not yet found the work. Let Zimon next follow. answereth Demonstrate : water is And ! out he two of : . saith: I O substances at the commencement by notify to you all. The TURBA answereth Thou hast spoken excellently. 114 but vapour and water. if ye cause them to be * The name in the second recension is Assotes. ye investigators of this Art. without contrition of hands. that unless ye sublime the cooking. until the whole become water. called it vapour.The Turba Philosophorum. because these two become four.

name equivalent to this. by some that he was a man ancient among and a short account " It is stated who philosophised in Egypt. Wherefore powder. or that he is the good genius of Egypt. Know also. Cook until a them. when his soul in a vision An Explanation and Oom- . 115 complexionated. by others a mysterious angel. ye have not yet pounded them completely. Now this is the contrition the of which is Philosophers. namely. they therefore. ye have turned all into powder. M. that which but powder and this becomes a spiritual rises to the top of the vessel. because well the part which is light and spiritual rises to the top. become * converted. He is quoted by Olympiodorus (On the Sacred Art).The Turba Philosopher urn. is the contrition of decoction. Berthelot points out that there was an the most ancient that he is Egyptian divinity who bore a Zosimus beheld Agathodaimon ascended to the third degree. that not sublimated sinks down. Agathodaimon is successively included and Agadaimon* among the makers of gold in one of the earlier sections of the Byzantine collection." &c. that unless not of hands. and if ye are acquainted with the natures. but that which is thick and heavy remains below in the vessel. of him is given by the same writer.

" recension reads : " unless ye turn both . for the It body is. and It to is be . stated. But if been it ground ye ask. * The second into water. that ye turn the thing mentioned water. in its own vessel then . to the flame of the therefore. how made a powder water And ? is the note that the intention of the Philosophers is that the body before which before it falls into the water is may become water mixed with the other they become one water. is therefore. saith Cook the copper : come a gentle and impose until be- it and impalpable body. sublimate the same six or seven times until the water shall descend. necessary be so possessed by that fire it is dis- integrated and becomes weak with the water. not water the said water water. when the water has been mentary of Agathodaimon upon the Oracle of Orpheu* is extant in the Greek collection.* ye shall not attain to unless into the work. know that when the water has become has then powder diligently.n6 The Turba Philosophorum.

spirit. which cannot become permanent with- out companion. water. Philosophorum. comes water. he draws nigh to de- . Had they read our books they would know that it is permanent water. obscure one water . all ye seekers after dismiss names. the Igneous. wherewith it is made one. this Art. what ye thing ye is. But this is the water which its the Philosophers have called Water of Gold.The Turbo. which the he introduced And know. that the blackness of so Sun might be removed. nature is of this Art. will desire. thing enter unless it fore. think that this is clouds. There- therein. and that Sand of Many Names which Hermes ordered to be washed frequently. But until the 117 whole be- hearing of water of the fools. added to the water. body. enters all ye seekers after ye take this unless that pure body. if the multitude for the anyone err. Good Venom. that the the solution of the in our copper without by no means ses because no foreign nor does anybe pure.

place it in its vessel. concerning answereth : Speak. and cook for forty up the moisture days." and ray of honey is is . and he quotes Hermes: " the " The ray of honey is white. is But certain The question being what the difference between the mercury which from cinnabar. keep is loses his life. When ye see that the said water is about to become black. the Philosopher explains that while all mercury is one.The Turba Philosophorum. the mouth of which close carefully. one nature. and that which is obtained obtained from arsenic. 118 and struction. but dismiss what this foreign. until it drink of the vinegar and honey. and all become water therein ! For the heat of the water acting thereupon. ye know that the body is already liquefied. he : O all ye when mixing Magnesia. and cook with a gentle fire until it liquefy. it becomes water by the will of God.* * There is an exceedingly curious reference to honey in the Discourse of Synesius. Sons of the And Doctrine. Therefore. BONELLUS saith : I speak a little The TURBA will Magnesia. The Thirty-Seventh Dictum. Place again in its vessel. there are still a variety of sorts.

absorbs the for forty then humour it completely of the decoction. and deprive of its blackness.The Turba Philosophorum. wash the same. the Latin equivalent. Then it is called copper. but it does not follow that this is the significance which was invariably attached to it by the philosophers. wherethis is fore they yellow. the stone becomes dry to the touch. a fact. week. the blackness being removed. pour very sharp vinegar upon it." have said M. become the Magnesia with soft and cook diligently. until. and the humour perish. Berthelot : Let the venom explains that honey * signifies mercury. which in the special connection is of course obvious. Hence the envious have said Wash : water. once in each it. until it earth. Subsequently. Therefore. and leave it to be soaked therein. which the Philobe sophers have ordained should washed with permanent water. Berthelot. and Virus. in either case. . in later days the term was used to signify the As philosophical dissolvent. But our copper. the ultimate perfection of pure water appears at the end of days. or once in every ten nights. * The The Greek is given by M. persons uncover 119 say. are words following explanation los.

all ye seekers after this Science. : these and like things ? O all ye in- which had exceedingly diverse meaning among the ancients. Therefore. unless that which improves be present in the said thing. therefore. And know. according to Pliny. and with the other putrefy. all its phases. and. finish that which thou otherwise repeat it a second But he Shall I indeed repeat art saying time. such as the odour of copper. and sandarac ." Hence the term signified the power and not the operation.The Turba Philosophorum. meant certain properties or specific virtues of bodies. wherefore. I2O be divided into two parts. that the and regimen does not take place except by water. The TURBA answereth: Thou has spoken excellently. or if the operation. O Bonellus ! If it please thee. The Virus. . . it behoves you to add those things which are needful. the medical action of calx of gold the magnetic virtue communicated to iron by the magnet. ivory. with one of which burn up the body. what ye look for shall in no wise take place. they say that the thing which ye seek whole is it work one. oxyde of metals. that ye may thereby obtain that which you purpose. then this in healing or hurting. whether of los also signified in a special way the .

place with the first part of the water in the vessel. that which the Egyptian prophets desired to know. and it become a stone having no moisture. cleanse seven times." says Zosimus. all these are the scoria and cinders of Mary. with permanent water. that which the oracles of the demons have revealed. purify from all uncleanliness. so long as may seem desirable But the envious called this composition when it is turned to your purpose. that which is : "In called black lead. cook for forty days. and though the remark has a particular application. cook fur- days be accomplished. into blackness that which is sufficiently Rule the same black. it was also with alchemists of in the nature of a general axiom.* vessel. So Olympiodorus the negative body par excellence. But that which remained when it had been whitened they called sufficiently white and ordained that it should be ruled : t Again. when in the scoriae. and have said with vinegar and nitre. Then cook until nothing remains except ther until its This done. wash with water. fact.The Turba Philosophorum. and when the water is used up leave it to putrefy in its faeces. 121 our take copper ." . * The whole mystery is The Diversity of Burnt Copper. vestigators of this Art.

standing. indeed. Ixir satis. and cooking Ixir until the stone should become like unto marble its splendour. . the it is black However. colours. fire TURBA until became it answereth Show : what they intended And he : They called forth unto posterity by these things. the envious again said Cook the same with vapour until the stone becomes in : coruscating by reason of its brilliancy. Accordingly. again pound and congeal in its water. ye must then pound and wash it seven times with permanent water. pounding. Notwiththe most great Arcanum. they ordained that it should be ruled with water and The red. is nor opposition of substances make to necessary only copper white and then red. neither variety. by reason of the variation it of its there In the work. it is.The Turba Philosophorum. own . the truth-speaking Philosophers had no other intention than that of liquefying. however. But when ye see it thus. until ye extract its own con- finally. 122 they called the same sufficiently red. multiplicity.

making . as in the rays of the morning sun with which it is chiefly connected.The Turba Philosophorum. " in Or. and it played so important a part in the as Mosheim and t red. of which one consists in rustt and the other in contrition and decoction. according to the second recension. and out with sulphur. in the Pational and Mystical Questions. 123 cealed nature. dew appears under another aspect. was not apparently so much inherent in the moisture itself. appear to you that you. Neither alchemically or otherwise was the night dew ever considered beneficial. But ye do *The Greek alchemists assumed a special virtue in dew. the references to does not seem to have symbolism o* the adepts others have supposed. In the Turba Philotophorum. sulphurs are contained in sulphurs. Democritus. virtue apart from the vital presence solar rays. dew are not very frequent. there until your purpose signify unto For I are two kinds of whitening and of making red. or with the I mean by exposing it to dew and the There seems no special reason why this should not be understood literally. of there a great work. says " Whiten this but it : arth with sea water or sweetened saumur. But I ordain that you rule the same with dew * forth and the sun." &c. however. saith Maria. as possessing an inherent water of heaven : sun. Wherefore." and activity of the In Latin alchemy. but humour in sulphur mixed comes like humour.

spoke and demonstrated to mix the natures. when he wished Take." . EFFISTUS saith: Consider. he tells us. and I bear witness to all thy words The TURBA saith : Tell us if there be any ! service in the speech of Bonellus. O Bonellus. liquefaction " the body and soul which are in the vessel shall quickly perish. Beware. not need any contrition of hands. so that those initiated in this disposition maybe more bold and certain. t The Thirty-Eighth Dictum. all ye investigators chief of the how Hermes. Philosophers. over a gentle fire until t Otherwise. however. of making a separation from the waters lest the poisons get at you. of this Art. its vessel. EFFISTUS saith : Thou hast spoken most excellently. combine with humour which is per- manent in set water. the stone of gold.124 The Turba Philosophorum. and the body perish with the other things which are in the vessel.

he : the not take place save by decoction. then let the fire be more intense than before. and it When earth. The . Philosopherum. O : Thou Effistus And briefly inform us further. understand that here of the arcanum is the beginning but do this many . white grade. " for which t The second recension substitutes : cause there must be frequent pounding and imbuing. In the first second. the matter . of the water two-thirds times. until is made again becomes dry. one with another . In the New Light of Arnoldus de Villa Nova three grades of the operation are described. t * The Greek equivalent of Decoction identifies the process with that cooking which is so often ordained in all alchemical experiments. until perish. leave 125 until it and the sand the water dries.The Turbo. red.* Consequently. and water are combined. and of imbuing. takes Then place. together with the special furnaces and appliances required. TURBA The answereth spoken excellently." . and colours manifest unto you. in the description is accompanied in each case by a citation from the Turba. and becomes black in the third. I to testify dealbation doth posterity hast ! that Yet. of pounding. Agadaimon has very properly treated of cooking. this is done.

The Turba Philosophorum.


