GOD AND THE STATE
WITH A NEW INTRODUCTION AND INDEX OF PERSONS by PAUL AVRICH PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, QUEENS COLLEGE
PUBLICATIONS, INC., NEW
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This Dover edition, first published in 1970, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the edi tion published in 1916 by Mother Earth Publishing Association, New York. been added. A new Introduction and Index of Persons, prepared by Paul Avrich, have
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INTRODUCTION TO THE DOVER EDITION
This man was born not under an ordinary star but under a comet.
It was nearly a century ago that Michael Bakunin wrote what was to become his most celebrated pamphlet, God and the State. At that time, anarchism was emerging as a major force within the revolutionary movement, and the name of Bakunin, its foremost champio n and proph et, was as well known among the workers and radical intellectuals of Europe as that of Karl Marx, with whom he was competing for leader ship of the First Internatio nal. In contrast to Marx, Bakunin had wo n his reputatio n chiefly as an activist rather than a theorist of rebellion. He was born into the Russian landed gentry in 1814, but as a yo ung man abandoned his army com mission and noble heritage for a career as a professional revolutio nist. Leaving Russia in 1840, at the age of twenty-six, he dedicated his life to a struggle against tyranny in all its forms. He was not o ne to sit i n libraries, studying and writing about predetermined revolutions. I m patie nt for. action, he threw himself into the uprisings of 1848 with irre pressible exuberance, a Promethean figure moving with the tide of revolt from Paris to the barricades of Austria and Germany. Me n like Bakunin, a companio n remarked, "grow in a hurricane and ripen better in stormy weather than in sunshine.'" But his arrest during the Dresden ins urrec tion of 1849 cut short his feverish revolutionary activity. He spent the next eight years in prison, six of them in the darkest dungeo ns of tsarist Russia, and when he emerged, his sentence commuted to a life term o f Siberian exile, he was toothless from scurvy and his health seriously impaired. In 1861, however, he escaped his. warders and embarked upon a sensatio nal odyssey that encircled the globe and made his name a legend and an object of worship in radical groups all over Europe. As a romantic rebel and an active force in h istory, Bakunin exerted a perso nal attraction that Marx could never rival. "Everything about him was colossal," recalled the composer Richard Wagner, a fellow participant in the Dresden uprising, "and he was full of a primitive
Lampert, Studies in Rebellion
exuberance and strength."2 Bakuni n's "love for the fantastic, for u n usual, unheard-of adventures, which open up vast horizons, the end of which cannot be foreseen," to quote his own words, inspired extravagant dreams in others, and by the time of his death in 1876 he had won a unique place among the adventurers and martyrs of the revolutionary tradition. His broad magnanimity and childlike e nthusiasm, his burning passion for liberty and equality, his volcanic o nslaug hts against privilege and injustice-all this gave him e no rmous human appeal in the liber tarian circles of his day. But Bakunin, as his critics never tired of pointing out, was not a systematic thinker. Nor did he ever claim to be. For he considered him self a revolut ionist of the deed, " not a philosopher and not an inventor of systems, like Marx."3 He refused to recognize the existe nce of any pre conceived o r preordained laws of history. He rejected the view that social change depends upon the gradual unfolding of "objective" his torical conditions. He believed, on the contrary, that me n shape their own destinies, that their lives cannot be squeezed into a Procrustean bed of abstract sociolog ical formulas. "No theory, no ready-made sys tem, no book that has ever bee n written will save the world," Bakunin declared. "I cleave to no system, I am a t rue seeker."4 By teaching the workers theories, he said, Marx would o nly succeed in stifling the revo lutionary fe rvo r every man already possesses- "the impulse to libe r�y, the passion for equality, the holy instinct of revolt." U nlike Marx's "scientific" socialism, his own socialism, Bakunin asserted, was " purely instinctive."6 Bakunin's influe nce, then, as Peter Kropotkin remarked, was pri marily that of a "moral personality" rather than of an intellectual authority. Although he wrote prodigiously, he did not leave a single finished book to posterity. He was forever starting new works which, owing to his turbulent existence, were broken off in mid-course and never completed. His literary output, in Thomas Masaryk's descript ion, was a "patchwork of fragments." And yet, however erratic and unmethodi cal, his writings abound in flashes of insight that illuminate some of the most important social questions of his time-and of ours.
• E. H.
Carr, Michael Bakunin (New York,
• Iu. M. Steklov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin, • Carr, Michael Bakunin, p. • M. A. Bakunin, Oeuvres,
1961), p. 196. 4 vols. (Moscow, 1926-1927), III, 112.
175. 6 vols. (Paris, 1895-1913), II, 399; Steklov, Mikhail Alek sandrovich Bakllnin, I, 189.
"God being everything. the very essence of religion is the disparage ment of humanity for the g reater glory of God. then." No less t han the state. statesmen. in vivid language and relatively brief compass." But the leading institutions of man's enslavement-"my two betes noires. and all t he exploiters of humanity-priests. soldiers. public and private financiers.INTRODUCTION TO THE DOVER EDITION
God and the State is an excelle nt case in point. politicians of all shades. and full of digressions and long footnotes that tend to softe n its polemical impact. A nd every church has been a loyal ally of the state in the subjugation of mankind." Bakunin writes. " it would be necessary to abolish him. As a result. God being master. It is disjointed. all the oppressors. inequity. officials of all sorts. and death. and packed with arresting aphorisms that testify to Bakunin's remarkable intuitive gifts. monarchs. monopolists. human ity would have been condemned to perpetual bondage." Bakunin proclaimed an all-out war against the church and the state. T he keynote of God and the State is Bakunin's repudiation of author ity and coercion in every form. impotence. I n a withering passage he vents his fury on "all the tormentors. ugliness. Every state has been an instrument by which a privileged few have w ielded power over the immense majority. policemen. "the real world and men are nothing. To accomplis h this they must bri ng to bear the two "most precious qualities" with which they are endowed: the power to thi_n k with an act of thought and rebellion." he calls them-are the church and the state. down to the smallest vendor of sweetmeats. goodness. God and the State has become the most widely read and frequently quoted of all Bakunin's works. man is falsehood. evil. repetitious. gendarmes. jailers and execu tioners. All the same. poorly organized. inverting a famous dictum of Voltaire's. Govern ments throughout history have used religion both as a means of keeping men in ignorance and as a "safety-valve" for human m isery and frus tration. they must throw off t he double yoke of spiritual and temporal authority. and life. If men are to be free. it sets forth the basic elements of Bakunin's anarchist creed. man is the slave. religion is the negation of freedom and equality. beauty. e conomists. But Satan-"the
. power. More than t hat. it is forceful and e nergetic. God being truth. T hus if God really ex ists. Bakunin concludes. justice. But perhaps the mai n reason for its popularity is that. If Adam and Eve had obeyed the Almighty when he forbade t hem to touch t he tree of knowledge.
The rule of the intellectuals. " I n a word. He therefore proclaimed a "revolt of life against science." But how can this new form of despotism be avoided? Bakunin's answer was to wrest education from t he monopoly grasp of t he privileged classes and make it available equally to everyone. L ike capital. These same weapons-reason and rebellion-must now be turned against the church and the state. These would-be oppressors are t he intellectuals. he insisted. warns Bakunin. "in order that t he masses. the first freethinker and the emancipator� of worlds" persuaded them to taste the fruit of knowledge and liberty. when his
. For already a new class has emerged that aims to keep the masses in ignor ance in order to rule over them. But the task of liberation. oppressive. "cannot fail to be impotent. exploiting. He refused to s hed the fictions of religion and metaphysics merely to see t hem replaced by what he considered the new fi ctions of pseudo scientific sociology." Such was t he powerful message of God and the State.Vlll
eternal rebel. may take into their ow n hands the direction o f their destinies. six years after Bakunin's death. who had been closely associated with him during the last years of his life. would be no less oppressive than the rule of k ings or priests or holders of property. drudgery. a new era of freedom and happiness. learning must cease to be the patrimony of the few and become the patrimony of all men." For the true mission of science and learning. according to Bakunin. will not be easy. inhuman. cruel. "priests of science" ordained in a new privileged church of superior education. He assailed t he t heorists and system-builders whose so-called "science o f society" was sacrificing real life on the altar of scholastic abstractions. "science is the compass of life but not life itself. And once they are overthrow n there w ill dawn a new Eden for mankind. Carlo Cafiero and Elisee Reclus. or rather. ceasing to be flocks led and shorn by privileged priests. ridiculous. like the worst relig ious and political despotisms of t he past. above all Marx and his followers." he writes in God and the State. against the government of science. The government of an educated elite. was not to govern men but to rescue them from superstition. For it was only then that t he manuscript was discovered among his papers by two well-known anarchists. But it did not appear in print until 1882. maleficent." W ith t h is warning Bakunin anticipated the "new class" label that later critics were to pin on Marx's heirs in the twentieth century. and disease.
in February and March of 1871. ranging in characteristically discursive fashion over a wide assortment of subjects from history and politics to meta p hysics and religio n. as we know from Bakunin's diary. deals mainly with the resistance by the French to German imperialism. Socialism. and were to crop up again in his polemics with Giuseppe Mazzini after the fall of the Com mune in May 1871. It has been translated into many languages.INTRODUCTION TO THE DOVER EDITION
libertarian doctrines saw their fullest flowering. it still enjoys. bears but little relat io n to its contents. on the eve of the Paris Commune. Polish." which. including English. T he first English translation. but several of its themes-notably the idea t hat government and religion have always worked together to keep men in chains-can be traced to Bakunin's then unpublished essay. W hat Cafiero and Reclus called "God and the State" was a fragment from the unpublished and unfinished Part II.Within a short time after its initial publication by Cafiero and Reclus. Part I. German. Federalism. Russian. an ambitious work on which Bakunin had labored fitfully between 1870 and 1872 but had never managed to complete.
. believing it to be part of a letter or report. Spanish. having g iven it the title of Dieu et l'etat (God and the State) by which it was to become famous. and Cafiero and Reclus. by the American anarchist Benjamin Tucker. . a distinction which. nearly a century later. Dutch. They did not suspect. The Knouto-Germanic Empire the t itle derives from the unholy alliance between Russian and German authoritarianism to stamp out social progress-is one of Bakunin's longest and most important literary efforts. and they brought o ut the truncated text as a pamphlet in Geneva.nor were they ever to learn-that t he manu script was actually an unpublished segment of The Knouto-Germanic Empire and the Social Revolution. and was published in pamp hlet form in 1871. The manuscript breaks off i n mid-sentence. undertook to search for the remainder. Rumanian. as t hey relate in their Preface. He himself called it h is "testament. and Antitheologism (written in 1867). for which Bakunin's own title was "The Historical Sophisms of the Doctrinaire School of Com munism. apart fro m being unwieldy. written against the background of t he Franco-Prussian War. But their efforts were in vain. Czech. and Yiddish. God and the State became the most widely circulated of Bakunin's works. Italian." and devoted considerable energy to its composition. The "God and the State" section was written.
Still another edition. from a number of handi caps.x
appeared in Boston in 1883. it was not for another generation that the full text of The Knouto-Germanic Empire Parts I and I I. Paragraph thirteen breaks off in mid-sentence. edited by the leading anarchist h istorian Max Nettlau (Volume I) and by James Guillaume (Volumes II-V!). Near the end. however. which was as chaotic as his other personal t raits. in which Cousin's doctrines are summarized and refuted. and no conclusion has been found. peppered with critical asides and footnotes. there is the beginning of a footnote which also breaks off in mid-sentence but the remainder of which was d iscovered by Max Nettlau and published ( it runs to some sixty pages) in the first volume
. that is. which appeared in London in 1910. it was followed by a new English edition. of which the present volume is a reprint. Not only had Cafiero and Reclus altered Bakunin's text in a few places to g ive his French a smoother and more l iterary quality. was brought out by Emma Goldman's Mother Earth press in 1916. together with two additional fragments and the remainder of a long footnote-saw its way into print. Cousin was the founder of the "eclectic school" and. The whole of Part II of The Knouto-Germanic Empire occupies pages 9-177 of the third volume. When the first correct French text was published in 1908. as the name implies. Pages 9-17 are prefatory remarks of little consequence. Tucker's rendering suffered. The continuation of God and the State consists of thirteen numbered paragraphs. It finally appeared in the s ix-volume French edition of Bakunin's collected works (18951913). scarcely a year after the orig inal French edition. of which pages 18-131 contain t he correct text of what Cafiero and Reclus had published under t he t itle of God and the State. however. This was essentially the Tucker translation. revised to conform to Bakunin's actual text. had drawn on a w ide variety of theories in what Bakunin regarded as a misguided attempt to prove the existence of God and to justify the existence of the state. but they had transposed several passages and occasionally m isread Bakunin's handwriting. While the God and the State segment first appeared in 1882. while the remainder (pages 132-177) is a continuat ion of an attack by Bak unin on t he French liberal philosopher V ictor Cousin (1792-1867) that begins on t he final page of God and the State. and is identical with t he London version except for a few minor d ifferences in wording and punctuation. Bak unin's faithful Swiss d isciple. without the alterations of Cafiero and Reclus.
7 Oeuvres. Nettlau apparently chose the title because t he footnote elaborates upon a passage from God and the State. and the long footnote are conveniently brought together in a single volume of the Russian edition of Bakunin's 'collected works: Izllrannye sochineniia (Petrograd. and on Man. for when sub sequent writers refer to "God and t he State" it is sometimes hard to tell whether they mean Nettlau's footnote or t he famous essay of the same name.7 The second. The first of these is a loosely constructed "Appendix" with the grandilo quent title of "Philosophical Considerations on the Divine Phantom. It is hardly surprising. II. "Every enslavement of men.INTRODUCTION TO THE DOVER EDITION
of Bakunin's collected works. Kenafick.
Michael Bakunin and Karl Marx
179-405. overlooks society. Man: Intelligence. Bakunin rejects Rousseau's notion o f social contract. that Marx should be the villain of the
'Oeuvres. o n the Real World. there are yet two more segments of The Knouto-Germanic Empire which did not appear in print till long after Bakunin's death. Part II. For a summary with extracts in English. The whole of The Knouto-Germanic Empire. while recognizing the individual and the state. Religion.by which men surrender part o f their liberty to the state in exchange for security and harmony-as a shameless fiction and a subterfuge for tyranny.
God and the State. 1922). Will. in which Rousseau is denounced as "a prophet of the doctrinaire state" and "the real creator of modern reaction. Nettlau headed the note "God and the State. Philosophy."6 Apart from the continuatio n of God and the State and the footnote on Rousseau." " I am a free man o nly so far as I recognize the humanity and liberty of all men around me. I n respecting their humanity. 123-264. III." he writes." The social contract.
264-326. A nimality. called "An Essay Against Marx. " is at the same time a limit o n my own freedom." Resuming the attack. 331ff. J." Written in the autumn o f 1870. shortly after the Hague Congress of t he First Interna tional. I." thereby adding to the confusion. therefore. which for Baku nin is the " natural mode of existence of people living together. I respect m y own. Unfortunately. pp. He refuses to accept even the smallest limita tion of human liberty. see K. moreover. (Melbourne.
. at which the controversy between Marx and Bakunin reached a dramatic climax with the latter's expulsio n from the organization. i t is divided into five sections: System of the World. Humanity. Science. 1948). including the continuation on Cousin." was drafted in November and De cember of 1872.
Oeuvres. 169-219. from whose ruins they foresaw the emergence of a Golden Age of justice and equality. II. But for generations to come his disciples continued to proclaim his anarchist message and to shower abuse upon the proponents of "scientific socialism. IV. Like Bakunin before them."8 When Bakunin wrote this final segment of The Knouto-Germanic Empire. 397-510." Again and again they warned that political power is evil. he says. Bismarck." and compares his worship of the state and centralized authority with that of his fellow German. 1965). has forgotten his own stirring words from the program of the International: "The emancipation of the workers must be the task of the workers themselves. that government of any kind stifles the revolutionary spirit of the people and robs them of their freedom. they called for the overthrow of the church and the state. that it corrupts all who wield it. Marx. impelled by his Teu tonic urge to dominate. Bakunin assails him as "the dictator of the International.xu
piece. Archives Bakounine (Leiden. a shining era of freedom in which men would direct their own affairs without interference from any authority. he had less than four years to live.
. PAUL AVRICH
New York January.
The Political Philosophy of Bakunin. See also George Woodcock. 1953. London. 1966. Milwaukee.. Studies in Rebellion. Roots of Revolution. and Isaiah Berlin. To the Finland Station. Socialist Thought: Marxism and Anarchism. ed. several works in English contain valuable chapters on Bakunin. Maximoff. 1959. Cleveland. Paul Avrich. ed. Universal paper back. 1940. Anchor paperback. Meridian paperback. Kenafick. New York. 1850-1890. Edmund Wilson. 1939. J ames J oll. London. Cambridge. In addition. 1962.
. Mass. 1957. 1964. New York. 1937. Harper paperback. Finally. and Alexander Gray. The Socialist Tradition. Anarchism. H. Bakunin. see G. 1948. Lampert. New York. Collier paperback. D. Carr. 1961. 1967. 1953. London. 1964. Princeton. Michael Bakunin and Karl Marx. Melbourne. 1968. Cole. Universal paperback. A clear exposition of Bakunin's philosophy is Eugene Pyziur's The Doctrine of Anarchism of Michael A. 1946. The Anarchists.. Franco Venturi. Vintage paperback. London. Free Press paperback. E. 1967. 1955. G.SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING
The standard biography in English is Michael Bakunin by E." in Continuity and Change in Russian and SO'lJiet Thought. for a selection of Bakunin's writings in English translation. notably Max Nomad. H. London. The Russian Anarchists. Simmons. London. J. Portraits of Russian Personalities Between Reform and Revolution. 1960. Apostles of Revolution. Boston. E. 1954. "Herzen and Bakunin on Individual Liberty. 1955. P. Another useful study is K. 1961. J. Richard Hare.
."If God really existed it would be necessary to abolish him.
aggravated by imprisonment. in Italy. in France. all the wretched ambitions which most human beings are base enough to entertain. helped too by the natural majesty of his person and by a powerful vitality. indeed. exile. his direct influence has been considerable. and
his efforts left deep traces everywhere.
A simple stone and a nam� mark the spot in the cemetery of
Berne where was laid the body of Bakunin. he was one of the first to enter that intrepid society of rebels who were able to release themselves from traditions. that the true way to honor their dead is to continue their work-with the same ardor and perseverance that they themselves brought to it. had they spoken to him of a commemorative structure erected to his glory. in Siberia among his brothers in exile. gave Bakunin access to all the revolutionary groups. in Germany among the insurgents
of Dresden. but its general features are already sufficiently familiar.
laugh he would have received them. Even that is perhaps too much to honor the memory of a worker who held vanities of His friends surely will raise to him They know with what a huge no ostentatious tombstone or statue. they knew. all the dangers and all the sorrows that men of self-sacrifice have to undergo during their tormented ex istence. a difficult task demanding all our efforts. In this case. that sort in such slight esteem. his untiring zeal in propagandism.
In Russia among the students.
. glory. in England. for among the revolutionists of the present generation not one has labored more fervently in the common cause of the Revolution. Friends and enemies know that this man was great in thought. prejudices. race and class interests. and set their own comfort at naught. they know also with what lofty con t�mpt he looked down upon wealth. among all earnest men.
