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SECTION 3 Time – 25 minutes 24 Questions
2020 PT 3 | Reading
The manager’s ------- shocked her employees, who neither expected nor deserved such bitter, abusive language. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 8. diatribe soliloquy repartee quibble affirmation
A diehard soccer fan, Ravi was not just disappointed but completely ------ when his favorite team lost in the finals. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) indulgent satisfied unmoved crushed deceived
Peregrine falcons are among the avian world’s great -------, sometimes migrating as much as 18,000 miles each year. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) mercenaries itinerants charlatans recidivists provincials
Each ------- of the mosaic was individually selected and ------according to a preconceived pattern until the entire floor of the villa was decorated. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) photograph .. developed color .. studied image .. discussed tile .. removed piece .. positioned
Questions 9-10 are based on the following passage.
The essays of James Baldwin, which are extraordinarily ------- and worldly, provide insight into this ------- and perceptive man. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) sophisticated . . profound specialized .. provincial altruistic .. self-centered naive .. masterful volatile .. gentle
Researchers engaged in the study of chimpanzee behavior have recently documented a multitude of distinct patterns across Africa, in actions ranging from the animals’ use of tools to their forms of communication and social customs. They have found, for example, that chimps in the Tai Forest of the Ivory Coast use stone “hammers” to cleave nuts, but that on the opposite bank of a river members of the same species do not crack nuts at all. The required raw materials are available on both sides, but the river serves as a cultural barrier.
The passage implies that for chimpanzees “on the opposite bank” (line 7) the river is a “cultural barrier” (lines 9-10) because it prevents them from
The Eurasian taiga, the world’s largest forest, exhibits a remarkable lack of ------: it is ------- in most places by only a few species of conifers. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) definition .. bordered variety .. dominated space .. covered precision .. dotted thickness .. overrun
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
reaching a distant source of food making contact with human researchers acquiring the capacity to communicate exploring diverse habitats learning technical skills from other chimps
10. All of the following could serve as examples of the kinds of differences discussed in the passage EXCEPT: 5. The new healthcare legislation was intended as -------, a temporary expedient that would serve until more thorough measures could be instituted. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 6. a stopgap a moratorium a portent an admonition an invocation (A) To attract attention during courtship, chimpanzees in one group rap their knuckles on tree trunks, while those in another group do not. (B) To get drinking water, chimpanzees in one group fold leaves into “cups” to scoop water, while those in another group use leaves as a “sponge” to soak up water. (C) Chimpanzees in one group sit on large leaves when the ground is wet, but those in another group do not. (D) Chimpanzees in one group eat termites, but those in another group have no termites to eat in their area. (E) Chimpanzees in one group use leafy twigs to fan away flies, but those in another group do not.
Questions 11-12 are based on the following passage.
Feeling ------- by a voting process that ultimately led to their votes being invalidated, these citizens ------- their discontent by way of a lawsuit. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) heartened .. voiced emboldened .. denied compromised .. garnered disenfranchised .. registered intrigued .. revoked
I thought we had finished with the subject of your wanting to become a writer when you passed through New York last April. You asked for what you called “an uncle’s meddling advice,” and we spent an afternoon talking about your chances of commercial or critical success (nil and next to none), about
2020 PT 3 | Reading and lively moments; stories of tents crushed beneath falling 35 trees, or eased off precipices on ballbearings of beaded rain and sent paragliding on to distant valley floors. Yes, the woods were full of peril. Literally unimaginable things could happen to you out there. It required only a little light reading in adventure books and almost no imagination to envision circumstances in 40 which I would find myself meeting up with a sofa-sized boar with cold beady eyes, a piercing squeal, and a slaverous, chomping appetite for plump, city-softened flesh. Passage 2 Even in these mercifully emancipated decades, many people seem to be alarmed at the prospect of sleeping away from officially consecrated campsites, with no more equipment than they can carry on their backs. When pressed, they babble about snakes or bears or even bandits. But the real barrier, I’m sure, is the unknown. It was years ago that I came to comprehend the reality of this barrier. I was walking and had come to some natural boundary. It may have been the end of a trail or road, or the fringes of a forest or the rim of a cliff, I no longer remember which. But I know that I felt I had gone as far as a hiker could go. So I just stood there looking out beyond the edge of the world. Except for a wall of thick, dark, undergrowth, I am no longer sure what I saw, but I know it was wild, wild, impossible country. All at once, without warning, two men emerged from that impossible country. They carried packs on their backs, and they were weatherbeaten and distilled to muscle and bone. I talked to them briefly and in considerable awe. They had been back deep in the wilderness, they said, away from civilization for a week. “Pretty inaccessible, some of it,” admitted one of them. “But there’s beautiful country in there—some of the finest I’ve ever seen.” Then they walked away and I was left, still awestruck, looking out once more into the huge, mysterious wilderness. The awe that I felt that day still lingers in my memory. But my present self dismisses it. I know better. Many times in recent years I have emerged from wild country and have found myself face to face with astonished people who had obviously felt that they were already at the edge of the world, and I know that what I have seen on their faces is exactly what those two men must have seen on mine. And I know now that the awe is totally unwarranted. There is nothing difficult in going into such places. All you need is the right equipment, a reasonable competence in using it, a tolerable degree of physical fitness, and a clear understanding of your own limitations. Beyond that, all you have to do is overcome the fear of the unknown.
the number of readers that constitutes the American audience for literature (not enough to fill the seats at Yankee Stadium), and about the Q ratings awarded to authors by the celebrity markets (equivalent to those assigned to trick dogs and retired generals). You didn’t disagree with the drift of the conversation, and I thought it was understood that you would apply to business school.
11. The tone of the parenthetical comments is best characterized as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) ebullient diffident sanguine surly wry
12. The passage suggests that the person being addressed most likely (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) did not expect career guidance chose to defy a categorical command hoped to avoid an intimidating event was unconvinced by the uncle’s advice did not feel challenged by college
Questions 13-24 are based on the following passages.
Passage 1 is adapted from the introduction to a 1998 book that relates the author’s experiences while hiking sections of the Appalachian Trail. Passage 2 is from a 1968 book on backpacking.
Passage 1 Not long after I moved with my family to a small town in New Hampshire, I came upon a path that vanished into a wood on the edge of town. A sign announced that this was no ordinary footpath but the celebrated Appalachian Trail. Running more than 2,100 miles along America’s eastern seaboard, the AT is the granddaddy of all hikes. And here it was, quite unexpectedly, meandering in a dangerously beguiling fashion through the pleasant New England community in which I had just settled. It seemed such an extraordinary notion—that I could set off from home and walk 1,800 miles through woods to Georgia. A little voice in my head said: “Sounds neat! Let’s do it!” I formed a number of rationalizations. It would get me fit after years of waddlesome sloth. It would be an interesting and reflective way to reacquaint myself with the scale and beauty of my native land after nearly twenty years of living abroad. It would be useful (I wasn’t quite sure in what way, but I was sure nonetheless) to learn to fend for myself in the wilderness. When guys in camouflage pants and hunting hats sat around in the Four Aces Diner talking about fearsome things done outdoors, I would no longer have to feel like such a cupcake. I wanted a little of that swagger that comes with being able to gaze at a far horizon through eyes of chipped granite and say with a slow, manly sniff, “Yeah, I’ve slept in the woods.” But then I bought some books and talked to some people and came gradually to realize that this was way beyond—way beyond—anything I had attempted before. Nearly everyone I talked to had some gruesome story involving a guileless acquaintance who had gone off hiking the trail with high hopes and new boots and come stumbling back with a bobcat attached to his head. I heard four separate stories (always related with a chuckle) of campers and bears sharing tents for a few confused 65
13. In line 4, “Running” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) functioning conducting fleeing hastening extending
14. In context, the quotation in lines 11-12 chiefly conveys the author’s (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) great courage in the face of difficult odds unbridled enthusiasm for studying the natural world childlike desire to escape the pressures of civilization blithe approach to an arduous undertaking brazen disregard for the consequences of his actions
2020 PT 3 | Reading
(B) They will unfortunately occur sooner or later to most casual backpackers. (C) They are indicative of some hikers’ courage and exuberance. (D) They would not be likely to cause harm even if they did occur. (E) They are beyond human control and therefore not worth worrying about.
15. Line 13 (“I formed . . . rationalizations”) primarily suggests that the author of Passage 1 was (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) seeking to explain a common misunderstanding attempting to avoid a physically challenging task trying to justify an impulsive decision giving an honest account of his true motives acknowledging the difficulty of accomplishing a goal
16. The author repeats a phrase in lines 26-27 in order to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) stress how impressive his actions were highlight a commonly held point of view emphasize the magnitude of an endeavor indicate disagreement with some so-called experts suggest that it was too late to reconsider a choice
22. The author of Passage 2 would most likely argue that the last paragraph of Passage 1 (lines 25-41) demonstrates (A) a foolhardy willingness to take risks (B) an unreasonable anxiety regarding the hazards of wilderness camping (C) an admirable example of careful preparation (D) a praiseworthy recognition of physical strengths and weaknesses (E) an accurate assessment of different scenarios one should expect in the forest
17. The initial reaction of the author of Passage 2 to the “two men” (line 57) is best characterized as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) trepidation indignation disillusionment exasperation astonishment
23. The author of Passage 1 most wants to be like which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The “many people” (line 42) The “bandits” (line 46) The “hiker” (line 52) The “two men” (line 57) The “astonished people” (line 69)
18. In line 76, “clear” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) serene smooth transparent innocent keen
24. Which of the following best characterizes the tone of Passage 1 and that of Passage 2, respectively? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Argumentative versus objective Lighthearted versus bitter Caustic versus pompous Conversational versus scholarly Humorous versus earnest
19. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the two passages? (A) The first presents evidence that persuasively advances the argument made in the second. (B) The first makes a claim that is shown to be idealistic by the second. (C) The second advocates an environmental policy that is ridiculed in the first. (D) The second expresses admiration for the principles outlined in the first. (E) The second challenges an attitude that is exemplified in the first. 20. The rationalization mentioned by the author of Passage 1 in line 13 is best supported by which of the following from Passage 2? (A) The claim that most people are afraid to sleep in the woods (B) The assertion that it is possible to venture deep into the wilderness (C) The physical description of the two hikers (D) The importance of understanding one’s abilities (E) The necessity of overcoming one’s fear of the unknown
SECTION 4 Time – 25 minutes 24 Questions
1. The ------- condition of the ancient pine tree seemed to confirm the park ranger’s grim forecast, but then the tree defied all predictions with a sudden and ------- recovery. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2. deteriorating .. unexplainable improving .. miraculous fluctuating .. expected flourishing .. unquestionable stable .. temporary
Influenced by group pressures, people tend to ------- in order to gain social approval and avoid being -------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comply .. revered flinch .. denounced conform .. rejected obey .. accepted defer .. respected
21. The author of Passage 2 would most likely argue which of the following about the events referred to in lines 33-35 of Passage 1 (“stories…floors”)? (A) They could largely be avoided through the exercise of good judgment and use of proper equipment.
