A MINOR PROJECT REPORT ON “CUSTOMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR IN BIKES TAKING TVS FOR COMPARISON”

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (B.B.A.) G.G.S. INDRAPRASTHA UNIVERSITY, DELHI PROJECT GUIDE Ms. Vandana Deswal (Assistant Professor) SUBMITTED BY: Chirag Gupta ENROLLMENT NO. 02821201709

SESSION 2009-2012

MAHARAJA SURAJMAL INSTITUTE C-4, Janak Puri, New Delhi-110058

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CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that CHIRAG GUPTA, Enrollment No. 02821201709 has completed his minor project report. He has done a project on “Customer buying behavior in bikes taking TVS for comparison”. This project is a partial fulfillment of B.B.A. (GEN) programme affiliated from to MAHARAJA GURU SURAJMAL SINGH INSTITUTE, GOBIND

INDRAPRASTHA UNIVERSITY, under my guidance. Hereby, it is declared that this project is an original piece of work and has not been influenced to the extent of copying by any other such similar study.

Ms. VANDANA DESWAL (Assistant Professor) (M.S.I.)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Niraj Kumar, National Service Manager, TVS Motor Company Limited for giving me the exposure of what the real market actually is and special thanks to Mr. P. S Basu Area Manager TVS Motor Company Limited, without whose invaluable guidance and support this project could not have been accomplished. I greatly acknowledge my indebtedness to all those respondents and Mr. Praveen Kumar Gaur Area Coordinator GS TVS New Delhi who rendered direct or indirect help in completing this project. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to, Maharaja Surajmal Institute, New Delhi and my organizational guide Ms. Vandana Deswal.

CHIRAG GUPTA BBA (G) 2009-2012 02821201709

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During this project I fully realized this and I came to know about how a consumer chooses among a varied range of products available to him.PREFACE Someone has rightly said that practical knowledge is far better than classroom teaching. The subject of my study is market survey of customer buying behavior in bikes taking TVS for comparison. I also put forward some of my suggestion hoping that they help TVS Motor Company move a step forward to being the very best. from a beginner to a corporate giant earning laurels and kudos throughout. The report contains first of all brief introduction about the company. Finally there comes data presentation and analysis in the end of my report. which has slowly but steadily evolved. 4 .

CONTENTS  Chapter 1 : • Company Profile • Introduction of the Project • Scope of Study • Objectives Chapter 2 : Research Methodology • Sample Size • Sample Location • Research Type • Data Type • Instruments Chapter 3 : Finding and Discussions Chapter 4 : • Recommendations • Limitations • Summary and Conclusions   06-35 07 34 35 35 36-40 37 37 38 38 40 41-64 65-72 66 67 68 73 74-77    References / Bibliography : Annexure Questionnaires : 5 .

CHAPTER-1  COMPANY PROFILE  INTRODUCTION  SCOPE OF STUDY  OBJECTIVE 6 .

It represents premier automotive companies like Ashok Leyland. 7 . in Himachal Pradesh. and is the flagship company of the USD 4 billion TVS Group.located at Hosur and Mysore in South India. It also distributes automotive spare parts for several leading manufacturers. North India and one at Indonesia. TVS Motor Company is the third largest two-wheeler manufacturer in India and one among the top ten in the world. TV Sundram Iyengar and Sons Limited. TVS and Sons also distribute Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles. The company has a production capacity of 300 thousand units a year. Fiat and Honda. with annual turnover of more than USD 1 billion in 2008-2009. established in 1911. It has also diversified into distributing Garage equipment that ranges from paint booths to engine analyzers and industrial equipment products. With a workforce of over 5000. Jeeps and Cars.. is the parent and holding company of the TVS Group. TVS & Sons has grown into a leading logistics solution provider and has set up state-of-the-art warehouses all over the country. the company has 4 plants .INTRODUCTION The TVS Group is one of India's largest industrial conglomerates. Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd.

GROUP COMPANIES With steady growth. Axles India Limited . Lucas Indian Service Limited (www.K. Lakshmi Auto Components Limited . computer peripherals and finance. Manufactures axle housings and drive heads for heavy and light commercial vehicles 8 .lucasindia.A joint venture with Eaton Limited. today TVS commands a strong presence in various fields-two-wheelers.Large OE supplier of two wheeler gears and camshafts.Company looks after the distribution of auto electrical components all over India. automotive components. U. expansion and diversification. automotive spares.com) .

 Two wheeler markets show sign of revival after a lackluster first half. which would be launched later this year.  Plans major foray into three-wheeler and quadricycles market through fresh investments of Rs 500 crore.  Actively looking to set up manufacturing unit in Indonesia or Vietnam.  Recently launched the TVS Centra and 125 cc TVS Victor GLX and four stroke Max in the pipeline.COMPANY AT PRESENT & IN FUTURE  Successfully launched the Victor and Fiero-F 2 models after parting ways with Suzuki.  Strong focus on R&D and product development.  The company is suffering a decline in volumes due to poor response of its two strokes Max motorcycles. 9 .

which is perceived to be less fuel efficient with a new four stroke range. a new upgraded 125 cc TVS Victor has been launched which will improve the trajectory of the company. Also. Two new launches could out TVS on a high growth trajectory TVS Centra TVS Centra a new 100 cc model has recently been launched and the company has set ambitions targets of achieving monthly sales in the range of 15000-20000 bikes per month. 10 . The changeover is expected to take place by the end of June 2009. The success of TVS Apache is especially significant because it was developed with indigenous technology.Apache the Savior TVS launched Apache RTR 160 cc model in September 2008. with its ultra modern technology for Indian bikes has proved to be a big success. Two stroke Max Range – On the way out The company is currently looking forward to phase out its two stroke Max range.

near Mysore in Karnataka. The total investments for the three wheeler and four-wheeler quardricycle project are expected to be in the range of Rs 500 crore in the next two-three years. Three wheeler sales have grown at a CAGR of 7% over the last 9 years to 2. We understand that the company would be targeting the sub-one ton passenger and goods carriers segment of the market. The company expects higher margin and low competition in three-wheeler business as compared to its two-wheeler business. It plans to go with petrol version of three wheelers and expects higher demand to come from B class towns.26 lakh units FY 03. it will cater to both passenger and cargo segments.Three wheeler project. 11 .000 unit sales by the end of FY08. With an investment of about Rs 50 crore in phase-1.entering a new market TVS Motor has set the stage for entry into the three-wheeler markets with the setting up of a new plant at Nanjangud. TVS is expected to roll out its first three-wheeler by the end of FY05 to garner a 30% market share with around 100. and are expected to grow at the same rate for the next five years.