A Russian gentleman related by marriage to the highest nobility
of the empire. in Switzerland.PRE FACE TO FIRST FRENCH EDITION
One of us is soon to tell in all its details the story of the life of Michael Bakttnin. will. persistent energy. the imagery and vehemence of his eloquence. The originality of his ideas. too. With them he fought the stern battle of life. rank. in America.
incomplete though it be. violence. however important they may be." is really a fragment of a letter or report. not completed when others were already under way. the readers of "God and the State" certainly will not regret that Bakunin's memoir. has been pub lished. These letters more than anything else explain the pro The pamphlets published by him. Bakunin demonstrates to them the emptiness of their belief in that divine authority on which all temporal authorities are founded. "God and the State. it has the same literary fault. The present memoir.
theless. in Russian. finally. amid the conflict of rival ambitions and intrigues. who are the pretenders and who are the real savants. nobility. wealth. lac� of proportion. wdtten to strengthen the timid. and however useful they may have been in spreading the new ideas. can
. he does justice to the theory which would entrust science with the government of societies.
The questions discussed in it are treated decisively and with Rightly addressing himself only to his
singular vigor of logic. thrust him out because of a difference of object or method. after having welcomed him. without stopping to discuss those bases of the State already condemned by public morality. and outline plans of propagandism or revolt. he proves to them the purely human genesis of all governments.
is a fragment. took on the proportions of veritable volumes. His correspondence was most extensive. century. Composed in the same manner as most of Bakunin's other writings. and that a method of election could be found which would not frul to lodge the power in the hands of those whose knowledge is authentic. what guarantee could they offer us of the wisdom and honesty of their government? On the contrary. and some of these letters.6
GOD AND THE STATE
even upon those who." he said to those who criticised his writings. French.
honest opponents. such as physical superiority. moreover it breaks off abruptly: we have searched in vain to discover the end of the manuscript. Sup posing even that it were possible to recognize. he passed entire nights in preparing long letters to his friends in the revolutionary world. Bakunin never had the One work was "My life itself time necessary to finish all the tasks he undertook. are the smallest part of Bakunin's work. and digious work of Bakunin in the revolutionary movement of the Italian. arouse the sluggish.
because they have been unable to · participate in serious struggles and have never learned the true proportion of things. since the doctrinaires made their appearance. of which all other men are but the manure. only to raise up an elite of academi cians. and for that very reason he sinles But. and death have been the queens of humanity. they will not lift the blade of Charlemagne. to arrest the life of the masses moving below him." nations live and die in ignorance. and people of unclean lives-who have constructed a whole cosmogony for their sole use? According to them. too. all other hum� beings are destined for death in order that these gentlemen may become immortal! But we may reassure ourselves: all these academicians will not have the audacity of Alexander in cutting with his sword the Gordian knot. The learned man
Let him once imagine
that he has reached the end. because they have long known no other horizon than the walls of their cheese. We have seen them at work. societies have developed. the full-blown flower. to-day is but the know-nothing of to-morrow. worlds have been created. without any experience of life. others by power. keep them in ignorance in order to preserve quiet. the true or pretended "genius" has been trying his hand at wielding the sceptre of the world. childish in their passions and vanities. Have we not recently witnessed the founda tion of a whole school of "thinkers"-wretched courtiers. he can only corrupt himself by privilege and corrupt To establish his government. Govern ment by science is becoming as impossible as that of divine right. disease. and we know what it has cost us. beneath even the babe just born. like all chiefs of State. For the rest.
. he must try. all these savants: the more hardened the more they have studied. poverty. That these editors of the Temps and the Debats may have leisure to "think. could he recognize truth in its essence. science is not: it is becoming. em pires have gone down in blood. and gradu ally debase them that he may rule them from a loftier throne.GOD AND THE STATE
we not foresee in these new masters the same follies and the same crimes found in those of former days and of the present time? the first place. revolutions have overturned nations. the narrower in their viwes the more time they have spent in examining some isolated fact in all its aspects.
they learn to In precipitating from the heights of the heavens Such is the revolution now him from whom all power is reputed to descend. in progress. in If it is allowable to cite anyone name
which. to pitiless criticism. as Bakunin was fond of saying. States are breaking up to give place to a new order.
GOD AND THE STATE
All powers are henceforth to be submitted
Men in whom the sentiment of equality is
born suffer themselves no longer to be governed. Carlo Cafiero. or brute force. there is not one that may be singled out with more justice than that of Michael Bakunin. govern themselves. societies unseat also all those who reigned in his name." taken part in this im mense work of renovation.8
. Elisee Reclus." from those of the revolutionists who hav. "human justice will be sub stituted for divine justice.
combining their progressive action in
. facts are before ideas. intelligent and ferocious beasts. is but a reflection of its economic history. as Proudhon said. ideas. as inevitable as the development and realization of all the natural laws in the world-that constitutes and creates the ideal. the human world-in short. Yes. that of its base or point of departure. Yes. the whole history of humanity. intellectual and moral. were. the ideal. very near relatives of gorillas. our Adams and our Eves. if not gorillas. concur in proclaiming this grand truth. as rational as it i s natural. endowed in a higher degree than the animals of any other species with two precious faculties-the power to think and the desire to rebel. whose root lies in the material conditions of existence. These faculties. Yes.GOD AND THE STATE
HO are right. the idealists or the materialists? The question once stated in this way' hesitation becomes impossible. omnivorous. yes. But as every development necessarily implies a negation. Undoubtedly the idealists are wrong and the materialists right. humanity is at the same time and essentially the deliberate and gradual negation of the animal element in man . the world of intellectual and moral convictions. our first ancestors. and rational only because natural-at once historical and logical. of true and disinter ested science. properly speaking. humanity-is nothing other than the last and supreme development-at least on our planet and as far as we know-the highest mani festation of ani mality. All branches of modern science. funda mental and decisive: The social world. political and so cial. and it is precisely this n egation. is but a flower.
striking himself so to speak in his own creation. We know what followed. ex presses this truth very naively in its myth of original sin. whose fore sight. destitute of all understanding of himself. which is a very interesting and here and there very profound book when considered as one of the oldest surviving manifestations of human wisdom and fancy. Jehovah. the most vain. that man. flew into a terrible and ridiculous rage . and. precisely
. i n urging him t o disobey and eat of the fruit of knowledge. and set but a single limit to this complete enjoy ment. he cursed Satan. which must weigh heavy on his hands in his eternal egoistic solitude. The Bible. the first freethinker and the emancipator of worlds. man.10
GOD AND THE STATE
history. his creator and his master. which is one of the divine faculties. or that he might have some new slaves. the most unjust. no doubt to while away his time. He wished. he cursed them in all the generations to come. innocent of the crime committed by their forefathers. and the world created by himself. and the most hostile to human dignity and liberty-Jehovah had just created Adam and Eve. the negative power in the positive development of human animality. therefore. to satisfy we know not what caprice . as children do when they get angry . who of all the good gods adored by men was cer tainly the most jealous. not content with smiting our ancestors themselves. the most ferocious. he emancipates him. He expressly forbade them from touching the fruit of the tree of knowledge. He generously placed at their disposal the whole earth. the most bloodthirsty. stamps upon his brow the seal o f liberty and humanity. and create con sequently all that constitutes humanity in man. represent the essential factor. But here steps in Satan. The good God. should have warned him of what would happen. the most despotic. with all its fruits and animals. He makes man ashamed o f his bestial ignorance and obedi ence . should remain an eternal beast. the eternal rebel. ever on all-fours before the eternal God. Our Catholic and Protestant theologians look upon that as very profound and very just.
the basis of all the Christian religions. That is called the mystery of the Redemption. he took pity on the rest. Then. of the Ferdinands of Austria. in the full light of the nineteenth century. ever just.GOD AND THE STATE
because it is monstrously iniquitous and absurd. as an expiatory victim. at the express command of the government. always greedy for victims and blood. he recognized that
. in broad day. over the whole surface of the civilized world. God. the elect will number very few. to save them and reconcile his eternal and divine love with his eternal and divine anger. after having tormented the existence of a few milliards of poor human beings and con demned them to an eternal hell. to console us. and. but also a God of love. because anger gets hold of me whenever I think of the base and criminal means which they employ to keep the nations in perpetual slavery. if the divine Savior had saved the human world ! But no. such being the formal announcement. undoubtedly that they may be the better able to fleece them. God admitted that Satan was right . he sent into the world. will burn eternally in hell. In the meantime. his only son. as we know. in the paradise promised by Christ. ever good. Of what consequence are the crimes of all the Tropmanns in the world compared with this crime of treason against humanity committed daily. hands over the earth to the government of the Napoleon Thirds. the immense majority of the generations present and to come. Still. in all the public schools of Europe. and of the Alexanders of all the Russias. Such are the absurd tales that are told and the mon strous doctrines that are taught. by those who dare to call themselves the guardians and the fathers of the people ? I return to the myth of original sin. They call this civilizing the people ! Is it not plain that all these governments are systematic poisoners. of the William Firsts. The rest. that he might be killed by men. re membering that he was not only a God of vengeance and wrath. interested stupefiers of the masses ? I have wandered from my subject.
in history : ( 1) human animality. We may answer that the matter of which materialists speak. which necessa�ily belong to it-that thlS . the man is become as one of the gods. imme diately they had eaten of the forbidden fruit. with his magnificent intelligence. theolo gians and metaphysicians. nothing but matter. mat�er has nothing in common with the vile matter of the ldeahsts. he has separated himself from ani mality and constituted himself a man . which is very clear. The latter. religion ists. is. if you like. to the third. science. Three elements or. prevent him. by rebellion and by tho ught. a product of their false abstraction .
." Let us disregard now the fabulous portion of this myth and consider its true meaning. therefore. liberty. philosophers.12
the devil did not deceive Adam and Eve in promising them knowledge and liberty as a reward for the act of disobedi ence which he had induced them to commit . to know good and evil . active. not forgetting the liberal econo mists-unbounded worshippers of the ideal. politicians and moralists. and his boundless aspirations. as we know are much offended when told that man. Man has emancipated himself . lest he become im mortal like Ourselves. like all else existing in the world. from eating of the fruit of eternal life. To the first properly corresponds socia l and priva te o second. only a product of vile matter. three fundamental prin ciples constitute the essential conditions of all human de velopment. Idealists of all schools. aristocrats and bourgeois. and ( 3 ) rebellion . collective or individual. matter chemically or organically determined and manifested by the properties or forces mechanical physical an}mal. or poets. for. (2) thought. God himself said (see Bible) : "Behold. he has begun his dis tinctively human history and development by an act of dis obedience and science-that is. his sublime ideas. and intelligent. matter spontaneously and eternally mobile. productive.
they have attributed all these natural forces. matter. immobile thing. this God who is nothing. or let him be an idea. They have taken away from matter intelligence. It is a wholly natural movement from the simple to the complex. interchanging roles. the world." and. always present and active in the world. is nothing. or even as impersonal. incapable of giving birth to the smallest product. is perfectly conceivable. this phantom. inanimate. and consequently must have been created by their God. "supreme Being. and always manifested by the totality of ma terial and definite beings. they have called this product of their imagination. an ugly fancy in contrast to the beautiful fancy which they call God. After which they gravely tell us that this matter is incapable of producing anything. as the opposite of this supreme being. matter. The gradual development of the material world. active relations or forces. from the lower to the higher.GOD AND THE STATE
is indeed a stupid. life. infinite and divine. necessarily represents supreme nothingness. then. without which matter would not even have weight. as well as of organic animal life and of the historically progressive intelligence of man. motion itself. a kind of divine soul spread over the whole universe and constituting thus its eternal principle. the creator and organizer of worlds. Here I shall deal with one point only. their matter. individually or socially. from the inferior to the superior. leaving it nothing but impenetrability and absolute immobility in space. have declared that the real being. not even of setting it self in motion. At the end of this book I exposed the fallacies and truly revolting absurdities to which one is inevitably led by this imagination of a God. a caput mortuum. stripped by them of all that constitutes its real na ture. properties. a movement in conformity with all our daily exoeriences. as a necessary conse quence. all its de termining qualities. let him be considered as a per sonal being. and manifestations to the imaginary being created by their ab stract fancy. and consequently in conformity
and all the systems of transcendental philosophy
. how. from the superior to the inferior. vegetables. is. with the distinctive laws of our mind. cerebral reproduction or reflected summary thereof. either as a person or as divine substance or idea. instead of wisely and rationally accompanying the progressive and real move ment from the world called inorganic to the world organic. or rather. and fron' the relatively simple to the more complex. and from living being to thinking being-the idealists. and then distinctively human-from chemical matter or chemical being to living matter or living being. They go from the higher to the lower. The system of the idealists is quite the contrary of this. moreover. and pushed on by the divine phantom which they have inherited from theology. no metaphysician. They begin with God. and which. from the complex to the simple. no theologian.14
GOD AND THE STATE
also with our natural logic. and why the divine being. which being formed and developed only by the aid of these same experiences. in rising from the simple and unanimously recognized truth that twice two are four to the sublimest and most complex scientific con siderations-admitting. no poet. and the first step that they take is a terrible fall from the sublime heights of the eternal ideal into the mire of the material world. from thought to being. animal. When. has ever been able to understand himself or explain to the profane. take precisely the opposite course. It is the rev�rsal of all human experiences and of that uni versal and common good se�se which is the essential condi tion of all human understanding. obsessed. decided upon this desperate salta mortale is something which no idealist. probably weary of himself. eternal. but the mental. so to speak. absolutely per fect. blinded. from supreme being to nothing. Very far from pursuing the natural order from the lower to the higher. from absolute per fection into absolute imperfection. from the inferior to the superior. All religions. nothing that has not stood the severest tests of experience or observation of things and facts-becomes the only serious basis of human knowledge. infinite. past and present.
and found only torment and death. and return. to repeat with Ter tullianus and all sincere believers these words. and who. to naive. have resulted only in rendering this mystery still more incompre hensible. this mystery has been and still continues to be the consecration of all the horrors which have been and are being committed in the world. have written heaps of volumes and built systems as ingenious as sublime. if he can. but they have left this mystery. prophets. Spinoza. It is evident that whoever finds it essential to his happiness and life must renounce his reason. I call it unique.* Holy men. because all the other theological and metaphysical absurdities which debase the human mind are but its necessary consequences. in which they have said by the way many beautiful and grand things and discovered immortal truths. Leibnitz. Kant. The gigantic efforts of the most wonderful geniuses that the world has known. as I believe I have proved in the Appendix alluded to. Fichte. the principal object of their transcendental investigations. becaus e only the absurd admits of no ex planation. Then all discussion ceases.GOD AND THE STATE
hinge on this unique and iniquitous mystery. not to mention the Indian philosophers. for at least thirty cen turies. stupid faith. have undertaken anew this labor of Sisyphus. absurd. Like the ancient sphinx. it has devoured them.
. and nothing remains but the triumphant stupidity of faith. have searohed it for life. Schelling. from Heraclitus and Plato down to Descartes. one after another. . and Hegel. because they could not explain it. inspired lawgivers.vhich sum up the very quintessence of theology : Credo quia absur dum. But immediately there
*1 call it "iniquitous" because. as unfathomable as before. Is it to be hoped that it will be unveiled to us by the routine speculations of some pedantic disciple of an arti ficially warmed-over metaphysics at a time when all living and serious spirits have abandoned that ambiguous science born of a compromise-historically explicable no doubt-be tween the unreason of faith and sound scientific reason? It is evident that this terrible mystery is inexplicable that is. messiahs. blind. Great philosophers.
regulator. of intellectual in tercourse. master. curser. the thiI"d is social revolu tion. debauchery of the body or debauchery of the mind. too often more powerful even than their natural good sense. without horizon. where it is more widespread than among the proletariat of the cities. and artificially sustained in their minds by a multitude of official poisoners of all sorts. are transformed therein into a sort of mental and moral habit. intellectually and morally as well as materially. who con sider this ignorance. Reduced. savior. should still prevail among the people. judge. especially in the rural districts. priests and laymen. to the minimum of human ex istence. the creator. Weighted down by their daily labor. as one of the essential conditions of their own power. deprived of leisure. without even a future if we believe the economists. without outlet. confined in their life like a prisoner in his prison. the people generally accept religious traditions without criti cism and in a lump. There is another reason which explains and in some sort justifies the absurd beliefs of the people-namely. and bene factor of the world. Hence I conclude this last will be muCh more potent
. but of escape there are but three methods-two chimerical and a third real . and are kept in ignorance by the systematic efforts of all the governments. The first two are the dram-shop and the church. are still very ignorant. the wretched situation to which they find themselves fatally con! demned by the economic organization of society in the most civilized countries of Europe. the people would have the singularly narrow souls and blunted instincts of the bourgeois if they did not feel a desire to escape. of reading. These traditions surround them from infancy in all the situations of life. un fortunately. not without good reason. The people.16
GOD AND THE STATE
arises another question: H ow comes an intelligent and well-informed man ever to feel the need of believing in this mystery! Nothing is more natural than that the belief in God. in short of all the means and a good portion of the stimulants that develop thought in men.
policemen. economists. In substitut ing for the at once illusory and brutal enjoyments of bodily and spiritual licentiousness the enjoyments. capitalists. monopolists. jailers and executioners. finally.GOD AND THE STATE
than all the theological propagandism of the freethinkers to destroy to their last vestige the religious beliefs and disso lute habits of the people. will believe . gendarmes. comprising all the tormentors. "the people must have a re ligion. the existence of God. tax-leeches. reject them in detail. if they have no reason to believe. contractors and landlords. They abandon to your criticism all the special absurdities of religion. if they do not believe. the social revolution alone will have the power to close at the same time all the dram-shops and all the churches. it would be necessary to invent him. officials of all sorts. There exists. illusory being that van-
. but have neither the courage nor the strength nor the necessary resolution to summarily renounce them altogether. and all the exploiters of humanity . sol diers. all will repeat in unison those word� of Voltaire : "If God did not exist. to the miracle that explains and justifies all the other miracles. nebulous. priests. This class. politicians of all shades. beliefs and habits much more in timately connected than is generally supposed. There is a class of people who. you understand. of humanity developed in each and all. statesmen. Their God is not the vigor ous and powerful being. diaphanous. Till then the people. must at least make a semblance of believing. a somewhat numerous class of honest but timid souls who. too intelligent to take the Chris tian dogmas seriously. down to the smallest vendor of sweetmeats. all the oppressors. as re·fined as they are real. and. lawyers." For." That is the safety-valve. the source of all the others. public and private financiers. monarchs. they turn up their noses at all the miracles. they will have at least a right. the brutally positive God of theol ogy. but they cling des perately to the principal absurdity . It is a. taken as a whole.
and consequently of Socialism also. Michelet. and in England to proclaim oneself an Atheist is to ostracise onself. then. or against them. strength of mind. in spite of its numerous reservations. second. and the first the heroic and revolutionary re generator of a great nation. and that for two reasons: first.18
GOD AND THE STATE
ishes into nothing at the first attempt to grasp it. in philosophy as well as in politics. sickly souls. if not absolutely the disciple. it is a mirage. They are too puny. John Stuart Mill. great hearts. an ignis fatuus that neither warms nor illuminates. even at this late day. But there are a few illustrious men of whom no one will dare to speak without respect. he is a passionate admirer. First. Against them. and occupying exactly the same position between the politics of the bourgeois and the Socialism of the prole tariat. They have neither the power nor the wish nor the determination to follow out their thought. were it to disappear. an adherent o f the positive philosophy of Auguste Comte. great minds. and they waste their time and pains in constantly endeavoring to reconcile the irreconcilable. all would disappear with it. pale phantoms eternally suspended between heaven and earth.
