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Ching Kang Liu National Taipei University firstname.lastname@example.org http://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~ckliu/
Rhythm & intonation
1. Rhythm (suprasegmental stress patterns) (time)
a. The relationship between stressed and unstressed syllables b. Patterns of combination of stressed and unstressed syllables c. The liaison or other phonological structures (assimilation, deletion, etc.)
2. Intonation (suprasegmental melody) (time + space)
a. Pitch contours; break indexes (time) b. The intonation units; the pitch accent (time + space)
3. Declination (suprasegmental melody) (time + space)
a. Declination of statements (time + space) b. Down-step slopes (time + space)
What are different between the two languages?
1. Stress & rhythm
2. Intonation units 3. Pitch accents (The invariable quality of the stressed syllable/sound)
4. The break index
5. Mismatched patterns (The relations between the adjacent syllables)
Primary stresses b. etc. The liaison or other phonological structures (assimilation. rhythm. The relationship between stressed and unstressed syllables b. break index. Intonation units and break index (suprasegmental melody) Patterns of IU. deletion. Patterns of combination of stressed and unstressed syllables c. Intonation (suprasegmental melody) a. Other subtle things about stress B. c. etc. Rhythm (suprasegmental stress patterns) a.) C. intonation & other prosodic elements A. Practice the intonation units & contours 4 . Patterns of pitch contours b. Secondary stresses. Stress (words and phrases) a.Contents Stress. More scientific ways to understand the intonation of English D. mismatch patterns and declination E.
Intonation Traditional intonational frameworks 5 .
ntpu.Intonation Traditional intonational frameworks 1. Possible sample presentations of different patterns (Sixteen possible varieties in utterances: http://web. et..tw/~ckliu/pronunciation/intonation2/intonation2.edu. 1996. Teaching Pronunciation) 6 .htm) (Celce Mercia. al. Pitch contours 2. Generalized patterns 3.
. al. Teaching Pronunciation) 7 .Intonation Traditional intonational frameworks (Celce Mercia. 1996. et.
He's taken an aspirin Have you got a minute? Can I ask you a question? Who will help? What about Jonathan? 8 .Intonation Contrasting the traditional contours & acoustic data The traditional approach John's sick.
192028 Time (s) 1. 9 .3504 John's sick.Intonation Contrasting the traditional contours & acoustic data The acoustic approach 5000 0 0.
15162 What about Jonathan? 10 .Intonation Contrasting the traditional contours & acoustic data The acoustic approach 5000 0 1.7757 Time (s) 3.
58579 Time (s) 3.04458 11 .16553 5000 Can I ask you a question? 0 1.Intonation Contrasting the traditional contours & acoustic data The acoustic approach 5000 Have you got a minute? 0 0.0502185 Time (s) 1.
112 12 .16553 5000 500 你攀得上去嗎？ Frequency (Hz) Pitch (Hz) 0 0 Time (s) 1.Contrast 5000 Are they different? Have you got a minute? 0 0.0502185 Time (s) 1.
Stress Section 1 Stressed sounds vs. Unstressed sounds 13 .
Mandarin speakers focus more on each individual “word.Stress Stress & rhythm 1. English speakers focus very much on stressed vowels and usually “blur” unstressed vowels in their speech. 2. English speakers focus very much on the relationship between the local stress and the global stress in an utterance.” 14 . Mandarin speakers focus more on the tone than on the stress.
burning bright In the forests of the night (William Blake) 15 . Richard III) 2. Iambic (Pentameter) Iambic or trochee To strive. to find. Tyger.Stress 1. Peter pumpkin-eater Had a wife and couldn't keep her (Children's rhymes) Tyger. Trochee Peter. to seek. "Ulysses") A horse! A horse! My kingdom for a horse! (William Shakespeare. and not to yield. (Alfred Tennyson.
and time Read the following expressions (containing different number of syllables) in about the same length of time 1. rhythm. strong stronger stronger taste taste distaste 5. slow turn slowly turn slowly return 16 .Stress Stress. quick call quick recall quickly recall 2. new vice new device newest device 3. broad view broad review broader review 4.
fire kitchen fire in kitchen fire in the kitchen a fire in the kitchen It’s a fire in the kitchen 17 . and time Read the following expressions (containing different number of syllables) in about the same length of time 1.Stress Stress. rhythm.
and time snow expected Friday snow is expected Friday snow is expected on Friday some snow is expected on Friday Practice: a. e. rhythm. Give me the book. I did it as quickly as possible. b. d. I can understand. 18 . c.Stress 2 Stress. He was sick. He wants to leave.
moo there. Here a moo. E-I-E-I-O. Everywhere a moo-moo. Old MacDonald had a farm.Stress More examples in different situations MAN MAN MAN will MAN’s gonna LEAVEs LEAVEs LEAVE LEAVE HOME. And on his farm he had some cows. With a moo. there a moo. moo here and a moo. HOME. E-I-E-I-O. 19 . The The The his his his Old MacDonald had a farm. E-I-E-I-O. HOME. HOME.
HOME. Everywhere a moo-moo. With a moo. 20 . And on his farm he had a cow. E-I-E-I-O. HOME. there a moo. moo here and a moo. moo there. The The The his his his Old MacDonald had a farm.Stress More examples in different situations MAN MAN MAN will MAN’s gonna LEAVEs LEAVEs LEAVE LEAVE HOME. E-I-E-I-O. E-I-E-I-O. Here a moo. Old MacDonald had a farm. HOME.
0 0 Time (s) 1. and time 0 0 1.29326 5000 0 0 Time (s) 1.29686 5000 0 0 Time (s) 1.Stress 5000 Stress. rhythm.34813 21 .29172 The 5000 man’s going to leave Time (s) his home.
984 Frequency (Hz) 0 0 Time (s) 22 8. and time in Mandarin 你要去機場接人，別搭地鐵，我的車借你。 5000 Frequency (Hz) 0 0 5000 Time (s) 4.322 .Stress Stress. rhythm.
23 . But lexical stress can be very complicated if a word is used in different speech contexts. 3.Stress Tone sandhi and the iambic rhythm Lexical stress can be easily found in any dictionary right now. 2. Most of the time. the lexical stress serves as different “accented stresses” in an utterance. I have sixteen patients waiting for me. 1. For example. Fourteen people were killed last night. 1. The last patient is only sixteen. Armani knew the millionaire. For instance. 4. The number of the victims is fourteen.
Please sit down. Don’t drive fast.Practice Time and rhythm in a longer expressions StressStressStress Three blind mice. 24 . Come back soon. John can’t go.
Practice Time and rhythm in a longer expressions StressweakweakStressweakweakStress / wSwSwS Hickory dickory dock. The mouse ran up the clock. He’d rather take the bus. 25 . I’d like to cash a check. Do it according to plan. I’ll have her call you back. Give me a burger with cheese. Who is the man I should see.
Don’t forget the bread and milk. Find a space and park your car. How I wonder what you are. Don’t forget to leave a tip. Thanks a lot for all your help. Tell me why you don’t agree.Practice SwSwSwS Time and rhythm in a longer expressions Twinkle. 26 . twinkle little star. Let me help you find your keys.
Practice The general rules of stress in the context Rule 1: Compound nouns—AIRport deadline classroom establish a deadline a noisy classroom software steakhouse software packages a Japanese steakhouse Rule 2: Noun-noun combinations—TOOTH decay air conditioner repair the air conditioner shoe polish convention center some brown shoe polish the downtown convention center 27 .
EIGHty Rule 5: Verbs consisting of a prefix—underSTAND outrun overlook withdraw overhear print out shut down put off outrun his teammate overlook the error withdrew fifty dollars overheard the argument print out the document shut down the factory put off the meeting 28 Rule 6: two-word verbs—give UP . thirty years old vs.Practice The general rules of stress in the context myself themselves thirteen years old sixteen dollars went by myself finished it themselves vs. sixty dollars Rule 3: Reflexive pronouns—herSELF Rule 4: -teen and -ty—eighTEEN vs.
29 . Can you project our profits for the next quarter? You will need a permit to do the construction. 2.Practice The general rules of stress in the context Rule 7: Compound adverbs indicating location or direction—outSIDE overseas downtown northeast go overseas drove downtown in the northeast Rule 8: Two-syllable words used as both nouns and verbs—INsult / inSULT Noun conduct present project rebel Verb conduct present project rebel Practice: 1.
He looked at me. It’s a great book. 30 .Liaison Linking between vowels & consonants 1.or –ccvlook at me pick it up I couldn’t figure it out. I wouldn’t accept it. 2. -cv. -cca big girl walks slowly Kiss me.
Liaison Linking between vowels & consonants hand it in hand them in now throw them out throw it away call him up figure it out clean it up pick her up look them up turn them off 31 .
Chart 2 . Chart 3 fluid do it snowy go out flour how is it newest a few apples 32 . Vowels that follow /u/ Chart 1. Chart 2 reality be active playoff pay off triangle my ankle annoyance the boy and me 2. Vowels that follow /i/ Chart 1.Liaison Linking between vowels 1.
33 2. He’s studying with the radio on. 2. This section of town was previously an industrial area.Liaison 1. The pianist quickly realized the piano needed tuning. 3. 5. 4. . He’s obviously a creative person. 3. His experience in politics makes him a superior negotiator. More practice in the linking between vowels I can’t see it three others stay awake pay everything tea and coffee too often there is no answer Who is it? two apples let’s go out so easy 1.
Coalescent assimilation this year. Regressive assimilation input have to 3. would you…. set you up 34 . Progressive assimilation look looks love loves like liked love loved 2.Suprasegmental Assimilation 1. complete assimilation cupboard 4.
Suprasegmental When “s” and “es” are suffixes (sibilants) two roses /ro-zz/ or /ro-zz/ Josh’s brother /d-z/ 1. The judge /d/ they watch TV /t/ the judge’s decision /d-dz/ he watches TV /w-tz/ 5. a rose /z/ Josh // 3. 4. Try to read the following expression: Someone else’s book 35 . the boss /s/ The boss’s been here /b-sz/. 2.
3. When voiced consonants are followed by “s” or “es” a job /b/ good jobs /bz/ Sam /m/ Sam’s friend /mz/ Buy the book /bay/. He /hiy/ He’s here /hiyz/.Suprasegmental When “s” and “es” are suffixes (non-sibilants) 1. 2. When voiceless consonants are followed by “s” or “es” a ship /p/ two ships /ps/ they visit /t/ he visits /ts/ Dick /k/ Dick’s house /ks/ clock /k/ The clock’s broken /ks/. He buys books /bayz/. When /s/ is clustered with other sibilants: one month two months the earth the earth’s circumference 36 .
I checked in this morning. He filled out the application b.Suprasegmental When “d” and “ed” are suffixes after /d/ or /t/ construct decide graduate install save delay talk laugh process constructed decided graduated installed saved delayed talked laughed processed (after /t/) (after /d/) (after /t/) 1. 37 . Read the following expressions: a. 2. 4. 3.
Suprasegmental p1 /s/ When fricatives are followed by /j/ p2 p3 Examples this year miss you How is your day? He loves you. 38 /z/ /t/ or /ts/ /j/ / / /d/ or /dz/ / / . Did you do that? What would you do? My dad’s your partner. next year last year Who set you up? That’s your problem.
Suprasegmental More examples in single words 1. The next century 3. A recent graduate 39 . In the near future 2. individual rights 8. I assure you 4. a precise measurement 6. blood pressure 5. Leisure-time activities 7.
Deletion Loss of /h/ sound ask him did he Loss of // sound tell them something 2.Suprasegmental 1. Loss of /t/ or /d/ before // sudden sentences 4. 3. Loss of a syllable family temperature camera potato… 40 .
IU The basis sound unit in utterances Intonation Units 41 .
and the. and then from the hip down. and then. that you go by. You know. all the bones. all the way up. and where you…there’s a white line. and then. and ligaments. the bone in the hoof. then all the wall. he went over on how to trim it. all the way down to the hood. and you clean it out with the… 42 . you know. and what everything was called there. and. of the hoof. and a horse has this little white line. and. and you know.IU How to identify intonation units …so we had to know these tendons. from the shoulder down.
IU How to identify intonation units 43 .
Hirschberg & Pierrehumbert (1986) Avesani & Vayra 1988 and Ayers (1992) 44 . (2) final syllable lengthening or slow speech rate at the end of an IU.IU The principles to identify IU An intonation unit (IU) is a “thought group” or “intonation group” or “tone unit.” Criteria suggested for the delimitation of an IU are: (1) pause. (3) a following fast speech rate at the beginning of the next IU. (4) pitch reset.
7344 5000 so 400 had to know these ten.5864 0.5715 0 -0.7 45 .7 we Frequency (Hz) Pitch (Hz) 0 0.IU Try to identify the following sample 1 0.dons Time (s) and li- ga.ments 2.7344 Time (s) 2.
Try to identify the following sample 2
-0.6532 2.893 5000 400
Frequency (Hz) Pitch (Hz)
0 2.893 Time (s)
Try to identify the following sample 3
-0.6852 and 5.094 5000
you all the up the shoulder down then the down know way from Time (s) and from hip
0 5.094 Time (s)
Try to identify the following sample 4
-0.4716 9.154 5000
you know all
0 9.154 Time (s)
567 0 -0.17 49 .IU Try to identify the following sample 5 0.74 5000 and then the bone Time (s) in the hoof and 13.74 Time (s) 13.5122 10.17 Frequency (Hz) 0 10.
IU How to identify intonation units in Mandarin 因為那時候校長就是變，哦，院長變成校長，所以 就是我要在那邊，就是幫忙這樣子，我說好，然後之後 98年2月的時候，秘書室問我要不要去那邊幫忙，我說 好，所以我就從教育學院到秘書室，大概一直做到98 年…… 對於學生這一塊我是接觸的比較少，對，所以就是， 還在適應，不過我覺得還好，就是至少還有另外一位助 教就是Zoe會，反正就是帶著我，然後學校同仁也都認 識，就是不懂都可以問，就是…… 50 .
260 16.331 19.471 5.872 4.223 6.586 1.671 23.134 9.036 14.420 因為 那時候 校長就是變--哦 院長變成校長 所以 就是我要在那邊 就是 幫忙=這樣子我說好 然後=之後 98年 2月的時候 秘書室問我要不要 去那邊幫忙我說好 所以我就從教育學院 到 秘書室 大概 一直做到 9=8年 51 .848 10.153 20.586 1.225 0.245 2.660 3.872 4.696 17.935 11.502 19.698 8.671 How to identify intonation units in Mandarin 0.260 16.935 11.718 13.698 8.873 6.IU 0.286 16.153 20.245 2.331 3.134 9.696 18.471 6.036 14.250 10.718 13.690 16.
1543 Time (s) 3.2048 0 -0.1543 因為 5000 那 時 候 校 長 就是變-.IU Try to identify the following sample 1 0.246 0.935 Frequency (Hz) 0 0.哦 Time (s) 院 長 變成 校 長 3.935 52 .
985 Time (s) 9.985 5000 要 那邊 這 子 說 Time (s) 就是 幫忙 樣 我 好 9.396 53 .2777 0 -0.IU Try to identify the following sample 2 0.3195 所以 就是我 在 3.396 然後 之後 Frequency (Hz) 0 3.
3907 9.81 5000 9 14.81 Time (s) 14.32 8 年 2 月 時 秘Time (s) 不 的 候 書室問我要 要 去 幫忙我 那邊 說好 Frequency (Hz) 0 9.IU Try to identify the following sample 3 0.32 54 .4544 0 -0.
IU Try to identify the following sample 4 0.52 55 .57 5000 所 我就 以 從 教育 學 院 Time (s) 到 秘書 室 17.2348 14.57 Time (s) 17.1782 0 -0.52 Frequency (Hz) 0 14.
IU Try to identify the following sample 5 0.43 做 到 Time9(s) 8 年 Frequency (Hz) 0 18.2869 0 -0.43 56 .43 5000 大 概一 直 23.3397 18.43 Time (s) 23.
4 = end of the IU (%) 57 . 2 = unacceptable breaks. 3 = error. 1 = normal / tight breaks.Break index Section 3 The break Index 0 = no breaks.
not and so I am is appropriate here.62971 58 .Break index 5000 Contrasting the break indexes 0 0 5000 1.62971 Time (s) 1 4 0 Time (s) this H* 2 2 2 is a fatal L*+H 2 1. Subject restarts at same plac in regards to the notation above. 0 Time (s) 2.43673 Time (s) L+H* This 0 is 0 a 1 !H* fatal 0 0 !H* mistake L-L 2.43673 mistake r 1p mistake L+!H* L-L 4 what to do with the number "2"? Subjects make more of a break between rwords than in Englishsure if restart using the 2 notation.
24817 0 5000 譬 如 說 2 2 4 這 件 2 2 Time (s) 裙 2 子 3 太 窄 2 2 了 4 3.Break index Contrasting the break indexes 0.25186 0 -0.6223 Frequency (Hz) 0 0 Time (s) 3.6223 59 .
4124 0 5000 300 哈 0 爾 1 Time (s) 濱 0.3306 0 -0.8812 4 Frequency (Hz) Pitch (Hz) 0 0 Time (s) 0.Break index Contrasting the break indexes 0.8812 60 .
985 Time (s) 9.3195 所以 就是我 在 3.Break index Contrasting the break indexes 0.396 61 .2777 0 -0.985 5000 要 那邊 0 4 1 1 01 1 1 4 這 子 說 Time (s) 就是 幫忙 樣 我 好 然後 之後 1 4 1 2 01 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 4 9.396 Frequency (Hz) 0 3.
Break index Contrasting the break indexes 0.6852 and 5.094 5000 4 Frequency (Hz) you all the up the shoulder down then the down know way from Time (s) and from hip 1 4 1 0 0 1 01 1 4 1 1 01 1 4 9.094 Time (s) 9.069 62 .069 0 5.6606 0 -0.
Chart 3 fluid do it snowy go out flour how is it newest a few apples 63 .Liaison Linking between vowels 1. Vowels that follow /u/ Chart 1. Chart 2 reality be active playoff pay off triangle my ankle annoyance the boy and me 2. Vowels that follow /i/ Chart 1. Chart 2 .
64 2. 5. He’s studying with the radio on. 3. 2. The pianist quickly realized the piano needed tuning. . He’s obviously a creative person. This section of town was previously an industrial area. More practice in the linking between vowels I can’t see it three others stay awake pay everything tea and coffee too often there is no answer Who is it? two apples let’s go out so easy 1. 4. His experience in politics makes him a superior negotiator.Liaison 1. 3.
Pitch Section 4 The pitch accent 65 .
64 auxiliary n 0.82 v n 0.01).Pitch Different viewpoints on pitch accents (1) Native speakers of English may have very different “concepts” or “habits” of where to put their pitch accents when they speak English. (2) Results of the study: AESs and MSs differ significantly in putting their pitch accents on different parts of the words (t = -5.63 0.37.92 1 66 .91 adv adj 0.20 0.78 0. AESs article 0 infinitive MSs 0.03 article conj 0.33 prep v 0.66 0.83 0.90 adv adj 0. p < 0.43 prep auxiliary 0.12 infinitive conj 0 0.32 0.
120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% AESs MSs infinitive auxiliary 0% article conj prep adv adj v n 67 .Pitch Different viewpoints on pitch accents This figure shows a clear discrepancy between American English speakers and Mandarin speakers in where to put pitch accents.
35683 L+H* The 0 manager 1 was 1 !H* ill L-H so 4 1 I 1 L* took 1 her 1 H* place L-L 4 alot of creak. hard to label 0 Time (s) 2.Pitch How to locate the pitch accent (English) 5000 0 0 Time (s) 2.35683 68 .
6223 69 .25186 0 -0.24817 0 5000 譬 如 說 HL* 這 件 裙 子 LH* 太 窄 L.6223 Time (s) !H* H-H% H* !H* L-L% Frequency (Hz) 0 0 Time (s) 3.Pitch How to locate the pitch accent (Mandarin) 0.HL* 了 3.
754 70 .Pitch An English speaker’s pitch accent L+H* The 1 temperature 1 is 1 !H* very 1 !H* low 1 today L-L 4 0 Time (s) 2.
Pitch An English learner’s pitch accent L+H* The 1 temperature !His 3 1 H* very 1 L+H* low 1 today L-L 4 0 Time (s) 3.158 71 .
383 L-L% Time (s) Frequency (Hz) 0 0 Time (s) 3.Pitch An Mandarin learner’s pitch accent 0.2083 0 -0.4358 0 5000 從 H* 滿 州 !H* 里我 去 !H* 北 京 L- 坐 H* 飛 機3.383 72 .
and/or fundamental frequency (F0).Pitch The invariable quality of the pitch accent Speakers of English produce certain words in an utterance with special intonational prominence. These pitch-accented words typically are realized with increased duration. intensity. Duration > intensity / fundamental frequency 73 .
