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# 20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8

## TRNG THCS TIN THNG

CHUYN 1 - PHN TCH A THC THNH NHN T
A. MC TIU:
* H thng li cc dng ton v cc phng php phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
* Gii mt s bi tp v phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
* Nng cao trnh v k nng v phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
B. CC PHNG PHP V BI TP
I. TCH MT HNG T THNH NHIU HNG T:
nh l b sung:
+ a thc f(x) c nghim hu t th c dng p/q trong p l c ca h s t do, q l c
dng ca h s cao nht
+ Nu f(x) c tng cc h s bng 0 th f(x) c mt nhn t l x 1
+ Nu f(x) c tng cc h s ca cc hng t bc chn bng tng cc h s ca cc hng t
bc l th f(x) c mt nhn t l x + 1
+ Nu a l nghim nguyn ca f(x) v f(1); f(- 1) khc 0 th
f(1)
a - 1
v
f(-1)
a + 1
u l s nguyn.
nhanh chng loi tr nghim l c ca h s t do
1. V d 1: 3x
2
8x + 4
Cch 1: Tch hng t th 2
3x
2
8x + 4 = 3x
2
6x 2x + 4 = 3x(x 2) 2(x 2) = (x 2)(3x 2)
Cch 2: Tch hng t th nht:
3x
2
8x + 4 = (4x
2
8x + 4) - x
2
= (2x 2)
2
x
2
= (2x 2 + x)(2x 2 x)
= (x 2)(3x 2)
V d 2: x
3
x
2
- 4
Ta nhn thy nghim ca f(x) nu c th x = 1; 2; 4 , ch c f(2) = 0 nn x = 2 l nghim
ca f(x) nn f(x) c mt nhn t l x 2. Do ta tch f(x) thnh cc nhm c xut hin
mt nhn t l x 2
Cch 1:
x
3
x
2
4 =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 2
2 2 2 4 2 ( 2) 2( 2) x x x x x x x x x x + + = + + = ( )( )
2
2 2 x x x + +
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1
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Cch 2:
( ) ( )
3 2 3 2 3 2 2
4 8 4 8 4 ( 2)( 2 4) ( 2)( 2) x x x x x x x x x x x = + = = + + +
= ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 4 ( 2) ( 2)( 2) x x x x x x x
(
+ + + = + +

V d 3: f(x) = 3x
3
7x
2
+ 17x 5
Nhn xt: 1, 5 khng l nghim ca f(x), nh vy f(x) khng c nghim nguyn. Nn
f(x) nu c nghim th l nghim hu t
Ta nhn thy x =
1
3
l nghim ca f(x) do f(x) c mt nhn t l 3x 1. Nn
f(x) = 3x
3
7x
2
+ 17x 5 =
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 2 2
3 6 2 15 5 3 6 2 15 5 x x x x x x x x x x + + = +
=
2 2
(3 1) 2 (3 1) 5(3 1) (3 1)( 2 5) x x x x x x x x + = +
V
2 2 2
2 5 ( 2 1) 4 ( 1) 4 0 x x x x x + = + + = + > vi mi x nn khng phn tch c thnh
nhn t na
V d 4: x
3
+ 5x
2
+ 8x + 4
Nhn xt: Tng cc h s ca cc hng t bc chn bng tng cc h s ca cc hng t
bc l nn a thc c mt nhn t l x + 1
x
3
+ 5x
2
+ 8x + 4 = (x
3
+ x
2
) + (4x
2
+ 4x) + (4x + 4) = x
2
(x + 1) + 4x(x + 1) + 4(x + 1)
= (x + 1)(x
2
+ 4x + 4) = (x + 1)(x + 2)
2

V d 5: f(x) = x
5
2x
4
+ 3x
3
4x
2
+ 2
Tng cc h s bng 0 th nn a thc c mt nhn t l x 1, chia f(x) cho (x 1) ta c:
x
5
2x
4
+ 3x
3
4x
2
+ 2 = (x 1)(x
4
- x
3
+ 2

x
2
- 2

x

- 2)
V x
4
- x
3
+ 2

x
2
- 2

x

- 2 khng c nghim nguyn cng khng c nghim hu t nn
khng phn tch c na
V d 6: x
4
+ 1997x
2
+ 1996x + 1997 = (x
4
+ x
2
+ 1) + (1996x
2
+ 1996x + 1996)
= (x
2
+ x + 1)(x
2
- x + 1) + 1996(x
2
+ x + 1)
= (x
2
+ x + 1)(x
2
- x + 1 + 1996) = (x
2
+ x + 1)(x
2
- x + 1997)
V d 7: x
2
- x - 2001.2002 = x
2
- x - 2001.(2001 + 1)
= x
2
- x 2001
2
- 2001 = (x
2
2001
2
) (x + 2001) = (x + 2001)(x 2002)
II. THM , BT CNG MT HNG T:
1. Thm, bt cng mt s hng t xut hin hiu hai bnh phng:
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20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
V d 1: 4x
4
+ 81 = 4x
4
+ 36x
2
+ 81 - 36x
2
= (2x
2
+ 9)
2
36x
2