. With them. let it be remarked that not one of the illustrious men I have just named nor any other idealistic thinker of
*Mr. In public life these are known as bour geois Socialists. Stuart Mill is perhaps the only one whose serious idealism may be fairly doubted. that Mr. Stuart Mill is English. they are all apostles of idealism and bitter despisers and adversaries of materialism. who have lost their reckoning in the present civilization. belonging to neither the present nor the future. that. Quinet. great writers. and believe that.* Generous and strong souls. and good intention no one will dream of calling in question. I need only cite the names of Mazzini. And yet they hold fast to it. discussion is out of the question. we must discuss this question. and Whose vigorous health. is really Atheistic . They are uncertain. a philosophy which.
Joseph de Maistre and the great Italian patriot. Have they feared to approach this irreconcilable contradiction and despaired of solving it after the failures of the greatest geniuses of his tory. past and present. V/hy ?
. has always been considered the most triumphant testimony to its truth. as such. the antiquity and universality of a belief should be regarded. for these thinkers and their logic. They have treated it as a fact universally ac cepted. but iso lated. or have they looked upon it as already sufficiently well settled ? That is their secret. This imposing unanimity. no longer susceptible of any doubt whatever. for sole proof thereof limiting themselves to the establishment of the antiquity and this very universality of the belief in God. The sentiment of the whole world. and if the reasoning of a small number of logical and even v ery powerful. cannot be mistaken . Thus. they say. And since it has been established that all peoples. so much the worse. have believed and still be lieve in the existence of God. monsters.GOD AND THE STATE
any consequence in our day has given any attention to the logical side of this question properly speaking. the general and primitive adoption of an idea. then. in the eyes of many illustrious men and writers to quote only the most famous of them who eloquently expressed it. as sufficient and unimpeachable proof of its truth. thinkers is against it. are abnormal exceptions. Giuseppe Mazzini-is of more value than all the demonstrations of science . whatever the logic that led them to this doubt. The fact is that they have neglected the theoretical demonstration of the existence of a God. it must have its root in a necessity absolutely inherent in the very nature of man. a conviction that is found and maintained always and everywhere. Not one has tried to settle philosophically the possibility of the divine saita martale from the pure and eternal regions of spirit into the mire of the material world. and have developed only its practical motives and con sequences. it is clear that those who have the misfortune to doubt it. contrary to all science and all logic. and. for universal consent.
strong in our passion for j ustice and in our un shakable faith in the triumph of humanity over all theoreti cal and practical bestialities . as necessary. serfs. oppression of the people by the Church and by the State. after having tortured them. privileged. To us materialists and Revolutionary Socialists. strong.
. in which we see the manifestation of a social law as natural. Nothing. From the origin of historic society down to the present day there has been always and everywhere exploitation of the compulsory labor of the masses-slaves. and interested representatives of "univer sal" and "ancient" beliefs. in that passion for logic which of itself alone con stitutes a great power and outside of which there is no thought . and often also at the hands of the same masses who. is as universal or as ancient as rtle ini quitous and absurd . in the mutual confidence and support given each other by the few who share our convictions-we resign ourselves to all the conse quences of this historical phenomenon. too. are the least universal. and as invariable as all the other laws which govern the world. in fact. Must it be concluded that this exploita tion and this oppression are necessities absolutely inherent in the very existence of human society ? These are examples which show that the argument of the champions of God proves nothing. on the contrary.20
GOD AND THE STATE
Until the days of Copernicus and Galileo everybody be lieved that the sun revolved about the earth. lies the explana tion of a constant historical phenomenon-namely . finally. In this fact. truth and justice. the youngest features in the develop ment of human society . in our love of truth at all hazards. there is nothing astonishing or terrifying in this historical phenome non. the per secution of which those who first proclaim the truth have been and continue to be the objects at the hands of the official. always end by adopting their ideas and rendering them victorious. or wage-workers-by some dominant minority . Strong in our conscience. Was not every body mistaken ? What is more ancient and more universal than slavery ? Cannibalism perhaps.
has emerged from the profound darkness of animal instinct into the light of the mind. the only thing that can warm and enlighten us. all is explained. it proves but one thing-the similarity. Let us. cousin of the gorilla. far from proving anything in its favor.. and historical proofs accumu lated at the present day. to turn back to study our past. now slow. For behind us is our animality and before us our humanity. and even useful and necessary. but. what we have believed and thought and what we must no longer believe or think. always at the end of history. never look back. to lead us to suspect it. It consists precisely in the progressive negation of the primitive animality of man by the development of his humanity. he is now marching on to the conquest and realization of human liberty. If it is j us tifiable.GOD AND THE STATE
This law is a logical. give us dignity. it is no longer possible to really doubt this origin. and passing through divine slavery. As for the universality of an error. psychological. Whence it results that the antiquity of a belief. ought. physiological. But from the moment that this animal origin of man is accepted. of the past. freedom. History then appears to us as the revolutionary negation. for forward is our sunlight. apathetic. relatively to the epoch in which we live. is never at the beginning. inevitable consequence o f the Qi1Pi. it is only in order to establish what we have been and what we must no longer be. the only thing that can emancipate us. let us look ever forward. what we have done and what we must do nevermore. and happiness. now passionate and powerful. a wiLd beast. mal origin of human society . then. So much for antiquity. of an idea. sluggish.ce of all the scientific. a temporary condition be tween his animality and his humanity. which now furnish so striking a demonstration thereof. and realize fratern ity among us.. human light. Man. for in fa. which explains in a wholly natural way all his past mistakes and partially consoles us for his present errors. as well as in face of the exploits of the Germans conquering France. on the contrary. forward our salvation. He has gone out from animal slavery. if not the
Thus. until then we shall never succeed in destroying it in the opinion of the maj ority. until then. we must simply conclude tlhat the divine idea. belief in God. because we shall never be able to attack it in the very depths of the hu man being where it had birth. have believed and still believe in God. It is not only in the interest of the masses. all our scientific conviction of its absurdity will be in vain. an outcome of ourselves. and. in certain sec tions of the highest society. remains intact.22
GOD AND THE STATE
perfect identity. at all periods of their life. of human nature in all ages and under all skies. it will never fail to bring forth new offspring. it is in that of the health of our own minds. considering the natural weakness of even the strongest individual against the all powerful influence of the social surroundings that trammel
. And. in its innumerable manifestations. Until we shall account to ourselves for the manner in which the idea of a supernatural or divine world was de veloped and had to be developed in the historical evolution of the human conscience. whose absurdity will be scarcely beaten down by the blows of common sense before it will reappear in a new form no less nonsensical. until we comprehend these causes. we should for ever have to content ourselves with fighting it solely on the sur face. Condemned to a fruitless struggle. without issue and without end. we shall always suffer ourselves to be more or less governed by the clamors of this universal conscience whose secret we have not discovered. In vain shall we call and believe our selves Atheists. since it is established that all peoples. at the present time. for. that we should strive to understand the historic genesis. Spiritualism tends to establish itself upon the ruins of Christianity. is an error historically necessary in the de velopment of humanity. the succession of causes which developed and produced the idea of God in the con sciousness of men. While the root of all the absurdities that torment the world. and ask why and how it was pro duced in history and why an immense majority of the human race still accept it as a truth.
either in themselves or in external nature. in one way or another. of the birth. into the abyss of religious absurdity. Examples of these shameful conversions are frequent in so ciety to-d. a quality. and I shall say only a few words. The history of religions. the religious heaven is notfuing but a mirage in which man. we are always in danger of relapsing sooner or later. in the course of their historically progressive advance. Here it is my purpose to treat this question of the existence of a God. Conse quently. They are the instinctive and passionate protest of the human being against the narrowness. tfuey attributed them to their gods. therefore. These mystical tendencies do not signify in man so much an aber ration of mind as a deep discontent at heart. I have stated the chief practical reason of the power still exercised to-day over the masses by religious beliefs. regarding the theoretical grounds of this belief.GOD AND THE STATE
him. by an
. grandeur. and the shame of a wretched existence. or of the divine origin of the world and of man. As fast as they discovered. with their gods. their demigods. but enlarged and reversed-that is. and their prophets. but the development of the collec tive intelligence and conscience of mankind. I have already said. solely from the standpoint of its moral and social utility. the sorrows. is nothing . exalted by ignorance and faith. or even any great defect whatever. divinized. and decline of the gods who have succeeded one anotfuer in human be lief. after having exaggerated and enlarged them beyond measure. their messiahs and their saints. after the manner of children. a power. In the meantime I have endeavored to show the causes responsible for the birth and historical development of re ligious hallucinations in the human conscience. For this malady. there is but one remedy-Social Revolution. discovers his own image.ay . were created bv the credulous fancy of men who had not attained the fu il development and full possession of their faculties. All religions. the platitudes. to better explain my thought.
and life. and death. priests. better than all other re ligions that exist or have existed. man is the slave. for against the divine reason there is no human rea son. and these. Incapable of finding justice. arbiter. God was all . Slaves of God.
. the real world and man are noth ing. All men owe them passive and unlimited obedi ence . heaven has grown rich with the spoils of the earth. goodness. once recognized as the representatives of divinity on earth. the very nature and essence of every religious system. and legislators inspired by God himself . bowed down be fore him. and annihilation of hu manity for the beniefit of divinity. worshipped him. after having un knowingly extracted him from the void. This truth Christianity. prophets. But who ever says revelation says revealers. he was naturally proclaimed the cause. j ustice. Thanks to this modesty and pious generosity of believing and credulous men. which included only distinct and privileged nations. evil. man is falsehood. enslavement. be cause it eJdbibits and manifests. God once installed. truth. power. to the fullest extent. and eternal life by his own effort. which is
God being everything. impotence. the more wretched became humanity and the earth. God being master. reason. and. while Christianity aspires to em brace entire humanity . in so far as the State is consecrated by the Church. and against the j ustice of God no terrestrial j ustice holds. messiahs. understood. men must also be slaves of Church and State. and avowed himself his creature and his slave. ugliness. chosen by God himself to direct it in the path of salvation.
the impoverishment. by a necessary consequence. God being truth. and absolute disposer of all things : the world thenceforth was nothing. not excepting even the old Oriental religions. he can attain them only through a divine revelation. beauty. iniquity. and this truth Roman Catholicism. his real creator.24
GOD AND THE STATE
act of their religious fancy. Christianity is precisely the religion par excellence. and man. necessarily exercise abso lute power. as the holy instructors of humanity. the richer heaven became.
pietists.GOD AND THE STATE
alone among all the Christian sects. or Protestant Methodists desire it. as the momiers. filling it with divine cruelty instead. They dishonor human labor. ever tipping the balance to the side of triumphant knaves. must not make the slightest concession either to the God of theology or to the God of metaphysics.· it is the most decisive negation of human liberty. now. why the Apostolic and Roman Church is the only consistent. but bravely renounce his liberty and hu manity. That is why Christianity is the absolute religion. now. man can and must be free. and make it a sign and source of servitude. All religions are cruel. Is it necessary to point out to what extent and in what manner religions debase and corrupt the people ? They de stroy their reason. and divine church. and reduce them to imbecility. politicians. He who. They kill the idea and sentiment of human justice. privileged objects of divine in dulgence. and necessarily mds in the enslavement of mankind. the principal instrument of human eman cipation. then. I defy anyone whomsoever to avoid this circle . protecting only the cringing and humble. as the Jesuits desire it.' They kill human pride and dignity. They stifle in the heart of nations every feeling of human fraternity. we desire the enslavement and degradation of mankind. philosophers. or poets : The
idea of God implies the abdication of human reason and justice. for all
. all founded on blood . we may not. let all choose. then.
Unless. the essential condi tion of their slavery. then. in this mystical alphabet. he who desires to worship God must harbor no childish allusions about the matter. If God is. man is a slave . therefore. begins with A will inevitably end with Z . legitimate. both in theory and practice . With all due respect. the final religion . to the metaphysicians and re ligious idealists. God does not exist. has proclaimed and realized with rigorous logic.
and very equivocal god of Hegel. and on earth. They will not say whether he is a personal or impersonal god. nor even the at once immanent.d not create the world . defined in any way whatever. the gen tlest. nor the pantheistic god of Spinoza. they will not even speak of his divine providence. They take good care not to give him any positive definition whatever. or whom they think they adore. good. and the priest-a man also. who know history by heart . the best. present. is distinguished from the real gods of history pre cisely in this-that he is not at all a positive god. all these crimes of religion with an eloquence unparalleled.z6
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rest principally on the idea of sacrifice-that is. what is their God ? Not even an idea . But why. in their minds ( and we know the fearful influence of either on the hearts of men ) -something cruel and sanguinary. then. if not in their hearts. whether he created or di. beautiful. That explains why the priests of all religions. transcendental. past. in their imaginations. J. He is neither the supreme being of Robespierre and J. on the per petual immolation of humanity to the insatiable vengeance of divinity. but a man privileged by grace-is the divine executioner. The God whom they adore. the most humane. theologically or even metaphysically. It is the generic name of all that seems grand. They reject with indignation all solidarity with the God of positive religions and with his representa tives. Rousseau. They are learned men. In this bloody mystery man is always the vic tim. noble. almost always have at the bottom of their hearts-and. and. feeling very strongly that any defini tion would subject him to the dissolving power of criticism. it is an aspiration. do they
. None know all this better than our illustrious contempo rary idealists. h uman to them. they have cursed and branded all these misdeeds. But. great souls penetrated with a sincere and profound love for the welfare of humanity. They content themselves with saying "God" and nothing more. then. as they are at the same time living men. All that might compromise him.
" Ah ! because King William of Prussia and Napoleon III. who ever he may be and however liberal he may desire to show himself. but an appearance only . if God exists. drawing its in spiration much less from the severe development of a thought than from the experiences. equality. now. That is what distinguishes them from the pantheistical and deistical metaphysicians. once separated. In vain. and all their compeers are likewise men : which bothers them very much. For. nor prosperity are possible for him. supreme. nor fraternity. representing divinity and animality as two poles. I might almost say the emotions. be tween which they place humanity. for life itself be comes sterile when paralyzed by a logical contradiction. prosperity of men"-regardless of the fatal logic by virtue of whicih. neither j ustice. How do they get over this ? Why. all these things are con demned to non-existence. and gives their ideas the character of a practical idealism. if such a master exists. and that to separate them is to destroy them. of life. historical and collective as well as individual. They say in a single breath : "God and the liberty of man. if he is a slave. do they represent their God as ani mated by the tenderest love o f human liberty : a master. Real humanity presents a mixture of all that is most sublime and beautiful with all that is vilest and most monstrous in the world. if God is. flying in the face of good sense and all the teachings of history. "Man. they call one divine and the other bestial. and. fra ternity." "God and the dignity. nor equality. and one might say that they despise it. remains none the less always a master. man is a slave . absolute master. and they wish humanity. justice. he is necessarily the eternal. This contradiction lies here : they wish God. This gives their propaganda an appearance of wealth and vital power. They either will not or cannot understand that these three terms are really but one.GOD AND THE STATE not say. They persist in connecting two terms which. They are not strong on logic. His exist ence necessarily implies the slavery of all that is beneath
. can come together again only to destroy each other.
A jealous lover of human liberty. rather. they never speak of it without immediately adding an other word. For slavery supposes an external master. regulate all our movements. they give the term a meaning quite different from the conception enter tained by us. we are absolutely the slaves of these laws. To have dis regarded it. because they constitute the basis and fundamental conditions of our existence . and should not have perceived the contradiction in which they involve themselves in speaking of God and human liberty at once. it is not slav ery at all. whose names so celebrated and so justly respected I have cited. And it seems to me impossible that the illustrious men. too. We may misunderstand them or not know them at all. but we cannot disobey them . should not have been struck by it themselves. The severe logic that dictates these words is far too evi dent to require a development of this argument. Yes. What is authority ? Is it the inevitable power of the nat ural laws which manifest themselves in the necessary con catenation and succession of phenomena in the physical and social worlds ? Indeed. even when we believe that we disobey them. they envelop us.GOD AND THE STATE
him. thoughts. they must have considered this inconsistency or logical license practically necessary to humanity's well being-. Therefore. it would be necessary to abolish him. penetrate us. authority-a word and a thing which we detest with all our heart. materialists and Revolutionary Socialists. if God existed. I reverse the phrase of Voltaire. we only show their omnipotence. only in one way could he serve human liberty-by ceasing to exist. or. and say that. while these laws
. while speaking of liberty as something very respectable and very dear in their eyes. and acts . a legis lator outside of him whom he commands. But in such slavery there is no humiliation. and deeming it the absolute condition of all that we admire and respect in hu manity. Perhaps. against these laws revolt is not only forbidden-it is even impossible. if God really existed. In deed.
except. which are quite as necessary. once recognized . they constitute our being. these attempts at or foolish fancies of an impossible revolt. in gen eral. The great misfortune is that a large number of natural laws. could we derive the power and the wish to rebel against them ? In his relation to natural laws but one liberty is possible to man-that of recognizing and applying them on an ever extending scale in conformity with the object of collective and individual emancipation or humanization which he pur sues. One must. our whole being. then. we are not. jurist. they are inherent in us . for instance. intellectually. have not been duly established and rec ognized by science itself. as the laws that govern the physical world. and then from science. There is another difficulty namely. in their daily lives. we breathe. remain un known to the masses. Without them we are nothing. are decidedly the exception . or. only for the good of the people. One must have faith to imagine that fire will not burn nor water drown. as we know. we act. we wish only tJhrough these laws. recourse be had to some subterfuge founded in its turn on some other natural law. physically. Once they shall have been recognized by science. for. acknowledge the government of common sense-that is. already established as such by science. or bourgeois economist to rebel against the law by which twice two make four. shall have passed into the
. by means of an extensive system of pop ular education and instruction. that the major portion of the natural laws con nected with the development of human society.GOD AND THE STATE
are not outside of us . rather. be at bottom either a fool or a theologian or at least a metaphysician. But these revolts. indeed. it may be said that the mass of men. invariable. and morally : we live. thanks to the watchfulness of these tutelary governments that exist. Whence. exercise an authority which is never disputed by the mass of men. we think. of the sum of the natural laws generally recognized in an almost absolute fashion. These laws. fatal.
and that. that human science is always and necessarily imperfect. Well. we may say that it is still in its cradle. I maintain. and even should they conform to the system of natural laws-which has never been the case and never will be the case-are always equally fatal and hostile to the liberty of the masses from the very fact that they impose upon them a system of ex ternal and therefore despotic laws. divine or human. inspired only by the purest love of truth. the question of liberty will be entirely solved. The second reason is this : a society which should obey legislation emanating from a scientific academy.30
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consciousness of all. Suppose a learned academy. suppose this academy charged with legislation for and the organization of society. that such legislation and such organization would be a monstros ity. and that. composed of the most illus trious representatives of science . collective as well as in dividual. for my part. and not because they have been externally imposed upon him by any extrinsic will whatever. into strict and exclusive conformity with the latest data of science. comparing what it has discovered with what remains to be discovered. which would soon end by dislocating and stifling them. we should condemn society as well as in dividuals to suffer martyrdom on a bed of Procrustes. life ever remaining an infinitely greater thing than science. and that for two reasons : first . The most stubborn authorities must admit that then there will be no need either of political organization or di rection or legislation. not because it understood itself the rational character of this legislation ( in which case the existence of the academy would become
. The liberty of man consists solely in this : that he obeys natural laws because he has himself recognized them as such. three things which. whether they emanate from the will of the sovereign or from the vote of a parliament elected by universal suffrage. collective or individual. it frames none but laws in absolute harmony with the latest dis coveries of science. So that were we to try to force the practical life of men.
Even to-day. would be its own eternal perpetuation by rendering the society confided
. from the moment that he becomes an academician. and individuals. That is a social law which ad mits of no exception. and that troublesome and savage energy characteristic of the grandest geniuses. ever called t o destroy old tottering worlds and lay th e foundations of new . his revolutionary hardihood. absolute. an officially licensed savant. and is as applicable to entire nations as to classes. emanating from . such is the history of all academies. In a word. corporations. not of men. A scientific body to which had been confided the gov ernment of society would soon end by devoting itself no longer t o science at all. is a man depraved in mind and heart . It is the characteristic of privilege and of every privi leged position to kill the mind and heart of men. but because this legislation. It would surely and rapidly descend to the lowest stage of idiocy. The principal object of this treatise is precisely to demon strate this truth in all the manifestations of human life. The privileged man. It is the law of equality. in utilitarian and practical wisdom. He loses his spontaneity. but to quite another affair. he becomes corrupted. whether politically or economically. It would be a second edition of those missions in Paraguay which submitted so long to the government of the Jesuits. so to speak. even if it were composed of the most illustrious. men. was imposed in the name of a science which it venerated without comprehending-such a society would be a society. with the few privileges allowed them. would in falliby and soon end in its own moral and intellectual cor ruption. inevitably lapses into sluggish ness. and that affair. but of brutes. the supreme condition of liberty and humanity. The greatest scientific genius. what he loses in power of thought. as in the case of all established powers.GOD AND THE STATE
useless ) . the academy. But there is still a third reason which would tender such a government impossible-namely that a scientific academy invested with a sovereignty. He undoubtedly gains in politeness.
But that which is true of scientific academies is also true of all constituent and legislative assemblies. Does it follow that I reject all authority ? Far from me such a thought. and choose that which seems to me the soundest. privi leged in fact though not in law. no external legislation and no authority one. I compare their opinions. reserving always my incon testable right of criticism and censure. I refer to the au thority of the bootmaker . who. con sequently. Such a faith would be fatal to my reason. but this does not prevent the formation in a few years' time of a body of politicians. I consult that of the architect or engineer. devoting themselves exclusively to the direction of the public affairs of a coun try. But I allow neither the bootmaker nor the architect nor the savant to impose his authority upon me. their knowledge. and both tending to the servitude of society and the degrada tion of the legislators themselves. to my liberty. and even to the success of my under takings . concerning houses. being inseparable from the other. In t!he matter of boots. whatever respect I may have for the honesty and the sincerity of such or such an individual. Witness the United States of America and Switzerland.32
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to its care ever more stupid and consequently more in need of its government and direction. Consequently. their character. to a certain extent and as long as
. In the latter case they may renew their composition. canals. I consult several . it is true. even those chosen by universal suffrage. I have no abso lute faith in any person. even in special questions . or rail roads. an instrument of the will and interests of others. for that matter. finally form a sort of political aristocracy or oligarchy. For suc!h or such special knowledge I apply to such or such a savant. I do not content myself with consulting a single authority in any special branch . If I bow before the authority of the specialists and avow my readiness to follow. it would immediately transform me into a stupid slave. But I recog nize no infallible authority. I listen to them freely and with all the respect merited by their intelligence.
second. certain that they would make me pay. it would be necessary to drive this man out of society. all the branches of social life. but neither do I think it should indulge them too far. Otherwise I would repel them with horror. their directions . constant. through such a system of privileges. and that for three reasons : first. Therefore there is no fixed and con stant authority. And if such universality could ever be realized in a single man. The greatest intelligence would not be equal to a comprehension of the whole.
I bow before the authority of special men because it is imposed upon me by my own reason. and their services. it is because their authority is imposed upon me by no one. to recognize a fixed. tempo rary. for science as well as for in dustry. for such scraps of truth.GOD AND THE STATE
may seem to me necessary. their indications and even their directions. because.
. because it would o ften mistake a charlatan for a man of genius . by the loss of my liberty and self-respect.
This same reason forbids me. above all. wrapped in a multitude of lies. then. the necessity of the division and association of labor. because his authority would inevitably reduce all the others to slavery and imbecility. in all its details and positive develop ments. and. and bid the devil take their counsels. I do not think that society ought to maltreat men of genius as it has done hitherto . neither by men nor by God. as they might give me. and if he wished to take advantage thereof to impose his authority upon us. it might transform into a charlatan even a real man o f genius. any very large portion of human knowledge. all the sciences. I receive and I give-such is human life. Thence results. Each directs and is directed in his turn. but a continual exchange of mutual. without which the application o f science to life is impossible. still less accord them any privileges or exclusive rights whatsoever . and universal authority. because there is no uni versal man. voluntary authority and subordination. I am conscious of my inability to grasp. no man capable o f grasping in that wealth o f detail.
ours impersonal . will never be fully and absolutely realized.34
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demoralize him. like the Prot estants. in fact. will remain eternally unfinished. these two worlds constituting. and. arbitrary and fatal. legi timate because rational and in harmony with human liberty. nor even priests. I mean by the words "absolute science. we have a chief. but one and the same nat ural world. because the sole object of science is the mental reproduction. Christ. In our church-if I may be permitted to use for a moment an expression which I so detest : Church and State are my two betes noires-in our church. nor bishops. already completed in an eternal past. and degrade him . presents him self as a perfect being. science . because it would establish a master over itself. in recognizing absolute science as the only absolute authority. There fore. It is evident that such a science. Outside of this only legitimate authority. which must considerably take down the pride of his licensed represen-
. of the natural laws inherent in the material. science. as in the Protestant church. nor council. while the completion and perfection of our Christ. intellectual. we will suffer neither pope. the sublime object of all the efforts of the human Our mind. we declare all other authorities false. we in no way compromise our liberty. the system or co-ordination of all the natural laws manifested by the incessant development of the world. the absolute authority of science. nor conclaves of infallible cardinals. then. then." the truly uni versal science which would reproduce ideally. finally. We recognize the absolute authority of science. to its fullest extent and in all its infinite detail. and. and moral life of both the physical and the social worlds. as well-considered and systematic as possible. \Ve recognize. are ever in the future : which is equivalent to saying that they will never be realized. an invisible Christ. Our Christ differs from the Protestant and Christian Christ in this-that the latter is a personal being. the Christian Christ. but we reject the infallibility and universality of the savant. To sum up. the universe. more logical even than the Protestants.
and. we appeal to God the Father. while rejecting the absolute. and concerning matters about which. and never imposed in the name . Although free from the traditional supersti tions of all the existing positive religions. on condition of their willingness to receive from us on occasions when. exercise over us a natural and legitimate influence. real life.of any offi cial authority whatsoever. and very re stricted authority o f the representatives o f special sciences. celestial or terrestrial. licensed. above all. In general. of which he ( the Son ) is only a too imper fect expression. and very grateful for such precious information as they may extend to us. convinced that it can tum only to the advantage of a dominant minority of exploiters against the interests of the immense majority in subjection " to them. quite temporary. great hearts. they nevertheless attach to this idea of authority a divine. we reject all legislation. officially imposed as such. all authority. even though arising from universal suffrage. This is the sense in which we are really Anarchists. In a word. working. loving. but none of right . we ask nothing better than to see men endowed with great knowl edge. freely accepted. are its im mediate representatives. and all privileged. for every authority or every influence of right. We ac cept all natural authorities and all influences of fact. aspiring. strug gling. asking n othing better than to consult them by turns. The modern idealists understand authority in quite a different way. living. although relative. But. great experience. Against that God the Son in whose name they assume to impose upon us their insolent and pedantic authority.tives among us. we willingly bow before the respectable. great minds. an absolute mean-
. as I believe I have sufficiently shown. who is the real world. would inevitably impose upon us.GOD AND THE STATE
tCl. and infallible authority of men of science. universal. slavery and absurdity. official. becoming directly an op pression and a falsehood. enj oying. whilst we real beings. and lel!al influence. and suffering. we are more learned than they.
a£ in the positive re ligions. and very barren doc trine hidden under the intangible vagueness of these poetic forms leads to the same disastrous results that all the posi tive religions lead to-namely. would restore to heaven. Their religion is. must be invested with a divine sanction. what ever is noble. nor that of a truth rigorously and scientifically dem onstrated. as it were.GOD AND THE STATE
iug. It is now the freethinkers' turn to pillage heaven by their audacious impiety and scientific analysis. This authority is not that of a truth miraculously rt:: vealed. is considered divine. on the contrary. in few words. This is j ust the opposite of the work that we are doing. These are so holy that they can have been inspired only by God. finest. is their whole philosophy : a philos ophy of sentiments. This seems harmless. In this new religious cult every man inspired by these ideas. a sort of m eta physical pietism. How is this sanc tion manifested ? Not by a miracle. In behalf of human liberty. to a large extent also on 'sentiment. in order to exercise greater authority among men. endeavoring to commit a final religiously heroic larceny. the most complete negation of human liberty and dignity. And the proof ? He needs none beyond the very grandeur of the ideas wlhich he expresses and the deeds which he performs. ideally.
. very narrow. whatever is beautiful. but it is not so at all. a last attempt to divinize all that constitutes humanity in men. Such. dignity. but by the very grandeur or sanctity of the ideas and deeds : whatever is grand. whatever is j ust. and the very precise. we be lieve it our duty to recover from heaven the goods which it has stolen and return them to earth. The idealists undoubtedly believe that human ideas and deeds. They base it to a slight extent upon quasi-philo sophical reasoning. becomes a priest. directly consecrated by God himself. and to a large extent on vaguely religious faith. not of real thoughts. and prosperity. abstractly poetical. the grandest. that divine robber. finally un masked. They. and noblest of humanity's pos sessions. by these deeds.
Imme diately inspired by God himself and supported upon univer sal consent expressed by popular suffrage--Dio e Popolo such as these should be called to the government of human societies. Thus_ we come back to the essence of all re ligion-in other words. But this supposition is impossible. as the illustrious Italian citizen and prophet."
. its own nature is miserable. are admitted. to the comprehension of just and true ideas. to the disparagement of humanity for the greater glory of divinity. noble. then. * But here we are again fallen back under the yoke of
*In London I once heard M. surely. Louis Blanc express almost the same idea. and social consequences of the positive re ligions. that. direct. political. called them. the virtuous geniuses. the perfect and su preme being. But perhaps. unaided by any divine inspiration. and cowardly actions which are committed. From the moment that God. base deeds. the inspired of God spring from the earth to enlighten. only a few men are divinely inspired. the great men of history.GOD AND THE STATE
To proclaim as divine all that is grand. in the world. Giuseppe Mazzini. "would be that which would invariably call men of virtuous genius to the control o f affairs. the elect. there is no further use for mediators. iniquitous." said he to me. follies. and all the horrors. it becomes necessary to admit also all the theo logical. divine mediators. and beautiful in humanity is to tacitly admit that humanity of itself would have been unable to produce it-that is. It would compel us to attribute to divine inspiration all the absurdities and errors which ap pear. and ugly. base. And from the moment that the natural inferiority of man and his fundamental in capacity to rise by his own effort. just. because it is too clearly contradicted by the facts. and govern in his name the human race. is posited face to face with humanity. abandoned to itself. "The best form of government. May we not suppose that all men are equally inspired by God ? Then.
What matters it ? On the benches o f this School will be seated not children only . In Christianity also there have been great men. and renunciation belie their teachings by their example.* The State will no longer call itself Mon*One day I asked Mazzini what measures would be taken for the emancipation of the people. and dispense with their discipline -the people. for the simple reason that doctrine kills the life. It is not without reason. satisfying this personal passion. "The first measure. which no one has the right or power to teach. have preached and still preach the doctrines of chastity. unless he preaches by example ? Is not the number of men who find supreme enj oyment in sacrifice and devotion exceedingly limited ? Those who sacrifice themselves in the service of a great idea obey a lo fty passion. as a necessary concession to the spirit of modern times. but because of several centuries' experience. selfish. the pupil confessedly forever incompetent to pass his examinations." he answered. the Church will no longer call itself Church . and whose hearts. there will be found the eternal minor. but supported this time-at least so far as fonn is concerned. to the grace of God. by trade. once his triumphant unitary re public had been definitely established. But the immense majority o f Catholic and Protestant priests who. and
." "And what will the people be taught in these schools ?" "The duties of man-sacrifice and devotion. who have really practised. of action. while those who teach doctrine usually forget to translate it into action.GOD AND THE STATE
Church and State. Men like Mazzini. It is true that in this new organization. were full of contempt for the pleasures and goods o f this world. overflowing with love. abstinence. holy men. are very rare exceptions. "will be the foundation o f schools for the people. outside o f which life itself loses all value in their eyes. or who. and j ust as in the preambles of the imperial decrees of Napoleon I l L-on the ( pretended) will of the people. as glut tonous as a priest. rise to the knowledge of his teachers. at least. they generally think o f something else than building their action into doctrine. and. like all the old political organiza tions. as greedy. have passionately tried to practice all that they preached. it will call itself School. indebted for its existence. as ambitious as a priest. that among the people of all countries the$e phrases have become by-words : As licentious as a priest." But where will you find a sufficient number of professors to teach these things. in whom doctrine and action form an admirable unity. the living spontaneity.
This contradiction grows out of the very title and position of master. consecrated b y the Church. It is. in which these individuals are placed. a flock. The position o f the Christian priest involves a double contradiction. the people. A master who commands. but to the social position. a tutelage officially and regularly es tablished by a minority of competent men. when they are not satisfied in a regular and normal way. and the people will remain what they have been hitherto from all eternity. The professors of the School and the functionaries of the State will call themselves republicans . that is to the priests of the modern Church. This is a natural and consequently fatal and irresistible law. impossible and contradictory in itself. the priests. may indeed be continually held back. have practised quite the contrary o f what they have preached. who will watch and guide the conduct of this great. it
grasping as a priest. men of virtuous genius or talent. suppressed. always very rare. that between the doctrine o f abstinence and renunciation and the positive tendencies and needs o f human nature-tendencies and needs which. in the immense majority of cases. Beware of shearers. shepherds. in this system. oppresses. may bt forgotten and neglected for some time by a large mass of men at once . in some individual cases. wholly fictitious. but they will be none the less tutors. under the disastrous action o f which inevitably fall all Christian priests and especially those of the Roman Catholic Church. they are always re placed at last by unwholesome and monstrous satisfaction. will be the perpetual scholar and pupil. The people. In spite of its sovereignty.GOD AND
archy . incorrigible. established that the pro fessors o f the Christian virtues. I n the first place. unless they are also obliged to preach Christian abstinence and renunciation. But there is another contradiction common to the priests of both sects. show that the fault is n o t t o be attributed t o them as in dividuals. and even entirely annihilated by the constant influence of some potent intellectual and moral passion . and exploits is a wholly logical and quite natural personage. It cannot apply to the professors. and terrible child. which at certain moments of collective exaltation. but which are so fundamentally inherent in our nature that sooner or later they always resume their rights : so that. the universality o f this fact. This very majority. it will call itsel f Republic : but it will be none the less the State-that is. for where there is a flock there necessarily must be shepherds also to shear and devour it. then. But a master who
reason : the divine evaporates and rises to its own country. be the same with the professors of the modern School divinely inspired and licensed by the State. there is an abyss. Between this situa tion and what we call liberty. divine or htunan privilege is a contradictory and quite impossible being. Yes. among the privileged classes as well as among the masses . some without knowing it. like causes. But. it will be necessary to eliminate. let us understand each other . partly to satisfy their own personal passions and partly to serve the omnipotence of the Church ? Like conditions. The whole education o f children
. who. the only real liberty. exploited them. and where there is slavery there is misery. and kept them in the condition of a flock. brutishness. Must we. real social materialism. then. far from sacrificing themselves to the flocks con fided to their care. It will be the old oppression and old slavery under new forms .40
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will continue to serve as the instrument o f thoughts. in the first place. while calling himself the lowest servant of the servants of God-in token whereof. the eternal and absolute enslaver. It will. following the example of Christ. in order that they may become schools of emancipation and not of enslavement. into so many schools of human emancipation. wills. this fiction of God. absolute and in fallible master of the world. others with full knowledge of the cause. while the brutal alone remains actually on earth. in a normal society founded on equality and on respect for human liberty. teachers of the doctrine of popular sacrifice to the power o f the State and to the profit o f the privileged classes. so well personified by the Pope. Do I need to recall that the priests of all churches. will exist only for children and not for adults . all those temples dedicated to the glory of God and to the slavery of men. and. And this for a very simple
sacrifices himself to those who are subordinated to him by hi. the necessary consequence of theoretical idealism is
In deifying human things the idealists always end in the tri·umph of a brutal materialism . They will necessarily become. properly speaking. eliminate from society all instruction and abolish all schools ? Far from it ! Instruction must be spread among the masses without stint. transforming all the churches. heaven. schools. This is the very constitution of hypocrisy. then. have always sacrificed them. first of all. and consequently interests not its own. he even washes once a year the feet of twelve Roman beggars proclaims himself at the same time vicar of God. always produce like effects.
which must replace always and everywhere the worship of divinity. necessary. this principle must diminish as fast as education and instruction advance. when applied to children of a tender age. whose intelligence has not yet openly developed itself. Compare the last two civilizations of the ancient world the Greek and the Roman. should be that of the greatest authority and an almost entire absence of liberty . and consequently of education. implies the gradual negation of the point of departure. becomes a monstrosity. in the educa tion of children. but which explains itself naturally enough upon further reflection. not on that of piety and obedience . if the school takes in fants scarcely able a s yet to stammer a few words. From these schools will be absolutely
. not on that o f faith . giving place to increasing liberty. on the worship o f truth and justice at any cost. which may appear strange at first. among those who sincerely preach it-the usual result as far as they are concerned being that they are constrained to see all their efforts struck with sterility-but among those who try to realize their precepts in life. Therefore the first day of the pupils' life. and in all society so far as it allows itself to be dominated by idealistic doc trines. a flagrant denial of humanity. All rational education is at bottom nothing but this progressive immolation of authority for the benefit o f liberty. but for the people themselves. a source of slavery and intellectual and moral depravity. paternal governments have left the masses to wallow in an ignorance so profound that it will be necessary to establish schools not only for the p eople's children. applied to men who have surpassed or attained their majority. not. historical proofs are not lacking. Which is the most materialistic.GOD AND THE STATE
practically the most brutal materialism . constitutes the natural point of departure . undoubtedly. The principle o f authority. the final object o f education necessarily being the formation of free men full of respect and love for the liberty of others. on the deveIopment of personal dignity and independence. To demonstrate this general fact.
and their instruction must be founded on the scientific development o f reason. and above all on respect for humanity. it is legitimate. The principle of authority. but its last day should be that of the greatest liberty and the ab solute abolition of every vestige of the animal or divine principle o f authority. But as the development o f everything. Un fortunately.
the only one which we may respect. The power of collective sentiment or pUblic spirit is even now a very serious matter. will be that of the collective and public spirit of a society founded on equality and solidarity and the mutual human respect o f all its members. i f they need it. The real school for the people and for all grown men is life. No man. they will be popular academies. like all the ancient civilizations. theological. far from en slaving them.GOD AND THE STATE
the most natural. where the people will come freely to get. in its point of departure. Which on the contrary. at once natural and rational. and in which. they will teach in their turn many things to the professors who shall bring them knowledge which they lack. however powerful he believes himself. certainly. established by the Church and by the State . will be a mutual instruction. no one can live without feeling himself sustained by the approval and esteem of at least some
. be sure of it. But. The only grand and omnipotent authority. metaphysical. in spite of these two immense defects. free instruction. more powerful than your criminal codes. than all your divine. then. and j udicial authorities. was exclusively national and based on slavery. the former none
eliminated the smallest applications or manifestations of the princi ple of authority. but will take care not to be rude with it unless they feel the support of a minority larger or smaller. your jailers. it will emancipate men. It will be a thousand times more powerful. including that of Rome. is the most abstractly ideal in its point of departure-sacrificing the material liberty of the man to the ideal liberty of the citizen. and your executioners. and the most hu manly ideal in its results ? Undoubtedly the Greek civiliza tion. This. The men most ready to commit crimes rarely dare to defy it. certain that. Yes. to t"lpenly affront it. but before which we shall bow willingly. They will seek to de ceive it. political. represented by the abstraction of j udicial law. It is true that the Greek civilization. will ever have the strength to bear the unanimous contempt of society . They will be schools no longer . in which neither pupils nor masters will be known. an act of intellectual fraternity between the educated youth and the people. wholly human. rich in their own experience. this is an authority which is not at all divine. and the natural development of human society to the abstraction of the State-and which became nevertheless the most brutal in its consequences ? The Roman civilization.
during the period of the Renaissance. on authority. and on this basis will arise the liberty. depraved. on iuiquity and falsehood. on the worship of divinity.
portion of society. thought. Make all needs really solidary. Its authority is consequently a div ine. why has it not sufficed hitherto to moralize. the fact that some Greek emigrants brought a few of those immortal books into Italy sufficed to resusci tate life. on privilege. with all its brutal consequences. And the name of the Roman civilization ? Conquest. as we know. not on j ustice and truth. it created free thought. that is the name of the Greek civilization . But. it ennobled and really idealized the life of men . always in contradiction of the humani tarian theories which it professes. A man must be urged on by an immense and very sincere conviction in order to find courage to speak and act against the opinion of all. At the close of the Middle Ages. and cowardly man have such courage. the morality. the solidary humanity of all. and never will a selfish. liberty. not on equality . if this social power exists. and cause the material and social interests of each to conform to the human duties of each. both on himself and on all the men whom he knOWs. its influence is mischievous and baleful. and the primary concepts of human respect. it creates them. not on liberty . the most important question of Socialism. it has not been humanized because the social life of which it is ever the faithful expression is based. anti-human authority . has constantly exercised a dis astrous and depraving influence. it transformed human herds into free associations of free men . a poetry. humanity. buried in the dark dun geon of Catholicism. Nothing proves more clearly than this fact the natural and inevitable solidarity-this law of sociability-which binds all men together. It does not repress vices and crimes . not on the brother hood of men . an immortal philosophy. Consequently its real action. With political and social liberty. And to this end there is but one means : Destroy all the institutions of Inequality .GOD AND THE STATE
the less conceived and realized the idea of humanity . establish the economic and social equality of all. Human emancipation. as each of us can verify daily. Do you wish to render its authority and influence beneficent and human ? Achieve the social revolution. it created through liberty the sciences.
