CHAPTER 28

HEAT TRANSFER
1.

2.

3.

4.

t1 = 90°C,
t2 = 10°C
–3
l = 1 cm = 1 × 10 m
2
–2
2
A = 10 cm × 10 cm = 0.1 × 0.1 m = 1 × 10 m
K = 0.80 w/m-°C

10 cm

KA (1   2 )
8  10 1  1 10 2  80
Q
=
=
= 64 J/s = 64 × 60 3840 J.
t
l
1  10  2
2
t = 1 cm = 0.01 m,
A = 0.8 m
1 = 300,
2 = 80
K = 0.025,
KA(1   2 )
Q
0.025  0.8  (30030 )
=
=
= 440 watt.
t
l
0.01
2
K = 0.04 J/m-5°C,
A = 1.6 m
t1 = 97°F = 36.1°C
t2 = 47°F = 8.33°C
l = 0.5 cm = 0.005 m

10

1 cm

KA (1   2 )
4  10 2  1.6  27.78
Q
=
=
= 356 J/s
t
l
5  10  3
2
–4
2
A = 25 cm = 25 × 10 m
–3
l = 1 mm = 10 m
K = 50 w/m-°C
Q
= Rate of conversion of water into steam
t
10 1  2.26  10 6
100  10 3  2.26  10 6
4
=
=
= 0.376 × 10
1 min
60
KA (1   2 )
50  25  10 4  (  100 )
Q
4
=
 0.376 ×10 =
t
l
10  3
=

5.

6.

7.

10 3  0.376  10 4
50  25  10

4

=

10 5  0.376
= 30.1 ≈ 30
50  25

K = 46 w/m-s°C
l=1m
2
–6
2
A = 0.04 cm = 4 × 10 m
5
Lfussion ice = 3.36 × 10 j/Kg

46  4  10 6  100
Q
–8
–5
=
= 5.4 × 10 kg ≈ 5.4 × 10 g.
t
1
A = 2400 cm2 = 2400 × 10–4 m2
–3
ℓ = 2 mm = 2 × 10 m
K = 0.06 w/m-°C
1 = 20°C
2 = 0°C

0°C

KA(1   2 )
Q
0.06  2400  10 4  20
–1
=
=
= 24 × 6 × 10 × 10 = 24 × 6 = 144 J/sec
3
t

2  10
144
144  3600
m
Q
=
=
Kg/h =
Kg/s = 1.52 kg/s.
Rate in which ice melts =
t
t L
3.4  10 5
3.4  10 5
–3
ℓ = 1 mm = 10 m
m = 10 kg
2
–2
2
A = 200 cm = 2 × 10 m
6
Lvap = 2.27 × 10 J/kg
K = 0.80 J/m-s-°C
28.1

100°C

Heat Transfer
6

dQ = 2.27 × 10 × 10,

2.27  10 7
dQ
2
=
= 2.27 × 10 J/s
dt
10 5
Again we know

dQ
0.80  2  10 2  ( 42  T )
=
dt
1 10  3
So,

8.

3

= 2.27 × 10

2

10
 16 × 42 – 16T = 227  T = 27.8 ≈ 28°C
K = 45 w/m-°C
–2
ℓ = 60 cm = 60 × 10 m
2
–4
2
A = 0.2 cm = 0.2 × 10 m
Rate of heat flow,
=

9.

8  2  10 3 ( 42  T )

Q2 = 20°

Q1 = 40°

KA (1   2 )
45  0.2  10 4  20
–3
=
= 30 × 10 0.03 w

60  10  2
2

A = 10 cm ,

h = 10 cm

KA(1   2 )
Q
200  10 3  30
=
=
= 6000
t

1  10  3
Since heat goes out from both surfaces. Hence net heat coming out.
Q
Q

=
= 6000 × 2 = 12000,
= MS
t
t
t

–3
–1
 6000 × 2 = 10 × 10 × 1000 × 4200 ×
t

72000

=
= 28.57
t
420
So, in 1 Sec. 28.57°C is dropped
1
Hence for drop of 1°C
sec. = 0.035 sec. is required
28.57
–2
10. ℓ = 20 cm = 20× 10 m
2
–4
2
A = 0.2 cm = 0.2 × 10 m
1 = 80°C,
2 = 20°C,
K = 385
KA(1   2 )
Q
385  0.2  10 4 (80  20)
–4
–3
=
=
= 385 × 6 × 10 ×10 = 2310 × 10 = 2.31
(a)
t