Ltd.Three-wheeler market scenario These are two main segments in the Indian passenger three -wheeler markets are: Number of seats.5 tonnes. Number of seats including driver excluding 4 but not exceeding 7 max mass not exceeding 1. Around 95% of the three-wheeler sold in India belongs to the smaller vehicles category in which Bajaj Auto is the major player and has around 90% market share. The other players in the segment are Atul Auto and Piaggio group. Italy. including driver. The three-wheeler goods carrier segments are: Maximum mass not exceeding 1 tonne Others. 1) The increasing number of cities whose corporations have legislated that larger goods carrier. This growth in 2002-03 could have possibly come from two factors. Similarly. like trucks be kept out for logistics purpose. 12 .95%. 2) The increase in the number of offerings in this category. not exceeding 4 and maximum mass not exceeding 1 tonne. especially from companies such as Mahindra & Mahindra and Piaggio vehicles pvt. in the three-wheeler segment. domestic sales of the goods carrying variety grew a whopping 46.

These new vehicle could impact on the entry level sales. (LAC) and investments and other assets with itself and the dwap ratio has been fixed at once phase of TVS motor for every seven share held as consideration for the merger. Quardricycles are three wheelers converted into four wheelers by using.. mode of which is currently being sold to TVS motor. 69 crore and made a net profit of Rs. 10. LAC’s total net sales in HI FY 04 were Rs. All the major three-wheeler units have prepared Quardricycles prototypes.5 crore. Presently TVS motor holds 66. Merger of engine components Division of Lakshmi Auto components with TVS Motor: TVS motor would merge engine component division of Lakshmi Auto Component Ltd.Quardricycle-A new introduction in the Indian market There is a new challenger emerging in the Quardricycle segment. Around 66% of LAC’s sales come from the engine components division. which would be cancelled. These new vehicles could impact on the entry level sales. Sundaram Auto 13 . a column axle.5% of equity capital of LAC. The Plastics and Rubber components division of LAC will be transferred to the wholly owned subsidiary company.

The total consideration on slump – sale based is Rs.  Three wheeler foray achieve targeted volume in the desired rates of return on capital employed.2% in FY 04. Modified research projects are carried in association with leading international research labs and Indian institutes.5% in FY o2 to 3. the company applied for 16 patents & published five technical research papers in international conference. Strong focus on R&D The company has put in place a strong R & D team consisting 400 engineers & is spending about 3% of its turnover on R & D every year and has in the process setup a strong world class facility for product design and development. R & D as percentage of sales in expected to increase from 1.25 crore. 14 . During 2002-03. 12.  Quadricycle foray achieve the desired rate of return on the capital employed.Components Ltd. Valuation The company’s valuations are dependent on five events:  Current four businesses grow at the normal industry growth rates.  New product launches achieve their targets and are well accepted by the market.

a breakthrough to be etched in history. shorter distances to span.. For some it was freedom to move. Overall investment returns TVS MOTOR COMPANY TVS Motor Company Limited.2700 crores. 15 . With the joint venture with Suzuki Motor Corporation in 1983. it boasts of more than 7 million happy customers. the Company manufactures a wide range of motorcycles. TVSSuzuki became the first Indian company to introduce 100 cc IndoJapanese motorcycles in September 1984. And it is a year to remember for the Indian twowheeler industry. For it was this year that saw India's first two-seater moped. With a turnover of over Rs. Through an amicable agreement the two companies parted ways in September 2001. The chapter called two wheelers in India begins…. is one of India's leading two-wheeler manufacturers. For some. mopeds and scooterettes. scooters. part of the TVS Group. rolling out on the Indian roads. TVS 50. The year was 1980. For the Indian Automobile sector. Little wonder.

Motorcycles . Graph Wide Network With a strong sales and service network of 500 Authorized Dealerships. Product Range TVS offers a wide range of two-wheelers .TVS XL Super/ TVS XL Super HD 16 .3% share.3% and is also the undisputed leader in the scooterette segment with 34.Mopeds .TVS Centra / TVS Victor / TVS Fiero F2/ TVS Max 100/ TVS Max 100 R . TVS is growing from strength to strength.Scooterettes .TVS Scooty Pep/ TVS Scooty 2S . 1018 Authorized Service Centres and over 864 Certified Service Points.3% market share in motorcycles.Unmatched Performance Today TVS Motor Company has the largest market share in the moped category with a whopping 65. World Class Facilities The company manufactures its motorcycles. It also holds 18. scooterettes and mopeds at its state-of-the-art factories in Mysore and Hosur.

at the right price. The thrust will be to achieve a significant share for international business in the total turnover.Global overview TVS Motor will have profitable operations overseas especially in Asian markets. TVS Motor .Driven by the customer TVS Motor will be responsive to customer requirements consonant with its core competence and profitability. 17 . at the right time. TVS Motor .VISION TVS Motor . TVS Motor will provide total customer satisfaction by giving the customer the right product. technology and marketing. capitalizing on the expertise developed in the areas of manufacturing.The Industry Leader TVS Motor will be one among the top two two-wheeler manufacturers in India and one among the top five two-wheeler manufacturers in Asia.

There will be a sustained effort through systematic training and planning career growth to develop employees' talents and enhance job satisfaction.TVS Motor . TVS Motor will create an enabling ambience where the maximum self-actualization of every employee is achieved.At the cutting edge TVS Motor will hone and sustain its cutting edge of technology by constant benchmarking against international leaders. TVS Motor believes in the importance of the process.The Human Factor TVS Motor believes that people make an organization and that its wellbeing is dependent on the commitment and growth of its people. 18 . TVS Motor will support and encourage the process of self-renewal in all its employees and nurture their sense of self worth. TVS Motor . People and projects will be evaluated both by their end results and the process adopted.Committed to Total Quality TVS Motor is committed to achieving a self-reviewing organization in perpetuity by adopting TQM as a way of life. TVS Motor .

Health and Environmental aspects with all business activities and ensures protection of employees and environment including development of surrounding communities.Responsible Corporate Citizen TVS Motor firmly believes in the integration of Safety. employees. dealers and suppliers.dependence with its customers. 19 . TVS Motor strives for long-term relationships of mutual trust and inter.TVS Motor .

20 . The company's manufacturing facilities at Mysore & Hosur have state-of-the-art facilities & air pollution control measures. Even the suppliers are encouraged to ensure that their products meet eco-friendly norms. a TECHNOLOGY Uncompromising Quality. Committed to achieving total customer satisfaction through Total Quality Control (TQC). ECO-FRIENDLY TVS is committed to protecting the environment. TECHNOLOGY TVS Motor Company's R&D division has an imposing pool of talent and one of the most contemporary labs. the Company continuously strives to give the customer. the best value for money.MILESTONES Launched Centra in January 2004. capable of developing innovative designs.

.Launched Victor in August 2001. . TVS Scooty in June 1994. a world-class 4-stroke 110 cc motorcycle. with a 70 cc engine in Nov 1997.Launched India's first 5-speed motorcycle. the 110cc Shogun in Dec 1996. Launched India's first indigenous Scooterette. .ALWAYS FIRST . India's first 2-seater. World-class 4-stroke 100 cc motorcycle with VT-i Engines for best-inclass mileage.Launched India's first high performance moped . . 21 .the XL Super. . 50cc moped in Aug 1980.Launched TVS 50. the Shaolin in Oct 1997.First Indian Company to introduce 100cc Indo-Japanese motorcycles in Sept 1984.Introduced India's first catalytic converter enabled motorcycle.

AWARDS Deming Award TVS Motor is the third Indian company to win the Deming Prize. very few organizations outside Japan have had the honor of receiving it. As for the TVS Group. A confirmation known to every TVS rider across the country. 22 . It's been a long time since the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers instituted the Deming Prize. Sundaram-Clayton Ltd. But very. In fact. The Deming Prize is the ultimate confirmation of our commitment to quality control. (Brakes Division) and Sundaram Brake Linings Ltd. Only two other TVS companies have managed this before. it's a third. have already won it. the TVS Motor Company is the world's first motorcycle company to be awarded the prize.

the best ever clocked by any new product from the TVS Motor Company stable. Having caught the public's imagination.000 sales mark in 40 days Hosur. Due to excellent customer feedback across the country. This achievement is expected to spiral the overall growth of TVS Motorcycles sales in the coming months. March 6. TVS Centra has fully lived up to its promise of a 'Fill it Once a Month Bike' where a full tank of petrol lasts for a month based on the average use of motorcycle customers. TVS dealers are being pressurized with enquiries on the new 100 CC 4 Stroke Centra and its revolutionary VT-i engine technology. 23 .000 units in just 40 days since its launch in mid January 2004. The impressive sales figures reflect the customer's faith in the technological capability of TVS Motor Company to fully live up to its promise of delivering a world-class product at an affordable price.TVS Motor Company unveils TVS Centra with 'VTi Engines' Creates History in the Technology Frontier of the Automobile Industry in India TVS Centra crosses an astounding 20. powered by the indigenously developed Variable Timing Intelligent (VT-i) engine technology crossed 20. 2004: TVS Motor Company today announced that the sales of TVS Centra.

TVS Centra is powered by VT-i engines which are designed to deliver superb performance on fuel efficiency and torque delivery based on three fundamental actions namely variable ignition timing and superior combustion of fuel. developed indigenously by TVS Motor Company. 2004: India's leading two wheeler major. a 100 CC 4 Stroke motorcycle targeted at the Popular Segment. friction reduction and fuel wastage reduction. January 5. making it truly the preferred two-wheeler in its class. TVS Motor Company's commitment to produce the best technology in its products for its customers has led to the launch of TVS Centra with Variable Timing intelligent engines (VT-i). This revolutionary new VT-i engine technology. inbuilt into TVS Centra will make it the most fuel-efficient motorcycle in the Country. Chennai. low maintenance. fuel efficiency.A panel of leading auto experts in India. contemporary style. It will be rightfully called as the 'Fill it Once a Month Bike' where a full tank of petrol will last for a month based on the average use of motorcycle customers. Added to its technological edge are features that include attractive price. have endorsed the fact that it was the 'best in its class' and also commended TVS Motor Company on its technology prowess and innovation. ride comfort and backed by TVS Motor Company's reliability. after having tested TVS Centra. 24 .

The VT-i engines are designed to deliver superb performance on fuel efficiency and torque delivery based on three fundamental actions namely variable ignition timing and superior combustion of fuel. ruggedness and ride comfort making it truly a value for money personal transportation two-wheeler. nothing will beat the TVS Centra for all the advantages it offers. faster warm up of the Engine and has four curve ignition mapping Like all TVS Motor Company products.The VT-i Engines by TVS Motor Company will go down in the history of the Automobile Industry in India as one of the most innovative technology developed indigenously. style. TVS Centra will be the first motorcycle in India that will bundle price. TVS Centra will also be 25 . mileage. reliability. TVS Centra too has been engineered and designed keeping in mind extensive customer feedback and changing customer needs. It will be powered by 7. This action facilitates deceleration fuel cut off. today. friction reduction and fuel wastage reduction. power.5 Brake Horse Power (Bhp) at 7250 RPM making it the most powerful motorcycle in its class. TVS Centra is built around to give a mileage that will offer atleast 10 per cent more than any other motorcycle in the country. maintenance. Those who want all these performance attributes in a commuter motorcycle at a great price.

wide and skid free seat and Utility space. 26 . It will come with Econometer to keep a check on the mileage / power ratio.known for its nimble handling and riding comfort enabling easy maneuvering even in busy city traffic. . Its contemporary style with big muscular tank and well-rounded looks with a horizontal engine and superior ergonomics will mark a new standard in the popular segment of two wheelers.

614 units in the corresponding period of the previous year.101 two wheeler sales in October 2008.487 units as against 28. However. show a growth of 4% when compared to the same period of the previous year. Restricted availability of retail finance. the cumulative sales of September 2008 and October 2008. high liquidity and general inflationary trends witnessed by the market also affected sales. 27 .752 units recorded in October 2007. The company's motorcycle sales stood at 59. placement of stocks with the dealers for the festival season was effected in September.101 units in October 2008 against 129.119 units during the same period of the previous year . Scooters recorded 23. Exports up by 30% Hosur November 1. both the important festivals of Dussera and Deepavali were celebrated in October and consequently. 2008 : TVS Motor Company has registered total two wheeler sales of 117. This year.217 units in comparison with 67.TVS Motor Company posts 117.