Yet I direct you not to pour
on the whole of the water at one time,

the Ixir be submerged, but pour



pound and dessicate, and
several times until the water

in gradually,

do this
be exhausted. Now concerning this
the envious have said
Leave the
water when it has all been poured in






sink to the bottom.

their intention is this, that while the

drying, and when
been turned into powder, leave



glass vessel






in its



passes through various colours, which
the Philosophers have described. By

method of cooking the bodies put
on their spirits and spiritual tinctures,
and become warm.* The TURBA an-



hast given light to us,
O Effistus, and hast done excellently !
Truly art thou cleared from envy




wherefore, let one of you others speak
as he pleases.


The second


and the


spirits are




" bodies


and they tinge."

The Turbo, Philosophorum.


The Thirty-Ninth Dictum.



ye seekers after
this Art, ye can reach no useful result
without a patient, laborious,! and

saith :*




and continuous regimen.




willing to


He, therepersevere in

disposition, and would enjoy the
result, may enter upon it, but he



learn over speedily,
not have recourse to our books,



they impose great labour before
they are read in their higher sense,

once, twice, or thrice.
the Master saith: Whosoever bends





books, devoting
















met with everywhere in the
" Patience and
delay are indis-

like exhortation is

literature of the adepts.

pensable in our magistery.

Haste, indeed,


of the devil's

Rotary of the Philosophers, And
" It is
impossible for this to be known by the seeker
unless he learns it from God, or from the instruction of a
part in this magistery."



also that the



very long



are patience and delay needful in this our magistery."

The Turba Philosophorum.


not occupied with vain thoughts,
but fears God, and shall reign in the

Kingdom without





For what ye seek is not of small price.
unto you who seek the very great
and compensating treasure of God




ye not that for the smallest
purpose in the world, earthly men will
give themselves to death, and what,
therefore, ought they to do for this
most excellent and almost impossible




the regimen



perceived by reason, except


met with a person who was


fear of

God has always been






regarded as

essential to the success of the true alchemist.





to be sought in the fact that the operations of

nature were a region of

awe and wonder

to early experi-

The Greek

alchemists regarded no operation as
possible without the divine concurrence, and Zosimus


" Abide at thine own fireside
acknowledging but one
God and one Art; do not deviate in search of another God;
for God will come to thee, He who is present everywhere.


Rest thy body, and hush thy passions ; so,
governing thyself, thou shall call unto thee the Divine
Being, and the Divine Being will come to thee. . . .






thou shalt

the only


attain truth


thyself, then

existing in thee


shalt thou


and acting thus thou



and nature, rejecting matter with contempt."

The Turba Philosopherum.


acquainted with the elements
I myself, but when he proceeded to
rule this disposition, he attained not to

the joy thereof by reason of his sadness
and ignorance in ruling, and excessive
eagerness, desire,
ing the purpose.

of the Doctrine


and haste concern-


unto you, sons

For one who plants

trees does not look for fruit, save in

due season


he also who sows seeds

does not expect to reap, except at
harvest time.
How, then, should ye
desire to attain this offering

when ye

have read but a single book, or have
adventured only the first regimen ?
But the Philosophers have plainly
stated that the truth is not to be





nothing creates greater pain at heart
than error in this Art, while each

imagines that he has almost the whole

and yet finds nothing in his
hands. Woe unto you
the dictum of the Philosopher, and
how he divided the work when he




pound, cook,


and be

and in order that the mixed body may suffice pounded and cooked diligently. and yet there is one tingeing. impalpable spirits. many it me needful rightly. have admonished you not to be weary be thereof. And if men knew that one decoction and one contrition would them. are there names. he signified commingling. and until ye perceive that the Ixir is clad in the garment of the Kingdom. as they have done. and Here. suffices It is venom to complexionate the then cook times. cooking. heating. to speak in this manner.The Turba Philosophorum. 130 thou not weary. assimilating. therefore. they would not so often repeat their words. pounding. roasting. many regimen. making rust or redness. But when thus he divided the work. cooking Ethelia. whitening. and do not grow tired of the decoction. For when ye behold the Ixir turned into . Imbue and cook it until it shall become as I have ordained that it should be ruled by you namely. to Having darkened the matter you with their words.

ordered you to read frequently. Read. And he: in thy Do thou." shall ye com- . is apparently an Eastern term designating the Crustacea from the shells was anciently obtained.t words (and although my words be dead. but that for reading is which is uttered with the lips the is living same Hence we have speech. moreover. repeatedly. Jargus. there is yet life therein for those who understand themselves). 131 Tyrian colour. and.The Turba Philosophorum. The Kenckel. The second recension reads " then of which the dye f : prehend the sayings of the Philosophers.* then have ye found that which the Philosophers discovered If ye understand my before you. previously referred to. forth the same clemency shew ! * Latin alchemists made use ot the symbolism of Tyrian dye when describing the Red state of the Magistery. ponder diligently over the we have things which narrated. therefore. O obscure Bacsen ! therefore. they will forthwith explain any ambiguity occurring herein. a dead speech. JARGUS saith : Thou hast left a part of thy discourse. The Fortieth Dictum.

it is our work (or body) which must be combined with the body of Magnesia. subsequently. that stone must be pounded in its vessel with the water of nitre. so much the more the the said copper shall put on rust.* until pound with Egyptian vinegar. that it may be cooked and pounded true without wearying until the stone is made. it is ye investigators necessary to have a water by which it is all more you cook.The Turba Philosophomm. and. nor is it the tin of the vulgar . placed in liquefaction until destroyed. Cook. therefore. . and you sprinkle. But." : t In the second recension the name is Cadmon. of this art. is true. 132 And he answereth : The copper of which thou hast before spoken is not copper. which is the foundation of our work. Whatsoever thou hast Jargos. The Forty-First Dictum. yet I do saith O : * The second recension reads " It is necessary to use a water which becomes inspissated in proportion as it is cooked. Afterwards. ZiMONt uttered.

concerning which let have said body. explain for future generations the method of ruling. O Zimon it.The Turba Philosophorum. t There is a variation in the second recension signify to future generations that the verts copper into four is from " : I rotundum which con- one thing. to notify ! posterity rotundum turns into four is of derived out elements. And he Willingly : it is necessary to take one part of our copper." the four elements being concordantly exalted in the quality of the temperate stone. Magnesia * : but . -. and that the one thing. parts . in this curious with manner is to The Scala Philosophorum speaks of "our perfect tyriac and rotund stone." .* spoken concerning Then he Speak.t The TURBA answereth : Inasmuch as thou art speaking. opinion ZIMON concerning saith I thine therefore. then cooked until become one the envious Take one part of the pure three parts of copper of then commingle The term rotundum used be understood of the Stone. but of : Permanent Water three them be mixed and they be thickened and stone. 133 not see that the whole Turba hath the rotundum.

O all ye Sons of the Doctrine. when they prepared the matters and conjoined is spouses mutually in love with other. leads this But when subject further into error ye read in the books of the Philosophers ! that Nature one only. mixed with male close the vessel. 134 rectified of earth what is until it vinegar. also. and that she is overcomes all things : Know that they Do are one thing and one composite. thus. The Forty-Second Dictum. are thy words ! . behold there ascended The TURBA thou wast treating them a golden water answereth of the turn When first unto biguous and : work.The Turbo. because the Philosophers. and cook continuously becomes earth. ye not see that the complexion of a man formed out of a soul and body . must ye conjoin these. observe . the hast each from ! lo second thou how obscure ! ! thou didst How am- made thy book. ASCANIUS saith: Too much talking. Philosophomm. in it.

and mortified in the conversion. the copper is stir up. and in a special way it was the First all The Rosary of the Philotomatter of bodies is not the of the Philosophers. phers observes mercury spirit of : " The first the vulgar. the body of the copper until it becomes a powder. because when the conceives copper the quicksilver it coagulates it. and they are destroyed. until the male and the female become Ethel. a fight between them destroy . brought to nothing. . The mineral stone is made from the humid. Then he of position TURBA the answer eth up war Stir perform the first work.The Turba Philosophorum. but when the quicksilver conceives the copper. and the metallic body from the unctuous. them changes * The matter of Matter into by means Latin alchemists regarded vapour as the first things. and this is accomplished by means of our white and red water. but is an unctuous and humid vapour. . therecongealed into earth fore." mercury But of the philosophers this unctuous vapour was the and wise men. It is needful that bodies should be converted into such an unctuous vapour. copper he : and they go to destruction and are corrupted. for he who the female. will I : Do : between quicksilver. But conjoin the male to which are vapour* and quicksilver. until 135 dis- The And this.

recension reads concerning which much also also mortifying " : found sulphur of nature.' in later 1 alchemical writers. ye extract a pure. tinges every body. sulphureous by the names he a natural It is : which thing* called is of all bodies. because. quicksilver is fiery. Inform. t According to the second recension : "much has been said of the regimen but of the conjunction little. by which bodies become not bodies through continual cooking. and have introduced the conjunction. therefore. And that body. 136 makes them red. and next which tinges The TURBA answer eth : every body.The Turba Phflosophomm. spiritual. The Forty-Third Dictum." . DARDARIS saith Ye have frequently treated of the regimen. and by sub- Know limation of Ethelia. more than does * The second is that burning every body fire. posterity what is lime soul therefrom. when by diligent cooking ye pound the body. t yet I proclaim : to posterity that they cannot extract the now hidden soul except by Ethelia. and subof Ethel.

The Tttrba Philosophoruin.


and that every body which is
mingled with it is ground and delivered


over to be destroyed.



ye have diligently pounded the
bodies, and have exalted them as

produced that
Ethel nature, and a colour which is
tingeing* and not volatile, and it tinges
required, therefrom


the copper which the Turba said did
not tinge until it is tinged, because that
tinged tinges. Know also that
the body of the copper is ruled by



Magnesia, and that quicksilver is four
bodies, also that the matter has no
being except by humidity, because it
is the water of sulphur, for sulphurs
are contained in sulphurs.


what sulphurs are









hidden in four

bodies, and, extracted by themselves,
do contain one another, and are

naturally conjoined. For if ye rule that
which is hidden in the belly of sulphur

with water, and cleanse well that which


" not
fleeing from the fire."

The Turba Philosophorum.


hidden, then nature rejoices, meeting
with nature, and water similarly with its



ye also that the four
bodies are not tinged but tinge.* And



dost thou not say
like the ancients that when they are


I state
tinged, they tinge ? And he
that the four coins of the vulgar populace are not tinged, but they tinge













The Forty-Fourth Dictum.