. on the exploitation. I shall return to this. to humanize men ? Simply because hitherto this power has not been humanized itself . the arts. not on respect for humanity .
in spite of this decline-temporary let us hope-one may live and breathe humanly.
Messrs. in all European countries. And yet how much she differs from Germany I In Italy. bureau cratic. liberty and humanity ? It is the triumph of the Cresarian or Roman principle. what is it that crushes brutally. She was the first to resuscitate and widely apply the principle of liberty in Europe. and to restore to humanity its titles to nobility : industry. materially. of aristocratic. surrounded by a people which seems to be born for liberty. she reappears to-day. in a very de graded condition in comparison with what she once was. the arts. even bourgeois Italy. Which means the degradation and enslavement of nations and of men. Let us see what are the practical fruits of the one and the other. that fero cious and ingenuous representative of the Protestant God. the second. Italy.44
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And its last word ? The omnipotence of the Cresars. com merce.In Germany one breathes the atmosphere of an immense political and social slavery. Compare now two modern civilizations-the Italian and th e German. political and bourgeoise Germany. Her heroes-I speak always of present Germany. in its general character. The first undoubtedly represents. it is true. on the contrary. and most transcendental form. Generals Manteuffel and
. . poetry. Bismarck and Moltke. most pure. Italy has already rendered immense services to the cause of human emancipation. materialism. Crushed since by three centuries of imperial and papal despotism. not of the Germany of the future . philosophically explained and ac cepted by a great people with deliberate resignation and free will. the positive sciences. and dragged in the mud by her governing bourgeoisie. repre sents idealism in its most abstract. can point with pride to men like Mazzini and Garibaldi. To�day even. and free thought. not of the Ger many of the proTetaires-her heroes are quite the opposite of Mazzini and Garibaldi : they are William 1.. what is it that kills.
It is well known that the Protestant propagandism. and the Protestant Churches do not fail to recognize it either. she has become a menace. from the beginning of her existence. in modern history. conquering. their temporal sovereigns. and. this incon testable but scarcely Ch ristian truth that wealth and power. To show how theoretical idealism incessantly and inevit ably changes into practical materialism. than the doctrine of Christ preached by that Church ? And what is there more brutally materialistic than the constant practice of that same Church since the eighth century.GOD AND THE STATE
Werder. her political privileges. since her definitive establishment as a unitary power. In a11 her international relations Germany. I speak. and. first of all. more dis interested. of the independent churches of England. in the ideal sense. order them to do. We must do her the j ustice to acknowledge that she was the first to discover. they do what their masters. the success of the Christian propagandism. To--day Germany is servility brutal and triumphant. better than divine grace. who are at the same time their spiritual chieftains. are the two inseparable terms of the reign of divine ideality on earth : wealth consolidating and augmenting power. This is a historical truth. her revenues first. one needs only to cite the example of a11 the Christian Churches.
. more separate from all the interests of this earth. The latter have no initiative of their own . of course. systemati ca11y invading. has been slowly. and Switzerland. better than the martyrdom and faith of the apostles. her own voluntary enslavement into the territory of her neighbors . nat ura11y. America. from which dates her definitive establishment as a power ? What has been and still is the principal object of all her contests with the sovereigns of Europe ? Her temporal goods. that o f the Apostolic and Roman Church. not of the subjected churches of Germany. and both assuring. and then her temporal power. power ever discovering and creating new sources of wealth. the economic exploitation and the political oppression of the masses. a danger to the liberty of entire Europe. ever ready to extend. What is there more sublime.
is very intimately con nected with the propagandism of the material. who have so completely idealized and saved France . have never neglected to organize themselves into great corporations for the economic exploitation of the masses under the protection and with the direct and special blessing of some divinity or other . that the action of the good God and of all the divine idealities on earth has ended at last. the men and women of this imperial world. which in their own country are very covetous and very pious at the same time. that all the Churches. all their fonner min isters. from Rouher and Bazaine to Fleury and Pietr! . commercial interests of those two great nations . With the exception of the great hearts and great minds whom I have before referred to as misled. Madame Eugenie . who are to-day the most obstinate defenders of idealism ? In the first place.
. and it is known also that the objects of the latter propagandism is not at all the enridhment and material prosperity of the countries into which it penetrates in company with the Word of God. by the side of their spiritualistic propa gandism. Christian and non-Christian. have likewise had principally in view this same exploitation for the benefit of lay minorities indirectly sanctioned by the Church . always and everywhere. but rather the exploitation of those countries with a view to the enrichment and material prosperity of certain classes. it is not at all difficult to prove. which originally.GOD AND THE STATE
especially in England and America. until lately. as we know. In France. In a word. with all their political and judicial institutions and their dominant and privileged classes. in founding the prosperous ma terialism of the few over the fanatical and constantly fam ishing idealism of the masses. and probably to accelerate and consolidate the suc cess thereof. and his wife. courtiers. We have a new proof of this in what we see to-day. have been only temporal branches of these various Churches. that the Church. all the sovereign courts. that all the States. finally and in general. and ex-marshals. history in hand. Napoleon III.
the Pel letans. the black phalanx of Jesuits and Jesuitesses in every garb . the Duvernois. it would seem. who certainly lack neither mind. the doctrinaire liberals. We see. further. the Veuillots. of human reason. the Czar and his court . the present royal demonstrator of the good God on earth . serves to-day as the flag of material. should be sufficient to drive every great min d. the renunciation of science.11 his army. Pomeranian and other . the one being but the more or less free translation of the other. that in defending the doctrines of idealism one finds himself enlisted perforce in the ranks of the oppressors and exploiters of the masses. is raised by the practical idealism of the oppressed and famishing masses. the Dumas . from idealism. the Mouravieffs and the Bergs. every great heart. all his officers. nor good will. the flag of theoretical materialism. all obstinate defenders of the bourgeoise exploitation. bloody. the Girardins. the Jules Favres. and brutal force. the Thiers. but of life. the Leverriers. which. In Russia. How does it happen that our illus trious contemporary idealists. These are two great reasons which. not of heaven. In Prussia. William 1.. in Germany. has j ust con quered France in that ideal way we know so well. Everywhere.GOD AND THE STATE
their j ournalists and their savants-the Cassagnacs. Who are the real idealists-the idealists not of abstrac tion. strong in its religious faith. nor heart. and who have devoted their entire existence to the service of humanity-how does it
. on the contrary. and the Jules Simons. of shameless material exploitation . and the liberals without doctrine-the Guizots. but of earth-and who are the materialists ? It is evident that the essential condition of theoretical or divine idealism is the sacrifice of logic. 8. all the butchers and pious proselyters of Poland. all his generals. in short. religious or philosophical idealism. tending to realize the greatest liberty and the human right of each in the fraternity of all men on the earth. the whole upper and middle bourgeoisie of France . the red flag of economic equality and social j ustice. while.
then. we always find this same essential contradiction between the two schools. ac cording to the materialistic school. And if the truth were j ust the opposite ! Every development. Whatever human question we may desire to consider. The basis or point of departure. in the name of human dignity. no doubt. and on the ruins of every liberty founds authority. under the form of Church and State. is a progressive ascension . materialism starts from animality to establish humanity . at the humanization. or from what is abstractly called matter. implies the negation of its point of departure. on the con trary. that idealistic theories or beliefs are essentially necessary to the moral dignity and grandeur of man. The historical development of man according to the ma terialistic school. It cannot be logic or science. Materialism rej ects the
. I have said. in the idealistic system it can be nothing but a continuous fall . and that materialistic theories. idealism. No more can it be personal interests. Thus. Materialism denies free will and ends in the establishment of liberty . Starting from the totality of the real world. the ne gation must be necessarily ideal. reduce him to the level of the beasts. proclaims free will.GOD AND THE STATE
happen that they persist in remaining among the representa tives of a doctrine henceforth condemned and dishonored ? They must be influenced by a very powerful motive. being material. the basis and point of departure of the idealistic school being ideal. These illustrious men think. since these men are in finitely above everything of that sort. be a powerful moral motive. as I have already observed. it ar rives necessarily at the materialization of society. idealism starts from divinity to establish slavery and condemn the masses to an endless animality. at the full and complete emancipation--of so ciety. at the or ganization of a brutal despotism and an iniquitous and ignoble exploitation. Per contra and for the same reason. Which ? There can be but one. it logically arrives at the real idealization-that is. since logic and science have pro nounced their verdict against the idealistic doctrine. It must.
full of properties and forces. impoverished and reduced to abso lute misery by the regular looting of these Prussians of thought. but into abstract matter. loses consciousness of itself. In this way it passes through all degrees of materiality and bestiality-first. They begin by a ter rible fall. deprived of all action and movement of its own. And into what kind of matter ! Not into the matter which is eternally active and mobile. from the action of God upon matter. can result only from a providential intervention. as I have said. is flattened out. represents. gas. the theologians and metaphysicians. The fall is so terrible that divinity. And in this desperate situation it is still forced to work miracles ! For from the moment that matter becomes inert. every movement that takes place in the world. inertia and immobility. then awakens slowly. And there this poor Divinity. a new miracle. of life and intelligence. into the matter which. in opposition to the divine idea. the divine person or idea. in the system of the idealists. lies some thousands of centuries in this swoon. and every move that it makes in this direction upon matter becomes a creation. mineral. can be nothing but a continuous fall. degraded and half annihilated by its fall. can be realized only through liberty.GOD AND THE STATE
principle of authority . nothing but absolute stupidity. History. and because. because it rightly considers it as the corollary of animality. a new formation. you will always find the idealists in the very act of practical materialism. simple or compound chemical substance. even the most material. the triumph of humanity. to their God. is a miracle. it then spreads over
. In a word. from which they never recover-by the salto mor tale from the sublime regions of pure and absolute idea into matter. the object and chief significance of history. and never more recovers it. who have stripped it of everything to give everything to their emperor. in vain endeavoring to grasp some vague memory o f itself. while you will see the materialists pursuing and realizing the most grandly ideal aspirations and thoughts. impenetrability. as we see it in the real world . on the contrary.
however. enclose. how can the body con tain. is divisible like matter. for it lights in every human being an angelic spark. that passionate and stupid affirmation of the absurd. Another mystery whose solution must be left to faith. According to the materialists. the practical consequences of this miracle. mind is only the working of the wholly material organism of man. to enclose the divine immensity . a sort of focus for self-concentration. the im mortal soul. that is another matter . a particle of its own divine being. indeed. again. the absolutely immaterial being. then each man would be God. noth ing more rational. Only. not of mind. To be limited. But each man considered individually is infinitely too limited. each limited by all the others and yet none the less infinite--a contradiction which would imply a mutual de struction of men. is one of those questions which faith alone. Divinity. It follows that the divine being. immortal like the whole. too small.
. we have only to establish the effects. paralyze pure spirit ? This. lost and scattered in the matter which it animates and sets in motion. We should have an immense quantity of Gods. How did it manage to lodge a thing absolutely imma terial in a thing absolutely material . If God entire could find lodgment in each man. It is the great est of miracles. Here. to be greater and smaller are attributes of matter. here another contradiction confronts us. an impossibility of the existence of more than one.50
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the earth as vegetable and animal organization till it con centrates itself in man. than that one particle should be limited by another and be smaller than the whole. his im mortal soul singularly imprisoned in a mortal body. it is true. it can contain only a very small particle. can solve. After thousands of centuri�s of vain efforts to come back to itself. limit. H ere it would seem as if it must become itself again. As for the particles. This focus is man. but infinitely smaller fuan the whole. and the greatness or smallness of mind depends absolutely on the greater or less material perfection of the human organism. finds a point of support. mind.
ages.GOD AND THE STATE
But these same attributes of relative limitation and grandeur cannot be attributed to mind as the idealists conceive it. and are irresistibly drawn towards their whole . It is Divinity itself. in looking for itself. scat tered and lost in the natural world. from above to below
. and it is so demolished by this multitude of human prisons in which it finds itself strewn. in in finitely small particles. and the other-God the Son-falls into matter. in an immense number of beings of all sexes. of which one-God the Father-stays in the purely immaterial regions. in the midst of this state of barbarism and wholly animal brutality. it commits folly after folly. abso lutely immaterial mind. that. now in a rag. human souls. mind existing independent of mat ter. But this is a question of faith. which looks for itself in men. Here is a new mystery-that of Divinity dividing itself into two halves. for the divine particles are so little acquainted with each other at the outset of their human existence that they begin by devouring each other. both equally infinite. between these two Divinities separated from each other. now in a stone. it searches for and adores it self. these divine particles. had not had pity on it. i f the o ther divinity which was not al lowed to fall into matter and which is kept in a state of pure spirit in the sublime heights of the absolute ideal. Beginning with fetichism. or in the celestial regions. To add that the infinitely small and limited particles which consti tute human souls are at the same time immortal is to carry the contradiction to a climax. We shall see di rectly. It is quite likely that it would never have succeeded in get ting out of the rag. continuous relations established. Here then we have Divinity torn up and lodged. This is an excessively in convenient and unhappy situation. they seek their whole. There can be neither greater nor smaller nor any limit among minds. Let us pass on. Moreover. they seek each other. now in a piece of wood. retain as it were a vague remembrance of their primitive divinity. races. and colors. for there is only one mind-God.
Mahomet. and Saint John before all. Multiply milliards of milliards by milliards
. picks his inspired per sons. decides to come to his aid. It will be said that he is not reduced to noth ing. compared with it. and these relations. Solon. man is reduced to nothing. his prophets. Lycurgus. however small it be. Confucius. But a particle of the infinitely great. Robespierre and Danton. Saint Peter. all of whose names it is impossible to recapitulate. But immediately God appears. seeing from the height of his eternal splendor that the poor God the Son. the divine Plato. considered as a single eternal and constant act. and infinitely small. a positive greatness. Buddha. will constitute the Holy Ghost. Gregory VII. the complete realization of God the Son. is necessarily in finitely small. Then we have reached at last the manifestation of God upon earth. Dante. is so plunged and lost in matter that even having reached human state he has not yet recovered himself. Pardon me ! I admit that a particle of a definite. God the Father chooses those most pleasing to him. and above all Jesus Christ. the terrible mystery of the Christian Trinity. Socrates. But let us lose no time in abandoning these heights to see what is going on upon earth. is a quantity." the great benefactors and legislators of humanity : Zoroaster. all the apostles. divine. and. Such. at last collected and concentrated in a single human person . Moses. according to some. Con3tantine the Great. is the great. Voltaire and Rousseau. since he is himself a particle of God. beg that Saint Nicholas may not be forgotten. limited whole. Luther also. as a Russian.52
GOD AND THE STATE
and from below to above . flattened out and astounded by his fall. but among whom I. Saint Paul. then Charlemagne. and many other great and holy historical personages. From this immense number of particles at once immortal. in which God the Son has disseminated himself so thoroughly that he does not know himself. his "men o f virtuous genius. in its veritable theological and metaphysical meaning. God the Father..
they sow discord. the more miserable becomes humanity.GOD AND THE STATE
of milliards-their product compared to the infinitely great. AU are equally insignificant before God. to elevate us. We had first the fall of God. and. That is the history of all religions .
They are so jealous of the glory of
. which immediately es tablishes a fixed. dignity. and with it the two fundamental institutions of slavery : Church and State. You will not escape this conclusion. on the contrary. and the infinitely small is equal to zero. reason. less in spired. therefore man and all the real world with him. In history the name of God is the terrible club with which all divinely inspired men. the universe. the great "virtuous geniuses. and prosperity of man. but. they crush and degrade us. are nothing. ennoble us. and. they create pri de. For with God come the different degrees of divine inspira tion . they desire. The highly inspired must be listened to and obeyed by the less inspired. hatred." have beaten down the liberty. and the less inspired by the uninspired. Of all despotisms that of the doctrinaires or inspired re
ligionists is the worst. emancipate us. and the greater Divinity becomes. See in how profound an error our d ear and illustrious idealists find themselves. petri fying inequality. compared with each other. God is everything . caused solely by the appari tion of God manifested on earth. con tempt . will be infinitely small. man is reduced to nothing . Now we have a fall which interests us more-that of man. because inequality in fact is lost in the collectivity when it cannot cling to some legal fiction or institution but by the divine right of inspiration. With the name of God they imagine that they can establish fraternity among men. constant. they establish slavery. that is the effect of all the divine inspirations and legislations. it is true . God appears. on the contrary. some are greater than others . Thus we have the principle of authority well established. humanity is divided into men highly inspired. In talking to us of God they pur pose. uninspired. not only in fact-which would be of no conse quence. war .
