This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Informal Settlements and Slums Theories on the formation of Informal Settlements Metro Manila: A brief description Squatter in the Vernacular Magnitude of Informal Settlements in Metro Manila Historical references of squatting in the Philippines
“Slum” has a negative connotation, implies evil, strange, to be shunned and avoided. Derived from the word “slumber”, slums were once thought by the majority to be unknown back streets or alleys, wrongly presumed to be sleeping and quiet. Described as a street, alley or court, situated in a crowded district of a town or city inhabited by people of low class or by the very poor, a number of these streets or court forming a thick populated neighbourhood or district of a squalid or wretched character.
‘Squatting’ refers simply to the relationship between people and houses on land. A squatter is a person who has taken over land, a house or a building and occupies it without lawful authority to do so.
Squatter infiltration – a slow, almost individual spillage into land – is common throughout the Third World. It can create tiny settlements or small towns. Infiltration ignores official land allocation or transfer systems, be they customary, market or bureaucratic. The land, if apparently unoccupied or unused, is seen as a resource, a free good available for use by those who need it.
South America. and Asia. . Peripheral shantytowns spring up on land that is not being used for one reason or another. An ever present phenomenon of the rapidly developing cities of Africa. particularly India and Pakistan is the extensive communities of squatters and shanty town dwellers that have sprung up in and around peripheral areas of cities.
It may consist of swamps as in certain districts of Bangkok. . steep hillsides as in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro. low ground subject to flooding as in the outskirts of Baghdad or refuse dumps. In other cases the land is too arid for cultivation and outside the scope of the city water system. Many shantytowns also occupy land that is held vacant by urban investors in anticipation of future city growth. The land is often unused because it is undesirable or unsuitable for permanent buildings. Waste areas of these types may be found near the city center as well as on the outskirts.
Types of Squatters: by Charles Abrams. Man‟s Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World The owner squatter The squatter tenant The squatter holdover The squatter landlord The speculator squatter The semi-squatter The floating squatter .
divided slum dwellers into four types: The permanent opportunists The permanent necessitarians The temporary necessitarians The temporary opportunists .John R. Seeley in his book Redevelopment: Some Human gains and Losses.
the measure of socioeconomic handicaps and barriers to such movement Each of these two variables provides two general classifications “slums of hope” and “slums of despair” . 1st.Charles J. the attitude of the slum dweller toward social mobility through assimilation or acculturation in the social and economic life of the community 2nd. Stokes in his book Land Economics mentions in the section “A Theory of Slums” uses two main variables to describe types of slums.
Have generally the homes of recent immigrants to the community. Escalator and non-escalator classes – slums of hope are more likely to contain escalator classes groups of people who can be expected to move up through the class structure. people intend to better themselves Slums of despair – populated by groups of longer residence. whether or not they expect to improve their situations and whether or not there are opportunities for advancing out of the slums. Slums of hope. denied in some ways the privilege of escalation are more characteristic of slums of despair . Stokes in his book Land Economics mentions in the section “A Theory of Slums” uses two main variables to describe types of slums.Charles J. whereas non-escalator classes.characterized by the attitudes of residents.
blocks of offices or flats) and converting them to living accommodation. . but is not exclusive to Third World countries. made usually with temporary materials. ‘Third World Squatting’ is what is referred to as illegally building on land one does not own of a house. Western squatting are usually manifested by taking over existing buildings (derelict houses.
Organized squatting. in India and in some Asian countries and in some Western European cities. Individual households may settle on land they regard as unoccupied with or without the permission of someone they think has the authority to give them permission. or who in fact has no authority either to acquire the land in the first place or to sell it to anyone. . Orthodox legal transaction. the squatter „buying‟ a piece of land from a seller who may own the land but has no official approval for subdividing the land into housing plots.found in many Latin American countries.
Low income workers including recently arrived poor regional ethnic and racial groups then move in and become exclusive inhabitants of these areas. Changes in land-use patterns Slum develops within the zone surrounding the CBD. the neighbourhood becomes infiltrated with industrial. The CBD develops to be an area of high land value but cheap house rents. storage. Early on this area is the home of the upper classes. . and wholesale operations.1. With the expansion of commercial and industrial ventures. and the more well-to-do move farther out from the city center.
as they are already beginning to be. with factories tending to locate even at the outer fringes of the city. and working men‟s houses cluster along them.1. and railroad lines out from the center. The main industrial areas of the future may well be located on the outskirts of the cities in new industrial towns and suburbs. Changes in land-use patterns Modified theory of city growth: industrial areas follow river valleys. . water courses. The best housing then does not fringe the entire city but only parts of it.