This one thing of which

thou hast told us, O Dardaris, the
Philosophers have called by many

names, sometimes by two and sometimes

by three names




DARDARIS answereth





And he : The one
setting aside envy.
is that which is fiery, the two is the

According to the second recension, "they tinge a


According to the second recension, they are not
except copper, which then tinges the coins of the


The Turbo, Philosophorum.

body composed



the three



water of sulphur, with which also it is
washed and ruled until it be perfected.


ye not see what the Philosopher
affirms, that the quicksilver which

Cambar ?

quicksilver out of
DARDARIS answereth : What

dost thou

mean by








Cambar and sometimes



For the

this ?



he: Quicksilver of




of Magnesia, but quicksilver
sulphur ascending from the mixed*

Ye must,


putrefy, and



thick thing




be produced, which





hidden in

that other spirit ; then is made the
tincture which is desired of you all.
The Forty-Fifth Dictum.






the passage.


it is




behoves you all,
those bodies are

abbreviations in the printed editions obscure

According to the second recension

Cambar and sometimes

it is


" Some-

Orpiment, but here

The Turba Philosophorum.


being dissolved, to take care lest
they be burnt up, as also to wash them
with sea water, until all their salt be
turned into sweetness, clarifies, tinges,

becomes tincture of copper, and then
Because it was
goes off in flight
necessary that one should become
tingeing, and that the other should

be tinged, for the spirit being separated from the body and hidden in the
other spirit, both become volatile.
Therefore the Wise have said that
the gate of flight must not be opened for that which would flee, (or that

which does not flee),* by whose flight
death is occasioned, for by the conversion of the sulphureous thing into


spirit like




they are




volatile, since

the Philosophers seeing that which was
spirits prone to ascend in the air.


needful to understand that





Magnesia," &c.

The reading


of the second recension
" Close the door on the





spirit is a to unto the bodies from which were they with the a body like volatiles. iterated these to to 141 but the other hot. and yet were they made flying. because by them we rule the whole work. namely. Know humid spirits is is as Philo- agent be tinged are it to refers one of the that cold. and although the cold humid not adapted to the warm humid. not made volatile volatile the and put them which they could not non-volatiles. bodies by not-bodies. become bodies. into that from escape. two bodies. statement of the the that and that which made one is concealed spirit." : . we they are made prefer these one. nevertheless Therefore. a humid another in also the But tingeing to tincture.* like body iterated They them and extracted. incorporeals steadfast in the fire. same were then the for sopher digested. because they are until * " In the second recension the passage reads thus : Concerning these the Philosophers also said They fled not with flying things.The Turba Philosophorum.

The Turba Philosophorum. which is not possible in any body. comes Know. therefore. The Forty-Sixth Dictum. 142 conjoined with volatiles. also. These things. these excepted. those. incorporeal until the ceives a non-volatile incorporeal rebody . water into fire into air. con- sequently. fugitives are restrained by in- spirits in corporeals. being done. and the cold with the dry. For but every wise avoid bodies. convert the earth into water. Incorporeals. and conceal the fire. which do not flee are better and more precious than all bodies. Nature contains Nature. Nature. similarly flee from bodies . therefore. fire in the depths of the water. ATTAMUS saith : It is to be noted that the whole assembly of the Philosophers have frequently treated concerning . mingling the hot with the humid. but the earth in the belly of the air. take those which are not volatile and wash the body with the join them . that Nature Nature overrejoices in Nature.

MUNDUS treated * Thou of sufficiently While of metals. have the Philosophers referred it He answereth : Because to the leech ? water is hidden the leech is sulphureous gold as in water . the oxydes of lead. is work. Rubigo. because it is from gold The TURBA answereth alone. saith: it this term properly was used in hast already Rubigo. but to make rubigo is to whiten in the fore. and rust philosophical became a part of the Great Mystery. The Forty-Seventh Dictum. sulphate of mercury. : then. The TURBA tious answereth: its 143 true Name. therefore. rubigo. it in their idea with other forms of red matter. Why. name. signifies the rust or many for the redness of rust associated O oxide senses by the alchemists. calumniated. The oxydes of iron. therein rubefaction in the second work. in which the Philosophers ordained that the flower of gold should be taken and a proportion of former gold equally. sulphate of . And he Rubigo by it is not by Rubigo is accord- this for : ing to the work. however. Rubigo.* is a ficti- and not a true name.The Turba Philosophonim. sulphate of arsenic.

ye Sons of the Doctrine. . This. and thus in various stages of its history we have all things the mystery of the fire alchemy discoursing of that specially philosophical smoke which is identical with scoriae. of venom. asserts will the Ancient Philosophers thought that he who turned gold into venom had arrived at who can do the purpose.The Turba Philosophorum. I will Attamus speak. were names * all more or it less enters the body confounded under the of rubigo. tions that venom is not ! because subtle have made spirits it into a tenuous spirit. It is not. which it venom the Philosopher But tinge every body. we have citrine also white smoke. identical . minium. should concern itself considerably with the smoke in which it so often ended. ye nought. and hence on the authority of the Greeks involves the whole art smoke. therefore. all that unless ye reduce the thing by fire until those things ascend like a spirit. profiteth unto you. is a avoiding the fire and a ponderous effect spirit smoke. surprising that what was above and the furnace. therefore. but he this not Now I say nothing. and will instruct future generaa body. identical with mercury . have tinged the body and burned with venom. perhaps. &c.* which when antimony.

The Turba Philosophorum. or alum which is out of apples." L . for with yellow sulphur . Understand. or the body Kuhul. The : spirit and therewith break up the bodies . 145 and makes the body rejoice. smoke of extreme subtlety." " the nature rejoices therein. But if there was any singular regimen ways.* Philosophers have Take a black and conjoining all said penetrates it entirely. Many others might be named. a Philosopher would not say so. as ye know. ponderous smoke of the Turba. them torture till they be altered. red smoke. The Forty-Eighth Dictum. or incombustible sulphur. as ye know. or roasted calx. of which the Latin Geber discourses . but these varieties are sufficient to and lastly the show that smoke was as important the votaries ot " * Otherwise my Lady : to the alchemists as to Nicotine. which is orpiment. I enjoin any of these. or the Spume of Luna. PYTHAGORAS unto all saith : you seekers We must affirm after this Art that the Philosophers have treated of conjunction (or continuation) in various But upon you to make constrain the body of quicksilver Magnesia.

and sometimes in the singular. 146 therefore. whitening is a calcination. and lead. and (other some) reBut the Philosopher has designated them under several names. for when it is an exceeding strong composition. the regimen is not one." says Synesius in " Thus his letter to Dioscorus. they pursue one another. Hence you must not dismiss that Magnesia without the quicksilver. the first congelation is of tin.The Turba Philosophorum. and Kuhul. (substances) generate themselves. that when sophers. and yellowing an igneous regeneration for some of these * . calx. are nothing else but water of sulphur. as the Philosophers have observed in their books. Magnesia is whitened with quicksilver. also. but when it is reddened you must congeal red water. for. from apples. which all and alum is Know ye also that Magnesia." and see . that sulphur. copper. sometimes whether in the plural person. in order to test us we are intelligent. But the second is com- " There are other denominations. you must congeal white water therein. being mixed with quicksilver and sulphur. calcine themselves. which is one of the composed is it called ten regimens established by the PhiloKnow.* Accordingly.

and of sulphur.* Some.The Turba Philosophoruni." . but. however. all ye Philosophers. with the conjunction. also. the Philosophers demonstrated in water impure their of have books that the sulphur is from sulphur only. and of quicksilver. "with sulphur and the water thereof. The Forty-Ninth Dictum. and that the science of this Art nothing else and the sublimation of is than vapour water. It must be known for certain that nothing of the work can be bought. but compo- one thing * ! : and congelation are Take. contact. and no sulphur is produced without the water of its calx. 147 posed with water of sulphur. of body of Magnesia f quicksilver in the . while the regimen is nothing but the sublimation of quicksilver and its union with the body of t magnesia. a part Or." The second recension reads : " It is nothing but vapour and water. therefore. not have dealt sparingly concerning ye composition and contact. think that the composition can be bought. heretofore. reading this book. O BELUS saith sition.

answereth : O PYTHAGORAS why Belus." The stategold. yet hast not shown its work ? And he: In our called it O Master. we have found the same which thou hast received books. from the ancients Therefore have And PYTHAGORAS ! assembled I : you together. hast thou a potent arcanum. And to is he : Willingly. of Morien. for the one sulphur is made out of several sulphurs.The Turba Philosophorum. but is composed of several things. is the potent (or revealed) arcanum which tinges every body.* and on these impose pure water of sulphur. that you might remove any obscurities which are in any books. 148 from the one composition and a part out of ferment of gold. t How. This. * The ancient Latin treatise which passes as the work " The ferment of gold is even as ferment of the bread is bread. says sententiously ment is reproduced literally : by the Rosary of the Philo- sophers. O Master ! It is noted that pure water which from sulphur is not composed of be sulphur alone. t According to the second recension: "the clean water which is from sulphur is not derived from sulphur . then.

and the humour which remains is called humid pitch. I The TURBA answereth wish. Philosophers are made like to the physicians. shall ? which strives with the fire which does not strive. because warm venoms cooked with that of the physician the are a gentle.The Turba Philosopliorum." * For this last sentence the second recension substitutes : " and friendship is made constant. notwithstanding that the tests of the physicians are more intense than those of the Philosophers. that a little sulphur burns many strong things. balsam of gum. therefore. Master. incomburent fire !* Surely ye perceive what the Philosoin phers have stated concerning decoction. O Belus. : O Belus. that you would also shew the disposition of this potent arcanum ! alone." . that these one G 149 the for fire things suitable same contend. which are conjoined in a to I compose things that they may become And he : Mix. but is composed of several things which make up one sulphur. and other Therefore our like things.

by vapourisation or filtration. a potent (or open) arcanum ascends from those things it is ye know. is reduced and conjoined into one. Belus.. But after it sulphur and magnesia. The same idea was attached later on by the Latin adepts to their term alcoolisation. (Collection des Anciens Alchimistes Grecs. thou sublimation* The Greek term which the alchemists of of the Byzantine collection made use of as the equivalent of sublimation. signified originally filings. has been reduced call it when sulphur it con- tains sulphur. they term a fiery venom. of water. Berthelot informs us. 211. of sublimation tion was called stalagma. PANDOLPHUS saith describe the dost * : O If. "which signifies reduction to the condition of an impalpable powder.. as M. into it gold. to is say. spume of Boletus (i. 210). The Fiftieth Dictum. a species of and fungus). the thickness of When. Another species which meant (16. thus expressing the idea of the extreme attenuation of matter.The Turba Philosophorum.) distilla- .. because which they sulphur also. however. Int. 150 And he proclaim to future generaarcanum proceeds from I : tions that this two that compositions. quicksilver. the Philosophers have called it water.e.

as indeed is quite plain from the Lexicon of Rulandus. same authority reminds us that the name is The applied at the present day to an entirely different composition. for out of sulphur mixed with sulphur. and extract the same from Cambar. O Pandolphus And he: The TURBA therefore.t recension : " there is another sulphur.The Turba Philosophorum. second recension in the Greek MSS. the obscurity of which I will remove. but there is another Cambar in sulphur* which Belus hath demonstrated to you. yet in these words there is a little ambiguity. When the same has been sublimed. there proceeds from the Cambar that quicksilver which is called Ethelia. * According Zendrio. to the second or Sanderich. is confounded under the same sign as arsenic. many works proceed. M." t The reading Sandarac is realgar in the . Berthelot also tells us that it was confused anciently with minium and cinnabar. And future for sulphur wilt accomplish an the generations. and albeit they spoke truly. derived . Orpiment. See then that the quicksilver is sublimed in tabernacles. thou excellent thing ! Do thou show it forth. is it unintelligible. 151 : ! philosophers have ordered that quicksilver should be taken out of Cambar.