Despite the challenging environment caused by increasing input material costs.9 crores and Profit after Tax of Rs. 839 crores in the corresponding quarter of the previous year. the company has posted Profit before Tax of Rs. TVS Motor revenues grow at 23.9 crores and Rs.042 units in the corresponding period of the previous year. when compared to Rs. While the company won the SAP ACE Award for digitization of new product development process in SAP by implementing PLM (Product Lifecycle Management). 16. registering Rs. Exports continued its upward growth trend.2 % increase in revenues. 10. namely the SAP ACE 2008 award and the 2008 Symantec South Asia Visionary Award. 11.During the month.2% in Q2 exports up 52% Bangalore. 1034 crores for the quarter ended September 2008 of the financial year 2008-09. the Symantec South Asia Visionary Award was conferred for the way the company secured and managed systems and information.013 units of two wheelers in October 2008 as against 13. posting an increase of 30%.9 crores in the corresponding period of the 28 . the company won two prestigious IT Awards. 13. general inflationary trends and lack of availability of retail finance.4 crores when compared to Rs. October 30. registering 17. 2008: TVS Motor Company today reported a 23.

29 . a unique and innovative product engineered specifically for the TVS Scooty. addressing a never-before segment. the company further broadened the horizons of its TVS Scooty brand with the launch of Balancing Wheels.76 lakh units during the corresponding quarter of the previous year.44 lakh units over the previous period. The company chose to associate with Sania as brand ambassador since she emanates the brand qualities of independence. 13. 10. The last year's September Quarter had the benefit of Rs. The company has recorded growth in sales despite adverse retail financing.81 lakh during the quarter compared to 1. Scooters clocked sales of 0. even a bicycle. During the quarter. Indian Tennis star. Sania Mirza became the new Brand Ambassador for the Scooty brand.7 crores of the corresponding quarter of last year.9 crore in comparison with Rs. Profit before exceptional items for the quarter is higher at Rs. progress and accomplishment. During the quarter. Motorcycles witnessed higher sales at 1.2 crore (net) on account of exceptional items. the company crossed yet another milestone when it reached two million units of TVS Scooty in July 2008.77 lakh in comparison to 0. who do not know how to ride.previous year. 6.

The second quarter also witnessed the commemoration of the first anniversary of the Apache RTR brand while the company crossed yet another landmark delivering the 2. Future Outlook The global financial crisis. is a welcome break. The tight liquidity will affect the ability of dealers to stock twowheelers. The company 30 . however. The company has expanded its footprint to more than 54 countries across the globe. the company unveiled its feature rich TVS Apache RTR FI offering riders the instant thrill and superior performance of a fuel injected 160cc engine.50. Exports Exports continued the upward growth path registering a total number of 0.55 lakh units during the quarter ended September 2008. The company will continue the vigorous implementation of its improved value-engineering program to reduce costs.In June 2008. The drop in the commodity prices.000thApache. the consequent serious liquidity issues and higher financing costs are likely to impact the growth prospects of the two-wheeler industry. Retail finance has become even more difficult. recording a growth of 52% over the same period last year.

a wholly owned subsidiary of TVS Motor Company.continues to maintain the highest quality standards of all its products. TVS Motor Company recently subdivided the face value of its shares to Re. 1/. SUB DIVISION OF SHARES In order to improve the shareholder value and to facilitate greater liquidity in its equity shares. 10/- MERGER OF LAKSHMI AUTO COMPONENTS WITH TVS MOTOR COMPANY The Shareholders of TVS Motor Company and Lakshmi Auto Components (LAC) have on 19th January 2004 approved the merger of Engine Division of LAC with TVS Motor Company and transfer of Rubber and Plastics division of LAC to Sundaram Auto Components Limited. PRODUCT PROFILE 31 . Earlier the face value of the shares was Rs.each. The company expects to obtain the approval of High Court of Tamil Nadu and complete other statutory formalities in the next few months. This merger is expected to improve the overall profitability of TVS Motor Company.

unique grab rails. Looks even better with you on it. A smiley headlamp. Stylish alloys. all these elements combine perfectly to give TVS Apache RTR 160 a sporty eye-catching looks. more comfortable seat for two and strong hydraulic shock absorbers for a smoother ride. larger & sharp lined fuel tank. The Apache RTR 160 has been upgraded with electronic fuel injection (EFI) and becomes Apache RTR 160 Fi. 65000. A bigger. classy silencer. POWER 75cc 4stroke engine to pep up your ride. TVS SCOOTY PEP – First Love A sleek duo-tone body. TVS has priced the new model at Rs. Winky indicators.  TECHNOLOGY 32 .TVS APACHE (RTR) The recently launched TVS Apache RTR FI 160 has added an another stunner on the roads. Body colored coordinated mirrors. The EFI technology has enabled TVS to boost peak power of this bike.

Auto chokes for instant starts. Multi focal reflector headlamp and side reflectors for enhanced visibility. Now all you need is an equally funky helmet and you” re all set to pep. An auto reserve fuel tap. A side stand alarm that beeps if you forget to take off the stand.  SAFETY Puncture Resistant Tyres that come with a special sealant inside. No more turning knob from main to reserve.A unique power/economy mode for extra mileage. Every time. minimizing chances of a flat. 33 .

Finally there comes data presentation and analysis in the end of my report. from a beginner to a corporate giant earning laurels and kudos throughout. The subject of my study is market survey of customer buying behavior in bikes taking TVS for comparison. 34 . During this project I fully realized this and I came to know about how a consumer chooses among a varied range of products available to him. which has slowly but steadily evolved. The report contains first of all brief introduction about the company.INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT Someone has rightly said that practical knowledge is far better than classroom teaching. I also put forward some of my suggestion hoping that they help TVS Motor Company move a step forward to being the very best.