= (2x
2
+ 9)
2
(6x)
2
= (2x
2
+ 9 + 6x)(2x
2
+ 9 6x)
= (2x
2
+ 6x + 9 )(2x
2
6x + 9)
V d 2: x
8
+ 98x
4
+ 1 = (x
8
+ 2x
4
+ 1 ) + 96x
4

= (x
4
+ 1)
2
+ 16x
2
(x
4
+ 1) + 64x
4
- 16x
2
(x
4
+ 1) + 32x
4

= (x
4
+ 1 + 8x
2
)
2
16x
2
(x
4
+ 1 2x
2
) = (x
4
+ 8x
2
+ 1)
2
- 16x
2
(x
2
1)
2

= (x
4
+ 8x
2
+ 1)
2
- (4x
3
4x )
2

= (x
4
+ 4x
3
+ 8x
2
4x + 1)(x
4
- 4x
3
+ 8x
2
+ 4x + 1)
2. Thm, bt cng mt s hng t xut hin nhn t chung
V d 1: x
7
+ x
2
+ 1 = (x
7
x) + (x
2
+ x + 1 ) = x(x
6
1) + (x
2
+ x + 1 )
= x(x
3

- 1)(x
3
+ 1) + (x
2
+ x + 1 ) = x(x 1)(x
2
+ x + 1 ) (x
3
+ 1) + (x
2
+ x + 1)
= (x
2
+ x + 1)[x(x 1)(x
3
+ 1) + 1] = (x
2
+ x + 1)(x
5
x
4
+

x
2
- x + 1)
V d 2: x
7
+ x
5
+ 1 = (x
7
x ) + (x
5
x
2
) + (x
2

+ x + 1)
= x(x
3
1)(x
3
+ 1) + x
2
(x
3
1) + (x
2

+ x + 1)
= (x
2

+ x + 1)(x 1)(x
4
+ x) + x
2
(x 1)(x
2

+ x + 1) + (x
2

+ x + 1)
= (x
2

+ x + 1)[(x
5
x
4
+ x
2
x) + (x
3
x
2
) + 1] = (x
2

+ x + 1)(x
5
x
4
+ x
3
x + 1)
Ghi nh:
Cc a thc c dng x
3m + 1
+ x
3n + 2
+ 1 nh: x
7
+ x
2
+ 1 ; x
7
+ x
5
+ 1 ; x
8
+ x
4
+ 1 ;
x
5
+ x + 1 ; x
8
+ x + 1 ; u c nhn t chung l x
2
+ x + 1
III. T BIN PH:
V d 1: x(x + 4)(x + 6)(x + 10) + 128 = [x(x + 10)][(x + 4)(x + 6)] + 128
= (x
2
+ 10x) + (x
2
+ 10x + 24) + 128
t x
2
+ 10x + 12 = y, a thc c dng
(y 12)(y + 12) + 128 = y
2
144 + 128 = y
2
16 = (y + 4)(y 4)
= ( x
2
+ 10x + 8 )(x
2
+ 10x + 16 ) = (x + 2)(x + 8)( x
2
+ 10x + 8 )
V d 2: A = x
4
+ 6x
3
+ 7x
2
6x + 1
Gi s x = 0 ta vit
x
4
+ 6x
3
+ 7x
2
6x + 1 = x
2
( x
2
+ 6x + 7
2
6 1
+
x x
) = x
2
[(x
2
+
2
1
x
) + 6(x -
1
x
) + 7 ]
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20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
t x -
1
x
= y th x
2
+
2
1
x
= y
2
+ 2, do
A = x
2
(y
2
+ 2 + 6y + 7) = x
2
(y + 3)
2
= (xy + 3x)
2

= [x(x -
1
x
)
2
+ 3x]
2
= (x
2
+ 3x 1)
2

Ch : V d trn c th gii bng cch p dng hng ng thc nh sau:
A = x
4
+ 6x
3
+ 7x
2
6x + 1 = x
4
+ (6x
3
2x
2
) + (9x
2
6x + 1 )
= x
4
+ 2x
2
(3x 1) + (3x 1)
2
= (x
2
+ 3x 1)
2

V d 3: A =
2 2 2 2 2
( )( ) ( +zx) x y z x y z xy yz + + + + + +
=
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) 2( +zx) ( ) ( +zx) x y z xy yz x y z xy yz ( + + + + + + + +

t
2 2 2
x y z + + = a, xy + yz + zx = b ta c
A = a(a + 2b) + b
2
= a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
= (a + b)
2
= (
2 2 2
x y z + + + xy + yz + zx)
2