Accordingly. Marteck. Now. Magnesia. also. investigators. Magnesia. tingeing spirit from the same.The Turba Philosophorum. Copper. White For. the envious* have called it Then lead from Ebmich. find your design accomplished. " * " Throughout the second recension. Concerning this. nor (for ten things). Philosophers " or the Wise. devoid of shadow and blackness. Therefore. philosophers have ruled said that. and therewith a clean humid spirit has left its ascended. and not known to the ancients under this designation." are substituted for this term. it it is has thickened ponderous bodies. being men the perfection of all white nature appears. which spirit is tincture. the wise have said that copper has a soul and a body. Chuhul. the spirit extracted therefrom with light sulphur until you. it behoves you to destroy the thick body until ye extract a its is spirit. soul and body is thick. . its there is its by regi- is any shadow therein. when truly whitened. from colophon. its Mix. 152 or Kuhul. Ebsemich. and many other names.

I is : increased and the vessel sealed effectually." fire body . it sides." the second recension " when the to According t Otherwise. HORFOLCOS* O nothing.The Turba Philosopherum. saith : Thou hast narrated Pandolphus. con- therefore. to so far as posterity. 153 The Fifty-First Dictum. first to burn coppert in a gentle fire. lest the of the copper and its flying spirit be extracted. and let the vessel be closed on all eggs. the body of copper be destroyed. And he : be- It hoves you. " the humidity. body an therefore. save the last Thou hast. you would destroy this obscurity. But if its regimen regimen of this ! were commenced from the beginning. investigators of this Art.! * which the In the second recension the name is Morfoleus. that required in the hatching of like For behoves you to burn it with its humidity lest its spirit be burnt. please you. Saith TURBA the this cerning it may : Speak. so that its colour [? heat] may be increased. and its tingeing spirit be concerning extracted. composed ambiguous description for readers.

and fiery venom extracted from iron. with which becomes a similar it is it and that every which has a tingeing colour of and is constant against and coloured by bodies.* Again. but not-bodies bodies. which also they have called the water of our copper. extracted out of many things. be the name of fire. and a substance extracted from all things. some have that said when all one." . ye investigators of this Art. that every body is dissolved with the all spirit with which without doubt spiritual thing. a fiery venom. is spirit spirits.The Turba Philosophorum. bodies are things not- made become And know. and unalterable and incorruptible. altered Blessed then Him who hath inspired the Wise with the idea of turning a body into a spirit having strength colour. 154 envious have said Take : quicksilver out of the Flower of Copper. " which flower of copper they have called our water. which further they have termed Ethelia. mixed. bodies. so that what formerly was volatile sul- phur * is now made sulphur Otherwise : not-volatile.

if ye extract a body having Ethelia. body and that spirit can extract the tenuous nature hidden most thereof. and incombustible sons of learning. and is cooked in sulphur. also. by a the in belly subtle regimen. which we call * water of sulphur. is he tinges every body. ye will find that which is suitable as a tincture for anyWherefore the envious have thing. patient only in spite of the tedium of extracting. after it the moisture by pounded in its water. envious have said : of copper. become fixed tinctures. For whatsoever words ye find in any man's book signify quicksilver. make your 155 Know. said : are Things that diligently in the sublimation with fire.The Turba Philosophorum. pounded of the Ethelia. the following . all ye that he who is able to ! red by the and then from that fugitive spirit body mixed with it. if Wherefore Know the that out humectated is is thereof.* which also Water of sulphur occurs recipe cited from and Mary in the Detailed in among one of the the ingredients of a treatises of Zosimus. Exposition of the Work.

* The second recension reads : " Water of Ethelia. And he: Perfect. concerning the regimen of copper and the humid spirit. which also the envious have called by many names. O Ixumdrus IXUMDRUS saith You must know that : ! : this Ethelia* which you have previously mentioned and notified. IXUMDRUS saith You will have treated most excellently. whiten. what I have omitted. and tinge when it is then truly the Philosophers .'' ." There is also a "pure" water oi sulphur which is obtained somewhat differently. kindle a fire underneath. therefore. have called it the Flower of Gold. and receive what distils. O Horfolcus. provided you proceed therewith.The Turba Philosophomm. add white earths until the compound becomes very white. Place in a mortar. doth whitened because it process occurs calx is is " : a certain natural thing. The Fifty-Second Dictum. 156 we sometimes say and copulated is lead and copper coin. taking equal parts. Water of sulphur obtained by means of in this manner Having mixed all the manfactured : waters in the catalogue (which it is impossible to extricate from its context and place in the compass of a footnote).

copper does But when not tinge ?* is it tinged it because quicksilver tinges when combined with its tincture. This carefully regulated. having the colour of cinnabar. that before it arrives at this terminus. 2 : called copper. Do you remember not 157 what the Philosophers have said.The Turba Philosophorum. those names which tion. 2 parts : the Sulphur (another abstruse recipe) You . alone (produces) Chryso- . t That is Democritus : is " Before it Chrysocorallos of the Greek following is from a ricipe of Pseudoi part Finest Earth of " Minera of Silver. will find great wonder. or minium. ." " Here is And how he is called Chryso- Synesius. says The body coral. corallos (Coral Democritus.t Therefore. preparation given previously (it is too complicated for combine with the humour of reproduction here)." say." of : Gold). cook over a fire a potent substance. But tinges. Chios. quoting expresses himself: (metal) of magnesia. coral. the to The alchemists. are found in the books of the Philo* According to the second recension reaches this point. Minium of Pontus. or Ochre. i part . it parts . this indescribable marvel. then have it is which the they called all these things Multiplica- But some have termed their mixed bodies Corsufle and Gum of Gold. it is when mixed with those ten things Philosophers have denominated fermented urines.

out of which a tincture and pure spirit ascends with a and the whole pure flower is becomes flower sublimated. this the envious call Ethelia. . but there can be no doubt that it is a printer's error. becomes a sulphur which contains sulphur. Philosophomm. from all things. because one are they thing. 158 and are thought superfluous and vain. orpiment and sandarac. a most great arcanum which the Philosophers have thus described. must know that the said sulphur cannot whiten * The reading db hominibus for ab omnibus is substi- tuted by the second recension several times in this Dictum. It is. are true and yet are fictitious. one and one way. wholly quicksilver. which also is pure water that destroys the shade of are And know copper.The Turbo. sophers. and is a venom that has a brilliance like marble . therefore.* out of which all things produced. O investigators of this Art. which mild fire. This is the quicksilver which is indeed extracted opinion. when it is ye that this quickwhitened. silver. Ye. because sulphur alone whitens copper.

think tinges* and afterwards the coin of the Vulgar. to own kind. further. . lest it vanish altogether. Wherefore have said. from its sublimated as a vapour. therefore. and then whitened in the work sulphur therefore. unless which it be mixed with white or red. behoves you to retain it otheris wise with quicksilver of its own kind. direct you. 159 it ! the habit is When. it is what the Philosophers are seeking is the coin of the Philosophers. that Philosophers sulphurs are contained by sulphurs. that because not. and then are they certain to escape unless they are united to quicksilver of its own Do kind.The Turba Philosophorum. for it escapes. own thick escape. the Know. quicksilver of its would doubtless escape. copper until it is And know ye of this it also that to flees it bodies. I is therefore. that sulphurs tinge." but both readings are obscure and seemingly corrupt. mix quicksilver with quick- silver (of its kind) until together they become one clean water composed out * The second recension substitutes ' fixes bodies. which.

of two. . name till the 6th century. nor. but the entire work must be the Art of the Coin. This therefore. posterity. the confection with its own gum flowers in a gentle it made is mutal it fire is is cooked with and with earth . The Fifty-Third Dictum. t For this Obsemeganus. the second recension substitutes . * M. ExuMENUst laid saith: The waste the whole envious have Art with the names.160 The Turba Philosophorum. which also the same Philosophers have called by all manner of names. the great is. of which nitre. The TURBA answereth: fore. and that Nitre or Saltpetre was scarcely known in antiquity.* and with turned into rubigo. vinegar. concern- Berthelot explains that the substance referred to under the terms Nitrum and Natron was really Carbonate of Soda. O Inform. thereExumenus. or by any is of the select tingeing agents existing in our coin. arcanum. red with mucra and with and salt. indeed. multiplicity of For the Philosophers have ordered the doctors of this art to make coin-like gold.