This study also allows knowing the future prospects of the company and where it is at present in the market. advertising media as well as celebrity has made an effect on the customer or not and how much.SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of the study is to study the customer buying behavior of the respondents in New Delhi and attain the awareness level of the customers. 35 .  To study the future prospects of TVS motorbikes.  To analyze the quality of after sales services being provided by tvs motors. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY  The objective of the study is to analyze the customer buying behavior of the respondents in motorbikes of different brands .  To study the sales trends of tvs motors.  To provide a fair picture of technology used by TVS motors. The scope is that the services of the dealer.

CHAPTER-2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SAMPLE SIZE SAMPLE LOCATION RESEARCH TYPE DATA TYPE INSTRUMENTS 36 .

37 . Rest of the information has been collected through internet surveys and social networking communities on websites. The aforementioned questionnaire has been attached at the end of the project.SAMPLE SIZE AND LOCATION The data has been extracted mainly from questionnaires filled up by respondents from New Delhi. The questionnaire was filled up by 50 respondents scattered at different places and many more respondents provided valuable information through the internet. Noida and Ghaziabad.

RESEARCH AND DATA TYPES The purpose of methodology section in the report making is to describe the research process that is followed while doing the main part. The research design plays a pivotal role in the quality and content of the data in making of any project report. The reason for using a descriptive research method was to obtain qualitative data and also since the nature of study is as such that it required the exploration of various aspects within and outside the company. This would however include the research design. The type of research design chosen is seen to have a bearing on all the aspects of report writing. during the preparation of the report was: Source of Data Collection 38 . the sampling procedure. The methodology followed by the researcher. For this purpose various primary and secondary sources were used. In order to carry out a well researched analysis efforts were taken to collect enough information from the respondents. This section is perhaps difficult to write as it would also involve some technical terms and may be much of the audience will not be able to understand the terminology used. and the data collection method. Research Design: Descriptive Research design The research design undertaken for the study was Descriptive one.

When an investigator uses the data that has been already collected by others is called secondary data.com. altavista. The secondary data could be collected from Journals. The method of sampling was the Random. PRIMARY DATA . both in terms of money and time spent . Reports. The researcher of the report also visited various libraries for collection of the introduction part. The advantage of this method of collection is the authentic. A Set Of Questions Were Put Together In The Form Of Questionnaire With 13 Questions.Primary data is that kind of data that is collected by the investigator himself for the purpose of the specific study. and various publications.a) SECONDRY DATA b) PRIMARY DATA SECONDRY DATA . The data such collected is original in character.com and many more. INSTRUMENTS for Data Collection 39 .The researcher of the report also did the same and collected secondary data from various internet sites like Google. The advantages of the secondary data can be –It is economical.

internet surveys and personal visits to the respondents.The instruments used for collection of data were mainly questionnaires. Tools Used for Analysis • Bar Diagram • Pie Diagram • Tables 40 .

CHAPTER-3

FINDING & DISCUSSIONS

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ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR
NEW DELHI

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QUE-1
DO YOU OWN A BIKE?

0%

7%

93%

YES

NO

INTERPRETATION I n this question particular question it is found that 93% of respondents are having motorbike and 7% are either having scooter or moped. On the basis of the above pie-chart it is clear that more people own bike.

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44 .QUE-2 WHICH BRANDS OF BIKE ARE YOU AWARE OF? 88 90 80 70 60 50 VALUES 40 29 30 20 10 0 BAJAJ 72 46 42 72 66 60 HERO HOND A 88 YAMA HA 66 TVS 60 BRAND LML 46 KINETI C 29 ENFIE LD BULLE 42 INTERPRETATION The above bar-graph shows the brand awareness of bikes among the respondents. TVS comes at 4th place taking lead from LML. KINETIC and ENFIELD BULLET. In the above bar-graph it is clear that HERO HONDA is the most popular brand in New Delhi whereas BAJAJ and YAMAHA follow 2nd and 3rd place.

TVS has scored 9 points out of the sample size of hundred and has taken lead from LML. 45 . KINETIC and ENFIELD BULLET.QUE-3 WHICH SLOGAN OF BIKE AFFECTS YOU THE MOST AND OF WHICH BRAND…? 45 40 35 30 25 VALUES 20 15 9 10 4 5 0 BAJAJ 40 1 HERO HOND A 42 0 KINETI C 0 ENFIE LD BULLE 4 4 40 42 YAMA HA 4 TVS 9 BRAND LML 1 INTERPRETATION The above Bar-Graph shows that in New Delhi area HERO HONDA has scored the maximum number of points with BAJAJ and TVS on 2nd and 3rd spot.

0 SYE T L F qec re u n y V lid a 1 0 .0 9 9 7.0 8 77.0 2.0 3 0 .0 1 .0 9 1 .0 10 0 .0 7.0 1 .0 8 1 .0 5 0 .0 9 1 .0 10 0 .0 2 73 .0 V lid P rc n a e et 1 .0 9 .0 8 1 .00 T l ota 5 8 1 9 1 5 3 2 2 1 10 0 P erce t n 5 .00 8 .0 6 8 .QUE-4 Which factors do you consider while purchasing a Bike? WHICH FACTORS DO YOU CONSIDER WHILE PURCHASING A BIKE? S tatis tic s M ILE A G E S TY LE V a lid 100 100 M is s in g 0 0 PO W ER 100 0 P R IC E 100 0 BRAN D 100 0 S P A R E A FTE R S A LE P A R TS S E R V IC E FIN A N C IN G 100 100 100 0 0 0 N Frequency Distribution M E G IL A E F qu n re e cy V alid 1 .0 8 .0 4 0 .0 6 0 .0 2 .0 0 T l ota 1 2 3 0 3 1 1 6 8 2 1 10 0 P rc n e et 1 .0 2.0 1 .0 9 .0 2 9 .0 10 0.0 5 3 .0 2 .00 6 .0 1 1 .0 2 4 .0 5 9 7.0 1.0 2 3 .0 10 0 .0 0 3 .00 5 .00 4 .0 2 3 .00 3 .0 9 .0 C m la e u u tiv P rc n e et 1 .0 C m la e u u tiv P rc t e en 5 .0 2 0 .0 2 .0 46 .0 6 8 .0 0 3 .0 5 3.0 1 1 .0 2 .0 V alid P rce t e n 5 .00 2 .0 9 10 0 .0 9 10 0 .