V d 4: B =
4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4
2( ) ( ) 2( )( ) ( ) x y z x y z x y z x y z x y z + + + + + + + + + + +
t x
4
+ y
4
+ z
4
= a, x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= b, x + y + z = c ta c:
B = 2a b
2
2bc
2
+ c
4
= 2a 2b
2
+ b
2
- 2bc
2
+ c
4
= 2(a b
2
) + (b c
2
)
2

Ta li c: a b
2
= - 2(
2 2 2 2 2 2
x y y z z x + + ) v b c
2
= - 2(xy + yz + zx) Do ;
B = - 4(
2 2 2 2 2 2
x y y z z x + + ) + 4 (xy + yz + zx)
2

=
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 ( ) x y y z z x x y y z z x x yz xy z xyz xyz x y z + + + + + + = + +
V d 5:
3 3 3 3
( ) 4( ) 12 a b c a b c abc + + + +
t a + b = m, a b = n th 4ab = m
2
n
2

a
3
+ b
3
= (a + b)[(a b)
2
+ ab] = m(n
2
+
2 2
m - n
4
). Ta c:
C = (m + c)
3
4.
3 2
3 2 2
m + 3mn
4c 3c(m - n )
4
= 3( - c
3
+mc
2
mn
2
+ cn
2
)
= 3[c
2
(m - c) - n
2
(m - c)] = 3(m - c)(c - n)(c + n) = 3(a + b - c)(c + a - b)(c - a + b)
III. PHNG PHP H S BT NH:
V d 1: x
4
- 6x
3
+ 12x
2
- 14x + 3
Nhn xt: cc s 1, 3 khng l nghim ca a thc, a thc khng c nghim nguyn
cng khng c nghim hu t
Nh vy nu a thc phn tch c thnh nhn t th phi c dng
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20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
(x
2
+ ax + b)(x
2
+ cx + d) = x
4
+ (a + c)x
3
+ (ac + b + d)x
2
+ (ad + bc)x + bd
ng nht a thc ny vi a thc cho ta c:
6
12
14
3
a c
ac b d
bd
+ =

+ + =

+ =

Xt bd = 3 vi b, d e Z, b e { } 1, 3 vi b = 3 th d = 1 h iu kin trn tr thnh
6
8 2 8 4
3 14 8 2
3
a c
ac c c
a c ac a
bd
+ =

= = =

+ = = =

Vy: x
4
- 6x
3
+ 12x
2
- 14x + 3 = (x
2
- 2x + 3)(x
2
- 4x + 1)
V d 2: 2x
4
- 3x
3
- 7x
2
+ 6x + 8
Nhn xt: a thc c 1 nghim l x = 2 nn c tha s l x - 2 do ta c:
2x
4
- 3x
3
- 7x
2
+ 6x + 8 = (x - 2)(2x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + c)
= 2x
4
+ (a - 4)x
3
+ (b - 2a)x
2
+ (c - 2b)x - 2c
4 3
1
2 7
5
2 6
4
2 8
a
a
b a
b
c b
c
c
=
=

=

=

=

=

Suy ra: 2x
4
- 3x
3
- 7x
2
+ 6x + 8 = (x - 2)(2x
3
+ x
2
- 5x - 4)
Ta li c 2x
3
+ x
2
- 5x - 4 l a thc c tng h s ca cc hng t bc l v bc chn bng
nahu nn c 1 nhn t l x + 1 nn 2x
3
+ x
2
- 5x - 4 = (x + 1)(2x
2

- x - 4)
Vy: 2x
4
- 3x
3
- 7x
2
+ 6x + 8 = (x - 2)(x + 1)(2x
2

- x - 4)
V d 3:
12x
2
+ 5x - 12y
2
+ 12y - 10xy - 3 = (a x + by + 3)(cx + dy - 1)
= acx
2

+ (3c - a)x + bdy
2
+ (3d - b)y + (bc + ad)xy 3

12
4
10
3
3 5
6
12
2
3 12
ac
a
c
c a
b
bd
d
d b
=
=

+ =

=

=

=

=

=

12x
2
+ 5x - 12y
2
+ 12y - 10xy - 3 = (4 x - 6y + 3)(3x + 2y - 1)
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20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
BI TP:

Phn tch cc a thc sau thnh nhn t:

CHUYN 2 - S L C V CH NH H P,

CHUYN 2: HON V, T HP
A. MC TIU:
* Bc u HS hiu v chnh hp, hon v v t hp
* Vn dng kin thc vo mt ss bi ton c th v thc t
* To hng th v nng cao k nng gii ton cho HS
B. KIN THC:
I. Chnh hp:
1. nh ngha: Cho mt tp hp X gm n phn t. Mi cch sp xp k phn t ca tp hp
X ( 1 s k s n) theo mt th t nht nh gi l mt chnh hp chp k ca n phn t y
S tt c cc chnh hp chp k ca n phn t c k hiu
k
n

A

2. Tnh s chnh chp k ca n phn t

1) x
3
- 7x + 6
2) x
3
- 9x
2
+ 6x + 16
3) x
3
- 6x
2
- x + 30
4) 2x
3
- x
2
+ 5x + 3
5) 27x
3
- 27x
2
+ 18x - 4
6) x
2
+ 2xy + y
2
- x - y - 12
7) (x + 2)(x +3)(x + 4)(x + 5) - 24
8) 4x
4
- 32x
2
+ 1
9) 3(x
4
+ x
2
+ 1) - (x
2
+ x + 1)
2

10) 64x
4
+ y
4

11) a
6
+ a
4
+ a
2
b
2
+ b
4
- b
6

12) x
3
+ 3xy + y
3
- 1
13) 4x
4
+ 4x
3
+ 5x
2
+ 2x + 1
14) x
8
+ x + 1
15) x
8
+ 3x
4
+ 4
16) 3x
2
+ 22xy + 11x + 37y + 7y
2
+10
17) x
4
- 8x + 63
k
n

A
= n(n - 1)(n - 2) [n - (k - 1)]
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6
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG

II. Hon v:
1. nh ngha: Cho mt tp hp X gm n phn t. Mi cch sp xp n phn t ca tp hp
X theo mt th t nht nh gi l mt hon v ca n phn t y
S tt c cc hon v ca n phn t c k hiu P
n

2. Tnh s hon v ca n phn t
( n! : n giai tha)
III. T hp:
1. nh ngha: Cho mt tp hp X gm n phn t. Mi tp con ca X gm k phn t
trong n phn t ca tp hp X ( 0 s k s n) gi l mt t hp chp k ca n phn t y
S tt c cc t hp chp k ca n phn t c k hiu
k
n C

2. Tnh s t hp chp k ca n phn t

C. V d:
1. V d 1:
Cho 5 ch s: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
a) c bao nhiu s t nhin c ba ch s, cc ch s khc nhau, lp bi ba trong cc ch
s trn
b) C bao nhiu s t nhin c 5 ch s, cc ch s khc nhau, lp bi c 5 ch s trn
c)C bao nhiu cch chn ra ba ch s trong 5 ch s trn
Gii:
a) s t nhin c ba ch s, cc ch s khc nhau, lp bi ba trong cc ch s trn l
chnh hp chp 3 ca 5 phn t:
3
5 A
= 5.(5 - 1).(5 - 2) = 5 . 4 . 3 = 60 s
b) s t nhin c 5 ch s, cc ch s khc nhau, lp bi c 5 ch s trn l hon v cua 5
phn t (chnh hp chp 5 ca 5 phn t):
k
n

C
=
n
n

A
: k! =
n(n - 1)(n - 2)...[n - (k - 1)]
k!

P
n
=
n
n

A
= n(n - 1)(n - 2) 2 .1 = n!
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7
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG

5
5

A
= 5.(5 - 1).(5 - 2).(5 - 3).(5 - 4) = 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1 = 120 s
c) cch chn ra ba ch s trong 5 ch s trn l t hp chp 3 ca 5 phn t:

3
5

C
=
5.(5 - 1).(5 - 2) 5 . 4 . 3 60
10
3! 3.(3 - 1)(3 - 2) 6
= = = nhm
2. V d 2:
Cho 5 ch s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Dng 5 ch s ny:
a) Lp c bao nhiu s t nhin c 4 ch s trong khng c ch s no lp li? Tnh
tng cc s lp c
b) lp c bao nhiu s chn c 5 ch s khc nhau?
c) Lp c bao nhiu s t nhin c 5 ch s, trong hai ch s k nhau phi khc
nhau
d) Lp c bao nhiu s t nhin c 4 ch s, cc ch s khc nhau, trong c hai ch
s l, hai ch s chn
Gii
a) s t nhin c 4 ch s, cc ch s khc nhau, lp bi 4 trong cc ch s trn l chnh
hp chp 4 ca 5 phn t:
4
5