20  10  2
(b) Let the temp of the 11 cm point be 

Q
=
20°C
l
tKA

2.31
11 cm

=
l
385  0.2  10  4
  20
2.31

=
2
11  10
385  0.2  10  4

2.31  10 4
 11 10  2 = 33
385  0.2
  = 33 + 20 = 53
11. Let the point to be touched be ‘B’
No heat will flow when, the temp at that point is also 25°C
i.e. QAB = QBC
C
KA(100  25)
KA(25  0)
So,
=
100  x
x
 75 x = 2500 – 25 x  100 x = 2500  x = 25 cm from the end with 0°C

80°C

  – 20 =

28.2

100 cm
B
x

A
100–x

Heat Transfer
12. V = 216 cm
a = 6 cm,

3
2

Surface area = 6 a = 6 × 36 m
Q
= 100 W,
t

t = 0.1 cm

2

KA(1   2 )
Q
=
t

 100 =
K=

K  6  36  10 4  5
0.1 10  2
100

= 0.9259 W/m°C ≈ 0.92 W/m°C
6  36  5  10 1
13. Given 1 = 1°C,
2 = 0°C
–3
K = 0.50 w/m-°C,
d = 2 mm = 2 × 10 m
–2
2
v = 10 cm/s = 0.1 m/s
A = 5 × 10 m ,
Power = Force × Velocity = Mg × v
KA(1   2 )
dQ
=
Again Power =
dt
d
KA(1   2 )
So, Mgv =
d

M

KA(1   2 )
5  10 1  5  2 1
=
= 12.5 kg.
dvg
2  10  3  10 1  10
3
14. K = 1.7 W/m-°C
ƒw = 1000 Kg/m
5
–2
Lice = 3.36 × 10 J/kg
T = 10 cm = 10 × 10 m
KA(1   2 )
KA(1   2 )

KA (1   2 )
Q
10 cm
=

=
=
(a)
t

t
Q
mL
KA (1   2 )
1.7  [0  ( 10)]
=
=
At ƒ w L
10  10  2  1000  3.36  10 5
M=

–0°C

0°C

17
–7
–7
 10  7 = 5.059 × 10 ≈ 5 × 10 m/sec
3.36
(b) let us assume that x length of ice has become formed to form a small strip of ice of length dx, dt time
is required.
dQ
KA ( )
dmL
KA ( )
KA ( )
=

=

=
dt
x
dt
x
dt
x
xdxƒL
dx ƒL
K (  )

=
 dt =
x
dt
x
K (  )
=

t

dt =

0

l

ƒ L t
xdx
K( ) 0

Putting values

t=

ƒ L l 2
ƒ L  x 2 
  =
K( )  2 
K 2

dx

o

2

3.36  10 6
1000  3.36  10 5  10  10 2
3.36
=
 10 6 sec. =
hrs = 27.45 hrs ≈ 27.5 hrs.
1.7  10  2
2  17
2  17  3600
15. let ‘B’ be the maximum level upto which ice is formed. Hence the heat conducted at that point from both
the levels is the same.
A
Let AB = x
–10°C
K ice  A  10
K water  A  4
Q
Q
x
ice =
water

=
i.e.
1 cm
t
t
x
(1  x )
t=

1.7  10
17
2
5  10 1  4
=

=
x
1 x
x
1 x
17
 17 – 17 x = 2x  19 x = 17  x =
= 0.894 ≈ 89 cm
19

28.3

1–x
C

4°C

Heat Transfer
16. KAB = 50 j/m-s-°c
A = 40°C
B = 80°C
KBC = 200 j/m-s-°c
KAC = 400 j/m-s-°c
C = 80°C
–2
Length = 20 cm = 20 × 10 m
2
–4
2
A = 1 cm = 1 × 10 m
(a)

