Form 4

Next >

The study of matter



Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics

using instruments processes in scientific investigations < Back Next > 2) 3) 4) 2 5) End CashPlants .HolisticTuition Home Physics: Chapter 1 Objectives: (what you will learn) 1) understand Physics base quantities & derived quantities scalar quantities & vector quantities measurements.

based on experimental observations & quantitative measurements.HolisticTuition Home Physics Understanding Physics: 1. 2. which involves force. it was called “natural philosophy”. until 19th century. Through its subfield of astronomy. “physica” the science of natural things. “Physics” derives from Latin. < Back Next > 3 End CashPlants . matter & energy. it may be the oldest academic discipline. Physics is a branch of Science for study of natural phenomena.

< Back Next > 4 End CashPlants Base Quantity Symbol l Length m Mass t Time T Temperature I Current SI Unit Symbol meter m kilogram kg second s Kelvin K Ampere A .HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Base Quantities Quantities that cannot be defined in any other physical quantity.

HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Derived Quantities Quantities derived from base quantities (through mathematical combinations). < Back Volume = Length x Breath x Height = m3 Next > Density = Mass ÷ Volume = kg m-3 Velocity = Displacement ÷ Time = m s-1 Acceleration = Velocity ÷ Time = m s-2 5 End CashPlants Force = Mass x Acceleration = kg m s-2 .

) 6 End CashPlants . such as force and pressure. (Compare them to derived quantities. such as distance and mass. (Compare them to base quantities.) < Back Next > Vector Quantity Physical quantity which has both magnitude and direction.HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Scalar Quantity Physical quantity which has magnitude only.

< Back prefix symbol value Next > prefix symbol value pico nana micro p n µ 10-12 10-9 10-6 kilo mega giga tera k M G T 103 106 109 1012 milli centi m c 10-3 10-2 7 End CashPlants Small quantities 1 Big quantities .HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Prefixes Simplifies description of physical quantities that are either very big or very small without losing data.

96 x 10-7 m 8 End CashPlants 911 000 000 kg = 9.HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Scientific Notation The standard form for numerical magnitude. < Back Q x 10n Next > where 1 ≤ Q < 10 and n is an integer Examples: 0.11 x 108 kg .000000696 m = 6.

< Back Next > We want results that are both accurate & consistent.HolisticTuition Home Measurements Accuracy measures how close a hit is to the target. less accurate Accurate. If they are far apart from each other. it is not accurate. 9 End CashPlants Consistent. Consistency measures how close together a group of hits is to the average value. they are not consistent. not consistent Accurate & consistent . less consistent Not accurate. If it is too far from the target.

01 mm . 0. 0.1 mm Micrometer screw gauge 10 End CashPlants High.HolisticTuition Home Measuring Instruments Sensitivity = how small a change in reading that can be measured by an instrument Ruler Low. 1 mm < Back Vernier caliper Next > Medium.

Always negative too low or too Always high positive < Back Next > May arise from various causes. such as a ruler worn out at one end Repeated error in reaction time 11 • End CashPlants • Wrong assumption . • Incorrect calibration of instruments • Zero error – pointer of instrument does not return to zero when not in use.HolisticTuition Home Measurement Errors Systematic Error Occurs in one direction only.

lighting. magnetic field.e. etc. 12 Can be reduced in several ways. The reading is sometimes positive & sometimes negative from actual value. air circulation. Next > • • Parallax error – due to incorrect positioning of the eye when taking measurement Changes in the surroundings. temperature. i.HolisticTuition Home Measurement Errors Random Error Size of error not constant & unpredictable. • Repeated measurements – taking mean value End CashPlants • Using mirror beneath pointer of instrument . < Back May arise from various causes.

HolisticTuition Home Scientific Investigation Start Observation The processes involved Making use of all human senses Initial explanation or conclusion Making smart guesses Testing in controlled situation Documentation of results in report < Back Inference Next > Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion 13 End CashPlants End .

arrangement Carry out experiment in proper order Documenting data obtained 14 End CashPlants Analyze data through graphs.HolisticTuition Home Scientific Experiment Steps involved in carrying out Experiment Suggest suitable questions Aim Variables Apparatus Procedures Tabulation < Back Manipulated. & fixed Next > List apparatus/materials. etc. responding. Analysis .

2.HolisticTuition Home Summary What you have learned: < Back 1. 4. 3. Understanding Physics Physical Quantities Measurements & Instruments Scientific Investigations & Experiments 15 End CashPlants Thank You .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful