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Pollination: Plants for Year-round Bee Forage

This is an incomplete list of both wild and commercially-available plants that are important sources of pollen and nectar for bees in the South. It is important for bees, especially bumble bees, to have an unbroken succession of bloom all summer to build up their local populations. If you want to encourage bee populations, grow or encourage plants from this list so that bloom is more-or-less continuous on your property.

Bloom Season Feb

Common Name Red Maple Redbud

Type tree tree shrub shrub ann. per. herb shrub tree tree tree

Scientific Name Acer rubrum Cercis canadensis Cyrilla racemiflora Vaccinium elliottii Brassica napus Lamium amplexicaule Gelsemium sempervirens Nyssa sylvatica Malus spp. Robinia pseudoacacia

Availability Feral Feral Feral, coastal plain Feral Commercial oilseed Feral Feral Feral, coastal plain river bottoms Commercial, feral Feral, piedmont and upper south Feral, esp. in piedmont Commercial ornamental Commercial forage

References Delaplane 1991; Goltz 1987c; H. York, Jesup, Georgia, pers. obs. Goltz 1987c; Cane 1993 Delaplane 1991; Goltz 1987b; H. York, pers. obs. Mitchell 1962; Cane 1993 K.S. Delaplane, pers. obs. Cane 1993 Cane 1993 Delaplane 1991 Mitchell 1962; K.S. Delaplane, pers. obs. Mitchell 1962; Delaplane 1991; Goltz 1987a Mitchell 1962; Goltz 1987b; B. Engle, The Rock, Georgia & K.S. Delaplane, pers. obs. P.A. Thomas, pers. obs.

Feb-Mar

Titi Native Blueberry Canola

Mar

Mar-Apr Henbit Jessamine Apr Tupelo Apple Black Locust

Blackberry

shrub

Rubus argutus

AprMay

Common Ajuga per. herb Crimson Clover ann. Dutch Clover Red Clover Skip Laurel Tulip Poplar per. per. shrub tree

Ajuga reptans Trifolium incarnatum Trifolium repens Trifolium pratense Prunus laurocerasus, var. 'Schipkaensis' Liriodendron tulipifera

Mitchell 1962; K.S. Delaplane, pers. obs. Mitchell 1962; K.S. Commercial, feral Delaplane, pers. obs. Commercial Mitchell 1962; K.S. forage Delaplane, pers. obs. Commercial ornamental Feral K.S. Delaplane, pers. obs. Delaplane 1991; Goltz 1987c

Gallberry Honeysuckle May Privet

shrub shrub shrub

Ilex glabra Lonicera fragrantis-sima Ligustrum sinense Rhododendron catawbiense Sabal palmetto Diospyros virginiana Sapium sebifrum

Feral, coastal plain Feral Feral, esp. in piedmont Feral, esp. in mountains, commercial ornamental Feral, coastal plain Feral

Delaplane 1991; Goltz 1987b; H. York, pers. obs. P.A. Thomas, pers. obs. B. Engle & K.S. Delaplane, pers. obs. Mitchell 1962; K.S. Delaplane, pers. obs. Delaplane 1991; Goltz 1987c B. Engle & K.S. Delaplane, pers. obs. Goltz 1987c

Rhododendron shrub/tree Cabbage Palmetto MayJun Persimmon Tallow Tree Jun Heavenly Bamboo

per. shrub/tree tree shrub

G.W. Krewer, Univ. Georgia, pers. obs. Mitchell 1962; Goltz Commercial Bee Balm per. Monarda didyma 1987d; P.A. Thomas, ornamental, feral pers. obs. Commercial G.W. Krewer & P.A. Chaste Tree shrub/tree Vitex agnus-castus ornamental Thomas, pers. obs. Oxydendrum Feral, esp. in Delaplane 1991; Goltz Jun-Jul Sourwood tree arboreum mountains 1987c Feral, piedmont Goltz 1987b; K.S. Sumac shrub/tree Rhus copallina and upper south Delaplane, pers. obs. Commercial ann. or Mitchell 1962; W.J. Sunflower Helianthus spp. ornamental and per. McLaurin, pers. obs. oilseed Mitchell 1962; S. Brazilian ann. or Verbena Commercial Scarborough, Baxley, Verbena per. bonariensis ornamental Georgia, & P.A. Thomas, pers. obs. Commercial Butterfly Bush shrub Buddleia davidii P.A. Thomas, pers. obs. ornamental Lagerstroemia Commercial Crapemyrtle shrub/tree indica, var. G.W. Krewer, pers. obs. ornamental 'Natchez' JunMitchell 1962; S. Commercial Aug Glossy Abelia shrub Abelia grandiflora Scarborough & P.A. ornamental Thomas, pers. obs. Pycnanthemum Commercial Mountain Mint per. herb P.A. Thomas, pers. obs. incanum ornamental Purple Echinacea Commercial per. herb P.A. Thomas, pers. obs. Coneflower purpurea ornamental Commercial Summer Phlox per. herb Phlox paniculata P.A. Thomas, pers. obs. ornamental Wood Mint per. herb Blephilia spp. Feral Mitchell 1962 Sweet Feral, coastal D. Wade, Alma, Georgia Jun-Sep shrub Clethra alnifolia Pepperbush plain & G.W. Krewer, pers.

Commercial ornamental Commercial Nandina domestica ornamental

Jul

Buttonbush American Germander

shrub/tree per. herb

Cup Rosinweed per. herb Jul-Sep Milkweed Partridge Pea Redroot Aug AugSep Meadow Beauty Bush Clovers Brazilian Pepper Mexican Sage Aug-Oct Mexican Sunflower Pineapple Sage Thoroughwort Asters per. herb ann. herb per. herb per. herb shrub shrub per. herb ann. ann. or per. per. herb per. herb

Cephalanthus occidentalis Teucrium canadense Silphium perfoliatum Asclepias spp. Cassia fasciculata Lachnanthes caroliana Rhexia spp. Lespedeza bicolor and L. thunbergii

Feral Feral Feral Feral Feral Feral, wetlands Feral Commercial ornamental and forage

obs. Mitchell 1962; Goltz 1987b Mitchell 1962 Mitchell 1962 Mitchell 1962; Goltz 1986a Mitchell 1962; Cane 1993 G.W. Krewer, pers. obs. D. Wade, pers. obs. Cane 1993 Goltz 1987b C. Reed, Douglas, Georgia & P.A. Thomas, pers. obs. P.A. Thomas, pers. obs. P.A. Thomas, pers. obs. Mitchell 1962 Mitchell 1962; Goltz 1986c; B. Engle & P.A. Thomas, pers. obs.

Schinus terebinthFeral ifolius Salvia leucantha Tithonia rotundifolia Salvia elegans Eupatorium hyssopifolium Aster spp. Sesbania exaltata Solidago spp. Hibiscus cannabinus Commercial ornamental Commercial ornamental Commercial ornamental Feral Feral

AugNov

Colorado River shrub Hemp Goldenrod per. herb ann.

Commercial, feral G.W. Krewer, pers. obs. Feral Commercial fiber Mitchell 1962; Delaplane 1991; Goltz 1986b B. Baldwin, Miss. State Univ., pers. obs.

Sep-Oct Kenaf

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Pollination Topics:
Pollination Background | The Flower and the Fruit | Managing Honey Bees for Pollination Other Pollinating Bees | Establishing a Bee Pasture | Crop Pollination Requirements Protecting Pollinators from Pesticides | Table of Insecticides and Miticides Sample Beekeeper / Grower Contract | Plants for Year-round Bee Forage | References

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