Consid erin� all that is. of real men. our planet once destroyed-it cannot fail to perish sooner or later. the moment of this dissolution being an enormous dis tance in the future. who. the most compassionate hearts. their laws-in short.S4
GOD AND THE STATE
their God and of the triumph of their idea that they have no heart left for the liberty or the dignity or even the suffer ings of living men. so to speak. with reality and life. ing matters with disdain . and therefore fugitive and . but the whole life of real men. not reality itself . they themselves are only passing beings. but never to return in person. That is its
. the thought of li fe. who knows what will become of our whole human development ? Neverthe less. are replaced by others likewise passing. which steadily developing. I say relatively eternal. since everything which has begun must nec essarily end--our planet once decomposed. The general idea is always an abstraction and. for that very reason. because. we may properly consider :humanity. which alone is really eternal. of men of flesh and bone. that which is permanent in their continual transformations -but never their material. in conse quence of this. individual side. in really living men. Alone permanent or relatively eternal in men is humanity. in some sort a negation of real life. finally dry up the tenderest souls. preoccupation with the idea.in tangible. to serve undoubt edly as an element of some new formation in the system of the universe. all that happens in the world from the point of VIew o f eternity or of the abstract idea. once passed. Divine zeal. Science comprehends the thought of the realtty. as eternal. their relations. I have stated in the Appendix that human thought and. is composed only of passing matters . they treat pass. the sources of human love. But this very fact of progressive humanity is real and liv ing only through its manifestations at definite times. and not through its gen eral idea. in def inite places. not life. science can grasp and name only the general significance of real facts. relatively to the short duration of human life. grows richer in pass ing from one generation to another. palpitating.
the ped antic disciple of the immortal Doctor Faust. it fixes. Science creates nothing. but also its vital impotence and even its mischievous action whenever. the brain) . ridiculous. abstract. which is the only organ of sCIence. cannot fail to be impotent. reflected or mental-that is cerebral ( using this word to remind us that science itself is but a material product of a material organ. because it is founded ox: the very nature of thought. the unchangeable landmarks of humanity's progressive march by indicating the general conditions which it is necessary to rigorously observe and always fatal to ignore or forget. still-born. its only really insuperable limit. op pressive. science is the compass of life. sensibility. disciples of Auguste Comte. but also wholly palpitating with reality and in dividuality. but it is not IHe. cruel. or. The mission of science is. impersonal. ridiculously abstract. needs. And every time that scien tific men. mingle with living creation in the real world. inhuman. In a word. It alone spontaneously creates real things and beings. We may say of men of
. Upon this nature are based the indisputable rights and grand mission of science. even be they positivists. again. Life is wholly fugitive and temporary.GOD AND THE STATE
limit. emerging from their abstract world. general. disciples of the doctrinaire school of German Communism. maleficent. like the homunculus created by Wagner. in sensible. Science is unchangeable. joys. to establish the general laws inherent in the development of the phenomena of the physical and social world. sufferings. It follows that the only mission of science is to enlighten life. aspirations. it establishes and recog nizes only the creations of life. so to speak. The government of science and of men of science. bloodless and lifeless. it arrogantly claims the right to govern life. exploiting. and passions. not to gov ern it. by observation of the general relations of passing and real facts. like the laws of which it is but the ideal reproduc tion. through its official licensed representatives. all that they propose or create is poor.
the reason is that" they are not exclusively men of science. monopolizing science and remaining thus outside of social life. it remains always to be feared that the savants as a body. in its turn. they have to deal with and can take interest in nothing except generalities . but are also more or less men of li fe.t Nevertheless. in their researches and experiments are not treating men actually as they treat animals. but are also more or less men of life. we must not rely too much on this. but which incarnates them by an artifice of
*Here three pages of Bakunin's manuscript are missing. and that is what must be absolutely pre vented. that do the laws* . may submit living men to scientific experiments.GOD AND THE STATE
science. if not interfered with. . undoubtedly less cruel but none the less disagreeable to their victims. living and real individuals are their victims. and they are the consecrated and licensed sacrificers. In this respect it is infinitely inferior to art. We cannot even blame them for this. In their existing organization. in many respects analogous to the priesthood. is peculiarly concerned also with general types and gen eral situations. Though we may be well nigh certain that a savant would not dare to treat a man to-day as he treats a rabbit. they will ask nothing better than to perform them on the social body. Science cannot go outside of the sphere of abstractions. If they cannot perform experiments upon the bodies of indi viduals. which.
. what I have said of theologians and meta physicians : they have neither sense nor heart for individual and living beings. as such. In so far as they are men of science. the savants form a separate caste. tThe lost part of this sentence perhaps said : "If men of science. they are not exclusively men of science. Scientific abstraction is their God. for it is the natural consequence of their profession.
it reca11s to our minds the living. when it is not deaf to the instincts and spon taneous aspirations of life-it knows ( and this is its last word) that respect for man is the supreme law of Human ity. none the less excite in our imagination the mem ory and sentiment of life . the real liberty. including the human species. science. which it has the power to create. but real. if we would not fall back into the liberticidal fiction of the public welfare represented by the State. the prosperity and happiness of each individual living in society. the individuals appear freer and more complete. real individualities which appear and disappear under our eyes. It knows. as it were. by means of the individualities without flesh and bone. fugitive. Science is as incapable of grasping the individuality of a man as that of a rabbit. It knows that in rising from the animal species to the superior species the principle of individuality becomes more pronounced . but not as a fact. is as it were the return of abstraction to life . in his so cial and private existence. It knows that man. the universal law. its only legitimate object. art in a certain sense individual izes the types and situations which it conceives . if they are not living in the sense of real life. tempo rary. is the perpetual immolation of life. Art. the last and most perfect animal of earth. or even by a narrow scientific pride. It knows very we11 that a11 the animal species. a fiction always founded on the systematic sacrifice
. is the humanization and emancipation. finally. have no real existence outside of an indefinite number of individuals. personify. on the con trary. political or judcial doctrinairisme. the real object of history. because of his power to conceive. concrete. being equa11y indifferent to both. and consequently permanent and immortal. when it is not vitiated by theological or metaphysical. then. For. presents the most com plete and most remarkable individuality.GOD AND THE STATE
its own in forms which. and that the great. on the altar of eternal abstractions. Not that it is ignorant of the principle of individuality : it conceives it perfectly as a principle. born and dying to make room for new individuals equally fugitive.
have any existence. But it would be equally ridiculous. it must never be permitted. It cannot grasp the concrete . or of such a race. it would abdi cate. And it would be ridiculous to wish it to do so. such a class or category of individuals . do not. nor must any body be permitted in its name. Now. it can well enough conceive the principle of real and living in dividuality. and the best general methods of secur ing their progress in all ways. Its mission is to busy itself with the situation and the general conditions of the existence and development. it would be disastrous to entrust it with a mission which it is incapable of fulfilling. so far as it is concerned. For these beings made. living and passing individuals. cannot. Abstractions ad vance only when borne forward by real men. but by acting. either of the human species in general. but not with Peter or James. Abstraction being its very nature. who. are only abstractions.
. but it does not and can not go beyond them. such a people. I repeat. the general causes of their pros perity. it would annihilate itself. Since its own nature forces it to ignore the existence of Peter and James. but in reality of flesh and blood. if it wished to concern itself with them otherwise than as examples in support of its eternal theories. their decline. not with such or such a one. not in idea only. for its mission lies not there. Its individuals. science has no heart : it considers them at most as material for m·tellectual and social development. it concerns itself with individuals in general. we must clearly recognize that collective lib erty and prosperity exist only so far as they represent the sum of individual liberties and prosperities. Provided it accomplishes this task broadly and rationally. and it would be really unjust to expect more of it. history is made. but it can have no dealings with real and living individuals . it can move only in abstractions. not by abstract individuals. Science knows all these things. What does it care for the particular conditions and chance fate of Peter or James ? It would make itself ridiculous. to govern Peter and James. it will do its whole duty.GOD AND THE STATE
of the people.
of judicial Right. they live only by the con. ever nourished upon human blood. but on the contrary in very active life and having very substantial interests. political liberty. the vampires of history. judicial rights. we must submit to it so far as the past is concerned. too. the revolt of life against science. we have to recognize that no minority would have been powerful enough to impose all these horrible sacrifices upon the masses if there had not been in the masses themselves a dizzy spon taneous movement which pushed them on to continual self sacrifice. and inevitable movement of human societies. Such has been up to-day the natural. not to destroy science-that would be high treason to humanity-but to remand it to its place so that it can never leave it again. of the State. politicians of all shades. What I preach then is. just as they have been fleeced hitherto by priests. now to one. in the name o f God. For we must not deceive ourselves : even in attributing the larger part to the Machiavellian wiles of the governing classes. politicians. but its licensed representatives. men not at all abstract. it would continue to ignore them .GOD AND THE STATE
For it were capable o f treating them almost as it treats rabbits. N or is it more surprising that metaphysics. We must believe that that was the only possible way to educate the human race. historical rights. power of State.tinual immolation of the people. national honor. and lawyers. Priests of these ab stractions. as we submit to all natural fatalities. and jurists. We cannot undo it . Or rather. or rather against the government of science. yielding to the pernicious influence which privilege inevitably exercises upon men. public welfare. We readily understand that this is very gratifying to the theologians. should give its consent. Until now all human history has been only a perpetual and bloody immolation of millions of poor human beings in honor of some pitiless abstraction-God. to a certain extent. Its only mission is to justify
. now to another of these devouring abstractions. spontaneous. country. would finally fleece other men in the name of science.
on earth. By a judicious criticism. and the general laws of their development. are always very lucrative to those who represent them in flesh and bone. To remedy this radical de fect positive science will have to proceed by a different method from that fo11owed by the doctrines of the past. their general relations. recog nizing its absolute inability to conceive real individuals and interest itself in their lot. But there is one aspect in which it resembles a11 these doctrines : its only possible object being abstractions. it is repre sented by a privileged body . for if it should meddle therein. which it can and fina11y will be forced to pass upon itself. outside of whom the truest abstractions have no existence. must definitely and absolutely re nounce all claim to the government of societies . that it is only a means for the realization of a much higher object-that of the complete humanization of the real situation of a11 the real individuals who are born. and judicial right consists in this that. constituted outside of life. in place of the false and fatal abstractions set up by these doctrines. Positive science. it posits true abstractions which express the general nature and logic of things. politics. by the way. it is forced by its very nature to ignore real men. which. The latter have taken advantage of the ignorance of the masses to sacrifice them with delight to their abstractions. it would understand. The immense advantage of positive science over theology. metaphysics. on the contrary. who live. But that positive science itself should have shown the same tendencies is a . and will assure it for ever a great position in society : it will constitute in a certain sense society's collective consciousness. and in the second place. That it has done so is due to two reasons : in the first place.fact which we must deplore while we estab lish it. because. it would only sacrifice continually the living men whom it ignores to the abstractions which
. This separates it profoundly from a11 preceding doctrines. and who die. because thus far it has posited itself as an absolute and final object of all human development.60
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and rationalize as far as possible the iniquitous and absurd.
beyond which the action of social science can be
. by reflection.GOD AND THE STATE
constitute the sole object of its legitimate preoccupations. dismal by the immense hecatomb of human victims "crushed under its car"-those milliards of obscure individuals without whom none of the great ab stract results of history would have been obtained-and who. which is capable of expressing abstractions only . All that we have a right to demand of it is that it shall point us with faithful and sure hand to the general causes of individual suffering among these causes it will not forget the immolation and subordination ( still too frequent. they cannot be grasped in the present day any more than in the past. The milliards of individ uals who have furnished the living and suffering materials of this history at once triumphant and dismal-triumphant by its general results. however detailed it might be. religious. the science of the future. resthetic. will nec essarily continue to ignore them. But suppose it were definitely developed. in our annals. political and social. those are its limits. what could it give us ? It would ex hibit a faithful and rational picture of the natural develop ment of the general conditions-material and ideal. scarcely do we begin to-day to catch a glimpse of its extremely complicated conditions. or even by human speech. economi cal. bear in mind. for instance. not even the slightest. Individuals cannot be grasped by thought. They have lived and been sacrificed. have never benefited by any of these results-will find no place. That is its mission . But this universal picture of human civilization. Shall we blame the science of history ? That would be unjust and ridiculous. crushed for the good of abstract humanity. does not yet exist . philosophical. would never show anything beyond general and consequently abstract estimates. The true science of history. There fore social science itself. that is all. alas ! ) of living individuals to abstract generalities-at the same time showing us the general conditions necessary to the real emancipation of the individuals liv�ng in society. and scientific-of the societies which have a history.
nor of judicial right things all theologically or metaphysically revealed. and while continuing to concern itself exclusively with general causes. it will become one in fact with the immediate and real life of all individuals. it is inherent in the real world.GOD AND THE STATE
only impotent and fatal. the sole mission of science is to light the road. of which it is only the general or abstract expression and representation. This contradiction can be solved only in one way : by the liquidation of science as a moral being existing outside the life of all. science is indispensable to the rational organization of society . of which it can never divest itself without ceasing to be science. and given full liberty of action. delivered from all its governmental and doctrinaire barriers. on the other. How solve this antinomy ? On the one hand. nor good God. It is time to have done with all popes and priests . who would henceforth be his own priest. having at last succeeded in swallowing his good God. Science. and represented by a body of breveted savants. nor of political liberty. Only Life. it must spread among the masses. even if they call them selves Social Democrats. being incapable of in teresting itself in that which is real and living. we want them no longer. and all alike indigestible. That will be a movement analo gous to that which said to the Protestants at the beginning of the Reformation that there was n o further need of priests for man. The world of scientific abstractions is not revealed . Once more. As
. must really become the property of everybody. it must not interfere with the real or practical organization of society. every man. without losing anything. can create. its priests. Thereby. thanks to the invisible intervention of the Lord Jesus Grist alone.of its universal character. the conditions and fixed relations of individuals and things. Beyond those limits being the doc and governmental pretentions of its licensed repre sentatives. being called upon to henceforth represent society's collective consciousness. But here the question is not of Jesus Christ.
The first consequence of the gov ernment of these men would be to render science inaccessible to the people.GOD AND THE STATE
tong as it fonns a separate region. Only. better organized for scientific speculation than the maj ority o f their fellows. ever self-sufficient and ever impotent. ceasing to be flocks led and shorn by privileged priests. ambition. will not prevent men of genius. That is the reason why it is necessary to dissolve the special social or ganization of the savants by general instruction. This regime would be capable of paralyzing the life and movement of society. This. they will be ambitious for no other social influence than the natural influence exercised upon its surroundings by every superior intel ligence. and d(Jctrinaire pedantry. Once more. and from the social point of view the most haughty and insulting such would be the power established in the name of science. however. equal for all in all things. would desire to meddle with everything. from devoting themselves exclusively to the cultivation of the sciences. will it be necessary to leave them to the govern ment of scientific men ? Certainly not. specially represented by the savants as a body. * But until the masses shall have reached this degree of instruction.
. reserving for its licensed representatives the office of priests. The savants always presumptuous. may take into their own hands the direction of their destinies. An aristocracy of learning ! from the practical point of view the most implacable. creates life . It will gain in utility and grace what it loses in pride. this ideal world threatens to take the place of a good God to the real world. and for no other reward than the high delight which a nohle mind always finds in the satisfaction of a noble passion. not science. in becoming the patrimony o f everybody. and such a government would necessarily be aristocratic. will wed itself in a certain sense to the immediate and real life o f each. and rendering great services to humanity. because the existing scientific institutions are essentially aristocratic. It would be better for them to dispense with science than allow themselves to be governed by savants. in order that the masses. Life. and the sources of life would dry up under the breath of their abstractions. the spontane*Science.
But better an absence of light than a false and feeble light. there will be no occasion for the government of the savants. which in certain respects is worth as much as theoretical science. illuminate the spontaneous march of the people towards their emancipation. if one prefers. the end but little different. the people will not lack light. is slavery. but it will never yield. thanks to them. the conscience. and paid for their errors by centuries of misery. it must. The faith is the same. hypocrisy. not being personal but divine. God. kindled only to mislead those who follow it. the more dangerous they become. I have said. die. necessary to life. and cowardice of the bourgeoisie to find courage to turn their backs upon it. a portion of the youth-those of the bourgeois students who feel hatred enough for the falsehood. The practical summary of their painful experiences constitutes a sort of traditional science. true in its essence.GOD AND THE STATE
ous action of the people themselves alone can create liberty. and passion enough to unreservedly embrace the just and human cause of the proletariat-those will be. of which it is the theo retical representation. The pride of the idealists.
. just as the lieutenants of Prussia. injus tice. fraternal instructors of the people . It may. which destroys and decomposes life. as that of faith. The more sincere these believers and poets of heaven. The ideal istic abstraction. and while it has a breath left it will try to subject men to its God. falsifies and kills it. or. Last of all. If the people should beware of the government of the savants. and the result. Undoubtedly it would be a very fortunate thing if science could. from this day forth. The scientific abstraction. is a rational abstraction. would like to see the people crushed under the spurred boot of their emperor. it must be. absorbed and digested by life. as I have already said. these practical ideal ists of Germany. all the more should they provide against that of the inspired idealists. is a corrosive poison. After all. Not in vain have they traversed a long historic career. is invincible and in exorable : it may.
of remembering them when they have passed and reproducing them by the imagination. on which all science rests. like all the rest of nature. we find a certain degree of in telligence.
. in the series of species. by the experience of all. the power.* which is the sole origin. animal intelligence develops in proportion as the organization of a species approaches that of man. in a word. but that in man alone it attains to that power of abstraction which properly consti tutes thought. the facility of thinking.GOD AND THE STATE It is at the same time the triumph of the ugliest and most brutal materialism. the source of all our knowledge. In all animals. we establish it likewise in men. therefore. that all intelli gence is always attached to some animal body. sole creator of our whole ideal world. There is no need to demonstrate this in the case of Germany . which no fact has ever contradicted and which any man can verify at any moment of his life. of comparing and distinguishing them. Man. the second is only a supposition of facts which nobody has seen. and finally of forming ideas by grouping and combining concepts according to different methods-intelligence. and which consequently are at variance with the experience o f everybody. one would have to be blind to avoid seeing it at the present hour. must be clearly distinguished from universal faith. of receiving and reflecting upon different external and internal sensations. of abstracting determinations common to them and thus creating general concepts. on which the idealists wish to support their beliefs : the first is a real authentication of facts . is an entirely material being. The mind. and that the intensity.
*Universal experience. is a property of the animal body and especially of the quite material organism of the brain. of this animal function depends upon the relative perfection of the organism. shows us. But I think it is still necessary to demonstrate it in the case of divine idealism. without excepting the wholly inferior species. We know this certainly. and we see that. Universal experience. The latter of these results o f universal experience is not applicable only to the different animal species .
material. how is it that men have come to believe in its existence ? The fact of this belief is certain. peoples. detached from all material form. Dur ing this working of the mind unconscious of itself. But these are distinctions which idealism has not the power to use without falling into inconsistency and the grossest materialism . at least very general. Could they have received in the distribution a particle at once divine and stupid ? To escape this embarrassm ent the idealists must necessarily suppose that all human souls are equal.* On the other hand. existing separately from any animal body whatsoever. and individuals. are unequal. how is this difference to be ex plained ? Un fortunately there is a considerable number of men wholly stupid. The explanation of this belief. but that the prisons in which they find them selves necessarily confined. moreover. as a class. human bodies. foolish even to idiocy. The example afforded us by children and young people. is rational enough. But if no person has seen it. According to this. that it is not nec essary to insist upon this point. exercises too potent a sway over the destiny of men to war rant us in ignoring it or putting it aside. and as individuals. some more capable than others of serving as an organ for the pure intellec tuality o f soul. as all the idealists pretend . shows us that man may use his mental faculties for a long time before accounting to himself for the way in which he uses them. and as such it is entirely worthy of our closest attention. for a general belief. all that is corporeal.66
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whose intellectual and moral power depends so clearly upon the greater or less perfection of their organism as a race. and even by many men long past the age of majority. as a nation. such another very gross organs. and if not universal. for in the presence of absolute immateriality o f soul all bodily differ ences disappear. it is certain that no man has ever seen or can see pure mind. before becoming clearly conscious of it. must be excessively embarrassed by the difference in intelligence existing between races. necessarily appearing
. such a one might have very fine organs at his disposition. Unless we suppose that the various divine particles have been irregularly distributed. however foolish it may be. all those who believe in the immateriality and immortality of the human soul. during
absolute immateriality from absolute materiality. At first gross fetiches. and recognized themselves as their crea tures.
indifferent. considering them as real beings infinitely superior to themselves. As fast as human ideas develop. ob sessed by the external world.