A
= 5.(5 - 1).(5 - 2).(5 - 3) = 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 = 120 s
Trong mi hang (Nghn, trm, chc, n v), mi ch s c mt: 120 : 5 = 24 ln
Tng cc ch s mi hang: (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5). 24 = 15 . 24 = 360
Tng cc s c lp: 360 + 3600 + 36000 + 360000 = 399960
b) ch s tn cng c 2 cch chn (l 2 hoc 4)
bn ch s trc l hon v ca ca 4 ch s cn li v c P
4
= 4! = 4 . 3 . 2 = 24 cch
chn
Tt c c 24 . 2 = 48 cch chn
c) Cc s phi lp c dng abcde , trong : a c 5 cch chn, b c 4 cch chn (khc a),
c c 4 cch chn (khc b), d c 4 cch chn (khc c), e c 4 cch chn (khc d)
Tt c c: 5 . 4 . 4 . 4 . 4 = 1280 s
d) Chn 2 trong 2 ch s chn, c 1 cch chn
chn 2 trong 3 ch s l, c 3 cch chn. Cc ch s c th hon v, do c:
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8
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
1 . 3 . 4! =1 . 3 . 4 . 3 . 2 = 72 s
Bi 3: Cho

0
xAy 180 = . Trn Ax ly 6 im khc A, trn Ay ly 5 im khc A. trong 12
im ni trn (k c im A), hai im no cng c ni vi nhau bi mt on thng.
C bao nhiu tam gic m cc nh l 3 trong 12 im y
Gii
Cch 1: Tam gic phi m gm ba loi:
+ Loi 1: cc tam gic c mt nh l A, nh th 2 thuc
Ax (c 6 cch chn), nh th 3 thuc Ay (c 5 cch
chn), gm c: 6 . 5 = 30 tam gic
+ Loi 2: Cc tam gic c 1 nh l 1 trong 5 im B
1
,
B
2
, B
3
, B
4
, B
5
(c 5 cch chn), hai nh kia l 2 trong 6
im A
1
, A
2
, A
3
, A
4
, A
5
, A
6
( C
2
6
6.5 30
15
2! 2
C
= = = cch chn)
Gm 5 . 15 = 75 tam gic
+ Loi 3: Cc tam gic c 1 nh l 1 trong 6 im A
1
, A
2
, A
3
, A
4
, A
5
, A
6
hai nh kia l 2
trong 5 im B
1
, B
2
, B
3
, B
4
, B
5
gm c: 6.
2
5
5.4 20
6. 6. 60
2! 2
C
= = = tam gic
Tt c c: 30 + 75 + 60 = 165 tam gic
Cch 2: s cc tam gic chn 3 trong 12 im y l
3
12
12.11.10 1320 1320
220
3! 3.2 6
C
= = = =
S b ba im thng hang trong 7 im thuc tia Ax l:
3
7
7.6.5 210 210
35
3! 3.2 6
C
= = = =
S b ba im thng hang trong 6 im thuc tia Ay l:
3
6
6.5.4 120 120
20
3! 3.2 6
C
= = = =
S tam gic to thnh: 220 - ( 35 + 20) = 165 tam gic
D. BI TP:
Bi 1: cho 5 s: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. t cc ch s trn c th lp c bao nhiu s t nhin:
a) C 5 ch s gm c 5 ch s y?
b) C 4 ch s, c cc ch s khc nhau?
c) c 3 ch s, cc ch s khc nhau?
x
y
B
5
B
4
B
2
B
1
A
5
A
4
A
3
A
6
B
3
A
2
A
1
A
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9
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
d) c 3 ch s, cc ch s c th ging nhau?
Bi 2: C bao nhiu s t nhin c 4 ch s lp bi cc ch s 1, 2, 3 bit rng s chia
ht cho 9
Bi 3: Trn trang v c 6 ng k thng ng v 5 ng k nm ngang i mt ct
nhau. Hi trn trang v c bao nhiu hnh ch nht

CHUYN 3 - LU THA BC N CA MT NH THC

A. MC TIU:
HS nm c cng thc khai trin lu tha bc n ca mt nh thc: (a + b)
n

Vn dng kin thc vo cc bi tp v xc nh h s ca lu tha bc n ca mt nh
thc, vn dng vo cc bi ton phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
B. KIN THC V BI TP VN DNG:
I. Nh thc Niutn:

Trong :
k
n
n(n - 1)(n - 2)...[n - (k - 1)]
C
1.2.3...k
=
II. Cch xc nh h s ca khai trin Niutn:
1. Cch 1: Dng cng thc
k
n
n(n - 1)(n - 2)...[n - (k - 1)]
C
k !
=
Chng hn h s ca hng t a
4
b
3
trong khai trin ca (a + b)
7
l
4
7
7.6.5.4 7.6.5.4
C 35
4! 4.3.2.1
= = =
Ch : a)
k
n
n !
C
n!(n - k) !
= vi quy c 0! = 1
4
7
7! 7.6.5.4.3.2.1
C 35
4!.3! 4.3.2.1.3.2.1
= = =
b) Ta c:
k
n
C =
k - 1
n
C nn
4 3
7 7
7.6.5.
C C 35
3!
= = =
2. Cch 2: Dng tam gic Patxcan
nh 1
(a + b)
n
= a
n
+
1
n
C a
n - 1
b +
2
n
C a
n - 2
b
2
+ +
n 1
n
C