Q AB
K  A ( B   A )
50  1 10 4  40
= AB
=
= 1 W.
t
l
20  10  2

(b)

Q AC
K  A(C   A )
400  1 10 4  40
–2
= AC
=
= 800 × 10 = 8
t
l
20  10  2

QBC
K  A ( B   C )
200  1 10 4  0
= BC
=
=0
t
l
20  10  2
KA(1   2 )
17. We know Q =
d
KA (1   2 )
KA (1   2 )
Q1 =
,
Q2 =
d1
d2
(c)

KA (1  1 )
Q1
2r
2
r
=
=
=
[d1 = r,
d2 = 2r]
KA (1  1 )
Q2
r

2r
18. The rate of heat flow per sec.
dQ A
d
=
= KA
dt
dt
The rate of heat flow per sec.
dQB
d
= KA B
=
dt
dt
This part of heat is absorbed by the red.
Q
ms
d
=
where
= Rate of net temp. variation
t
dt
dt
d
d
d 
msd
d
 d

= KA A  KA B
 ms
= KA  A  B 
dt 
dt
dt
dt
dt
 dt

r

r

d
–4
= 200 × 1 × 10 (5 – 2.5) °C/cm
dt
d
-4
 0 .4 
= 200 × 10 × 2.5
dt
 0 .4 

200  2.5  10 4
d
–2
=
°C/m = 1250 × 10 = 12.5 °C/m
dt
0.4  10  2
19. Given
T2 - T1 = 90°C
Krubber = 0.15 J/m-s-°C
We know for radial conduction in a Cylinder
2Kl(T2  T1 )
Q
=
ln(R 2 / R1 )
t

=
20.

2  3.14  15  10 2  50  10 1  90
= 232.5 ≈ 233 j/s.
ln(1.2 / 1)

dQ
= Rate of flow of heat
dt
Let us consider a strip at a distance r from the center of thickness dr.
dQ
K  2rd  d
=
[d = Temperature diff across the thickness dr]
dt
dr
28.4

120°C

50 cm

Heat Transfer
C=

K  2rd  d
dr

d 

c  dr 

dr
r

dr
= K2d d
r
Integrating
 C

r2

C

r1

dr
= K2d
r

r1

2

r2

 Clog r r2 = K2d (2 – 1)
r

d

1

1

r 
 C(log r2 – log r1) = K2d (2 – 1)  C log  2  = K2d (2 – 1)
 r1 
K 2d( 2  1 )
C=
log(r2 / r1 )
21. T1 > T2
2
2
A = (R2 – R1 )
2

2

KA (T2  T1 )
KA (R 2  R1 )(T2  T1 )
=
l
l
Considering a concentric cylindrical shell of radius ‘r’ and thickness
‘dr’. The radial heat flow through the shell
dQ
d
= – KA
[(-)ve because as r – increases 
H=
dt
dt
decreases]
d
H = –2rl K
A = 2rl
dt

So, Q =

R2

or

R1

2LK
dr
= 
H
r

T2

R1

R2
T1

l

T2

 d

T1

Integrating and simplifying we get
2KL(T2  T1 )
2KL( T2  T1 )
dQ
=
=

H=
dt
Loge(R 2 / R1 )
ln(R 2 / R1 )
22. Here the thermal conductivities are in series,
K 1A(1  2 ) K 2 A(1   2 )

KA (1   2 )
l1
l2

=
K 1A(1   2 ) K 2 A(1   2 )
l1  l2

l1
l2

K1 K 2

l
l2
 1
K1 K 2

l1
l2

L1
L2

=

K
l1  l 2

K 1K 2
(K 1K 2 )(l1  l2 )
K
=
K=
K 1l 2  K 2l1
l1  l2
K 1l2  K 2l1

23. KCu = 390 w/m-°C
KSt = 46 w/m-°C
Now, Since they are in series connection,
So, the heat passed through the crossections in the same.
So, Q1 = Q2
K  A  (  0)
K  A  (100  )
Or Cu
= St
l
l
 390( – 0) = 46 × 100 – 46  436  = 4600
4600
=
= 10.55 ≈ 10.6°C
436
28.5

