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Determination of Chloride Ion Concentration by Titration (Mohr’s Method)
Lab coats, safety glasses and enclosed footwear must be worn at all times in the laboratory. The chromate solution needs to be prepared and used with care as chromate is a known carcinogen. Silver nitrate solution causes staining of skin and fabric (chemical burns). Any spills should be rinsed with water immediately.
Silver nitrate solution: (0.1 mol L−1) If possible, dry 5 g of AgNO3 for 2 hours at 100°C and allow to cool. Accurately weigh about 4.25 g of solid AgNO3 and dissolve it in 250 mL of distilled water in a conical flask. Store the solution in a brown bottle.
Determination of Chloride Ionchromate indicator solution: (approximately Potassium 0.25 Concentration by Titration molL ) DissolveMethod)20 mL distilled (Mohr’s 1 g of K CrO in water.
This method determines the chloride ion concentration of a solution by titration with silver nitrate. As the silver Introduction nitrate solution is slowly added, a precipitate of silver chloride forms.This method determines the chloride ion concentration
The end point of the titration + occurs when all the Ag (aq) + Cl–(aq) → AgCl(s) chloride ions are precipitated. Then additional silver ions react withThe end point of the titration occurs when all the the chromate ions of the indicator, chloride ions are precipitated. Then additional chloride potassium chromate, to form a red-brown of the indicator, ions react with the chromate ions precipitate of silver chromate. potassium chromate, to form a red-brown precipitate of
2 Ag (aq) + CrO4 (aq) → Ag2CrO4(s) This method can be used can determine the chloride ion ion to be used to determine the chloride This method concentration of water samples from many sources concentration of water samples from many sources such as seawater, stream water, river water and estuary such as seawater, stream water, river water and estuary water. Seawater is example here. water. Seawater is used as theused as the example here.
The pH of the sample solutions should be between The pH of the sample solutions should be between 6.5 and 10. (Refer to the additional notes (3) for the 6.5 and 10. (Refer to the additional notes (3) for the gravimetric explanation). If the solutions are acidic, the explanation). Ifmethod or Volhard’s method shouldgravimetric the solutions are acidic, the be used. method or Volhard’s method should be used.
of a solution by titration with silver nitrate. As the silver nitrate solution is slowly AgCl a precipitate of silver Ag+(aq) + Cl– → added,(s) chloride forms. (aq)
Burette containing silver nitrate solution
2 Ag+(aq) + CrO42–(aq) → Ag2CrO4(s) + 2–
Equipmentburette and stand Needed
10 and burette and stand 20 mL pipettes 100 mL volumetric flask 10 and 20 mL pipettes 250 mL conical 100 mL volumetric flask flasks 250 mL conical10 mL and 100 mL measuring cylinders flasks 10 mL and 100 mL measuring cylinders
Seawater and chromate indicator
Silver nitrate solution:(0.1 mol L−1) If possible, dry 5 g of AgNO3 for 2 hours at 100°C and allow to cool. Accurately
2. and at later to form of silver chromate ions or dichromate removed by precipitation metal. Residues containing silver ions are usually saved for The Mohr Notes 3. sand or seaweed. the bromide ions leads to formation ofchloridechloride precipitate. bromide 4. Rightslight If addition ofcolouration. later recovery be rinsed with Check this with Any spills shouldof −1. Centre flask: atchromate precipitate is formed The past the flask: at the endpoint. all the Cl ions yellow colour. addition of Ag of in most cases. Determinechloride ions volume of silver nitrate used the concentration of chloride ions in the 1. However. a white precipitate. 3. + + Cl– → AgCl Ag (aq) from your concordant titres. 1. or dichromate ions. 6. Calculatethe average diluted seawater. the or the concentrationsolution and will not Figure 2 Left flask: before the titration endpoint. Determine the average volume of silver nitrate used from your concordant titres. ions. accurate when there significant in order to become familiar with the colour change at the bromide concentrationpresent negligible. the seawater Notes diluted seawater. of the end point. making a leads to formation of silver silver precipitate. Result Calculations 4. Use undiluted seawater. cloudy solution a faint lemon-yellow colour gives the 0. 