ab
n - 1
+ b
n

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10
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Dng 1(n =
1)
1 1
Dng 2(n =
1)
1 2 1
Dng 3(n =
3)
1 3 3 1
Dng 4(n =
4)
1 4 6 4 1
Dng 5(n =
5)
1 5 10 1
0
5 1
Dng 6(n =
6)
1 6 15 20 15 6 1
Trong tam gic ny, hai cnh bn gm cc s 1; dng k + 1 c thnh lp t dng k
(k >1), chng hn dng 2 (n = 2) ta c 2 = 1 + 1, dng 3 (n = 3): 3 = 2 + 1, 3 = 1 + 2
dng 4 (n = 4): 4 = 1 + 3, 6 = 3 + 3, 4 = 3 + 1,
Vi n = 4 th: (a + b)
4
= a
4
+ 4a
3
b + 6a
2
b
2
+ 4ab
3
+ b
4

Vi n = 5 th: (a + b)
5
= a
5
+ 5a
4
b + 10a
3
b
2
+ 10a
2
b
3
+ 5ab
4
+ b
5

Vi n = 6 th: (a + b)
6
= a
6
+ 6a
5
b + 15a
4
b
2
+ 20a
3
b
3
+ 15a
2
b
4
+ 6ab
5
+ b
6

3. Cch 3:
Tm h s ca hng t ng sau theo cc h s ca hng t ng trc:
a) H s ca hng t th nht bng 1
b) Mun c h s ca ca hng t th k + 1, ta ly h s ca hng t th k nhn vi s
m ca bin trong hng t th k ri chia cho k
Chng hn: (a + b)
4

= a
4
+
1.4
1
a
3
b +
4.3
2
a
2
b
2
+
4.3.2
2.3
ab
3
+
4.3.2.
2.3.4
b
5

Ch rng: cc h s ca khai trin Niutn c tnh i xng qua hng t ng gia, ngha
l cc hng t cch u hai hng t u v cui c h s bng nhau
(a + b)
n
= a
n
+ na
n -1
b +
n(n - 1)
1.2
a
n - 2
b
2
+ +
n(n - 1)
1.2
a
2
b
n - 2
+ na
n - 1
b
n - 1
+ b
n

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11
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
III. V d:
1. V d 1: phn tch a thc sau thnh nhn t
a) A = (x + y)
5
- x
5
- y
5

Cch 1: khai trin (x + y)
5
ri rt gn A
A = (x + y)
5
- x
5
- y
5

= ( x
5
+ 5x
4
y + 10x
3
y
2
+ 10x
2
y
3
+ 5xy
4
+ y
5
) - x
5
- y
5

= 5x
4
y + 10x
3
y
2
+ 10x
2
y
3
+ 5xy
4
= 5xy(x
3
+ 2x
2
y + 2xy
2
+ y
3
)
= 5xy [(x + y)(x
2
- xy + y
2
) + 2xy(x + y)] = 5xy(x + y)(x
2
+ xy + y
2
)
Cch 2: A = (x + y)
5
- (x
5
+ y
5
)
x
5
+ y
5
chia ht cho x + y nn chia x
5
+ y
5
cho x + y ta c:
x
5
+ y
5
= (x + y)(x
4
- x
3
y + x
2
y
2
- xy
3
+ y
4
) nn A c nhn t chung l (x + y), t (x + y)
lm nhn t chung, ta tm c nhn t cn li
b) B = (x + y)
7
- x
7
- y
7
= (x
7
+7x
6
y +21x
5
y
2
+ 35x
4
y
3
+35x
3
y
4
+21x
2
y
5
7xy
6
+ y
7
) - x
7
-
y
7

= 7x
6
y + 21x
5
y
2
+ 35x
4
y
3
+ 35x
3
y
4
+ 21x
2
y
5
+ 7xy
6

= 7xy[(x
5
+ y
5
) + 3(x
4
y

+ xy
4
) + 5(x
3
y
2
+ x
2
y
3
)]
= 7xy {[(x + y)(x
4
- x
3
y + x
2
y
2
- xy
3
+ y
4
) ] + 3xy(x + y)(x
2
- xy + y
2
) + 5x
2
y
2
(x + y)}
= 7xy(x + y)[x
4
- x
3
y + x
2
y
2
- xy
3
+ y
4
+ 3xy(x
2
+ xy + y
2
) + 5x
2
y
2
]
= 7xy(x + y)[x
4
- x
3
y + x
2
y
2
- xy
3
+ y
4
+ 3x
3
y - 3x
2
y
2
+ 3xy
3
+ 5x
2
y
2
]
= 7xy(x + y)[(x
4
+ 2x
2
y
2
+ y
4
) + 2xy (x
2
+ y
2
) + x
2
y
2
] = 7xy(x + y)(x
2
+ xy + y
2
)
2