0°C

Cu

Steel
°C

100°C

Heat Transfer
24. As the Aluminum rod and Copper rod joined are in parallel

Q
Q
Q
=     
t
t
 1  Al  t  Cu

40°C
80°C

Cu

Al

80°C

KA(1   2 )
K A(1   2 ) K 2 A(1   2 )
= 1

l
l
l
 K = K1 + K2 = (390 + 200) = 590

KA (1   2 )
590  1 10 4  (60  20)
Q
–4
=
=
= 590 × 10 × 40 = 2.36 Watt
t
l
1
KCu = 400 w/m-°C
25. KAl = 200 w/m-°C
2
–5
2
A = 0.2 cm = 2 × 10 m
–1
l = 20 cm = 2 × 10 m
Heat drawn per second
K Al  A(80  40) K Cu  A(80  40)
2  10 5  40
=

[200  400] = 2.4 J
l
l
2  10 1
Heat drawn per min = 2.4 × 60 = 144 J
26. (Q/t)AB = (Q/t)BE bent + (Q/t)BE
KA (1   2 )
KA (1   2 )
(Q/t)BE bent =
(Q/t)BE =
70
60
(Q / t )BE bent
60
6
=
=
D
(Q / t )BE
70
7
= QAl + QCu =

0°C
F

(Q/t)BE bent + (Q/t)BE = 130
 (Q/t)BE bent + (Q/t)BE 7/6 = 130

7

   1 (Q/t)BE bent = 130
6

27.

 (Q/t)BE bent =

20 cm

A
100°C

B
60 cm

20 cm

130  6
= 60
13

Q
780  A  100
bent =
t
70
Q
390  A  100
str =
t
60
(Q / t ) bent
780  A  100
60
12
=

=
(Q / t ) str
70
390  A  100
7

28. (a)

E

C

KA(1   2 )
Q
1 2  1( 40  32)
=
=
= 8000 J/sec.
t

2  10  3

60 cm
5 cm
20 cm

5 cm
20 cm

1 mm

(b) Resistance of glass =
ak g ak g
Resistance of air =
Net resistance =

g

ak a

ak g ak g ak a
=

1 
  2
  2k a  k g 
= 

a  kg ka 
a  K gk a 

=

1 10 3  2  0.025  1 

2
0.025

1 10 3  1.05
0.05
8  0.05
=
= 380.9 ≈ 381 W
1 10  3  1.05
=

  2
Q
= 1
t
R

28.6

a

g

Heat Transfer
29. Now; Q/t remains same in both cases
K  A  (100  70)
K  A  (70  0)
= B
In Case  : A

 30 KA = 70 KB
K  A  (100  )
K  A  (   0)
In Case  : B
= A

 100KB – KB  = KA 
70
KB 
 100KB – KB  =
30
7
300
=
= 30°C
 100 =   
3
10
30. 1 – 2 = 100
  2
Q
0°C
= 1
t
R

1 
 2

R = R1 + R2 +R3 =
= 
 =
aK Al aK Cu aK Al
a  200 400 

100°C

100°C

Al

70°C
A

0°C

B

°C
B

0°C

A

Al

Cu

100°C

 1
  4  1

 =
a  400 
a 80

100
Q
a
=
 40 = 80 × 100 ×
 / a 1 / 80
t

a
1
=

200
For (b)

l
l
l

R CuR Al
R CuR Al
AK Al AK Cu AK Al
R = R1 + R2 = R1 +
= RAl +
=
l
l
R Cu  R Al
R Cu  R Al

A Cu A Al
=

R2

  2
100
Q
100  600 A
100  600
1
= 1
=
=
=

= 75
l / A 4 / 600
t
R
4
l
4
200
For (c)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
=

=

l
l
l
R
R1 R 2 R 3
aK Al
aK Cu aK Al

Al

T  T3 T  T2
T1  T
=

l
3l / 2
3l / 2

 – 7T = – 3T1 – 2(T2 + T3)

 3T1 – 3T = 4T – 2(T2 + T3)