0 0 8 0 .0 1 .0 1 2 .0 2 .0 1 .0 5 0 .0 6 3 .0 10 0 .0 5 2 7.0 9 .0 5 2 7.0 9 1 7.0 7.0 4 0 .0 2 9 7.0 74 .0 T l ota 2 5 2 7 1 8 9 8 5 5 3 10 0 P rc n e et 2 .0 1 .0 5 5 .0 1 7.0 T l ota 3 1 1 2 3 3 7 1 6 9 1 10 0 P rc n e et 3 .0 5 0 .0 5 .0 3 .0 0 T l ota 2 1 7 1 6 3 9 1 7 7 2 10 0 P rc n e et 2 .0 6 0 .0 2 0 .0 7.0 5 .0 8 .0 1 .0 6 9 .0 10 0 .0 5 .0 8 7.0 10 0 .0 8 9 .0 7.0 0 9 .0 3 3 7.0 2 .0 9 3 .0 3 .0 9 .0 7.0 4 0 .0 4 0 .0 P IC R E F qec re u n y V lid a 1 0 .0 1 .0 1 .0 1 .0 6 0 .0 C m la e u u tiv P rc n e et 2 .0 3 3 7.0 1 9 .0 6 0 .0 1 2 .0 2 70 .0 10 0 .0 2 0 .0 10 0 .0 8 10 0 .0 10 0 .0 79 .0 9 1 7.0 3 0 .0 3 0 .0 4 3 7.0 V lid P rc n a e et 2 .0 1 .P WR O E F qec re u n y V lid a 1 0 .0 5 0 .0 7.0 1 .0 8 9 .0 C m la e u u tiv P rc n e et 3 .0 6 3 .0 1 .0 V lid P rc n a e et 3 .0 8 .0 1 7.0 C m la e u u tiv P rc n e et 2 .0 1 .0 3 0 .0 0 8 0 .0 1 .0 B A D R N F qec re u n y V lid a 2 0 .0 47 .0 9 10 0 .0 5 .0 5 74 .0 V lid P rc n a e et 2 .0 10 0 .0 9 .0 6 9 .

48 .0 T l ota 1 1 3 4 2 0 3 0 1 8 2 3 10 0 P rc n e et 1 .0 T l ota 1 3 5 5 8 2 8 3 5 1 5 10 0 P rc n e et 1.0 3 .0 2 0 .0 1 .0 9 .S A EP R S P R A T F q en y re u c V lid a 1 0 .0 0 C m la e u u tiv P rc t e en 1 .0 0 A T RS L S R IC FE AE E V E F qec re u n y V lid a 1 0 .0 V lid P rc n a e et 1 .0 2 2.0 8 5.0 0 5 7.0 3 4 .0 1 .0 9 77.0 2 8.0 5 0 .0 5 .0 0 5 7.0 10 0 .0 9 5 .0 9 .0 7.0 2 .0 0 8 0 .0 4 .0 1 5.0 5 1 0.0 0 1 .0 3 .0 6 0 .0 0 3 .0 6 0 .0 10 .0 6 0 .0 1 4.0 C m la e u u tiv P rc n e et 1 .0 4 0 .0 0 3 .0 2 0 .0 4 .0 3 .0 3 1 00 0.0 3.0 1 0.0 5 0 .0 8 2 .0 1 .0 5 1 .0 2 .0 1 .0 2 .0 2 .0 3 0 .0 10 0 .0 F AC G IN N IN F qec re u n y V lid a 3 0 .0 2 .0 C m la e u u tiv P rc n e et 1 .0 1 .0 0 1 .0 7.0 2 .0 7.0 8 2 .0 8.0 4 0 .0 5 .0 4 .0 3 10 0 .0 0 8 0 .0 3 .0 5 0.0 V lid P rc n a e et 1 .0 0 3 .0 5.0 4 0 .0 8 3 .0 3 10 0 .0 8 .0 0 8 0 .0 5.0 2 .0 0 V alid P rc nt e e 1 .0 3 0 .0 5 .0 3 5.0 10 0 .0 T l ota 1 2 1 0 3 0 5 7 10 0 P rc n e et 1 .0 0 3 .

00 6.00 8.00 5.Graphical Representation 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Count 0 1.00 MILEAGE 49 .00 2.00 3.00 4.

00 7.00 4.00 POWER 50 .00 8.00 STYLE 30 20 10 Count 0 1.00 3.00 5.00 2.00 7.40 30 20 10 Count 0 1.00 4.00 6.00 2.00 5.00 3.00 6.

00 6.00 3.00 8.00 6.00 7.00 4.00 BRAND 51 .50 40 30 20 10 Count 0 1.00 7.00 3.00 5.00 PRICE 40 30 20 10 Count 0 2.00 5.00 4.00 2.

00 2.00 3.00 4.00 SPARE PARTS 40 30 20 10 Count 0 1.00 6.00 AFTER SALE SERVICE 52 .00 6.00 8.00 5.00 4.00 7.00 7.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 8.40 30 20 10 Count 0 1.

power and style holds an upper edge over the other parameters which affect the purchase decision of bike.60 50 40 30 20 10 Count 0 3.00 4.00 8. 53 .00 6. Thus customers are more likely to see the mileage aspect before actually buying a product.00 7.00 FINANCING INTERPRETATION From the above mentioned tables and graphs we can see that parameters like mileage.

Whereas MEDIA factor comes at third place with DEALER making no promising affect on the purchase of bike.QUE-5 WHO INFLUENCED YOU WHILE PURCHASING THE BIKE? 50 50 45 40 35 30 VALUE 25 20 15 10 5 0 8 25 17 FRIENDS 25 FAMILY 50 FACTORS DEALER 8 MEDIA 17 INTERPRETATION From the above graph it is clear that FAMILY plays a major role in the purchase of bike and the reference and suggestions of FRIENDS come at the second place. 54 .

Thus the interest of customers in TVS product can relate to 62% among 100 respondents. 55 .QUE-6 HAVE YOU VISITED ANY TVS SHOWROOM? 0% 38% 62% 0% YES NO INTERPRETATION As shown in the above PIE CHART. the percentage of respondents who have visited the TVS SHOWROOM is more than those respondents who have not visited the TVS SHOWROOM.