Pitch Various types of pitch accents 74 .
Pitch Various types of pitch accents 75 .
Pitch Various types of pitch accents 76 .
Pitch Various types of pitch accents L* <SIL> if he 1 1 breath< 0 breath> can Hthenthere’s no 3 1 1 1 H* argument 1 about 1 L-L it 4 <SIL> breath<reath b Time (s) 77 .
Pitch Various types of pitch accents L-L it 1 4 breath<reath> b <SIL> if he 1 1 L* can Hthen there’s no 3 1 1 H+!H* argument 1 1 about 1 L-L it 4 5 Time (s) 78 .
Pitch Section 5 Mismatched patterns Between English speakers and Mandarin speakers 79 .
Numbers 450 Contrasts in adjacent syllables 360 270 Pitch (Hz) 7 180 O Key 5 9 9 6 7 1 90 450 0 0 5.252 80 .011 Time (s) 360 4 1 4 4 4 1 6 270 180 And my num ber is Pitch (Hz) 90 0 0 Time (s) 5.
649 300 Pitch (Hz) 200 的 我 電 話 是 4 3 9 2 5 4 2 100 0 0 Time (s) 3.Numbers Mandarin patterns in adjacent syllables 500 400 300 Pitch (Hz) 電話 是 我 的 200 100 4 3 9 2 5 4 2 500 0 400 0 Time (s) 3.922 81 .
Numbers 500 Contrasts in adjacent syllables 400 300 Pitch (Hz) 電話 是 我 的 200 100 4 3 9 2 5 4 2 400 0 320 0 Time (s) 3.3 82 .755 Time (s) 10.649 240 Pitch (Hz) ber numMy is 4 9 3 2 5 4 2 160 80 0 4.
649 360 Time (s) 4 1 4 4 4 1 6 270 180 And my num ber is Pitch (Hz) 90 0 0 Time (s) 5.Numbers 500 Contrasts in adjacent syllables 400 300 Pitch (Hz) 電話 是 我 的 200 100 4 3 9 450 2 5 4 2 0 0 3.252 83 .
3 4 1 4 4 4 1 6 270 180 And my num ber is Pitch (Hz) 90 0 0 Time (s) 5.755 180 Hz Time (s) 360 450 10.Numbers 400 320 Contrasts in adjacent syllables 450 80Hz ber numMy is 4 9 3 2 5 Pitch (Hz) 360 180 Hz 7 240 Pitch (Hz) 4 2 270 160 180 O Key 5 9 9 6 7 1 90 80 0 0 Time (s) 5.011 0 4.252 84 .
79383 85 .89637 400 400 by Lit tle lit tle he learns what kind 300 of 200 100 0 0 Time (s) 0 1.Utterances 400 Contrasts in adjacent syllables 400 300 Lit tle by lit tle <SIL> he learns what kind of 200 100 0 0 Time (s) 0 2.
Utterances 400 Contrasts in adjacent syllables 400 tle Lit by lit he tle learns 300 200 100 0 0 Time (s) 0 1.57302 400 400 300 Lit tle by lit tle he learns 200 100 0 0 Time (s) 0 1.4327 86 .
Declination Section 6 Declination 87 .
with a gold chain on it. Well. Is it the one you put on the bookshelf? No. That’s not digital. Hunnn! I think I saw that somewhere. it’s just regular. what color is it? It’s black. Where did you see it? It was on the dining room table. 88 .Intonation A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: Practice based on what we have covered Have you seen my camera? What camera? It’s a digital camera.
Intonation A: B: Practice based on what we have covered Did you like that movie? Yeah. A: 89 . it was good. But it was a bit too long. I thought it was really good. What about you? Yeah.
not Tuesday? B: Yeah. How much is this? B: It’s sixteen dollars. That’s tomorrow. Do you want me to keep this for you? 90 . A: What? Today is Monday.Intonation Practice based on what we have covered A: Excuse me. Sorry about that. Isn’t it 40 percent off today? B: The big sale starts on Tuesday. A: Sixteen? I thought it’s ten.