2020 PT 3 | Reading
Which statement best expresses the relationship between the two passages? (A) Passage 1 mocks someone who is lauded in Passage 2. (B) Passage 1 offers a scholarly analysis of a situation that is trivialized by the author of Passage 2. (C) Passage 2 describes someone by using a term that the author of Passage 1 would challenge. (D) Passage 2 discusses a historical figure noted in Passage 1. (E) Both Passage 1 and Passage 2 use irony to advance their arguments. 8. The author of Passage 1 would most likely insist that the characterization of Madison in Passage 2 is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 9. unflattering perceptive calculated overstated uninspired
Duncan was neither ------- nor -------: he was not penniless, but he was not wealthy either. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) magnanimous .. prosperous impecunious .. affluent philanthropic .. extravagant pompous .. industrious parsimonious .. sanctimonious
The once-upbeat party members had to reevaluate their guiding principles after the initial ------- of the movement gave way to a -----assessment of the chance for reform. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) impetus .. favorable nihilism .. promising ebullience .. pessimistic dynamism .. vigorous despondency .. bleak
Edith Wharton was a true ------- of the short story: she fervently championed the genre at every opportunity. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) proponent scholar arbiter prognosticator finagler Which statement best characterizes the attitudes toward geniuses in the two passages? (A) Passage 1 attacks the idea that geniuses are commonplace, while Passage 2 presents several examples challenging that notion. (B) Passage 1 notes that true geniuses are unappreciated by most people, while Passage 2 questions that sentiment. (C) Passage 1 laments the scarcity of geniuses in contemporary society, while Passage 2 observes that geniuses are all around us. (D) Passage 1 indicates that true geniuses are exceptional, while Passage 2 assumes that genius is possible in everyday life. (E) Passage 1 contends that true geniuses are well known, while Passage 2 argues that some geniuses are never discovered.
Questions 10-15 are based on the following passage.
Questions 6-9 are based on the following passage.
Passage 1 Once, the word “genius” was reserved for people of towering intellect or unimaginable ability. Genius was rare and almost magical. Nowadays, one reads about makeup artists and magazine editors who are “geniuses.” This same inflation can be seen in the use of the word “visionary,” a term once reserved for geniuses who altered the course of history. I read the other day that a real estate developer who is converting some industrial building in Brooklyn to residential use is a “great visionary.” (Not just a visionary, mind you, but a great one.) If this guy is a “great visionary,” what does that make the likes of Darwin and Freud? Passage 2 I know beyond any reasonable doubt that my best friend Madison is a genius, and I can’t help but feel smugly pleased that nobody searching for the common, everyday, Einstein-style genius would ever recognize that fact. Madison’s genius is not the flashy sort destined to move mountains or invent computer chips, but it is genius nonetheless. Without seeming insincere or manipulative, Madison can effortlessly locate the precise compliment that will soften the hard-eyed stare of a teacher intent on enforcing an arbitrary school rule. With a single quip, she can melt away the tension from any gathering. The geniuses among us may be few and far between, but Madison is definitely one of them.
The first two sentences of Passage 1 serve primarily to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) explain a difficult concept in popular terms provide a humorous introduction to the discussion highlight a common misconception suggest a course of action that should be undertaken establish the context for the subsequent discussion
This passage, published in 1986, is excerpted from a work discussing how astronauts communicate among themselves.
Contact Light! Okay, engine stop. Aye-see-aye out of detent. Mode control both auto. Descent engine command override off. Engine arm off. Four-thirteen is “IN.” — Buzz Aldrin, 1969, humanity’s first words from the Moon To listen to speech between space travelers is to be faced with a foreign language. At Mission Control in Houston, one person alone is allowed to talk with the “space people.” This person is designated as CAPCOM, a word that formerly was an abbreviation for “capsule communicator.” But now, as with many words in the vocabulary of astronauts, it has taken on a life of its own in “spacefarer pidgin.” The rise of jargon is not unique to spaceflight. Every technical profession has it, and many subcultures within a national culture use—even cultivate—distinctive modes of speech and vocabulary. There is a special terminology or slang among pilots, musicians, teenagers, Marxists, ethnic communities, geographic regions. These dialects serve to economize on specialized communications, avoiding ambiguities that in the language of the whole society would require extensive circumlocutions to resolve. But often jargons are deliberately cultivated by subcultures to enforce
2020 PT 3 | Reading
13. In line 38, “boots,” “bonnets,” and “napkins” are examples of words that (A) have different meanings in different cultures (B) mean one thing in standard English and another in spacefarer pidgin (C) refer to common objects that are therefore unlikely to change (D) share technical meanings in both England and the United States (E) evoke mundane connotations far removed from outer space 14. The author mentions “Voice pitch” and “rhythms of dialogue” in the last paragraph primarily in order to (A) give examples of phenomena that earthbound people cannot appreciate (B) give examples of factors that affect speech between spacefarers (C) show how certain physical factors counteract the effects of changes in language (D) give examples of meanings that change as a result of a group using a new jargon (E) indicate the physical risks of returning to Earth from space 15. The author of the passage implies that the special language of spaceflight is (A) an attempt to enforce exclusivity (B) an attempt to develop a universal space language (C) an attempt to address communication problems between scientists and laypersons (D) a response to unprecedented conditions (E) an unnecessary development
Questions 16-24 are based on the following passage.