3T1  2(T2  T3 )
T=
7
28.7

Al

Al
0°C

a
a
a
(K Al  K Cu  K Al ) = 2  200  400  = 800 
l
l
l
l
1
R= 
a 800
  2
Q
100  800  a

= 1
=
t
R
l
100  800
=
= 400 W
200
31. Let the temp. at B be T
Q
QA
Q
KA(T1  T )
KA(T  T3 ) KA(T  T2 )

= B  C

=
t
t
t
l
l  (l / 2)
l  (l / 2)
=

R 100°C

Cu

R1

l
l
l
l
4
l  1
1

 
=

=

AK Al A K Al  K Cu
A  200 200  400  A 600

Cu

100°C

Al
T2

T3

E

F
QB

QC
B

C

D
QA
T1

A

T2

T3

E

F
QB

QC
C

D
QA
T1

A

Heat Transfer
32. The temp at the both ends of bar F is same
Rate of Heat flow to right = Rate of heat flow through left
 (Q/t)A + (Q/t)C = (Q/t)B + (Q/t)D
K (T  T )A K C (T1  T )A
K (T  T2 )A K D (T  T2 )A
 A 1
= B

l
l
l
l
 2K0(T1 – T) = 2 × 2K0(T – T2)
 T1 – T = 2T – 2T2
T  2T2
T= 1
3
y  r1 
r2  r1
33. Tan  =
=
L
x
 xr2 – xr1 = yL – r1L
Differentiating wr to ‘x’
Ldy
 r2 – r 1 =
0
dx
r r
dyL
dy

= 2 1  dx =
…(1)
r2  r1 
dx
L

Q

(r2 – r1) r2
r1

L

QLdy
(r2  r1 )Ky 2

Integrating both side
2

d =

1

QL
r2  r1 k

r2

r1

dy
y
r

  1 2
QL
 (2 – 1) =
 
r2  r1 K  y  r
1

1 1
QL
  
 (2 – 1) =
r2  r1 K  r1 r2 
 (2 – 1) =

r  r 
QL
  2 1
r2  r1 K  r1  r2 

Kr1r2 ( 2  1 )

L
d
60
=
= 0.1°C/sec
dt
10  60
dQ
KA
1  2 
=
dt
d
KA  0.1 KA  0.2
KA  60

 ....... 
=
d
d
d
KA
KA 600
=
(0.1  0.2  ........  60) =

 (2  0.1  599  0.1)
d
d
2
[ a + 2a +……….+ na = n/2{2a + (n – 1)a}]

Q=
34.

=

200  1 10 4

 300  (0.2  59.9) =

20  10  2
= 3 × 10 × 60.1 = 1803 w ≈ 1800 w



x

Ky 2 d
Q
dx
2
=

= ky d
T
dx
T
Ldy
2
= Ky d
from(1)

r2r1

200  10 2  300  60.1
20

28.8

d

y

Now

 d

dx

Heat Transfer
35. a = r1 = 5 cm = 0.05 m
b = r2 = 20 cm = 0.2 m
1 = T1 = 50°C
2 = T2 = 10°C
Now, considering a small strip of thickness ‘dr’ at a distance ‘r’.
2
A = 4 r
d
2
H = – 4 r K
[(–)ve because with increase of r,  decreases]
dr
b dr
4K 2
=
On integration,
=
d
2
a r
H 1
4ab(1   2 )
dQ
H=
= K
dt
(b  a)
Putting the values we get

20
cm

K  4  3.14  5  20  40  10 3
K=

15  10  2
15

dr

= 100

a

b

r

= 2.985 ≈ 3 w/m-°C
4  3.14  4  10 1
KA (T1  T2 )
KA (T1  T2 )
Q
36.
=
Rise in Temp. in T2 
t
L
Lms
KA (T1  T2 )
KA(T1  T2 )
Fall in Temp in T1 =
Final Temp. T1  T1 
Lms
Lms
KA (T1  T2 )
Final Temp. T2 = T2 
Lms
KA(T1  T2 )
KA (T1  T2 )
T
Final
= T1 
 T2 
dt
Lms
Lms
= T1  T2  
 Ln
37.