The Turbo. salting. pounding vapour cooking sublimating. the spirits existing fire did not which the cease to burn continuously. that they And he : They may take warning ! have named it washing. and By water all of these that operation called which has pounded And know and ye. but when it is possessed by the smoke of sulphur. in whitening the turning rubigo. white to Therefore. hence the Philosopher saith that the nature of lead Do you converted. But the M . is frequently fire. 161 ing a few of these names. and into names Ethelias. that quicksilver is the sight. of Ethel. whitened copper. Philosophorum. when quicksilver is cooked with its confections it is turned into and red. Philosophers have is swiftly not see that the spoken without Hence we deal in many ways envy with pounding and reiteration. it and reddens becomes Cambar. that ? ye may extract in the vessel. confection the sulphur and coagula. the art of the coagulating.

but when does not ascend ye achieve Ethelia that When. Ethelia . nothing. 162 water placed with those things prevents the fire from burning. and it those befalls things that the more they are possessed by the flame of the more they are hidden in fire. the does not ascend. it ascends an instrument for the intended tincture with which ye tinge. Arras saith : Unless ye pound the thing diligently in the fire. There: . the depths of the water. and con- it is cerning this Ethelia HERMES saith but Sift the things which ye know another Liquefy the things. : fore. The TURBA answereth : its belly Unless ye make not-bodies bodies But concerning ye achieve nothing. however. that unless ye diligently thing in the fire. lest they should be injured by the heat of the fire in fire but . the sublimation of water the Philohave sophers And know the pound treated a not little. the water receives them and repels the flame of from them.The Turba Philosophorum.

and two four one. and the vessel wherein incombustible sulphur. is Compare the red probably a variation of the . . it in an arbitrary fashion of his man's body.. Then take the ponder- ous thing. The Fifty-Fourth Dictum. clay. plain the testa. and thirsting * Two meanings are given to this term in the Lexicon The first is Bloom. put forth a view which shall I now Know ye explain to the reasoners. sublimates clouds and elevates the vapours of the TURBA The answereth And dealt obscurely. and incorporate it. Paracelsus uses own to signify the skin of Adamic same earth or clay idea. 163 The Master hath does not ascend. that a very great wind of the south. Flower. having smoke. it . may be and two one. understood metallurgically the second is a vessel of baked of Rulandut.* is Thou : he hast will ex- I : sea. But I order to congeal fluxible quicksilver out you of that many things. ANAXAGORAS saith: Take the volatile burnt thing which lacks a body. &c.The Turba Philosophorum. when it is stirred up. made three.

it Philosophers have said able to turn : for all the He who is into golden venom has already achieved the de- sired is Rubigo work. and this other which thirsts.The Turba Philosophorum. which has been conjoined testify to with sulphur." of sulphur consists in the : " The whole decoction of . obscurity Anaxagoras. and cook until the whole becomes Cambar. 164 imbibe. are Ethelia. and beware of being envious And ! lie : I you that this volatile burnt thing. Then God will accomplish the arcanum But I direct you continuously. place these in a glass vessel over the fire. And know ye that the perfection of this work is the confection of water of sulphur with tabula . cook tired of repeating the process.* finally. * According to the second recension perfection tabula. and not to grow to ye seek. it is cooked until becomes Rubigo. to The TURBA answereth : O Explain. what is this which you expound. Therefore. but otherwise his labour vain.

I am astonished. But the humid vulgar the Thus putrefy with the humid. * The name in the second recension is Pitheon. Finally. therefore. of the is Notwithstanding. 165 The Fifty -Fifth Dictum. the envious have divided this work into work. ordaining that thereon should be imposed clean of the water of sulphur. of its ! : have you left it to putrefy And ? he : Thou hast spoken truly . . putrefaction does not take place without the dry and the humid. immovable. asserting that one quickly but the other is fixed and flees. which the envious have called by all names. at the end of his book he has treated : ferment of gold. how the envious have in this work discoursed of the perfection rather than the commencement of the same The TUREA answeretli Why. O all ye Turba. merely coagulated with the But out of both is the beginning dry. and a small quantity gum.The Turba Philosophorum. ZENON* saith Pythagoras hath treated concerning the water. three parts.

while out of the tenuous part of has fore. Art. water. t is the process of spirit This." t The second recension merely says that the power in question is derived from the tenuous part of the earth. what are those four ? fire. CONSTANS saith: What have you to do with the treatises of the envious. air. air. nor is anything absolved in the Mix.1 66 The Turba Philosophorum. out of the tenuous part of the fire and of the air. and Ye have then those four elements : without which nothing is ever generated. The Fifty-Sixth Dictum. for it is necessary that this work should deal with four things ? They answer : Demonstrate. whence the spirit and the soul are And know ye dessicated. which are earth and water. a tenuous been dessicated. * the water. And he Earth. therefore. and water. therefore. . thereour work. and cook in the fire and in the air. the dry with the humid. According to the second recension : " The spirit is dessiccated in the soul.* that the tenuous tingeing agent takes its power out of the tenuous part of the earth.

. for the envious have multiplied and destroyed for you ! They have also described various regimens that they might deceive they have further . that everything may be turned into earth when the tenuous parts of these are things a body a kind then composed is because extracted. lest ye multiply things. O investigators of this art. however. gall of animals of the sea. by the name of every stone and metal. But do ye who would tinge observe that bodies For I say are tinged with bodies.* Beware. and thereafter tinges the imposed body of all ye coins. the winged things of heaven dry with and all reptiles of the earth. called it (or humid with have likened all the it to) the humid. and in coins reading of the second recension has been partly substituted in this unintelligible passage. truly at the beginning of In the art of gold is the quicksilver from The Cambar. which is of atmospheric thing. 167 namely. to you what the Philosopher said briefly and his book. and the the dry.The Turba Philosophorum.

that will attain to the truth let him take the moisture of the Sun and the that : TURBA an made you the Moon. it is name is Astratus. however. look beyond this. I : willing.! Why are of Spumet answereth The your brethren ? And he I have spoken nothing but the truth. This one of the two passages which seem to indicate any planetary attribution of the metals. In nothing. probably a misreading. in The distinction between the 6yth Dictum should be . The Fifty-Seventh Dictum. He. ACRATUS* saith : I signify to posterity I make philosophy near to the Sun and Moon. which also Hermes has adapted to * In the second recension the t Otherwise the spirit . 1 68 the quicksilver from the Male.The Turba Philosophomm. mercury and quicksilver noted. if you are terity to was so intending. And he yet. take a part direct posof the coins I which the Philosophers have ordered. is since the two quicksilvers are also one. But they Take what the Turba hath adversary to : : taken. but even here it may be an analogy borrowed from the astronomy of the period J without any real attribution. therefore.

and a blackness will appear above. and Then fear nothing. let the vessel be opened.The Turba Philosophorum. is found turned into water. be consumed. place. to mix same with the coins. when the copper. cook continually the until Kuhul. the whole being they are dried and is Also repeatedly and continuously cook that stone born of copper and coins with a fire is turned into stone." . which are the coins of Hermes. For when that is consumed a precious whiteness will appear on them returned cooked to until their . the mouth of which must be carefully the all closed. finally. * According to the second recension : " take a part of the coins of the Philosophers. must proceed for Let both be again slowly cooked.* and a part of the copper of the Philosophers. 169 the true tingeing. already pounded with the coins. and place the four bodies in the vessel. lest the water escape. which is blackness of from the blackness of coins. Cooking seven days. Repeat the process.

spirits bodies. broken up. until the stone is destroyed. and carefully mouth close the this of the vessel. for by regimen fugitive bodies become not-fugitive. Cook in a still hotter fire. how Doctrine. it sons ye water. cook again. it is cooked until off with . until that cinder liquefy there- and then cook and imbue with with. Finally. is O Alas. Now hast : and both Then are bodies having a tingeing and germinating answereth turned into are The TURBA thou notified to posterity that Rubigo attaches itself to copper after the blackness is washed Then it permanent water. and turned into cinder. is congealed and becomes a body of magnesia. bodies into are connected spirits made spirits. until the composition becomes sweet and mild and red. soul. precious produced from of the that which is Mixing. Philosophorum. there- ! with cinder the fore. together. permanent water. 170 sharper than the former. Imbue until it becomes humid. which is a precious cinder.The Turbo.

therefore. according to thy The n he opinion.The Turba Philosophorum. has already spoken. seeing means called things by their proper names ? And he Following your own footsteps. and beware of envy ! In the second recensfon this speech mouth of Anastratus. 171 the whole body is broken up. I hast by no that thou : have discoursed BONELLUS for if even You speak truly. And they Thou : is to do speakest truly. BALGUS* saith The whole Turba. what hast thou delivered to posterity. as : order your sayings to be our books. : O Acratus. therefore. otherwise we should not answereth you did have you. : is put into the . but a benefactor sometimes deceives. its Attrition also truly takes Concerning. though his intention good. as you have seen. the work of the Philosophers. written in The Fifty-Eighth Dictum. Proceed. Afterwards the volatile is turned into a cinder and becomes copper without shadow. place.

172 You must know that the envious have described this arcanum in the shade . place it in its vessel. nevertheless. on the other hand. be too dry. and astronomy. if it . . or. and the art of images they have also likened it to trees they have amin physical reasoning . I. investigators of this science. as is in all their work. it will neither be conjoined nor cooked in the chimney hence I direct you to confect it dili- while. biguously concealed by the names of it metals. the mouth of which must be closed internally and. to take iron and draw it into plates finally. and place it in its vessel. vapours. but stir cause. . direct you. not if be too dry. and externally with clay. finally. the mouth of which must be closed most carefully. gently. and beware lest it with ye too much increase the humour. mix (or sprinkle) venom. bethe water be in excess. and generally perceived reptiles .The Turba Philosophorum. having kindled coals above it. it vigorously as a mass. . it will be contained lest it in the chimney.

I direct passes you to keep that part separately. of natron.The Turbo." the second indicated by recension. ash of cabbage. sea water. white magnesia. the bitch. Here is what the Philosophers say on this subject "Divine water. the : black cow. J The second recension says that it it disjoined. alum water. Philosophorum. I I notify to you that Among entitled the Greek technical treatises there The Work oj the Four Elements. there shall ye find the iron plates already liquefied . mercury. For when the fire is kindled the vinegar* ascends. that t The number three is the substance which is. vapour. There is whitens the body of magnesia. while on the lid of the vessel ye shall find globules. wherefore. virgin's urine. burnt copper. divine vinegar. after some days ye shall open 173 and it. and is one this contains a brief section on the Nomenclature of the Divine Vinegar and the Divine Water. a its similar decoction and liquefaction Cambar is not disjoined. because its spiritual nature into the air. oc- cidental matter. Ye must also know that by decoctions and attritions and coloured nature is the by multiplied* it is congealed and fire. which is worth citing in connection with the question of the unity of subjects amidst the multiplicity of names. &c. milk of the she ass. . virginal milk. water of calx. By changed.

this nonsensical : is passage the second recension cooked by the heat of the is .! who cooks with the congealed." is " the spume of the Moon." is joined to the light of second recension. the sand thereof. and by the heat of the Sun the dew congealed.The Turba Philosophorum. but the residue becomes a wind in spirit. t According to the second recension. for the united with the is Luna Sun's rays." J Omitted For substitutes Sun is in the "That which congealed. causes it to and that signal whiteness overcome the terrene fire. * " Which Cambar and Sun its spirit is himself bears in the belly the alternative reading. and is not burned. Then. and is congealed. 174 by the said frequent decoction the weight of a third part of the water is consumed. dealer is joined.t is perfected by the coming on of night.* Cambar And know ye the of the that nothing is excellent than more precious or more sand red the the of light Luna of Sputum of second the sea. the dew of the deathis and the more the days pass on the more intensely is it conFor he gealed. that being wounded. which the Sun.