1. thethe seawater contains traces of solid matter such as sand or seaweed. Calculate the moles reacting. indicatorclear solution a lemon-yellow lemon-yellow colour. Residuesof pH ions 9. the chromate indicator initially gives appearance of a red-brown colour of silver chromate 3.Pipette a 10 mL the chromate indicator initially gives Titrate the sample with 0. The endpoint of the titrationchloride that forms is solution. 2. Calculate the concentration of chloride ions in in Calculate the concentration of the seawater in molL−1. mL) are the titration with further aliquots of diluted Repeat Result Calculationsred-brown colouration. Dilute seawater by pipetting a 20 mL sample into Sample Preparationflask and making it up to the mark aTitration 100 mL volumetric If thedistilled water.5 – 9. low affecting theions may of removed by an 2. chloride concentration is seawater. Right flask: If addition of Ag+faint lemon− method can also be used to determine either the total − Centre endpoint. Ag+(aq) + Cl–(aq) → AgCl(s) 2. Check this with your ions. 3. Silver nitrate solution will of sodium chloride in 6. Using an incompletely titrated reference flask for comparison is a helpful way to identify the first appearance of red-brown colouration. Although the silver chloride that forms is a mL of chromate indicator. seawater until concordant resultsof silveragreeing Determine the average volume (titres nitrate usedUse the mL) are obtained. affectingof pHfamiliar At higher pH silver ions may in order to become accuracywith the colour change at removed thebe It is a good idea to first carry outhydroxide ions. addition+ ions Centre 2 Left flask:before the titration endpoint. 100 mL volumetricaliquot of diluted seawater into a a Pipette a 10 mL flask and making it up to the mark Titration and add about 50 mL distilled water and 1 conical flask water. Calculate the concentrationstain clothes andin the 5. + slightest excess of The slightest with the chromate indicator with concentration of chloride and bromide in solution. in most cases. it Otherwise they will end up being weighed along with If silver chloride precipitate. Calculate the concentration of sodium chloride in 4. gL and g/100 mL (%). with seawater contains traces of solid matter such as 1. end point. 100 mL volumetric flask and makingsilver nitrate mark Titrate the sample with 50 mol L−1 it up to the conical flask and add about 0. . aliquot of diluted seawater into a 2. 3. Any spills should be rinsed with water immediately. further silver the endpoint. such as seawater. (aq) (s) 5. 4. in the Calculate the concentration of chloride ions 2. Although the silver is identified as the first 4. NB: The titration should be stopped when the first trace of red-brown colour is observed. 1. cloudy. the silver chloride that forms is a 1). the solutionchromateThe chromate a faint lemon-yellowis continued slight red-brown colouration.silver removed by ions may for conditions containing At higher are usually saved be reactionrecovery hydrogenwith hydroxide ions. 1). 0. further silver + Right flask: If addition of Ag is continued past the endpoint. or the concentration of chloride. titration is sensitive is the presence The Mohr concentration of and bromide ionsas well as the of both chloride bromide present in solution and 3.3. gL−1 and g/100 mL (%). will not However. Pipette a 10 mL aliquot of diluted seawaterinto a Dilute seawater by pipetting a 20 mL sample into a 3. equation to determine from your concordant titres.1 mL distilled water and 1 with distilled water. Otherwise Titration Method they will end up being weighed along with the silver chloride precipitate. Sample seaweed. it mustpipetting a 20 mL sample into 2. conditions of pH 6. can also be used to determine either the total concentration ofbe negligible. further silver chromate precipitate is formed and a stronger 2 red-brown colour results. moles of chloride ions reacting. 