2KA(T1  T2 )
2KA(T1  T2 )
dT
=
= 

Lms
dt
Lms

(T1  T2 ) / 2
2KAt
=
(T1  T2 )
Lms

 ln (1/2) =

KA(T1  T2 )
Q
=
t
L
Fall in Temp in T1 

( T1  T2 )

( T1  T2 )

2KAt
Lms

Rise in Temp. in T2 

KA (T1  T2 )
Lm 2 s 2

Final Temp. T2 = T2 

Final Temp. T1 = T1 

2KA
dt
=
dt
Lms
(T1  T2 )

 ln2 =

2KAt
Lms

 t = ln2

KA (T1  T2 )
Lm1s1
KA(T1  T2 )
Lm1s1

KA (T1  T2 )
Lm1s1

 KA(T1  T2 ) KA (T1  T2 ) 
KA(T1  T2 )
KA (T1  T2 )
T
 T2 
= T1 
= T1  T2   

dt
Lm1s1
Lm 2 s 2
Lm 2 s 2 
 Lm1s1

KA T1  T2   1
dT
1

= 

dt
L
 m1s1 m 2 s 2

 lnt = 



dT
KA  m 2 s 2  m1s1 
dt

= 
T1  T2 
L  m1s1m 2 s 2 

KA  m2 s 2  m1s1 
t  C

L  m1s1m2 s 2 

At time t = 0, T = T0,
 ln

5 cm

T = T0

T
T
KA  m 2 s 2  m1s1 
t 

= 
= e
T0
T0
L  m1s1m 2 s 2 

 T = T0 e

KA  m1s1  m2s2 

t
L  m1s1m2s2 

= T2  T1  e

 C = lnT0
KA  m1s1  m2s2 
t

L  m1s1m2s2 

KA  m1s1  m2s2 

t
L  m1s1m2s2  

28.9

Lms
2KA

Heat Transfer
38.

KA(Ts  T0 )
nCP dT KA(Ts  T0 )
Q
=

=
t
x
dt
x
KA(Ts  T0 )
2LA
n(5 / 2)RdT
dT

=

=
(TS  T0 )
5nRx
dt
x
dt
dT

= 
 ln(TS  T0 )TT0 = 
(TS  T0 )
5nRx
5nRx

x

2KAt

 ln

TS  T
= 
 TS – T = (TS  T0 )e 5nRx
TS  T0
5nRx

 T = TS  ( TS  T0 )e

2KAt
5nRx

= TS  (TS  T0 )e

 T = T – T0 = (TS  T0 )  (TS  T0 )e

2KAt
5nRx

2KAt
5nRx

2KAt

= (TS  T0 )  1  e 5nRx

2KAt 

Pa AL
P AL
= (TS  T0 )  1  e 5nRx 
PaAl = nRdt
dT = a
]

nR
nR

2KAt 

nR
L=
(TS  T0 )  1  e 5nRx  

Pa A

2
–8
2
4
39. A = 1.6 m ,
T = 37°C = 310 K,
 = 6.0 × 10 w/m -K
4
–8
4
–4
= AT = 1.6 × 6 × 10 × (310) = 8865801 × 10 = 886.58 ≈ 887 J
2
–4
2
40. A = 12 cm = 12 × 10 m
T = 20°C = 293 K
–8
2 4
e = 0.8
 = 6 × 10 w/m -k
Q
4
–4
–8
4
12
–13
= Ae T = 12 × 10 0.8 × 6 × 10 (293) = 4.245 × 10 × 10 = 0.4245 ≈ 0.42
t
41. E  Energy radiated per unit area per unit time
Rate of heat flow  Energy radiated
(a) Per time = E × A

So, EAl =

eT 4  A
4

=

4r 2
2

4(2r )
eT  A
(b) Emissivity of both are same
m1S1dT1
=1
=
m 2S 2 dT2

=

1
4

1:4

dT1
m S
s 4r 3  S 2
1   900
= 2 2 = 1 13
=
=1:2:9
dT2
m1S1
3
.
4  8  390
s 2 4r2  S1