how is it fructifies. : our except nothing tinges 175 copper And BALGUS: Thou speakest And lie Why. priately fruit extract the when But I inquired of him concerning the growth and the increment. thinking that the same is found without any laborious disposi- Then tion. is referred to . did and eat of it. that the Spume of Luna Balgus.* who has me notified to followed science. dark. Then O BONITES saith Do you not know. of the fruit whereof whosoever eateth shall hunger And BALGUS A certain nevermore ? : person.The Turba Philosophorum. build perfection is the fruit when I further asked its nourished with food until he said : Take a house about it. therefore. hast truly : omitted to describe that ? ^ thou tree. But thereof. and approafter discovered this operating. which shall also be circular. it that tree. has what manner he same tree. he described that pure whiteness. and which shall wholly surround the same. encircled by * In the second recension this person as Tulleas.

which have transformed the soul of that old and the into a juvenile body. while they have concealed this disposition. Brother. shut and secure the door lest dust or wind should reach them. Bonites TURBA: brother And he : Bonites ings.The Turba Philosophorum. and shall have placed on it a man of a hundred years. THEOPHILUS propose to speak further concerning those things which And the hath narrated. It saith : I Speak. what marvellous natures. yet spoke the . Following in the steps of make perfect his sayshould be known that all the I will Philosophers. 176 dew. made into the son ! O man father is Blessed be thou. Then in the time of 180 days send them away to their homes. most excellent God ! The Fifty-Ninth Dictum. for thy hath discoursed elegantly. I say that man shall not cease to eat of the fruit of that tree to the perfection of the number [of the days] until man the old shall O become young.

177 all ye does not become rusty except by reason of this water. beware of becoming envious. According to the second recension tree is adorned. which proceed first from that perfect tree. comes young. and comAnd he: Would plete thy speech! that I might repeat the like thing And they What is thy will ? Then he Certain fruits.The Turba Philosophorum. then the disciples." t : " The more the N . but better than this illumination. that iron said and be- lives And know. placed in the sun it till imbued. and the more they are multiplied the more ! : : are they * man The adorned. truth in their whatsoever* water first is when treatises named water of life. do flourish in the beginning of the summer. rusty. that mixed with dies. t until are they reference in the second recension is to the old of the previous dictum. The TURBA answer eth : O Theophilus. they for this reason. because it tinges the plates it is then . after which is In these days silence is it liquefies it is becomes and congealed.

or interpolated at a later period . has possibly been indeed.* from her own fleeing whom with children. and God make perfect the foetus. although partly angry. to described. yet nor that her husband should possess her who beauty. In the same way that woman. and being mature become sweet. but the Philosophers have put to death the woman who slays her spouses. and refers. therefore. 178 perfected. till he shall have carnal intercourse with her. does not brook being overcome. furiously loves her. is that of the epoch of Trevisan . it its style. For the belly of that * The compiler of the Turba seems to have introduced this allegory from another source. in any case. quite out of character with the text as a whole.The Turba Philosophorum. make known to I also you that the dragon never dies. something which has not been previously . and keeps awake contending with her. consumed is by fire who does not approach his wife except by reason of lust. when he multiplies children to himself according to his pleasure. His beauty. it is. it will be seen. she lives. For when the term is finished he turns to her.

limbs the him mixed with perceiving of a woman he becomes secure from death. leave him ing woman. woman 179 weapons and venom. . by the creation of female weapons in the body of the For cut up into parts.The Turbo. and the whole is turned into blood. Let. The Sixtieth Dictum. BONELLUS* ciples. Then the wind is lenitude is hidden. and let that woman be is full of who being strongly woman. But the Philosophers. Philosophorum. therefore. and they find that venom which now is manifest. beholdhim turned into blood. that out of nothing becomes * : all the elect useful In the second recension the ye disthings without con- name is Bodillus. the blood dries up. a sepulchre be dug for the dragon. in the is sun for certain days. saith Know. joined with that clasps her and is entwined with her. the more he buried with him. the more his body. until the consumed.

towards youth. and by the blood. 180 junction and regimen. the it is led at which it behoves it * it burns the bones being strengthened. humour moistening when forty the elapsed sperm is But if the humidity of the nights formed. For the man mingling with the sperm is nourished by of the womb. the sperm would not be dissolved. which reads long as it is little. womb were not heat. after which the foetus not nourished. and in proportion as the vital heat : is maintained." t This absurd confusion is not found in the second " So recension. while it it is fire. t is you "Know also that act to nothing Thus is in generated without complexion.* because sperma is generated out of blood and desire. is dust.The Turba Philosophorum. and have the the woman. save by milk and sparingly and gradually. and by heat. and the more more." . it is nourished with milk. arriving Otherwise: independent. But God has constituted that heat and blood blood and of the for the nourishment of the sperm until is brought forth. the bones are strengthened. nor the foetus be procreated.

and from our except from * This passage translatable. simulating. and have represented many ways of instruments. and it be disperses. MOSES saith: It the envious have is to be observed that named lead of copper instruments of formation. The Sixty-First Dictum.* to whom I give notice that there are no instruments our own white. have been tempered. therefore. strong. Know this Art. demonstrated to you. 181 ye that without heat ever generated. puts to If. and that the nothing bath causes the matter to perish by is means of intense frigid. all veins the flesh Understand. "The described the process of envious that there are a . deceiving prosterity. and splendid powder." etc. fear God. things which ye attempt ! all to rule. it is convenient and sweet to the body. it but heat. is so corrupt as to be almost un- According to the second recension: have in making number lead.The Turba Philosophorum. flight indeed. whereif it the fore has is been ye disciples and in become smooth and Behold it augmented.

the Philosophers have already said Take instruments out of the egg. might suggest a slight emendation. nor of what bird. " i. or that of other sensitive things.t out of which are suitable instruments produced of formation. and read Alogia. than the powder of Alociae. yet. form formal (forma formabilis) such as vegetative or it has a formed form (forma sensitive. instruments adapted to the egg are composed. many words and no sense. the form of the stone. to the whole work whereof there is no more powder.e. in his Epistle to Thomas of Bononia : " Our stone does not possess a the form of the soul. is heterogeneous... . whereas the human body. formata). and this homogeneous. 182 concave stone* and marble. which simply observes that out of the powder mentioned at the beginning. Further. which form is the elements themselves. nevertheless." For is because it is the term concave stone the second recension substitutes gleaming.! * The concave stone does not seem to be a term which entered into the nomenclature of We is hear much concerning not to be understood as later philosophers. but that its configuration." t | This entire passage is considerably shortened in the second recension. but that at the same time the envious have omitted to name the egg. nor one more conjoined to our composition. having failed to trace this term.The Turba Philosophorum. Candidas.e. severe critic. : Yet they have not said what the egg And know ye is. being used in the same sense as Latin theology was accustomed to speak of So Bernard Trevisan. etc. A i.

the same in a gentle see that it is fire dissolved. the first.The Turba Philosophorum. the true powder of perfection the existence of three powers and three activities proceeding from those powers. because. Fundamentally. the second burns.* Alchemy does not seem nised the existence indeed. 183 that the regimen of these things is more difficult than the entire work. commingles. but one elixir. ye err in cess. namely. it of three holds there is In to have generally recogelixirs. being at the fore. there- take this and place in sand till it be dissolved. and corrupt the work. full. however. . until ye Then extinguish with vinegar. And know ye that while ye are placing the same sand and repeating the prounless ye have patience. profound judgment. Wherefore the Philosophers have ordered that should be ruled with it The moon. recognises in degrees of perfection. its light is taken and extinguished by the sea. in ruling. while the third liquefies. the composition be ruled if more than it should be. Ixir. therefore. having various Zosimus. and ye shall find one thing separated from And know ye that three companions. Cook.

tincture of the plurality one Tyrian which Philosophers to there is names given abolished the have called it at will. Karnech. to know that whatsoever the Philosophers have narrated or ordained. The Sixty-Second Dictum. black. and carmen. Kenckel. yet the in exaltation. 184 the first ounces place. of vinegar twice the vessel impose nine while first made is and hot. geldum. fixation. Philosophers * : Geldum. herbs. just as they has a body has mathematically three dimensions. being second when it is heated. trouble therefore.The Turba Philosophorum. seekers all ye after this Art." . Later alchemists speak much of the Elixir at the second is metals is at the White and the first the Elixir at the Red. not. therefore. are one thing Do !* about a of for things. and have they and having name. because been extracted from tincture. The distinction is a mere subtlety. etc. it And our sea. proper penetration. O MUNDUS saith : It behoves you. " Certain According to the second recension Gold have named Chelidony. same time held and so also the Elixir of to be the medicine of men.

called by has been and the various substances have been separated one from another. which are all true an example of which. they tinged Kenckel with a Tyrian colour . And know ye that we have given many names to it. to . each of these has its own name. is to be traced in corn that is being ground. and mentally there is yet fundabut one name. and is neither sordid nor impure in putrefaction. colour. for those that possess understanding. which also extracted from our red has been and most pure sea. and after passed through the is it sieve. know not that ancient the condescend to 185 did priests wear artificial garments. but our Tyrian placed which they and treasuries. For after grinding it another name. in their altars was more clean and fragrant than can be described by me. Philosophorum. for purifying altars.The Turbo. whence. which is sweet and of a pleasant odour. and lest they should introduce into them anything sordid or impure.