V d 2:Tm tng h s cc a thc c c sau khi khai trin
a) (4x - 3)
4

Cch 1: Theo cnh thc Niu tn ta c:
(4x - 3)
4
= 4.(4x)
3
.3 + 6.(4x)
2
.3
2
- 4. 4x. 3
3
+ 3
4
= 256x
4
- 768x
3
+ 864x
2
- 432x + 81
Tng cc h s: 256 - 768 + 864 - 432 + 81 = 1
b) Cch 2: Xt ng thc (4x - 3)
4
= c
0
x
4
+ c
1
x
3
+ c
2
x
2
+ c
3
x + c
4

Tng cc h s: c
0
+ c
1
+ c
2
+ c
3
+ c
4

Thay x = 1 vo ng thc trn ta c: (4.1 - 3)
4
= c
0
+ c
1
+ c
2
+ c
3
+ c
4

Vy: c
0
+ c
1
+ c
2
+ c
3
+ c
4
= 1
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12
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
* Ghi ch: Tng cc h s khai trin ca mt nh thc, mt a thc bng gi tr ca a
thc ti x = 1
C. BI TP:
Bi 1: Phn tch thnh nhn t
a) (a + b)
3
- a
3
- b
3
b) (x + y)
4
+ x
4
+ y
4

Bi 2: Tm tng cc h s c c sau khi khai trin a thc
a) (5x - 2)
5
b) (x
2
+ x - 2)
2010
+ (x
2
- x + 1)
2011

CHUN 4 - CC BI TON V S CHIA HT CA S NGUYN
A. MC TIU:
* Cng c, khc su kin thc v cc bi ton chia ht gia cc s, cc a thc
* HS tip tc thc hnh thnh tho v cc bi ton chng minh chia ht, khng chia ht,
snguyn t, s chnh phng
* Vn dng thnh tho k nng chng minh v chia ht, khng chia ht vo cc bi
ton c th
B.KIN THC V CC BI TON:
I. Dng 1: Chng minh quan h chia ht
1. Kin thc:
* chng minh A(n) chia ht cho mt s m ta phn tch A(n) thnh nhn t c mt nhn
t lm hoc bi ca m, nu m l hp s th ta li phn tch n thnh nhn t c cc oi
mt nguyn t cng nhau, ri chng minh A(n) chia ht cho cc s
* Ch :
+ Vi k s nguyn lin tip bao gi cng tn ti mt bi ca k
+ Khi chng minh A(n) chia ht cho m ta xt mi trng hp v s d khi chia A(n) cho
m
+ Vi mi s nguyn a, b v s t nhin n th:

+) a
n
- b
n
chia h t cho a - b (a = - b)
+) a
2n + 1
+ b
2n + 1
chia h t cho a + b
+ (a + b)
n
= B(a) + b
n
+) (a + 1)
n
l BS(a )+ 1
+)(a - 1)
2n
l B(a) + 1
+) (a - 1)
2n + 1
l B(a) - 1
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13
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG

2. Bi tp:

2. Cc bi ton
Bi 1: chng minh rng
a) 2
51
- 1 chia ht cho 7

b) 2
70
+ 3
70
chia ht cho 13

c) 17
19
+ 19
17
chi ht cho 18 d) 36
63
- 1 chia ht cho 7 nhng khng chia ht cho
37
e) 2
4n
-1 chia ht cho 15 vi ne N
Gii
a) 2
51
- 1 = (2
3
)
17
- 1 2
3
- 1 = 7
b) 2
70
+ 3
70
(2
2
)
35
+ (3
2
)
35
= 4
35
+ 9
35
4 + 9 = 13
c) 17
19
+ 19
17
= (17
19
+ 1) + (19
17
- 1)
17
19
+ 1 17 + 1 = 18 v 19
17
- 1 19 - 1 = 18 nn (17
19
+ 1) + (19
17
- 1)
hay 17
19
+ 19
17
18
d) 36
63
- 1 36 - 1 = 35 7
36
63
- 1 = (36
63
+ 1) - 2 chi cho 37 d - 2
e) 2
4n
- 1 = (2
4
)
n
- 1 2
4
- 1 = 15
Bi 2: chng minh rng
a) n
5
- n chia ht cho 30 vi n e N ;
b) n
4
-10n
2
+ 9 chia ht cho 384 vi mi n l ne Z
c) 10
n