SECTOR MODEL . formerly common in Europe and still common in the developing countries of Asia and other parts of the world. the central areas are generally inhabited by the elite. Changes in land-use patterns In such cities. In some instances. with the slums located on the peripheries.1. they are located closer to the cities on unoccupied or undesirable land.
Slum clearance reduces the number of dwellings available to low-income families and that. as a result. As slum clearance continues. . tenants in low-rent nonslum housing will have a harder time convincing landlords to spend funds for maintenance. Housing Shortages and Maintenance The continuing existence of slums has also been explained by the fact that “their inhabitants cannot afford good housing and because private enterprise will not supply it at prices they can afford”. The role of urban renewal projects in creating new slums in areas where old slums had been eliminated. they cannot bargain with landlords of the prospective dwellings to obtain repairs and improvements as conditions of rental.2.
3. Myths ( from Bangkok scenario) Slums are simply the result of in-migration from rural areas Most slum dwellers are in-migrants Slums are exploding To solve the problem of slums is to accelerate rural development .
People continue to leave rural areas and move to urban centers to escape adverse rural conditions. political unrest. lack of sources of credit for small-scale farmers.4. Rapid rural-to-urban migration. limited offfarm employment. poor market infrastructures. Factors that push people out of the countryside (push factors) include environmental degradation of agricultural lands. favoring of exportoriented agricultural development models over against subsistence farming. civil wars and natural disasters which have displaced tens of millions of people in the past decades .
social services are more readily available. . because they seem to offer greater employment opportunities and potential for higher incomes. modern comforts and technological convenience are found there. Rapid rural-to-urban migration. many urban areas continue to act like magnets for people from the countryside (pull factors).4. the water supply is better and security is greater for those trying to escape the violence of the countryside. At the same time.
coupled with an enormous population.5. rapid population growth. Poor urban governance and planning. many authorities do not recognize slum dwellers as legal urban citizens and are reticent about meeting their needs. In many cities. have overwhelmed the capacity of municipal authorities to respond. . Treated as transients from rural areas that have strayed temporarily into town.
“The collapse of formal urban employment in the developing world and the rise of the informal sector are seen as a direct function of liberalization. The shift in the global economy to market liberalization.6. Global economic forces. The neoliberal export-oriented growth models have created too few formal sector jobs to absorb the millions of new job entrants.” . deregulation and privatization of services has resulted in increased economic volatility and growing levels of inequalities in wealth and resource distribution both between and within cities.
leading to the collapse of low-income housing programs and rural poverty alleviation and agricultural development programs that previously benefited a segment of the poor. Structural adjustment policies also required widespread disengagement of the state from the urban and rural scene. While market-based economic policies have brought some measure of economic growth. This situation has led to the rapid spatial expansion of irregular settlements.6. . Global economic forces. persistent inequalities inhibit most of the poor from participating in the growth that did occur.
including infrastructure improvements and community development projects. Corruption. In some countries over 30 percent of public funds are embezzled. The poor pay a high price for corruption as the problems of unaccountable. . unresponsive governance institutions remain unaddressed. Slums continue to mushroom due to rampant corruption.7. inequality and infant mortality. stifling private initiative and enterprise. This deprives nations and their cities of capital for much needed services. They constitute a major obstacle to reducing urban poverty. High and rising rates of corruption in government and business also harm economic growth.
Lack of community organization.“Social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. unlike rural communities that have their layers of customs and traditions. This makes it very difficult to get slum dwellers to work together for the common good.8. chaotic.” says the World Bank. and heterogeneous. urban slum environments often lack cohesion. Yet. Another major reason for poverty and inadequate services in slums is the absence of community organization and political power of their residents. They are much more in flux. .
Population: 9.km. 5 municipalities .4 million 636 square kilometers 260 pax/ sq. Land Area Density Composition 12 cities.