But. 186 wit. place Magnesia in its ! and vessel. opening find shall the Cook it cook after whole diligently ! some days.The Turba Philosophorum. this speech mouth of Rarson. ye changed into be coagulated. corn. many names Thus we call the from which are distinguished. Then. because * the it germinates In the second recension. PHILOSOPHUS* terity I : notify to pos- male and wherefore the envious have that female. further until and contain envious. is put into . called saith nature the it because the body therein arcanum is is of the Magnesia. purple in each grade of its regimen by the name of its own colour. know it itself. The Sixty-Third Dictum. that they signify humour. and by the medicines they mean Nature. ye seekers after this Art. when ye hear of the sea in the books of the water. most O great all Accordingly. while by the basket they signify the vessel.

become to say. coming in to the second recension is This dictum recension. and say But when the envious flowers. Some also call it [the lead] of our black coins. is the lead which concerning ! black. of they the have treated very frequently in their books. in : to- respect " That which one nevertheless. gether * and [or According buds and flowers t their agreement] . all : It is to ye demonstrators of this art. certain people name But Agadimon demonstrated when he this blackness coins. Wise." is omitted altogether by the second .* Wash : 187 until the blackness of the copper passes away. they all is therefore. The Sixty-Fourth DictumA PYTHAGORAS saith : How marvellous the diversity of the Philosophers in those things which they formerly is asserted. that the things [or the copper] being first mixed and cooked once.The Turba Philosophorum. ye find the prescribed blackness shall That This. has clearly boldly put forth these words O be noted.

that whereas Mundus hath been teaching all ye this Art. he that does not understand what he has said is a brute animal But I will explain ! the regimen of this small thing. HORFOLCUS O saith :t You must know.The Turba Philosophorum. ! they would not concealed this from the crowd* lest the world should be devastated. all goes . being introduced into this * Literally t In the Art. the same small And and lie if vile thing. and placing before you most lucid syllogisms. The Sixty-Fifth Dictum. vilify it. + " from the sea. concealed ! the vulgar knew. \ On thing has well." second recension the speaker called is Orfulus. they would deem it a they knew its efficacy. : understand then that the Diversity of Burnt Copper. who love wisdom. but God hath if Yet. O all ye investigators of this art." On become " Be not dissuaded by and when you perceive that every- the principle of Zosimus thine inexperience. may become bolder. ash. in order that any one. 1 88 and most common of this small wherein the precious thing is thing.

And know that one spirit burns one thing and destroys one thing.The Turba Philosophorum may more it although dear. Beware fire. with that which is and the dear with that which Know common. first combus- necessary that it should be washed. is assuredly consider it. and one body strengthens one spirit. cooked sincere. and teaches the same to contend with the But. with which. it behoves you to commingle elements which are crude. and be small. cleansed. these should follow one be embraced and in another. until they be dessicated in the said gentle fire. it is . the until for or gentle. it behoves you to mix the residuum of the whole humour. and then its colour will be . whereby they are gradually burnt. afterwards. over and not a gentle of intensifying the fire elements are conjoined. may compose common the 189 . governed. and dealbated on the fire until all things become one colour tion. after the fire. a complexion. ye that the in beginning of the mixing.

which is the becomes not-liquefied." : liquid becomes liquid which . God favouring. Whence the Philoso- Convert the elements and pher saith thou shalt find what thou seekest. and that the composite germinates itself. also. These things by the being disposition. and produces that which ye desire. I go exalted. But to convert the elements is to make : the moist dry and the fugitive fixed. the thick body becomes a spirit. liquefied. and the fleeing spirit becomes strong and fit to do battle against the fire. and are changed because the being rejoice. diligently For the elements. into different natures.* the lead.The Turba Philosophorum. that the elements fire. humid becomes dry. the death and Know life of ye. But when the colours begin ye shall behold the miracles of the wisdom proceed from * " The nonAccording to the second recension is the head of this art. cooked in the fire. let accomplished the operator in the fire until the gross leave it made subtle. be and the subtle remain as a tingeing spirit.

seeing that it is t a great many good This dictum is and that which follows things. 191 wonder-working tingeing other natures O ! and Nature. knowing what the Philosophers have said Search the latent spirit and : disesteem remains effects * it when it arcanum and not. and thou treated. hast commanded posterity to prove experiment] and to read the to [or books. The Sixty-Sixth Dictum. of God.* EXEMIGANUS saith : Thou hast already O Lucas. the Tyrian colour be until O accomplished. is put into the mouth of Emiganus. heavenly separating the elements by converting regi- men more Nothing. which is Magnesia. Nature. omitted in the second recension. than precious therefore. ! is Natures these in Nature which multiplies the and makes fixed and composite. concerning living and concealed silver. that scarlet.The Turba Philosophorum. as it behoves thee. .

1 92 The Sixty-Seventh Dictum. for they are one said is and the same unto you dealt with how ! it ! with jealousy that I should ! And they : thing." " To make red t According to the second recension: is to vivify.The Turba Philosophorum. burn. And he that : Burn. burn the gold. for therein is an arcanum. the diversity only in the names. burn HERMIGANUS replies: Behold something more dark The TURBA answereth than ever the silver. burn. out of which the Wise have operated good things. And more he : clearly ? I signify to burn. LUCAS saith and what I I : to testify forth set is posterity. but to make that to whiten is red For the envious have * is life. As to that which he dark. more lucid than are your words. therefore." .t The following variation occurs in the opening of " The books of the : Philosophers the second recension should be read. : ! which is Illumine. Do And they: Woe hast thou shortly why art thou poisoned And he: Is it desirable speak so. for they have not in vain advised that the sucking child should be heeded. that the Philosopher saith :* Burn the copper.

193 multiplied many names that they might lead posterity astray. O all ye Sons of the Doctrine. that Mercury is hidden by the rays Sun. and it nature. words. which is this explain. that quicksilver vivifies of the the body . envious there therefore. seeing that copper. Despite you have a is The body TURBA desire your put In to dark forth I signify that the And he have narrated and said that : splendour of Saturn does not appear unless it perchance be dark when it ascends in the air. behoves you. the fore body but that there which is tinges the soul.The Turba Philosophorum. a man. there is answereth: the subtle and penetrates the body. like Therefore. to whom I testify that the definition of this Art is the the liquefaction of the body and separation of the soul from the body. nature. has a soul and a body. to destroy the body and Whereextract the soul therefrom it ! Philosophers said that the does not penetrate the body. and a is a soul.

is The Sixty-Eighth Dictum. may be astronomical and not . as in the of a planetary attribution 57th Dictum. from the formed month * in the of This is tenth September day of to the tenth the day the second of the two passages mentioned note on page 168 of this volume as containing traces of metals. all in- ye vestigators of this Art. thereold sea Halsut and stones. that our work. by which and with which. becomes oriental. the reference chemical. let the heat be extinguished with a third part ounces of the vinegar. ATTAMUS saith: O Know. . ! Then If extinguish in white vinegar. and fore. after God. but. 24 ounces thereof have been boiled. boil with coals until they become white. 194 and thus the work But Venus. of which ye have been inquiring. when she accomplished.The Turba Philosophorum. and cook in the sun and black earth for 42 But the second work is perdays. precedes the Sun. is produced by the generation of the sea. that is.* by its fiery strength. the work is completed Take. 8 pound with white vinegar.

like Egyptian earth. But if the place where it is cooked be humid and dewy it is congealed more quickly. but leave the same to be cooked until up and it becomes a fixed earth. while it it be dry it is congealed more slowly. arises from the diversity of cooking. the vinegar a second time in this work. 195 Do not impose [or grade] of Libra. O Mundus. all vinegar be its dried The Sixty-Ninth Dictum. FLORUS the cooking A nd ! : And Philosopher! O he Sons of the teach you. the sign of the goodthat Doctrine. know that . he: And ye see that the matblack.The Turba Philosophorum. for has not accomplished the dis- fecting thou of position O Proceed. And the fact that one work is congealed more quickly and another more slowly. ness of the first decoction is the : I extraction of its Describe what FLORUS When ter is : entirely redness! is And redness. FLORUS saith : am I thinking of per- thy treatise.

first blackness is produced out of the nature of Marteck. after this Art. 196 been has whiteness hidden in the Then it bebelly of that blackness. until it But when. be certain that redness is hid in that whiteness ! However. Philosophorum. which red has improved the black. and that redness extracted is from that blackness. it does not behove you to extract it. hoves you to extract that whiteness most subtly from that blackness. with which nothing Know also that the can compare. But in the second decoction let that whiteness be placed in a vessel with instruments.The Turbo.* but rather to cook it until the whole become a most deep red. and its gently white. recension affirms that it does behove . and has made peace between the fugitive and the non-fugitive. let it be cooked become completely O all ye seekers ye shall perceive that whiteness appear and flowing over all. for ye know how to discern between them. reducing * you The second to extract it.

to know It behoves this sulphur you. into an unalterable and nature. which blackens the body. And know that the same sulphur cannot ye be handled. but it cruciates and tinges. Because the : when it changes indelible is it TURBA The And why was : 197 this A nd ? cruciated matter submerged in the body." : that which readings are corrupt and ungrammatical.* Do you not see that the cruciating does not fugitive harm or corruption. thereby tracted * it " It converts According to the second recension Both is non-fugitive into a fugitive nature. but by coadunation and utility of things ?t For if its victim were noxious and cruciate with would not be embraced until its colours were exand unalterable it from inconvenient." : . two the answereth he into one. t The second recension somewhat reverses this. " That which cruciates with harm or corruption reading does not cruciate with utility and coadunation. therefore.The Turba Philosophorum. And the sulphur which blackens is that which does not open the door to the fugitive and turns into the with the fugitive.

MUNDUS* saith : Know. but one and a suitable nature. all ye investi- gators of this Art.The Turba Philosoplwrum. that the head is all things. is For the and the followers one. . for by ignorance of ruling some have erred. the plurality of these compositions. for but that . of the red tinctures prepared for the rest does not blacken it . nor those things which the merated in nature of truth * have enu- philosophers their books. the Masters have said that what is perfected is one. Do not heed. In the second recension the name is Mandinus. and this does not come to pass without blackness. which it behoves you to rule carefully. I have testified to be the key of the work. Accordingly. which if it hath not. The Seventieth Dictum. which does blacken. all that it imposes profits nothing. which indelible. ig8 This we have called water water we have sulphur. therefore. and a diversity of natures does not improve that thing.

namely. diverse Do you not see that the Master has begun with one Hence has he Sulphureous Nature. who knows neither seen nor the Wise. for him shall a nature rise which shall conquer all and then shall that word be natures. fulfilled which was written by the Masters.The Turba Philosopher um. but one having in itself its own natures and properties. and finished one called those unities Water. Natures. is ascribed to . therefore. Nature overcomes Nature. how to extract its complexion and rules equably. This arcanum of is known except by He. conquering ? all The Seventy-First Dictum. 199 Nature have termed it that one thing in the belly whereof is concealed the natural arcanum. BRACUS* * saith : How elegantly Mundus In the second recension this dictum Archelaus. by which it prevails over other things. that Nature rejoices in Nature. and Nature contains Nature at the same time there are not many or forth therefrom .