. equally and absolutely gross. In a word. Of all the gross and materialistic (using the word in the sense attached to it by the idealists) imaginations which were engendered by the primitive ignorance and stupidity of men. man. they attributed omni potence to them. the gods. by the way inexplicable and logically impossible. pushed on by that internal goad called life and its mani fold necessities. created their gods. he must naturally consider them as objective beings. It was thus that primitive peoples. these ideas. which may exist on the other side of the abyss. the most stupid. ideal. the absolutely immaterial cannot be constrained. Consequently all differences. were never anything more than a fantastic. poetical reverberation or an in verted image. not knowing yet that he himsel f has produced and continues to produce these imaginations. is infinite. their slaves. become idealized also. these concepts.GOD AND THE STATE
this action of innocent or believing intelligence. and ideas necessarily very imperfect at first and conforming but slightly to the reality of the things and facts which they endeavor to express . The abyss which separates seul from body. that of an immaterial soul im. as I have already stated. imprisoned. who. as real beings. human-origin. emerging slowly from their animal innocence. in matter. Not having yet the consciousness of his own intelligent action. creates a quan tity of imaginations. wholly independent of him. concepts. should be to the soul null and void. Having created them. and much less ex pressed in any degree whatsoever by the absolutely material.prisoned in a material body is certainly the grossest. they worshipped them . and nothing better proves the omnipotence exercised by ancient prejudices even over the best minds than the deplorable sight of men endowed with lofty intelligence still talking of it in our days. existing by themselves and in themselves. ignoring their wholly su bjective that is. not suspecting that they themselves were the real creators. and neither can nor should exercise any influence over it.
so poisoned and penetrated by it in all his being. so to speak. as each insane notion necessarily becomes when it takes possession of man's brain. the collective soul and thought. and at last. just or false. As collective insanity it has penetrated to the very depths of the public and private existence of the peoples . whatever the object of his madness -you will find that obscure and fixed idea which obsesses him seems to him the most natural thing in the world. The difficult step in the historical development of this terrible re ligious insanity which continues to obsess and crush us was to posit a divine world as such. the real things which contradict this idea seem to him ridiculous and odious follies. the rest follows naturally as a necessary consequence. it is incarnate in society . it is always the first step. outside the world.68
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they gradually become pure spirits. pure. This first act o r madness. and another in our doctrinaire materialists-the German Communists. collective or individual. Take a madman. eternal. Well. the more powerful because it is traditional folly. he has to make unheard-of efforts to deliver him self from it. and that. That step once taken. existing outside o f the visible world. are confounded in a single Divine Being. on the contrary. however powerful his nat ural mind. In every development. absorbs it with all that he touches. was not accomplished at a single stroke. that later. re ligion is a collective insanity. all that he sees. Every man is en veloped in it from his birth . We have one proof of this in our modern idealists. once established. I know not how many centuries were needed to develop this belief and make it a governing influ ence upon the mental customs of men. he sucks it in with his mother's milk. and even then never completely succeeds. He is so exclusively fed upon it. it became omnipotent. real or imaginary. the first act that is the most difficult. in the course of a long historic evolution.
. absolute Spirit. creator and master of the worlds. it has become. But. and because its origin is lost in the most remote antiquity. so natural from the physiological point o f view and consequently necessary i n t h e history of humanity.
in the world of re ligious fancy. the divine world. more material. constituting. the faithful reproduction and divine consecra tion. undoubtedly the most difficult next to the establishment of a separate divine world. In vain did Moses and the prophets preach the one god . in all things to the contemporary development of economical and political re lations of which it has been in all ages. who. they were so numerous because they were material. Thus has the collective and historical insanity which calls itself religion been developed since fetichism. from the religious materialism of the pagans to the spiritualistic faith of the Christians. the people always relapsed into their primitive idolatry. diversity being one of the principal attributes o f the real world. The pagan gods were not yet strictly the negation of real things . used material arguments. more human. often stupid. so to speak. The supernatural world. once well es tablished in the imagination of the peoples. they were only a fantastic exaggera tion of them. It does not even appear that faith
. Very numer ous. the development of the various religious systems has followed its natural and logical course. or. moreover. al�ays gross and cruel. was still an extremely na tional God. to reward and punish his faithful follow ers his chosen people. The second step in the development of religious beliefs. passing through all the stages from polytheism to Christian mono theism. into the ancient and comparatively much more natura and conveni 1 ent faith in many good gods. was precisely this transition from polytheism to monotheism. they necessarily retained a more or less material char acter. and more palpable. conforming. The pagan gods-and this was their principal characteristic -were first of all exclusively national gods. We have seen how much this transition cost the Jew ish people. the God of Moses and the prophets. their sole God. Jehovah himself. rather.GOD AND THE STATE
They have found no way to shake off the religion of the State. its entire history.
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in his existence implied a negation of the existence of earlier gods. The Jewish God did not deny the existence of these rivals ; he simply did not want his people to worship them side by side with him, because before all Jehovah was a very jealous God. His first commandment was this : "I am the Lord thy God, and thou shalt have no other gods before me." Jehovah, then, was only a first draft, very material and very rough, of the supreme deity of modern idealism. More over, he was only a national God, like tne Russian God wor shipped by the German generals, subjects of the Czar and patriots of the empire of all the Russias ; like the German God, whom the pietists and the German generals, s\!bjects of William I. at Berlin, will no doubt soon proclaim. The supreme being cannot be a national God ; he must be the God of entire Humanity. Nor can the supreme being be a material being ; he must be the negation of all matter pure spirit. Two things have proved necessary to the real ization of the worship of the supreme being : ( I ) a realiza tion, such as it is, of Humanity by the negation of nation alities and national forms of worship ; (2) a development, already far advanced, of metaphysical ideas in order to spiritualize the gross Jehovah of the Jews. The first condition was fulfilled by the Romans, though in a very negative way no doubt, by the conquest of most of the countries known to the ancients and by the destruc tion of their national institutions. The gods of all the con quered nations, gathered in the Pantheon, mutually can celled each other. This was the first draft of humanity, very gross and quite negative. As for the second condition, the spiritualization of J e hovah, that was realized by the Greeks long before the con quest of their country by the Romans. They were the creators of metaphysics. Greece, in the cradle of her his tory, had already found from the Orient a divine world which had been definitely established in the traditional faith of her peoples ; this world had been left and handed over to
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her by the Orient. In her instinctive period, prior to her political history, she had developed and prodigiously human ized this divine world through her poets ; and when she actually began her history, she already had a religion ready made, the most sympathetic and noble o f all the religions which have existed, so far at least as a religion-that is, a lie--can be noble and sympathetic. Her great thinkers and no nation has had greater than Greece-found the divine world established, not only outside of themselves in the people, but also in themselves as a habit of feeling and thought, and naturally they took it as a point of departure. That they made no theology-that is, that they did not wait in vain to reconcile dawning reason with the absurdities o f such a god, as did the scholastics o f the Middle Ages-was already much in their favor. They left the gods out of their speculations and attached themselves directly to the divine idea, one, invisible, omnipotent, eternal, and abso lutely spiritualistic but impersonal. As concerns Spiritual ism, then, the Greek metaphysicians, much more than the Jews, were the creators of the Christian god . The Jews only added to it the brutal personality of their Jehovah. That a sublime genius like the divine Plato could have been absolutely convinced of the reality of the divine idea shows us how contagious, how omnipotent, is the tradition of the religious mania even on the greatest minds. Be sides, we should not be surprised at it, since, even in our day, the greatest philosophical genius which has existed since Aristotle and Plato, Hegel-in spite even of Kant's criticism, imperfect and too metaphysical �hough it be, which had demolished the objectivity or reality of the divine ideas-tried to replace these divine ideas upon their trans cendental or celestial throne. It is true that Hegel went about his work of restoration in so impolite a manner that he killed the good God for ever. He took away from these ideas their divine halo, by showing to whoever will read him that they were never anything more than a creation of the human mind running through history in search of it-
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To put an end to all religious insanities and the divine he left nothing lacking but the utterance of those grand words which were said after him, almost at the same time, by two great minds who had never heard of each other -Ludwig Feuerbach, the disciple and demolisher of Hegel, in Germany, and Auguste Comte, the founder of positive philosophy, in France. These words were as follows : "Metaphysics are reduced to psychology." All the meta physical systems have been nothing else than human psy chology developing itself in history. To-day it is no longer difficult to understand how the divine ideas were born, how they were created in succession by the abstractive faculty of man. Man made the gods. But in the time of Plato this knowledge was impossible. The collective mind, and consequently the individual mind as well, even that of the greatest genius, was not ripe for that. Scarcely had it said with Socrates : "Know thysel f !" This self-knowledge existed only in a state of intuition ; in fact, it amounted to nothing. Hence it was impossible for the human mind to suspect that it was itself the sole creator of the divine world. It found the divine world before it ; it found it as history, as tradition, as a sentiment, as a habit o f thought ; and it necessarily made it the object of its lof tiest speculations. Thus was born metaphysics, and thus were developed and perfected the divine ideas, the basis of Spiritualism. It is true that after Plato there was a sort o f inverse movement in the development of the mind. Aristotle, the true father of science and positive philosophy, did not deny the divine world, but concerned himself with it as little as possible. He was the first to study, like the analyst and ex perimenter that he was, logic, the laws of human thought, and at the same time the physical world, not in its ideal, illusory essence, but in its real aspect. After him the Greeks of Alexandria established the first school of the positive scientists. They were atheists. But their atheism left no mark on their contemporaries. Science tended more and
as I have demonstrated in the Appendix. A God thus raised above the national differences. but they had no effect upon the masses. of all countries. of the Chris tian dogmas. materialized by contact with the Orient. of hu manity. the autonomy of the various nations composing the pagan or ancient world had to be destroyed first. Consequently. was formed at Alexandria. infinitely more influential. No logical and serious metaphysics being able to rise.GOD AND THE STATE
more to separate itself from life. This was very brutally done by the Romans who. the not less brutal and gross Roman conquest. it went through a long course of preparation and development at the hands of Greek metaphysics. so difficult a matter. or. But the divinity conceived and created by Greek philosophy was an impersonal divinity. and later the elaborators.
. were the true originators. this was done by the Epicureans and Skeptics. material and social. must necessarily be an imma terial and abstract being. divine ideas were rejected in metaphysics themselves . were the three historical elements which made up the spiritualistic religion of the Christians. by conquering the great est part of the globe known to the ancients. After Plato. could not spring" into existence suddenly. and in a certain sense the direct negation of them. These. But faith in the existence of such a being. and the metaphysical ideal speculation of the Greeks. which were the first to establish in a philosophical manner the notion o f the divine idea. laid the first foundations. This was the school of neo-Platonists. confounding in an impure mixture the monstrous imaginations of the Orient with the ideas of Plato. two sects who contributed much to the degradation of human aristocracy. Before the altar of a unique and supreme God was raised on the ruins of the numerous altars of the pagan gods. a model eternally creative and always repro duced by the visible world. Thus the personal and gross egoism of Jehovah. Another school. quite gross and negative ones no doubt.
any more than historical elements suffice to create history. jealous. He was found in the very brutal. the most international people of the world. it became necessary. and from this marriage was born the spirit ualistic-but not spirited-God of the Christians. already much corrupted by Oriental contact. To impregnate the historical elements. and death of Jesus Christ. mained all the more faith ful the more he abandoned them. By historical elements I mean the general conditions of any real development whatsoever-for example in this case the conquest of the world by the Romans and the meeting o f the God of the Jews with the ideal o f divinity o f the Greeks. In spite of his national. Some of them carried away as cap tives. N evertheless theology alone does not make a religion. The neo Platonists of Alexandria are known to have been the prin cipal creators of the Christian theology. to imagine a God who was one and very personal at once. In Alexandria this terrible god of the Jews made the per sonal acquaintance of the metaphysical divinity of P1ato. long before the birth of Christ. He married her. therefore.74
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rather. This fact was not lacking in Christianity : it was the propagandism. selfish. they had spread through all countries. a living. the national God o f the Jews. he could not long resist the graces of this ideal and impersonal divinity of the Greeks. but many more even urged on by that mercantile pas sion which constitutes one of the principal traits of their character. martyrdom. to whom they re:. to the idea o f a personal God. i n spite o f that exclusive national spirit which distinguishes them even to-day. We know almost nothing o f this great and saintly per-
.. and ferocious exclusivism. and corrupted her still more by his own. had become in fact. spontaneous fact was needed. to cause them to run through a series of new historical transformations. But the Jews. and cruel person of Jehovah. to descend. without which they might have remained many centuries longer in the state of unpro ductive elements. carrying everywhere the worship of their Jehovah.
He promised eternal life to all who are oppressed. His disciples and the disciples of his disciples succeeded in spreading. and naturally also the most ignorant classes of the ancient world. the two most oppressed. and propagated the Gospel in all the countries known to the ancients. Everywhere they were received with open arms by the slaves and the women. its incontestable merit. thanks to the destruction of the national barriers by the Roman conquest. denied even the simplest rights o f humanity. and the whole secret of its unprecedented and yet thor oughly legitimate triumph. and so fabulous that we can scarcely seize upon a few real and vital traits.GOD AND THE STATE
sonage. of the slaves. But it is certain that he was the preacher of the poor. lay in the fact that it appealed to that suffering and immense public to which the ancient world. ever to have been accepted by enlightened men . The doctrine taught by the apos tles of Christ. and that by these last he was much loved. o f the igno rant. Their most exten sive propagandism was directed almost exclusively among the people. the friend and consoler o f the wretched. and of the women. was too revolting. The great honor of Christianity. most suffer ing. wholly consoling as it may have seemed to the unfortunate. For even such few proselytes as they made in the privileged and learned world they were indebted in great part to the influence of women. as a matter of course. According with what j oy the apostle Paul speaks of the scandale de la foi and of the triumph of that divine folie re j ecte d hy the powerful and wise of the
. to all who suffer here below . Otherwise it never could have spread. too absurd from the standpoint of human reason. the first intellectual revolt of the pro letariat. a strict and cruel intellectual and political aristocracy. unfortunate and degraded by slavery. by the representatives of the official morality and public order o f that period. This was the first awakening. and the number is immense. all that the gospels tell us being contradictory. He was hanged.
absolutely void o f all contents. and the substance vanishes like a shadow. the world of human thought. but all the more passionately accepted by the simple. The shadow be comes the substance. whereas the product of man's abstractive faculty. the ignorant. having noth ing left to advance beyond. the real world. The real All is declared nothing.um. of will and of liberty. we find th e principle of the annihilation of the real world in favor of the ideal and of absolute abstraction.GOD AND THE STATE
century. God. and especially in those of India. had not reached that stage of development wh ich was afterwards seen in the Greek and Roman civilization. a very intense thirst of heart. social. the last and supreme abstraction in which this faculty. The living being. that caput mortu. inclttding Buddhism. and-for a few-the trium phant irony of a mind wearied. But it has not the arlded character of voluntary and deliberate negation which distinguishes Christianity . the most audacious and mon strous of all religious absurdities. That abstraction. of all human reason. the true nothing'. This was not only the negation of all the political. to secure the acceptance of the Christian absurdity. disillusioned. and the weak-minded ! Indeed there must have been a very deep-seated dissatis faction with life. all-powerful being.* All this was audacity and absurdity unspeakable. i s proclaimed the only real. far beyond existing' things. corrupted. and the absolute nothing the All.
. and an al most absolute poverty of thought. were considered thereafter as nothing . it was
*I am well aware that in the theological and metaphysical sys tems of the O rient. the ideas of space and time. eternal. and disgusted in honest and serious search for truth . even beyond the most general determinations of the living being. the triumph of credulous stupidity over the mind for the masses . and religious institutions of antiquity : it was the absolute overturn of common sense. when those systems were conceived. the true scandale de la foi. rests in contemplation of his emptiness and absolute immobility.
The Greek mind had fallen so low that. as a logical consequence o f this absolute absurdity. it is known that they were elaborated in a series of theological and literary works and in the Councils. its slavery. its suffer ings. when the kingdom of God would come. As for the Christian dogmas. creator and supreme master. in God. it then became natural and necessary to believe in the im materiality and immortality of the human soul. is immortal like the soul. not to its mind . even for the Church Fathers. As for theo logical dogmas. was more robust and simple. absolute mind. was unanimously accepted by the Church Fathers . not to its reason. like that of the modern. The Christian propagandism appealed to its heart. there being in this body itself a portion which. tipping tables. precisely and mainly. I believe in it. existing outside of the world. less haut gout. to its eternal aspirations. principally by the converted neo-Platonists of the Orient. The proletariat con verted to Christianity constituted its growing material but not its intellectual strength. In the same way many dis tinguished and enlightened minds in our day believe in ani mal magnetism. It was interested solely in knowing when the hour of promised deliverance would strike. in idealism. which still slept and therefore could know nothing about logical contradictions and the evidence of the absurd. while material. to conceive
. it did not trouble itself about them because it understood nothing about them . We see how difficult it was.
I believe in the absurd . and-why go so far ?-believe still in Christianity. in the fourth century of the Christian era. the idea of a personal God. and must be resurrected with it. pure. spiritualism. its necessities. The belief of the ancient proletariat. the period of the first Council.GOD AND THE STATE
that necessity of shaking off thought and becoming brutally stupid so frequently felt by surfeited minds :
Credo quod absurdum. lodged and imprisoned in a body only partially mortal. because it is absurd. eternal.
they were nothing but barbarians-that is. But. it was not difficult to convert them theoretically to Christianity. The latter were worthy people. like their successors. is it surprising that this belief has lived until
. It had no competitors. as indifferent to all questions of theology and metaphysics as the ancient slaves. and on the other hand much more independent and proud. After that. pure spirit and creator of the world. because outside of the Church there were neither thinkers nor educated persons . moreover. and the belief in the immateriality of the soul remained untouched. the Germans of to-day . it is the character of every meta physical and theological argument to seek to explain one absurdity by another. debase. much less moralistic. was able to deprave. It had another piece of good luck in the invasion of the Barbarians. brigands who had stood every test. their practical repugnance once overcome. armed with the omni potence of Church and State and opposed by no competition. and the masses as well. it penetrated and became incarnate in all the institutions. capable of science and not incapable of liberty. urged on by a great necessity of life and a great capacity for it . as are the bourgeois of modern Germany. but they were much less systematic and pedantic than these last. For ten centuries Christianity. capable of devastating and gobbling up anything. So that. It should be added that. in spite of all their great qualities. It was very fortunate for Christianity that it met a world of slaves. full of natural force. it alone taught. never that dogma itself. a great number of whom. less learned. in general. and. This double belief became the ideal basis of the whole Occidental and Oriental civil ization of Europe . all the details of the public and private life of all classes. they affected only the theologi cal or practical developments of the fundamental dogma.GOD AND THE STATE
pure minds outside of any material form. belonged to their race. The belief in God. it alone spoke and wrote. It alone thought. and falsi fy the mind of Europe. above all. Though heresies arose in its bosom.
