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https://www.scribd.com/doc/109950405/LectVVectorSpace
05/13/2014
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Lecture on Vector Space: Lecture Set V
[ Discussed about minimum and characteristic polynomials, triangular matrix etc. ]
Suppose, the matrix corresponding to an operator is of the following triangular form: ( ) [Note: Precisely, an upper triangular form matrix.] The characteristic polynomial can be written as in the following, a product of factors:   ( )( ) ( ) [Check this with a matrix.]
Theorem:
For a mapping,
be a linear operation, the linear operator , whose characteristic for which the
polynomial can be written as a product of factors, then there exists a basis in operator can be represented as a triangular matrix.
NOTE: The eigenvalues in this case are the entries appearing in the diagonal.
        (   ( )   )    as . (     )      
Since, the determinant of a matrix and its transpose are same.
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Lecture Notes V compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com
BLOCK MATRIX:
Consider a Block matrix, We can show,     
(
), where
are themselves matrices.
In the same way, for a triangular square matrix, ( )
For characteristic polynomials: (   )     
Here also, the above can be generalized in the same way as we have done for determinant.
Minimum Polynomial:
For a square matrix , it satisfies the characteristic polynomial, ( )


. [CH Theorem]
Now, there can be some other polynomials ( ) for which we may write, ( ) The minimum polynomial ( ) of is the nonzero polynomial of lowest degree with leading coefficient 1 (monic), which divides the characteristic polynomial, ( ). NOTE: The minimum and characteristic polynomials of matrix
have the same irreducible factors.
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Lecture Notes V compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com
EXAMPLE: Consider the following triangular matrix, ( The characteristic polynomial of ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( )( ) , ( ) is  (  ) ( ( ), ) ( ( ) ) ( )( ) or ( ) ( ) is the )
The min. polynomial can be one of the following, which is equal to zero and satisfied by : ) itself (which is zero by CH theorem) ( ) , whereas, ( ) , ( )
[See Lect. Note: IV] , we can say that
Now if we see, min. polynomial.
How to actually find min. polynomial?
Example #1: ( Characteristic polynomial of ( )   )
[Example from Lipschutz]
(
)



The 2nd term in the above is zero. ( ( divide ( ).
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)( ) (
) )
 ( ) ( ) ) and ( ) and that will
The min. polynomial will have the same irreducible factors (
Lecture Notes V compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com
Thus we verify one of the options, ( )( ), ( ) ( ), ( ) ( )
Now consider the first option, ( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
For the 2nd option, it can be checked that ( ) ( ) ( ( )( ) ( ) =0 ) is the minimum polynomial.
Note: Sometimes, the min. polynomial and the characteristic polynomials can coincide.
Example #2: Consider the following block diagonal matrix.
2 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 2 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 4 1 0 0 0
0 0 2 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 3 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 5
Consider, ( ), ( ), ( ), ( )
(
)
Block diagonal. is the least common multiple of the minimum polynomials of ,
The minimum polynomial of , and .
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Lecture Notes V compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com
The min. polynomials of , , ( ) ( ) (
and
are ( ( )
) ,(
)(
),
and (
).
Therefore, the min. polynomial of : ), for which .
NOTE:
A triangular matrix, where all the diagonal elements are same….
For example, ( characteristic polynomial. )
, nsquare matrix
The characteristic equation, ( )
(
) , the min. polynomial will be equal to the
Theorem:
Let V be a finitedimensional complex inner product space and let T be any linear operator on V. Then there is an orthonormal basis for V in which the matrix of T is Upper Triangular.
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