20O The Turba Philosophorum. : first compo- made out of several things. that the lead then the ten . is The Seventy-Second Dictum. hath described this sulphureous water For unless solid bodies are destroyed ! by a nature wanting a body. which the ancients have is termed Albar of copper. And know that unless the body be withered up and so destroyed that it dies. although they become one. be turned into blackness * The second recension refers this dictum to Philotis. But when it ruled it is called by ten names. The PHILOSOPHUS* saith sition. and unless ye extract from it its which a tingeing spirit. and even as a most tenuous spirit. therefore. ye cannot [attain] that most tenuous and tingeing soul. the body of Magnesia. and are called by one name. ye are unable to tinge a body therewith. soul. . that is. until the bodies become not-bodies. taken from the colours which appear in the regimen of the body of this Magnesia. which is hidden in the natural belly. is It is necessary.

* Sericon is one of the names of Minium.The Turba Philosophormn. When all these things have been said. 201 aforesaid shall appear in the ferment of gold.t It is also called redundant red sulphur and red orpiment. we mean nothing more by these names than Albar of copper. per- there any reference rostrum or rostellum of the alembic ? to the . I fectly The when it Gold significance of this phrase inscrutable. f Later alchemical writers define matter of the Philosophers the red stage. f Gold of the Beak. because it tinges position called every body which has entered into the composition. according to it was a com- Rulandus. Berthelot explains that bination oi Sandyx and Sinopis. the other is dry. But when it becomes red it is called Flower of Gold. and are called the good thing of several names.* which is a com- by ten names. but is of Coral as the has become fixed a is. it is called bars and Behold I have replates of metal. of course. Ferment of Gold. with sericon. Gold of Coral. But composition is twofold one When humid. But while it remains crude lead of copper. but M. they are cooked prudently they become is one.

One is made out of straw and cinder.i be freed from poverty. days." See Olympiodorus On the Sacred Art. shows that there are Experiment intermediate grades between these kinds. in whole arcanum. concerning " Greek. Now.* and the diversity of intensity thereof in every grade. Let vealed it its therefore behoves be is over. But lead which is the is lead of copper. in common with all other alchemists. but one without flame. 2O2 names when raw. which also we should distinguish from the names when it has been cooked. so that he who shall possess this book may belong its unto and himself. of Paracelsus : Alterius non sit . many kinds of I in this most have seen. therefore. coals and flame. so that he shall remain secure in that middle way which is closed to those who are deficient precious art. have " a certain lapse of time and recognised the necessity for a favourable moment. f Compare the motto qui suus esse potest. fire.The Turba Philosophorum. pondered me now quantity of the it It you the and the numbers of to exhibit to fire.

And know most assuredly that if a little gold be placed in the composition.The Turba Philosophorum. every grade it is beheld. Wherefore also a sublime gold and a patent gold is found in the treasuries of the former philosophers. unless in a certain way the composition water and is altered in its drinks the In colours. These things being accomplished. it : is . they are turned into a new nature. when it is coloured by a venerable redness. coming out of their own former natures. Although concerning this we elixir read in the sayings of the philosophers Take gold. it is placed in a glass vessel. Wherefore those things are unequal which they introduce into Inasmuch as the commingled and are their composition. Then they are called one nature and one genus. elements turned are into lead of copper. there will result a patent and white tincture. 203 the days of the night in which will be the perfection of the most great arcanum. occurring frequently. I will treat in its proper place in what follows.

lead and Again. Albar. occurring in the Turba for which no explanation can at present be found. when he begins from the top to the bottom. mostly ot oriental origin. gold for gold of coral. he proceeds from top to bottom. Geldum. to know the certitude of the adversary. rust without lead and copper. Wishing. gold of coral for gold of crocus. he said Take iron. copper. 204 only needful to do so once. Corsufle. and the curious use of the Latin word Carmen. Murtal.The Turba Philosophorum. coin. then reversing matters saith. second place. Democritus at effectually the beginning of the assembly is and now seems to be quoted as an the conclusion of a symposium in which he silenced. he saith : in the Take gold. lead. which reversing. They are : Ebmich. consider what Democritus* how he begins speaking from bottom to top. Mucra. by his sayings that only semi-gold is taken. Halsut. And without doubt gold is not changed iron into * . and he shews. Absumech. therefore. for gold. he again : says And our copper : for coins. and albart for copper. therefore. enemy at was forbidden to participate. lead. For. f It will be well in this place to enumerate the terms. .

names of those behoves them that these things are only for colours. . until. once. and unless it 205 be imbued with vinegar known by the wise. is imposed said colours that each rubigo and then vinegar For when the on it. because. however they said Take gold and it : becomes gold of coral Take gold of coral and it becomes purple gold all . it is necessary decocted in be forty days. being cooked. it vinegar be placed in it. placed until its finally in the utility grade becomes as a mucra. the .The Turba PhilosopJiorwn. the second as red. But by these things which the Philosophers have mentioned under various names. they have signified stronger bodies and forces. is the redness which all the Philosophers signified. appear. appear. citrine imbued it is it may consumed and cooked Its first be desiccated. This. therefore. It may become is that taken. so that it the water being being vessel. it is turned into redness. therefore. because these colours come from it.

black . . and is be dissolved the last Dictum in but . shall ye find what ye seek. is. when it is placed in the If you seek to fire.The Turba Philosophorum. So is pounded crocus of the it imposed upon coin. shall be increased. dissolve. enough for the Sons of the Doctrine. Conclusion. I say unto you makes earth black and then with fire. deserves like to be called happy. The strength thereof. if the second omitted from the longer version. shall never become corrupted. make the earth greatly. afterwards whiten so .* AGMON saith : by way of a I will add the following corollary. and shall be exalted above the circle of the world. 206 third as the dry vulgar. This much concerning the revelation of our stone. * it shall This constitutes recension. Whosoever does not liquefy and coagulate errs Therefore. we doubt not. who also fixes the whole with consuming fire. till it becomes even that whoso dissolves unto a naked sword. separate the soul and the water thereof. but the same.

unto which . Behold. white. and yet no one can apply the tongue with impunity to its surface. add and the place thereof. the multiplicity of names. if need be. it is concealed. soul. If you wish that it should fly. it shall be coagulated.The Turba Philosopher um. hairless. . while. and yet all do need it There are names to and it. volatile. Investigate nothing alien is added. many would deride our . cold. multiplied. concave. it flies if you say that it is water. nothing that Unless the names were is foreign. wisdom. 207 you would coagulate. but rest assured that it is one thing. many given yet it is called by one only. you speak Do not then be deceived by falsely. so that the vulgar might be deceived. you speak the truth if you say that it is not water. It is also a stone and not a stone. spirit. and body it is ! . no one is without it.


169. Four Seasons. 156. Faeces. 114. of. 1531 182. Dew. 5. Coin. 135-137. 187. Dragon. 161. 105. 144.41. Egg. 81. 36. 138. 93) 94i IO 2) 103. Oadenbe. 22. Foundation of Art. Coagula.70. 30. 72. 72. Calx. 161. Four. 85. n. 31. 205. Fixed and Volatile. 23. 13. 64. 107. Air. 135. Fire. Flower of Salt. 3-12. Cambar. 19. 140. gum Corsufle. 20-22. 39. Elements. 89. 97. 61. 154. 145. 39. 178.INDEX. 14. 19. 31. 21. 32. Flower of Gold.25-27. 105. 27. 75. 70. 21. 13. Ferment of Gold. Angels. Earth. Democritus. 20. Burnt Lead. 122. 130. Elementary Brodium. 139. 198. Death. 157. 151. 31. 29. no. 18. 80. 28. 140-142. 106.81. 49. 113. 16. 84. 57. 121. 27. 120. 45. Citrine. 34. 26. 21. 148. 21. 87. 201. Burnt Copper. 60. 143. 73. 105. 74.23. 132. 157. 58. Atitos. 70. Flower of Copper. 8. 193. 122. Fire. 138.113. 71. 8-13. 76. 100. 81. Gold. Adam. 50. 44i 58. Crocus. 20. 106. 30. 44. Copper. Blackness. 117. 57. 133. 31. 9i 4. 90.100. 99. 204. 7. 62. 29. Ethelia. 39. 122. 10-13. 59. 39. . 39. 44> 601 75> 86. 31. gold of coral. 31. 117. ill. 155- 56. Efflucidinus. 32. Boritis. Arcanum.

Sun. 160. 126. 42. 71. 81. 137. 76. Saginatum. 57. of scoria. Hidden Glory. of Metals. 164. 39. of. 89. Golden Water. 132. 80. 133. Orpiment. Milk of Fig. Mercury. 143. 36. 76. 125. 49. 60. 121. 107. 193. 130. Testa. 34. 152. Sulphur. Rust. Hermes. 160. Ixir. 45. 117. 31. 58. 92. 141. Tin. 53. 91. of gold. 70. 46. 57. 196. 122. 74. Key 31. 80. 94. 35. 107. 43. 84^ 162. 130. 68. 52. H2. Heart of the Sun. 104. Permanent Water. 77. of the Art. l35-i37i Kedness. 135. 34. 121. 67. 59. 79. 91. 44. 82. 163. Leaven of Gold. red lead. 61. 137. 184. 76. 123. 86. 134. 130. 71. 47-50. 109 . 78. Greenstone. 122. 38. H6 body 5 Magnet. 36. 77. 132. 96. 93. 54. 79. 87. Tyrian Dye. 48. 45. 67. Mucra. 54. 77. 114 . 96. 145. 44. Shadow Smoke. Kuhul. 57. 109. Putrefaction. 60. 35. Rubigo. 146. 76. of ascotia. 185. 145.210 INDEX. Spume of the Moon. 90. 174. 139. 133. 25. 34. Marteck. . Male and Female. 193. Stone. 100. 100. 145. 2. igi. 72. 52. 144. 60. Halsut. 93. 64-66. 61-63 . 170. i. 82. 119. 145. Lead. 79. 205. 28. 55. 117. 55. 77. 44. 31. 169. 34. 78. 93. 106. 84. 139. 76. 133. 132. 180. 122. Gum. Magnesia. 118. 165. 69. 58. go. Tincture. 82. 63. 193. 34. 168. 52. 143. 69. 67. Red Slave. 82. 85. 194. 39. 161 . Rotundum. 57. 39. 131. Nitre. Spirit of Brass. Quicksilver. Saturn. 119. 79. 67. 186.

of . 48.211 Urine. Vinegar. 137. 150. of of iron. 38. 130. of sulphur. 117. 121. 55. 59. 90. 1341 173- 117. . 58. !32. 98. 139. 52. 29. 53. 63. alum. of dew. 87. 20. 49. 38 gold. 143. 147- 194. 123. 51-54. 139. Whiteness. 69. 21. 8-12. 119. : 58. Venom. 109. 46. 119. 4. 106. Venus. 75. of 38. 53 . 63 of our sea. 27. Water. . 144. 132 30. nitre.



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