Q
4
= Ae T
t
100

4
4
T =
T =
teA
0.8  2  3.14  4  10  5  1  6  10  8
 T = 1697.0 ≈ 1700 K
2
–4
2
43. (a) A = 20 cm = 20× 10 m ,
T = 57°C = 330 K
4
–4
–8
4
4
E = A T = 20 × 10 × 6 × 10 × (330) × 10 = 1.42 J
E
4
4
2
–4
2
(b)
= Ae(T1 – T2 ),
A = 20 cm = 20 × 10 m
t
–8
 = 6 × 10
T1 = 473 K,
T2 = 330 K
–4
–8
4
4
= 20 × 10 × 6 × 10 × 1[(473) – (330) ]
10
10
= 20 × 6 × [5.005 × 10 – 1.185 × 10 ]
–2
from the ball.
= 20 × 6 × 3.82 × 10 = 4.58 w

42.

28.10

Heat Transfer
–3

44. r = 1 cm = 1 × 10 m
–2 2
–4
2
A = 4(10 ) = 4 × 10 m
–8
E = 0.3,
 = 6 × 10
E
4
4
= Ae(T1 – T2 )
t
–8
–4
4
4
= 0.3 × 6 × 10 × 4 × 10 × [(100) – (300) ]
–12
12
= 0.3 × 6 × 4 × 10 × [1 – 0.0081] × 10
–4
= 0.3 × 6 × 4 × 3.14 × 9919 × 10
–5
= 4 × 18 × 3.14 × 9919 × 10 = 22.4 ≈ 22 W
45. Since the Cube can be assumed as black body
e=ℓ
–8
2 4
 = 6 × 10 w/m -k
–4
2
A = 6 × 25 × 10 m
m = 1 kg
s = 400 J/kg-°K
T1 = 227°C = 500 K
T2 = 27°C = 300 K
d
4
4
 ms
= eA(T1 – T2 )
dt

4

eA T1  T2
d
=
dt
ms

4

1 6  10 8  6  25  10 4  [(500 ) 4  (300) 4 ]
1 400
36  25  544
–4
=
 10  4 = 1224 × 10 = 0.1224°C/s ≈ 0.12°C/s.
400
4
4
46. Q = eA(T2 – T1 )
For any body, 210 = eA[(500)4 – (300)4]
For black body, 700 = 1 × A[(500)4 – (300)4]
210
e
Dividing
=
 e = 0.3
700
1
2
2
AB = 80 cm
47. AA = 20 cm ,
(mS)A = 42 J/°C,
(mS)B = 82 J/°C,
TA = 100°C,
TB = 20°C
KB is low thus it is a poor conducter and KA is high.
Thus A will absorb no heat and conduct all
=

E
4
4
  = AA [(373) – (293) ]
t
 A

 d 
 mS A   =
 dt  A

B
A

4

4

AA [(373) – (293) ]

A a (373 ) 4  (293 ) 4
6  10 8 (373 ) 4  (293 ) 4
 d 
   =
=
= 0.03 °C/S
(mS ) A
42
 dt  A

 d 
Similarly   = 0.043 °C/S
 dt B
48.

Q
4
4
= eAe(T2 – T1 )
t
Q
–8
4
4
–8
8
8

= 1 × 6 × 10 [(300) – (290) ]
= 6 × 10 (81 × 10 – 70.7 × 10 ) = 6 × 10.3
At
KA (1   2 )
Q
=
t
l
K(1   2 )
Q
K  17
K  17
6  10.3  0.5

=
=
= 6 × 10.3 =
K=
= 1.8
tA
l
0 .5
0 .5
17
28.11

Heat Transfer
–8

2

4

49.  = 6 × 10 w/m -k
L = 20 cm = 0.2 m,
K=?
KA(1   2 )
4
4
E=
= A(T1 – T2 )
d
s(T1  T2 )  d
6  10 8  (750 4  300 4 )  2  10 1
K=
=
1  2
50
 K = 73.993 ≈ 74.
50. v = 100 cc
 = 5°C
t = 5 min
For water
mS 
KA
=