56 .QUE-7 IF YES. Only 8 respondents are having a bad experience.GOOD 2 GOOD 30 AVERAGE 22 EXPERIENCE BAD 8 INTERPRETATION As shown in the above graph there are four FACTORS. which show the experience of the respondents after visiting the TVS showroom. WHAT WAS THE EXPERIENCE? 30 30 25 22 20 VALUES 15 8 10 5 2 0 V. It is clear that most of the respondents had GOOD experience with 22 respondents having average experience. which shows the quality of the TVS showroom.

This was an open ended question therefore most of the answers were in account to the satisfaction level and interest in the TVS BIKES. 57 . WHY YOU HAVE NOT VISITED THE TVS SHOWROOM? 0% 11% 0% 89% NOT INTERESTED IN TVS NOT SATISFIED INTERPRETATION As shown in the above PIE-CHART 89% of the respondents are not interested in TVS products and 11% of them are not satisfied with TVS bikes.QUE-8 IF NO.

This question is based on the awareness as well as past usage of the TVS motorbike.QUE-9A DO YOU KNOW ABOUT TVS MOTOR BIKE? 0% 9% 0% 91% YES NO INTERPRETATION As given in the PIE CHART above 91% of the respondents know about TVS motorbike and only 9% of the respondents are unaware about the TVS motorbike. 58 .

59 . which is known by 35% of the respondents and has taken lead from TVSCENTRA BY 8% which is on the 3rd spot.QUE-9B IF. TVS-MAX-R is on the 4th place with 26% share and has taken lead from TVS-FIERO-FX by 17%. Second most popular bike is TVS-FIERO F-2.YES WHICH BRAND OF TVS MOTORBIKE? 100 100 90 80 70 60 VALUE 50 35 40 27 30 20 10 0 26 Series1 9 TVS VICTOR 100 TVS CENTRA 27 TVS FIERO F2 35 FACTORS TVS FIERO FX 9 TVS MAX R 26 Series1 INTERPRETATION As shown in the above BAR GRAPH it is clear that TVS-VICTOR is the most popular bike in New Delhi as 100 respondents are aware of TVS-VICTOR.

. By the chart given above it makes clear that the TVS DEALERSHIP has attracted more number of respondents 60 . QUE-9C HAVE YOU VISITED TVS DEALER DEALERSHIP NO 38% YES 62% 0% INTERPRETATION In the PIE CHART given above it is clear that out of 100 respondents 68% of them have visited the TVS DEALERSHIP and only 38% have not visited the TVS DEALERSHIP.

10% of the respondents liked the staff and 4% are not satisfied with the staff. 61 .QUE-10 WHAT HAVE YOU IKED OR DISLIKED AT TVS DEALERSHIP? 25 21 20 20 15 VALUE 10 10 7 4 5 0 SERVICE FACILITY IS NOT 21 SERVICE FACILITY IS GOOD 20 STAFF IS BAD 4 FACTORS STAFF IS GOOD 10 LACK OF SPACE 7 INTERPRETATION As shown in the BAR-GRAPH it is clear that 21% of the respondents are not satisfied with the service facilities and 20% are satisfied with the service facilities which comes to equal ratio. Interesting part is that 7% of the respondents wanted more space at the TVSDEALERSHIP.

QUE-11 DOES CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT AFFECT THE PURCHASE OF BIKE? 0% YES 34% NO 66% 0% INTERPRETATION In the given PIE CHART 66% of the respondents have no affect with the celebrity endorsement during the purchase of the bike. Whereas 34% of the respondents agreed that celebrity endorsement do make an effect on the purchase decision of the bike. 62 .

TVS is the 3rd most popular bike in New Delhi taking lead from YAMAHA. BULLET. 63 .QUE-12 WHICH BRAND DO YOU THINK IS THE MOST POPULAR IN THE MARKET? 50 45 40 35 30 VALUE 25 20 15 10 5 0 HERO HOND A 48 ENFIE LD BULLE 6 8 6 6 2 0 KINETI C 0 30 48 BAJAJ 30 TVS 8 YAMA HA 6 FACTORS LML 2 INTERPRETATION As shown in the BAR DIAGRAM it is clear that HERO HONDA is the most popular bike in New Delhi with BAJAJ taking the 2nd place with 32%. LML and KINETIC.

QUE-13 IF THERE IS NO PRICE CONSIDERATION WHICH BRAND WOULD YOU BUY? 40 35 30 25 VALUES 20 15 10 5 0 28 36 16 11 7 2 0 HER O HON 36 BAJA J 28 YAMA HA 7 BRANDS KINE TIC 0 ENFI ELD BULL 16 TVS 11 LML 2 INTERPRETATION In the BAR-CHART it is clear that with no price consideration HERO Honda will be the first choice following with BAJAJ and ENFIELD BULLET as 2nd and 3rd choice. LML and KINETIC as 5th. Whereas TVS will be the 4th choice which is taking lead over YAMAHA. 6th and 7th choice. 64 .

CHAPTER-4    RECOMMENDATIONS LIMITATIONS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 65 .

The dealership in New Delhi also lacks in space. TVS motor company has to make some arrangements to increase the awareness level among the prospects through media. which is a major concern because the first impression on the mind of the customer is about the window display. Every 66 . The company should also emphasize on other bikes excluding TVS VICTOR and TVS CENTRA because some of the bikes in TVS like Apache RTR are more popular than these bikes in the surveyed area. which can be improved with the help of the professionals.RECOMMENDATIONS In the analysis the respondents have shown that they consider TVS motor company after HERO HONDA and BAJAJ and this is a major concern for the company. In New Delhi the respondents who have visited the dealership are not satisfied with the service facilities which can be improved by regular visit of the service managers as well as providing regular training to the staff as well as the owner. The buying behavior of the customers in New Delhi is not focused on the celebrity endorsement but they want a product which should contain all the factors and at an affordable price. The customers in New Delhi want more number of dealers in their area so as to have more options in visiting the dealership.

LIMITATIONS This report incorporates sincere efforts to submit the best possible dossier on the topic assigned because no study can be perfect. There are bound to be limitations that I faced and within which I had to work.dealership should have the same services and excellent window display so as to attract more customers. The data used in most part of the report is secondary data. As TVS is still not a household brand name.As TVS has launched its new bike VICTOR GLX in the market. some of the respondents were not completely aware of its products and track record. As in the demographic phase of the respondents the younger generation wants to have a bike with lot of power and style which TVS should come within future . TVS should improve its channel management and should invest in the brand image in the market. it has inherent discrepancy. 67 .

