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**Local Buckling and CrossSection Classification
**

In Eurocode 3 you will need to refer to the following clauses when classifying a section and determining the cross-sectional resistance: • • Clause 5.5 covers the cross section classification Clauses 6.1 and 6.2 covers the cross-sectional resistance

Class 2 cross-sections are those which can develop their plastic moment resistance, but have limited rotation capacity because of local buckling. Class 3 cross-sections are those in which the stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member assuming an elastic distribution of stresses can reach the yield strength, but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance. Class 4 cross-sections are those in which local buckling will occur before the attainment of yield stress in one or more parts of the cross-section.

Sections with slender webs or flanges will be more susceptible to local buckling, where the element will fail before the design strength is reached. Eurocode 3 takes into account the effects of local through the process of cross section classification.

Limits

The limits between the classes depend on the ε factor which is calculated using fy, the yield strength of the steel.

Classes

BS 5950 Plastic Compact Semi-compact Slender EC3 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4

ε Factor

BS 5950 EC3

ε = (275/py)0.5

ε = (235/fy)0.5

Values of ε are given at the bottom of Table 5.2: fy ε 235 1.00 275 0.92 355 0.81 420 0.75 460 0.71

**Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4
**

Image Source: http://www.steel-insdag.org/new/pdfs/Chapter8.pdf

EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.2

**fy Yield Strength
**

The UK National Annex says that material properties should be taken from the product standards. Extract from EN 10025-2 - fy (yield strength) values for hot rolled steel: fy (N/mm ) nominal thickness of element, t (mm) 40 < t ≤ 63 63 < t ≤ 80 245 325 16< t ≤ 40 Steel Grade t≤16

2

Similarly to BS 5950, cross sections will be placed into one of four behaviour classes. Class 1 is the least susceptible to local buckling and class 4 is the most susceptible. The classification of a section will depend mainly on: The material yield strength, fy c/t ratio

Eurocode 3 defines the classes in Clause 5.5.2: Class 1 cross-sections are those which can form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required from plastic analysis without reduction of the resistance.

S 275 S 355

275 355

265 345

255 335

EN 10025-2 (Table 7)

Take the least favourable class from the flange and web results .2 is made up of three sheets: Sheet 1 – Internal Compression Parts Sheet 2 – Outstand Flanges Sheet 3 – Angles and Tubular Sections Overall Cross-Section Classification Clause 5.2 3. Cross-section Classification Class 1: Plastic BS (Table 11) Flange outstand Web in bending Web in compression b/T = < 9 ε d/t = < 80 ε EC3 (Table 5.2) c/tf = < 14 ε d/tw = < 142 ε d/tw = < 42 ε Class 4: Slender An element that doesn’t meet the class 3 limits should be taken as a class 4 section.2(6) states that a cross-section is classified according to the highest (least favourable) class of its compression parts.2 Internal compression parts and outstand flanges are assessed against the limiting width to thickness ratios for each class. the section is classified as Class 4 4. Table 5. d/tw 72 ε 83 ε Limits Limits BS 5950 EC3 Class 2: Compact BS (Table 11) Flange outstand Web in bending Web in compression b/T = < 10 ε d/t = < 100 ε EC3 (Table 5. Substitute the value of ε into the class limits in Table 5.2.5. Table 5. The limits are provided in table 5. Determine ε from Table 5. Effective widths are assigned to Class 4 compression elements to make allowance for the reduction in resistance as a result of local buckling To calculate the effective width of a Class 4 section. c/tf 9ε 10 ε Web in bending limiting value. Determine fy (UK NA recommends you use the product standards) 2.c/t Width-to-Thickness Ratio The width-to-thickness ratios differ in EC3 differs from BS 5950: Class 3: Semi-compact BS (Table 11) Flange outstand Web in bending Web in compression b/T = < 15 ε d/t = < 120 ε EC3 (Table 5.2 for different types of sections.2 to work out the class of the flange and web Flange outstand limiting value.2) c/tf = < 9 ε d/tw = < 72 ε d/tw = < 33 ε Summary 1. refer to the relevant section in the Eurocodes: Section Type Cold-formed sections Hot-rolled and fabricated section CHS Reference EN 1993-1-3 EN 1993-1-5 EN 1993-1-6 Outstand Flange Internal Compressio n Part b = B/2 d= D–2T–2r c = (b – tw – 2 r)/2 c= h – 2 tf – 2 r Appropriate values of c and t are defined at the top of Table 5.2) c/tf = < 10 ε d/tw = < 83 ε d/tw = < 38 ε Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Limits 14 ε 124 ε If it does not meet Class 3 requirements.

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