exclusivity. It may be no accident that conversation is unintelligible to outsiders. So far, no such motive seems to lie behind the special language of spaceflight. Literally far-out gadgets and concepts require bizarre-sounding terminology. But the potential for exclusiveness is there. And whenever the words are different, a difference in thought processes follows. If, as some linguists have claimed, Inuit languages have many words for “snow” and only one for “tree,” a simple translation of “snow” or “tree” may be insufficient to discuss even such everyday subjects as weather or lumberjacking. Even more conducive to misunderstanding are situations in which the words remain the same in two cultures, but their meanings have diverged. It’s trying for an American to go to England and discuss boots, bonnets, napkins, and other shared terms with distinctly different meanings. A similar problem is arising with “spacefarer pidgin,” where words like “destruct,” “assembly,” and “depress” mean something very different from their “English” equivalents. In terms of everyday English, most astronauts seem stiff, unimaginative, and word-poor. The best they seem to say when confronted with literally unearthly vistas is, “What a beautiful view.” But in terms of the language that ensures their survival, the language of spaceship functions and navigation and “failures modes,” fluency and even poetry thrive. The changes in communication styles encouraged by the space environment and the spaceflight experience don’t just make communication between space crews and the earthbound more difficult. Hitherto unexpected problems in communication between crew members are also introduced. Pure verbal communication is distorted because weightlessness causes fluid to shift to the spacefarer’s head. Voice pitch is changed and becomes more nasal. The rhythms of dialogue can also change. On Earth all of these speech factors are important indicators of a speaker’s mental state. They are verbal cues people are taught to recognize unconsciously from earliest childhood.
This passage is adapted from a 2001 novel. Ruth is the protagonist; LuLing is her mother.
10. By stating “it has taken on a life of its own” (lines 12-13), the author means that (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the language of astronauts is now a subject of study the vocabulary of space travelers is limited the term “spacefarer pidgin” is not exclusive to spacefarers one word may give rise to several different words what had been an abbreviation is now used as a real word
11. The point about “exclusivity” in lines 22-24 is that (A) subcultures are often remarkably inventive in their use of language (B) subcultures rely on technical phrases to emulate professional groups (C) some jargons are harder than others for outsiders to understand (D) there is more to the use of jargon than efficient communication (E) those who fail to keep up with technological advances will be left behind 12. The author refers to certain claims in lines 30-34 in order to (A) suggest how jargon changes over time (B) show how the relationship between slang and jargon is muddled (C) give a sense of the difference between various scholarly approaches (D) prove that some linguists are mistaken about Inuit languages (E) suggest a relationship between language and thought
When Ruth was growing up, her mother supplemented her income as a teacher’s aide with side businesses, one of which was bilingual calligraphy, Chinese and English. She produced price signs for supermarkets and jewelry stores in Oakland and San Francisco, good-luck couplets for restaurant openings, banners for funeral wreaths, and announcements for births and weddings. Over the years, people had told Ruth that her mother’s calligraphy was at an artist’s level, first-rate classical. This was the piecework that earned her a reliable reputation, and Ruth had had a role in that success: she checked the spelling of the English words. “It’s ‘grapefruit.’” eight-year-old Ruth once said, exasperated, “not ‘grapefoot.’ It’s a fruit not a foot.” That night, LuLing started teaching her the mechanics of writing Chinese. Ruth knew this was punishment for what she had said earlier. “Watch,” LuLing ordered her in Chinese. She ground an inkstick onto an inkstone and used a medicine dropper to add salt water in doses the size of tears. “Watch,” she said, and selected a brush from the dozens hanging with their tips down. Ruth’s sleepy eyes tried to follow her mother’s hand as she swabbed the brush with ink, then held it nearly perpendicular to the page, her wrist and elbow in midair. Finally she began, flicking her wrist slightly so that her hand waved and dipped like a moth over the gleam of white paper. Soon the spidery images formed: “Half Off!” “Amazing Discounts!” “Going Out of Business!” “Writing Chinese characters,” her mother told her, “is entirely different from writing English words. You think