4. Calculate the moles of silver nitrate reacting. such as known to be negligible. the chromate indicator of diluted Repeat of red-brown colour of aliquots initially appearancetheatitration with further silver chromate seawater until concordant results (titres agreeing within (figure 2). white precipitate. the moles of reacting. later recovery of silver metal. Dilute seawater by be filtered before use.1 following reaction the moles of chloride ionsof silver nitrate reacting. the cloudy. teacher. The Mohr titration is sensitivechloride and For this the bromide concentration will to the presence of both in solution.obtained. gL−1 and g/100 mL (%). water immediately. affecting the accuracy of the (figure 2). Ag precipitatesexcess of Ag+ precipitates giving a slight red-brown colouration.as sand orPreparationmust be filtered before use. Calculate the concentration of chloride 4. concentration is known to be negligible. Figure Before the addition of silver nitrate the chromate indicator Figure11Before the addition of any any silver nitrate the chromate gives the gives the clear solution a colour. 1. Calculate the concentration stainare usually saved the 1.1(figure 1).1 mol L−1 silver nitrate the cloudyflask and add about 50 mL distilled water and solution conical Although a faint lemon-yellow colour (figure solution. 4. making the solution slightest excess of Ag+ precipitates with the chromate indicator giving concentration will be negligible.1 mol L−1 silver nitrate (figure 2). flask: red-brown Ag+ is continued or the concentration of bromide when the chloride a 2 the chromate indicator givingchromate precipitate is formed past the endpoint. within 0. have precipitated.under 3. such“rough” titration a chloride. original undiluted seawater. will not be too accurate when there toa significant 5. However. Figure flask: atflask:endpoint. Calculate the moles of silver nitrate reacting.end point. in order to become familiar with the colour change at The titration is sensitive to the presence acid-base reaction to form hydrogen chromate ions appearance of a red-brown colour of silver chromate of both chloride and bromide ions in solution and the end point. The cloudy. with distilled mL of chromate indicator. originalthe following reaction equation to determine the diluted seawater. addition of Ag+ ions chloride concentration is knownsignificant concentration too the total when there is of chloride and bromide either accurate concentration a to be negligible. by precipitation with a “rough” titration Figure 1 Before the addition of any silver nitrate the chromate indicator low The endpoint of a lemon-yellow is identified as the first 5. 1 mLendpoint of the titration is identified as the first The of chromate indicator. Check this with your Additional titration should be carried out under teacher. Calculate the concentration of chloride ions in the Additionalin molL−1. solution.pH chromatelaboratorybe the end point. it must be filtered before use. The Mohr titration should be carried out and at low pH chromate 6.1 mL) are obtained. indicator gives indicator gives a colour.2. Residues containing silver ions clothes and skin.the this will be as well as For concentration of bromide the the method reason. The chromate indicator gives a faint lemon-yellow colour. acid-base teacher or the accuracy supervisor. your seawater until concordant results (titres agreeing within forseawater in molLsilver−1metal. allthe Cl ions have precipitated. Additional Notes original undiluted seawater. It is a good to first cases. For this reason.5 – 9.thethe Cl− ions have precipitated. end point. and bromide also be used to determinethebe chloride method can ions in of bromide when reason. The Mohr titrationto first carry outions or under conditions the 6.5 – may be ions pH silveran acid-base 1. leads to formation of silver chloride precipitate. Use the following reaction equation Ag+(aq) + Cl Result Calculations–(aq) → AgCl(s) to determine 6. sodium chloridethe 5. and atMohrpH chromate ions may be removed by an gives the clear solutionthe titration colour. identify the first appearance of incompletely titrated reference flask for comparison is a helpful way to 1. It is a good idea should be carried“rough” titration reaction to form hydrogen chromate a out dichromate 4. Silver nitrate solution will of chloride ions skin.be tooideain most carry out is aas seawater. making the solution in of bromide present as well as thebromide when the solution. The Ag+ Figure 2 Left the before all titration endpoint. Repeat the titration with further aliquots of diluted 2. chloride. At higher pH silver ions may be removed by precipitation with hydroxide ions. white precipitate.the cloudy solution a faint lemon-yellow colour (figure Titrate the sample with 0.