dt
l

100  10 3  1000  4200
KA
=
5
l
For Kerosene
ms
KA
=
at
l

100  10 3  800  2100
KA
=
t
l

100  10 3  800  2100
100  10 3  1000  4200
=
t
5
5  800  2100
T=
= 2 min
1000  4200
51. 50°C
45°C
40°C
Let the surrounding temperature be ‘T’°C
50  45
Avg. t =
= 47.5
2
Avg. temp. diff. from surrounding
T = 47.5 – T
50  45
Rate of fall of temp =
= 1 °C/mm
5
From Newton’s Law
1°C/mm = bA × t
1
1
 bA = =
…(1)
t
47.5  T
In second case,
40  45
Avg, temp =
= 42.5
2
Avg. temp. diff. from surrounding
t = 42.5 – t
45  40
5
Rate of fall of temp =
= °C/mm
8
8
From Newton’s Law
5
= bAt
B
1
5
=
 ( 42.5  T )

8
( 47.5  T )
By C & D [Componendo & Dividendo method]
We find, T = 34.1°C

28.12

300 K

750 K

800 K
20 cm

Heat Transfer
52. Let the water eq. of calorimeter = m

(m  50  10 3 )  4200  5
= Rate of heat flow
10
(m  100  10 3 )  4200  5
= Rate of flow
18
(m  50  10 3 )  4200  5
(m  100  10 3 )  4200  5

=
10
18
–3
–3
 (m + 50 × 10 )18 = 10m + 1000 × 10
–3
–3
 18m + 18 × 50 × 10 = 10m + 1000 × 10
–3
 8m = 100 × 10 kg
–3
 m = 12.5 × 10 kg = 12.5 g
53. In steady state condition as no heat is absorbed, the rate of loss of heat by
conduction is equal to that of the supplied.
i.e. H = P
m = 1Kg, Power of Heater = 20 W, Room Temp. = 20°C
d
= P = 20 watt
(a) H =
dt
(b) by Newton’s law of cooling
d
= K( – 0)
dt
–20 = K(50 – 20)  K = 2/3
d
2
20
= K( – 0) =  (30  20) =
w
Again,
3
dt
3
20
10
 dQ 
 dQ 
 dQ 
=
(c) 

 = 0,
 =

3
3
 dt  20
 dt  30
 dt  avg
T = 5 min = 300 

10
 300 = 1000 J
3
Net Heat absorbed = Heat supplied – Heat Radiated = 6000 – 1000 = 5000 J
Now, m = 5000
5000
5000
–1
–1
S=
=
= 500 J Kg °C
m
1  10
54. Given:
Heat capacity = m × s = 80 J/°C
Heat liberated =

 d 
= 2 °C/s
 
 dt  increase
 d 
= 0.2 °C/s
 
 dt  decrease

 d 
= 80 × 2 = 160 W
(a) Power of heater = mS 
 dt  increa sin g
 d 
= 80 × 0.2 = 16 W
(b) Power radiated = mS 
 dt  decrea sin g
 d 
= K(T – T0)
(c) Now mS 
 dt  decrea sin g
 16 = K(30 – 20)

K=

16
= 1.6
10

d
= K(T – T0) = 1.6 × (30 – 25) = 1.6 × 5 = 8 W
dt
(d) P.t = H  8 × t

Now,

28.13

30°C

T
20°C

t

Heat Transfer
55.

d
= – K(T – T0)
dt
Temp. at t = 0 is 1
(a) Max. Heat that the body can loose = Qm = ms(1 – 0)
( as, t = 1 – 0)
(b) if the body loses 90% of the max heat the decrease in its temp. will be
(  0 )  9
Q m  9
= 1
10ms
10
If it takes time t1, for this process, the temp. at t1
101  91  90
  9 0
9
= 1  (1  0 )
=
= 1
1
10
10
10
d
Now,
= – K( – 1)
dt
Let  = 1 at t = 0; &  be temp. at time t

t

d
  K dt 
  o

0

  0
or, ln
= – Kt
1  0
–kt

…(2)
or,  – 0 = (1 – 0) e
Putting value in the Eq (1) and Eq (2)
1  90
–kt
 0 (1 – 0) e
10
ln 10
 t1 =
k



28.14