Iskwater Estero Tagalog version of squatter referring to a physically disorganized collection of shelters made of light and often visually unappealing materials where poor people reside Narrower than sewers and associated with bad smell Refers to alleys that hold only one person at a time Meaning inner areas where houses are built so close to each other and often in a manner not visible to the general view of the city For areas that are frequently flooded Eskinita Looban Dagat-dagatan .
in garbage dumps. Slums can be found in 526 communities. located in all the cities and municipalities of Metro Manila. . They are usually located along rivers and creeks.54 million people living in the most depressed areas of the metropolis. under bridges. They account for some 2. along railroad tracks. and beside factories and other industrial establishments.
with houses located wherever there is space and opportunity. The settlement pattern of the urban poor is generally dispersed. . Slums located next to mansions in affluent residential areas are not uncommon.
but the law made the titling system “voluntary”. Virtually all the titles granted by the Court Land Registration up to 1910 were for large holdings and these were limited because of tax implications to the landowners. . Small peasants were too ill-informed to benefit from the program. 1902 calling for the issuance of Torrens titles covering public and private lands. These were to provide an absolute proof of ownership. 1900 – 1920 Spain‟s cession of the Philippines to the US created a need for a new structure and system of land-ownership with respect to existing property rights Passage of the Land Registration Act No. 496 in Nov.
Response to the program minimal as Filipinos have no tradition of living in isolated homestead farms but rather lived in barrios or village neighborhoods. . 1900 – 1920 Enactment in October 1903 of the Public Lands Act (CA 141) designed to allow the landless and the land-poor peasantry to acquire 16 hectares of public land by establishing a homestead and cultivating it for five consecutive years with a payment of a nominal fee.
1921 – 1950 Government initiatives have benefited mostly the middle-class because of the requirement of a stable job for eligibility to housing Only was it during the 1940s did the Government shifted to a more socially-oriented program State intervention and assistance in behalf of workers in the slum area were experimental in nature .
1951 . on unused streets.1960 Restructuring of the land agency. . Squatters started settling on swamplands and esteros. railroad lines and disputed private lands at pace with city‟s growth. on idle government land. A very small portion of the low-income group availed of the loans since the rules governing the program was seen to have favored only the middleincome groups and even the upper classes.
1970 Land in the city was getting to be artificially scarce due to the skewed land-ownership structure and the increasing migration to the cities due to the perceived greater livelihood opportunities. Passage of the Tenement Law in 1962 making possible the building of five tenement buildings for 2. 1961 . 300 families. Many of these were low-income earners. national Social Housing Law which sought to benefit the low-income families resettled into government housing areas .
000 families in approximately 1. They collectively accomodated about 27.1970 There was a rapid and accelerated proliferation of informal and blighted communities mostly on unused government properties and close to highly commercialized and industrialized areas in Metro Manila. 000 in 1964 to 1. 1961 . Bulacan and the General Mariano Alvarez Resettlement Site in Carmona. It was estimated to be 370. 200 hectares of land away from the city .1 million in 1968 The Sapang Palay resettlement area in San Juan del Monte. Cavite and San Pedro Laguna were established in 1961.
sustainable source of income and the general quality of life . Most of them returned back to the city due to lack of facilities.1970 Based on studies only about 20% families relocated stayed permanently in the resettlement areas. 1961 .
1971 . 600 families in Manila. the Tondo Foreshore Arm was causing social unrest and physical blight and had been targeted by the government for development. PD 814 was promulgated in October 1975 to support RA 1597 governing land use in the Tondo Foreshore Area. The law prescribes the land tenure system for the Tondo Foreshore and Dagat-dagatan Urban Development Project .1980 The largest single concentration of squatter or illegal settlement at 27.
000 families to nearby Dagat-dagatan. .1980 The Government and people‟s organization with support from the World Bank gradually hammered out the development plan implying maximum retention of squatter households with relocation for the overspill of about 9. 1971 .
as well as the absence of an effective regulatory system. slums and squatters‟ colonies or illegal settlements Illegal settlements being formalized and developed through the Urban Land reform Act and related laws . had spawned disastrous land speculation and had cause irrational patterns of land development resulting in the emergence of blighted areas. 1971 – 1990 The monopoly of land-ownership by a few.
Thank You! .