]. He may be considered as the real creator o f modem reaction. tried to become its high priest. of exaltation without other obj ect than his own person. Al though drowned in the noise. o f cold enthusiasm and hypocrisy at once senti mental and implacable. among whom the principal rOles devolved upon two fatal men. it would be
. and so many others ? We have seen that the first attack upon it came from the renaissance of the free mind in the fifteenth century. it made use o f lay priests. of the Catho lic or Protestant priests. short-robed liars and sophists. he bred within himself the pitiless despotism of the statesman. boldly waving the flag o f atheism and materialism. and passions of the Reformation. tumult. such as those of Mazzini. To all appearance the most democratic writer o f the eighteenth century. as Robespierre. The human mind. all confidence in whom had been l ost. the other the most doctrinally despotic will. continuing to exercise its disastrous in fluence even upon select minds. No longer able to make use of the black tribe.GOD AND THE STATE
the present day. Not at all. if God did not exist. Michelet. and Galileo. of the ravens consecrated by the Church. Quinet. was at last about to deliver itself from all the divine obsessions. until at last. o f the falsehood of modem ideal ism. in the latter half of the eighteenth century. Giordano Bruno. Rousseau and Robe spierre. his worthy and faithful dis ciple. of the last century-J. The first is the perfect type of narrowness and suspi cious meanness. Having heard the saying of Voltaire that. The divine falsehood upon which humanity had been feeding for eighteen centuries ( speaking of Christian ity only) was once more to show itself more powerful than human truth. one might have supposed. which produced heroes and martyrs like Vanini. it noiselessly continued its invisible work. be queathing to the noblest minds of each generation its task o f human emancipation by the destruction of the absurd. one the falsest mind. He was the prophet of the doc trinaire State. it again reappeared in broad day. then.
whose names do not even deserve to be recalled.
. the Werners. Chateaubriand. in Germany. For the rest. in whose person he as sassinated the Republic. In France. the dominant feature of the school of romanticism was a quasi-complete indifference to politics. Lamartine. J. the idealistic reaction sought and found servants less fanatical. the Novalis. took the side o f the Church against the insolence of the freethinkers. and of all the aristocrats against the vile rabble of the streets. After this great triumph. nearer to the diminished stature of the actual bourgeoisie. thus preparing the way for the thenceforth necessary triumph of the dictatorship of Bona parte 1. The literature created by this school was the very reign of ghosts and phantoms. established the modem romantic school . It was the literature of the tender. the democrat. delicate. as I have just said. J. and o f the hypo critical virtue commanded by this Supreme Being. and living on earth as if in spite of themselves. the twilight alone permitted it to live. Rousseau invented the Su preme Being. the Schellings. and s o many others besides. it showed itself frankly reactionary.80
GOD AND THE STATE
necessary to invent him. Danton. No more could it stand the brutal contact o f the masses. the abstract and sterile God of the deists. that Robespierre guillotined first the Hebertists and then the very genius of the Revolution. the Tiecks. distinguished souls. and-shall I say it ? Why not ? All must be said if it is truth-Victor Hugo him self. of the kings against the peoples. the quasi-socialist of to day ! and after them the whole melancholy and sentimental company of poor and pallid minds who. the Schlegels. the republican. It could not stand the sunlight . And it was in the name o f the Supreme Being. but when perchance it referred to them. aspiring to heaven. It had a horror and contempt for the politics and questions of the day . under the leadership of these masters. Amid the clouds in which it lived could be distinguished two real points the rapid development of bourgeois materialism and the un governable outburst of individual vanities. less terrible.
From the Renaissance and the Reformation down to the Revolution. It alone. the rights of man and of the citizen. and the apostles of human emancipa tion. and. i f not in Germany. Those are its titles to glory . and supporting themselves no longer on the proletariat of the cities. these also hav ing become landed proprietors. From its bosom sprang most of the freethinkers of the fifteenth century. well known and thoroughly authentic-which sheds
. the reason for its existence must be sought in the transformation which had been effected in the bosom of the bourgeois class since the revolution o f 1793 . by the way. the fraternity of the peoples. they are im mortal ! Soon it split. made the revolution of I 789 and '93 .GOD AND THE STATE
To understand this romantic literature. It there fore welcomed with j oy the dictatorship of the first Bona parte. It proclaimed the downfall of royalty and of the Church. in Switzerland. in England. of th e past cen tury. this portion of the bourgeoisie then began to see that it was n eedful to the maintenance of their situation and the preservation of their newly-acquired estates to appease the unsatisfied hunger of the people by promises of heavenly manna. the religious reformers of the two following centuries. but on the major portion of the peasants of France. had no aspiration left but for peace. Then it was that Chateaubriand began to preach. in Holland. and the foundation of a strong and regular government. who had faith in it. the re-establishment of public order. including this time those of Germany. although always Voltairean. was the hero and representative of the revolutionary genius of history. the bourgeoisie. did not view with displeasure the Concordat with the Pope and the re-estab lishment of the official Church in France : "Religion is so necessary to the people !" Which means that.*
*It seems to me useful to recall at this point an anecdote-one. at least in Italy. naturally supported by the powerful arm of the people. satiated them selves. in France. A considerable portion of the purchasers of national property having become rich.
In 1 830 the wealthy bourgeoisie had definitely replaced the old nobility in the seats of power. The bour geoisie did not hear them. and that the demand. at once a freethinker and a deist. The publisher called his attention to the fact that atheism had gone out o f fashion. Courier expressed this new tendency perfectly. The "God of the good people" and the ideal of the bourgeois king. at once liberal and democratic. but a few months later came back with his Genius of Christianity.
a very clear light on the personal value of this warmer-over of the Catholic beliefs and on the religious sincerity of that period. excited by a vain and ridiculously envious desire to rise to the poetic height of the great Byron. Beranger and P. but it did not go so far as Diderot : its debilitated nerves could not stand nour ishment so strong. on the contrary. who regained.
. Voltaire. Chateau briand withdrew. suited it very well. and with the revolutionary spirit that of skep ticism also was re-awakened in it. It set Chateaubriand aside and began to read Voltaire again . Beranger was its poet and Cour ier was its political writer. L. i f not the whole. and with it the power o f the Church and o f the nobles.GOD AND THE STATE Napoleon fell and the Restoration brought back into France the legitimate monarchy. a type which never fails to appear immediately the parvenu acquires a little wealth and power. The revolution of July resulted in lifting its tastes. on the contrary. Chat eaubriand submitted to a publisher a work attacking faith. to be sure. at least a considerable portion of their former in fluence. sketched against the majestic and thenceforth inoffensive background of the Em pire's gigantic victories-such was at that period the daily in tellectual food of the bourgeoisie of France. was for religious works. This reaction threw the bourgeoisie back into the Revolution. Lamartine. We know that every bourgeois in France carries within him the imperishable type of the bourgeois gentleman. But his songs resounded only in aristocratic salons. that the reading public cared no more for it. had begun his coldly delirious hymns in honor of the God o f the nobles and o f the legitimate monarchy.
wholly eloquent as it may appear. and for it. must also be induced to morally recognize its right. it at last became the dominant class and thereby even the defender and preserver of the State. It was necessary to remand it to its place. began to become incon venient. of the chasse pot. But man is so singuarly constituted that this argu ment. in protest and in revolu tion. thenceforth useless. After having won all its titles to glory in religious. The pro letariat had rendered it a final service in once more aiding it to overthrow the nobility. This was not on its part simply an aping of aristocratic customs. thenceforth the regular institution of the exclusive power of that class. for it felt itself firmly seated in the shadow of the throne of July. Further. but also an aristocracy of in tellect. the triumphant argument of the needle-gun.
The first. An aris tocracy of capital first of all. Now. first o f all. and political opposition. that good protectress of all the well-fed and the useful consoler of the hungry ? And more than ever the triumphant burgeoisie saw that religion was indispensable to the people. after having been reduced by the power of the State. There are only two ways of convincing the masses of the
goodness of any social institution whatever. is the right of force. where find it if not in religion. who. this sanction must be at once so simple and so plain that it may convince the masses. and the alliance with the people.GOD AND THE STATE
It naturally tended to establish a new aristocracy. In the name of what ? In the name of the bourgeois interest bluntly confessed ? That would have been much too cynical. It became necessary to re strain this indignation . It was also a necessity of its position . The bourgeoisie now had no further need of its co-operation. the greater need it has of sanction. which naturally could not be done without provoking great in dignation among the masses. The more unjust and inhuman an interest is. is not sufficient in the long run. th�
. philo sophical. It began to feel religious. of good manners and delicate sentiments. The State is force. Some moral sanction or other is absolutely necessary to enforce his respect.
on the contrary. But whenever a chief of State speaks of God. The bour geoisie could not abruptly go back under the yoke of Roman Catholicism. in other words. precious in its salvation of bourgeois privileges. driven by temperament to a positivism ( not to say a materialism) singularly narrow and brutal. It was not an easy thing. the governing class contents itself with dividing among all its members-very unequally. Bene ficial means for the masses. to the abolition of the State. be sure that he is getting ready to shear once more his people-flock. Moreover. That is the eternal mirage which leads away the masses in a search for divine treasures. and. while.. there cannot be. or Grant.GOD AND THE STATE
only real one. and always giving most to him who possesses most-the miserable goods of earth and the plunder taken from the people. is no other than religion. Between it and the Church of Rome was an abyss of blood and hatred. Take the freest States in the world-the United States of America or the Swiss Confederation. much more reserved. the Knouto-Gennanic emperor. but detrimental to bourgeois in terests . it is never possible to repress a passion de veloped by history. including their political and social liberty. having become the governing class of the State by its triumph of 1830. the presi dent of the great republic. however practical and wise one becomes. There is not. The only way. hannful only to the peo ple. hence it is useless to talk about them. a State without religion. or. for instance-and see what an important part is played in all official discourses by divine Providence. moreover. be he Wil liam 1. which would be equivalent to the complete liquida tion of the political and economical existence of the bour geois class. the abolition of the organized political exploitation of the ma jority by any minority whatsoever-would be the direct and complete satisfaction of the needs and aspirations of the people. or. but also the most difficult to adopt-because it implies the abolition of the State. The French liberal and Voltairean bourgeoisie. that supreme sanction of all States. the French bourgeoisie
. had to give itself an official religion. again.
So the bourgeoisie was obliged. which would have been great imprudence on the part of a class pretending to gov ern the nation. by the whole bourgeois class.
. and finds a way of reconciling celestial aspirations with the respect which terrestrial conditions demand. a return to Catholicism was impossible on account of the insolvable contradiction which separates the invari able politics of Rome from the development of the economi cal and political interests of the middle class. It is the bourgeois religion par excellence. Consequently it is especially in Protestant countries that commerce and indus try have been developed. On the other hand. But that would have led too far. But it was impossible for the French bourgeoisie to become Protestant. He is as indifferent to Protestantism as to Catholicism. Several attempted it. in the exclusive positive heart of the French bourgeois. He professes the most profound indiffer ence for all questions which touch neither his pocket first nor his social vanity afterwards.GOD AND THE STATE
would have covered itself with ridicule if it had gone back to the Church to take part in the pious ceremonies of its worship. Now. in order to sanction its new State. there is no room for faith. it is true. the French bourgeois could not go over to Protestantism with out putting himself in conflict with the Catholic routine of the majority of the French people. a little faith is necessary. Finally. as sometimes in the case of the Jews of Russia and Poland. who get baptised three or four times in order to receive each time the remuneration allowed them-to seriously change one's religion. There was still one way left-to return to the h umani tarian and revolutionary religion of the eighteenth century. It accords just as much liberty as is necessary to the bourgeois. to create a new religion which might be boldly proclaimed. an essential condition of a meretorious and sincere conversion. but their heroism was rewarded by no other result than a fruitless scandal. To pass from one religion to another-unless it be done deliberately. without too much ridicule and scandal. In this respect Protestantism is much more advantageous.
the use of which. o f the principle o f liberty with that of author ity. much better than I could tell it. Its boldly avowed object was the reconciliation of Revolu tion with Reaction. this il lustrious philosopher learnedly prepared. its apostles.
. the story of the birth and development of this school.. a�companied. by an ignorance. which had so decisive and-we may well add-so fatal an influence on the political. Descartes and Pascal . and many others. and moral education of the bour geois youth of France. but very strong on com monplace. A superfi cial and pedantic talker. just as two times two make five. repre sented by the monarchical and constitutional State . We know that this philosophy was specially elaborated by M. the father of French eclecticism.
. which he confounded with common sense. . of course. Kant and Scotch psycholo gists. for the use of the studious youth of France. Villemain. to use the language of the school. We have only to deal here with the latter.
. a metaphysical dish of his own making. It dates from Benjamin Constant and Madame de Stael . its real founder was Royer-Collard . and naturally to the advantage of the latter. Guizot. of natural science. of any idea peculiar to himself.
. a mixture of Fathers of the Church. Cousin. or. made compulsory in all schools of the State under the University. and proving. This reconciliation signified : in politics. incapable of any original concep tion. intellectual. all this a superstructure on the divine and innate ideas of Plato and covered up with a layer of Hegelian imma nence. as con temptuons as it is complete. condemned several g-en erations one after the other to a cerebral indigestion.
. in phil osophy. Im agine a philosophical vinegar sauce of the most opposed sys tems. scholastic phil osophers. the deliberate submission of free reason to the eter nal principles of faith. Cousin.86
GOD AND THE STATE
Thus was born doctrinaire Deism. Others have told. the existence of a personal
. the taking away of popular liberty for the benefit of bourgeois rule.
French journalist. French statesman. 46 BERANGER. GIORDANO ( 1548-1600). NICHOLAS ( 14731543). LORD ( 1788-1824). 1855-1881). French cardinal and statesman. 86 DIDEROT. Pope (1073-1085). C.52 DANTON. 15. 20. 82 CASSAGNAC.INDEX O F PERSONS
ALEXANDER I I. 7 1 BAZAINE. ROMAN EMPEROR (r. GIUSEPPE (18071882). PIERRE JEAN DE (1780-1857 ).). 47 BISMARCK.OIS RENE. 306-337). ( 17931874). 72 CONFUCIUS (55 1-479 B. 37n. ALIGHIERI ( 1265-1321). 86 HEBERT. 82 COUSIN. French politician. C. 18n. 86 CONSTANTINE I . ANDRE HERCULE DE (1653-1743). VICTOR (1792-1867). 44 BLANC. 52 GUIZOT. CLEMENT (18361879). 52.OIS ( 1811-1888). 47 GREGORY VII. 72 FICHTE. 15 FLEURY. Emperor of Austria (r. 11 ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.OIS ( 1787-1874). 82 BERG. French pamphleteer. ALEXANDRE ( 1802-1870). DENIS ( 17 13-1784). 47 FERDINAND I . 52 COPERNICUS. 47 CHARLEMAGNE (768-814). 47 DUVERNOIS. FRAN!. 80-82 COMTE. GEORGE GORDON. OTTO VON ( 18151898). 46 FAVRE. 11 FEUERBACH. COUNT FYODOR F. French marshal. 47 EUGENIE (1826-1920). Russian marshal and governor of Poland. FRAN!.. BRUNO. 1835-1848). BENJAMIN ( 17671830). French poet. RENE ( 1596-1650). AUGUSTE ( 1798-1857). BERNARD ADOLPHE GRANIER DE (1806-1880). Tsar of Russia (r. 20 COURIER. 55. JOHANN GOTTLIEB (1762-1814). 82 DUMAS. GEORGES JACQUES ( 1759-1794). French journalist. PAUL LOUIS ( 17721825). 80
. 46 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642). 47. LUDWIG (1804-1872). 52 CON STANT. LOUIS (1811-1882). 79 BYRON. Empress of the French (1853-1870). ACHILLE FRAN!. 52 CHAtEAU BRIAND. EMILE DE (18061881).). 80 DESCARTES. VICOMTE DE (17681848). 86 DANTE. JACQUES RENE ( 17571794). 44 GIRARDIN. 79 GARIBALDI. JULES ( 1809-1880).
PIERRE JOSEPH 1809-1865). 52. 79 MICHELET. French politician. 34-35. 15 HUGo. Prussian field marshal. 47 LUTHER. 86 HERACLITUS (535--475 B. 86 PROUDHON. Russian minister and governor of Lithuania. ALPHONSE MARIE LOUIS DE ( 1790-1869). ( 1796-1866). French statesman and philosopher. 40n. 79-80 ROUHER. 26. 86 PELLETAN. 44 MOSES.). French astronomer. PIERRE MARIE ( 18091864). 19 MANTEUFFEL. French politician and journalist. 52. German poet. 62. pseudo of Georg Friedrich Philipp von Hardenberg ( 1772-1801). 86
. 46 ROUSSEAU. HELMUTH VON (1800189 1). 80 JESUS CHRIST. JULES (1798-1874). J EAN JACQUES (1712-1778). 44. EDWIN. 79-80 ROYER-COLLARD. 38. 82 LEIBNIZ. 11. 9 QUINET. 46 PLATO (427-347 B. 44 MAZZINI. 47 NAPOLEON I. French historian. JOHN STUART (1806-1873). 80. French politician. 59 MAHOMET (570-632). 52. 80-82 NAPOLEON I I I . GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH ( 1770-1831).) . 15. GOTTFRIED WILHELM. 15.88
INDEX OF PERSONS
HEGEL. Prussian field marshal. 47 PIETRI. 69
MOURAVIEFF (MURAVIEV). BARON VON (1646-1716). 18. 52. 18. 26. 71-73. VICTOR (1802-1885). 86 LAMARTINE. 1804-1814). 79 MILL. MARTIN (1483-1546). JOSEPH DE (17541821). URBAIN J EAN JOSEPH ( 1811-1877). 1852-1870). 71. 52 LYCURGUS.. 46 NOVALIS. GIUSEPPE (1805-1872). 26. CHARLES CAMILLE ( 1846-19 15). 27. MAXIMILIEN ( 1758-1794). 15. 18-19. PIERRE PAUL (1763-1845). 74 KANT. IMMANUEL ( 1724-1804). EUGhNE (1814-1884). Emperor of the French (r. C. 52. BLAISE (1623-1662). 79 ROBESPIERRE. 37-38. 52 MACHIAVELLI. 18 MOLTKE. N. C. EDGAR (1803-1875). 52 MAISTRE. 15 LEVERRIER. Emperor of the French (r. NICCOLO ( 14691527). 71-72. COUNT M. 80 PASCAL. FREIHERR VON (1809-1885).
WERDER. SCHLEGEL. 79. LUCILIO (1 585-1 619). STAEL. JEAN BAPTISTE (d. 1 7. ADOLPHE (1 797-1 877) . French assassin. 44.INDEX OF PERSONS
SAINT JOHN. KARL VON (1 808-1 887 ) . Emperor of Germany (r. German poet and dramatist. Italian philosopher and martyr. FRAN�OIS M ARIE AROUET DE (1 694-1 778) . 26 86
THIERS. 80 WILLIAM I. 79 VEUILLOT. 47 VILLEMAIN. 52 SAINT PAUL. LUDWIG (1 773-1 853). FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH VON (1 775-1 854) . LOUIS (1 813-1883). 84
WAGNER. 27.). 84
. 47. 86 VOLTAIRE. 52. 1870) .
28. BARUCH (1 632-1 677) . 1 861-1888). 52.
1 5 . French statesman and philosopher.). 47 TIECK. FRIEDRICH LUDWIG ZACHARIAS (1 768-1 823). 72 SOLON (639-559 B . French journalist. MADAME DE (1766-1 81 7). 45 WERNER.
15. 1 1 . 52. FRIEDRICH VON SIMON. 75 SAINT PETER. German writer. 52 SPINOZA. 81-82. JULES (1814-1896). 1 1
70. Prussian general. 80
(1 772-1829). C. 47 SOCRATES (469-399 B. ABEL FRAN�OIS (1 790-1 870) . French minister and critic. 52 SAINT NICHOLAS. 80
VANINI. C. 80 TROPPMAN. 52 SCHELLING. RICHARD (1813-1883).