As he formed a civilization he felt the need for “Better Transportation”. railways and on water. TVS motor company is one of the leading bike manufacturers in India. roadways. Truly the modern world relies on transportation which can be airways. stylish and trendy mode of transport known as Motorcycle nowadays known as Motorbike.SUMMARY Ever since man evolved into social animal he felt the need for “Transportation”. both primary data and secondary data were required. The topic of the project is Customer Buying Behavior taking TVS for comparison. Today on the threshold of exploring the universe he feels the need of “Best Transportation”. The primary data was collected 68 . For the study. Each human being that is living in this social world knows the importance of bikes because it serves the purpose in any kind of situation and in any part of this world. Bicycle was the most important part of road transportation in early days and as the scenario changed bicycle was transformed into a fast. The analysis of the project was based on customer’s point of view.

to understand the awareness levels of TVS I went to the prospects and met the respondents to fill the questionnaire. to understand consumer needs on motorbikes. The major conclusion from this study was that TVS has to improve itself to gain the 1st position in the market as it is doing well to maintain its 3rd position in the market. TVS has a lot of work to do if it has to take lead and remain the leading manufacturer in India. 69 . The mode of survey was of personal interview. In terms of competition TVS has neck-to-neck competition with Hero Honda and Bajaj. The sampling procedure used was random sampling for the 1st objective i. where the respondents filled up the questionnaires.e. Company brochures. journals and the Internet. magazines. For the 2nd objective i. The secondary data was collected from business newspapers.e. using a structured questionnaire with both open ended and closed-ended questions.based on a survey research.

2nd and 3rd position. MILEAGE is the first factor following with POWER and STYLE and also with an adaptable PRICE.CONCLUSION  The facts and figures shown in the analysis is correct and the survey has been done in a good faith and responsibility  As HERO HONDA. TVS motor co.  The most influencing factor in purchasing decision of the bike is FAMILY and after that FRIENDS which is not at all linked with 70 . thus people only know about VICTOR and not other bikes. has emphasized only on VICTOR and not on other bikes. Print media and different types of media should be used to make people know about the slogan. has to make some more efforts to increase the awareness among the people in the context of bikes. Thus TVS motor co. BAJAJ and YAMAHA have taken the 1st. have done the ranking. which they consider while purchasing a bike. The company has to make efforts for making a product that should have all these three factors with considerable price.  The respondents in the factors.  The respondents have been asked about the most effective slogan in different brands of bikes in which again HONDA and BAJAJ have taken the lead.

which is a good sign for the TVS motor company. The company generally invests in Dealer promotion and Media.  In TVS motor company VICTOR is the most popular bike and very interestingly without any media interaction FIERO F2 has taken the 2nd spot with CENTRA on the 3rd spot which has taken a lead with only one place from MAX-R .  Most of the respondents had knowledge about the TVS bikes.It is recommended that FIERO F2 should be given equal sales promotion than CENTRA because of its popularity has come through people network and not through channel media. Awareness level through Media and dealer should be increased. The small number of bad experience can be avoided by giving warm welcome and good behavior by the staff.  The respondents who have not visited the TVS dealership are either not interested in TVS bikes or they are not satisfied with TVS products. which is not appropriate as analyzed in this question.  When asked about the experience at the TVS dealership most of the respondents had a good and average experience with a small number having bad experience. In this matter the dealer should increase the road shows as well as arrange regular customers meeting which will create interests in other prospects.the company investment. 71 .

 In context to popularity TVS ranks 3rd according to this sample size and thus the company should introduce new products as well as reposition its product according to the demand in the market. The respondents have liked the service facility and the staff but the important factor is the lack of space. Company should give more importance to the product so as to give the best in quality to the customer. BAJAJ and ENFIELD BULLET. 72 .  Celebrity endorsement does not affect most of the respondents whereas only 34% of the respondents have an affect over the purchasing decision of bike. The dealership in New Delhi has to improve the staff as well as the after sales services and the customer relations.  In the case of no price consideration TVS ranks 4th and according to survey analysis the respondent wants to purchase his dream bike which TVS Company has to make in comparison with HERO HONDA.

Test and cases. Richard D. Irwin.com. Research Methodology •  NEWS PAPER • Times Auto • The Economic Times  MAGAZINES • Auto Sports • Business Outlook TVS MOTOR COMPANY 73 . Linois C.R Kothari.tvsmotor.www.BIBLIOGRAPHY  WEB SITE • Google.com  TEXT BOOKS • Marketing Research.

CUSTOMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR (NEW DELHI) QUESTIONNAIRE Que1. which Bike do you have? Specify __________________________________ Que2. Which brands of Bike are you aware of…….. Do you own a Bike? Yes  No  If yes.? TVS HERO HONDA ENFIELD YAMAHA BAJAJ LML KINETIC        Que3. Which slogan of Bike affects you the most and of which brand…? Specify___________________________________ 74 .

Who influenced you while purchasing the Bike?       FRIENDS DEALER FAMILY MEDIA Que6.Que4. Which factors do you consider while purchasing a Bike? [Rank] MILEAGE STYLE PRICE BRAND SPARE PARTS AFTER SALE SERVICE Que5. If yes. Have You Visited Any TVS Showroom?     Yes No Que7. what was the Experience?   VERY GOOD GOOD AVERAGE BAD     75 .

DEALERSHIP? Specify____________________________________ 76 .Que8. If you have a Motorcycle other than TVS?  Do you know about TVS Motor bike? Yes  No   If yes which Brand of TVS Motor bike? Specify ___________________________________ Have you visited TVS DEALERSHIP? Yes  No  What have you liked OR Disliked at TVS  Que10. why you have not visited the TVS Showroom? Please Specify______________________________ Que9. If No.

. ………………………………………………………… SIGNATURE: 77 . OCCUPATION………………………………………. INCOME……………………………………………… PHONE NO. ADDRESS……………………………………………. …………………………………………. AGE…………………………………………………… SEX…………………………………………………….Que11. Which brand do you think is most popular in the Market? Specify___________________________________ Que13. Does celebrity endorsement affect the purchase of Bike? Yes  No  Que12. If there is no price consideration which brand would you buy? Specify___________________________________ THANKS A LOT FOR PARTICIPATING!! NAME ……………………………………………….

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