2020 PT 3 | Reading
18. The “punishment” (line 15) is best described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) an attempt to transmit a skill that is difficult to master an ordeal that most children would be unable to endure an educational activity that Ruth actually enjoys a type of disciplinary action that LuLing often imposed a threat that LuLing does not actually carry out
differently. You feel differently.” And it was true: LuLing was different when she was writing and painting. She was calm, organized, and decisive. “Bao Bomu taught me how to write,” LuLing said one evening. “She taught me how to think. When you write, she said, you must gather the free-flowing of your heart.” To demonstrate, LuLing wrote the character for “heart.” “See? Each stroke has its own rhythm, its balance, its proper place. Bao Bomu said everything in life should be the same way.” “Who’s Bao Bomu again?” Ruth asked. “She took care of me when I was a girl. She loved me very much, just like a mother. Bao, well, this means ‘precious,’ and together with bomu, this means ‘Precious Auntie.’” Oh, that Bao Bomu, thought Ruth. LuLing started to write a simple horizontal line. But the movements were not simple. She rested the tip of the brush on the paper, so it was like a dancer on her toes. The tip bent slightly downward, curtsied, and them, as if blown by capricious winds, swept to the right, paused, turned a half-step to the left, and rose. Ruth blew out a sigh. Why even try? Her mother would just be upset that she could not do it right. Some nights LuLing found ways to help Ruth remember the characters. “Each radical comes from an old picture from a long time ago.” She made a horizontal stroke and asked Ruth if she could see what the picture was. Ruth squinted and shook her head. LuLing made the identical stroke. Then again and again, asking each time if Ruth knew what it was. Finally, her mother let out a snort, the compressed form of her disappointment and disgust. “This line is like a beam of light. Look, can you see it or not?” To Ruth, the line looked like a sparerib picked clean of meat. Later LuLing had Ruth try her hand at the same character, the whole time stuffing Chinese logic into her resistant brain. “Hold your wrist this way, firm but still loose, like a young willow branch—ai-ya, not collapsed like something lying on the road…Draw the stroke with grace, like a bird landing on a branch. Do it like this…light first, then temple. See? Together, it means ‘news from the gods.’ See how this knowledge always come from above? See how Chinese words make sense?”
19. Lines 34-37 (“When you…place”) suggest that LuLing believes that Chinese calligraphy is characterized by which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Uniformity Ingenuity Realism Harmony Ornamentation
20. As used in lines 43 and 44, “simple” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) pure naïve lowly uncomplicated unpretentious
21. In lines 63-71 (“Later…sense”), LuLing primarily attempts to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) provide instruction conclude a debate justify a punishment explain contradictory theories clarify an exception to a rule
22. As used in line 64, “stuffing” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) padding dunking gorging condensing cramming
16. The list in lines 4-7 (“price signs…weddings”) primarily serves to illustrate the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) variety of bilingual calligraphy tasks worked on by LuLing artistry involved in creating bilingual calligraphy importance of preserving calligraphy as an art form exclusive nature of the clientele for whom LuLing worked extensive efforts by LuLing to attract new business
23. Lines 65-68 (“Hold…branch”) are notable for their use of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) literary allusion figurative language understatement satire irony
17. Ruth’s “role in that success” (line 10) is most analogous to that of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
24. As revealed in line 13 (“It’s…foot”) and 56-58 (“Finally …disgust”), the relationship between LuLing and Ruth at times involves (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) considerable frustration spirited competition overt affection shared appreciation long-standing distrust
an apprentice learning from a mentor an artist illustrating a book a writer composing a story a designer at an advertising agency a proofreader at a publishing house
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