Mary said she’d help. If she’s in her room. though. She has to be with us until the work is done. ask her to get ready. she has to leave early.Intonation A: B: A: B: A: Practice based on what we have covered Who’s gonna help us today? Well. A: No. Where is she? She is in her room. 91 . But you know. She can’t. but Good. We’re leaving in two minutes. B: Ok.
… Yesterday we defined pollution. it’s a health problem…since it affects property. it’s an economic problem…and since it affects our appreciation of nature.” 92 .…Today we’ll talk about the impact of pollution…its far-reaching effects. Many people think pollution is just a problem for scientists… but it’s not just a problem for scientists.Intonation Practice based on what we have covered “OK. It’s a problem that affects everyone…since it affects human lives. today we’ll continue our discussion of pollution. it’s an aesthetic problem.
this long-awaited feeling doesn’t develop suddenly. and he has many problems to think about. and confident in speech. But let me tell you. Little by little he learns what kind of clothing is usually worn here to be casually dressed for classes. he has to find out for himself the answers to many questions. my friend. does it? All of this takes will power. 93 . He also learns to choose the language and customs that are appropriate for informal situations. Where should he live? Would it be better if he looked for a private room off campus. informal in manner. Finally he begins to feel sure of himself.Intonation Clifford A Prator’s diagnostic passage When a student from another country comes to study in the United States. or if he stayed in a dormitory? Should he spend all of his time just studying? Shouldn’t he try to take advantage of the many social and cultural activities which are offered? At first it is not easy for him to be casual in dress.
There once was a slimy, green frog with a very big mouth. That frog drove everybody crazy. He was always going up to others and shouting. “Who are you? I’m the big, wide-mouth frog!” One morning, he decided to find out what everybody else ate for breakfast. He hopped out of his frog pond, went straight to the zoo, and began to bother the animals. First, he met the giraffe. “Who are you? And what do you eat for breakfast?” The giraffe looked down. ‘I’m a giraffe, of course. I eat leaves for breakfast.” The big, wide-mouth frog bellowed, “Well, I’m the big, wide-mouth frog! I eat flies for breakfast!” Next he visited the elephant. “Who are you? And what do you eat for breakfast?” “I’m an elephant, of course. I eat plants for breakfast.” “Well, I’m the big, wide-mouth frog! I eat flies for breakfast!” Next he went to visit the crocodile and shouted in his usual, obnoxious way, “Who are you? And what do you eat for breakfast?” With a sly, hungry look in her eyes, the crocodile answered, “I’m a crocodile, of course. And I just love to eat big, wide-mouth frogs for breakfast. Have you seen any big, wide-mouth frogs about?” When the big, wide-mouth frog heard that, suddenly his wide mouth closed up and got very, very small. Then he said with a squeak, “Nope, I’ve never heard of a creature called a big, widemouth frog. Hope you find one. Sorry, I’ve got to go now.” The big, wide-mouth frog hopped all the way back to his pond as fast as he could. And after that, he always remembered that sometimes it’s better to keep your big, wide mouth shut.
In a small town by a lake, there lived three little mice. They were the happiest mice in the world. They learned to fish in the river, play with natural toys, and had fun every day. They painted their house red like the sun, and thanked the Lord for giving them food. One day, a big cat with long fangs and sharp claws came into the woods to look for three little mice, who were sleeping by the lake. They snored so loudly that the cat just followed the sound and soon found them. When the cat was about to catch the mice, an owl called out. “Wake up! Run for your lives!” The mice woke up and ran. Luckily, they got away. “It’s my fault!” cried Mother Mouse, “we shouldn’t have fallen asleep.” Father Mouse thanked the owl, who just said, “my pleasure.”
Contrastive qualities of time and space
a. Stress & rhythm
b. Intonation units c. Pitch accents (The invariable quality of the stressed syllable/sound)
d. The break index
e. Mismatched patterns (The relation between the adjacent syllables)
(2009). 0 0 Time (s) 4.921 Frequency (Hz) Pitch (Hz) Mampe et. al. Current Biology .19: 2.788 97 .Intonation 5000 600 Learned or innate? Frequency (Hz) Pitch (Hz) 0 0 Time (s) 5000 600 4.
please! Thank you! Thank you! 98 .The End Comments and suggestions.
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