+18n -28 chia ht cho 27 vi ne N ;
Gii:
a) n
5
- n = n(n
4
- 1) = n(n - 1)(n + 1)(n
2
+ 1) = (n - 1).n.(n + 1)(n
2
+ 1) chia ht cho 6 v
(n - 1).n.(n+1) l tch ca ba s t nhin lin tip nn chia ht cho 2 v 3 (*)
Mt khc n
5
- n = n(n
2
- 1)(n
2
+ 1) = n(n
2
- 1).(n
2
- 4 + 5) = n(n
2
- 1).(n
2
- 4 ) + 5n(n
2
- 1)
= (n - 2)(n - 1)n(n + 1)(n + 2) + 5n(n
2
- 1)
V (n - 2)(n - 1)n(n + 1)(n + 2) l tch ca 5 s t nhin lin tip nn chia ht cho 5
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14
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
5n(n
2
- 1) chia ht cho 5
Suy ra (n - 2)(n - 1)n(n + 1)(n + 2) + 5n(n
2
- 1) chia ht cho 5 (**)
T (*) v (**) suy ra pcm
b) t A = n
4
-10n
2
+ 9 = (n
4

-n
2
) - (9n
2
- 9) = (n
2
- 1)(n
2
- 9) = (n - 3)(n - 1)(n + 1)(n + 3)
V n l nn t n = 2k + 1 (k e Z) th
A = (2k - 2).2k.(2k + 2)(2k + 4) = 16(k - 1).k.(k + 1).(k + 2) A chia ht cho 16 (1)
V (k - 1).k.(k + 1).(k + 2) l tch ca 4 s nguyn lin tip nn A c cha bi ca 2, 3, 4
nn A l bi ca 24 hay A chia ht cho 24 (2)
T (1) v (2) suy ra A chia ht cho 16. 24 = 384
c) 10
n

+18n -28 = ( 10
n
- 9n - 1) + (27n - 27)
+ Ta c: 27n - 27 27 (1)
+ 10
n
- 9n - 1 = [(

n
9...9 + 1) - 9n - 1] =

n
9...9 - 9n = 9(

n
1...1 - n) 27 (2)
v 9 9 v

n
1...1 - n 3 do

n
1...1 - n l mt s c tng cc ch s chia ht cho 3
T (1) v (2) suy ra pcm
3. Bi 3: Chng minh rng vi mi s nguyn a th
a) a
3
- a chia ht cho 3
b) a
7
- a chia ht cho 7
Gii
a) a
3
- a = a(a
2
- 1) = (a - 1) a (a + 1) l tch ca ba s nguyn lin tip nn tn ti mt s
l bi ca 3 nn (a - 1) a (a + 1) chia ht cho 3
b) ) a
7
- a = a(a
6
- 1) = a(a
2
- 1)(a
2
+ a + 1)(a
2
- a + 1)
Nu a = 7k (k e Z) th a chia ht cho 7
Nu a = 7k + 1 (k eZ) th a
2
- 1 = 49k
2
+ 14k chia ht cho 7
Nu a = 7k + 2 (k eZ) th a
2
+ a + 1 = 49k
2
+ 35k + 7 chia ht cho 7
Nu a = 7k + 3 (k eZ) th a
2
- a + 1 = 49k
2
+ 35k + 7 chia ht cho 7
Trong trng hp no cng c mt tha s chia ht cho 7
Vy: a
7
- a chia ht cho 7
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15
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Bi 4: Chng minh rng A = 1
3
+ 2
3
+ 3
3
+ ...+ 100
3
chia ht cho B = 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 100
Gii
Ta c: B = (1 + 100) + (2 + 99) + ...+ (50 + 51) = 101. 50
chng minh A chia ht cho B ta chng minh A chia ht cho 50 v 101
Ta c: A = (1
3
+ 100
3
) + (2
3
+ 99
3
) + ... +(50
3
+ 51
3
)
= (1 + 100)(1
2
+ 100 + 100
2
) + (2 + 99)(2
2
+ 2. 99 + 99
2
) + ... + (50 + 51)(50
2
+ 50. 51 +
51
2
) = 101(1
2
+ 100 + 100
2
+ 2
2
+ 2. 99 + 99
2
+ ... + 50
2
+ 50. 51 + 51
2
) chia ht cho 101
(1)
Li c: A = (1
3
+ 99
3
) + (2
3
+ 98
3
) + ... + (50
3
+ 100
3
)
Mi s hng trong ngoc u chia ht cho 50 nn A chia ht cho 50 (2)
T (1) v (2) suy ra A chia ht cho 101 v 50 nn A chi ht cho B
Bi tp v nh
Chng minh rng:
a) a
5
a chia ht cho 5
b) n
3
+ 6n
2
+ 8n chia ht cho 48 vi mi n chn
c) Cho a l s nguyn t ln hn 3. Cmr a
2
1 chia ht cho 24
d) Nu a + b + c chia ht cho 6 th a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
chia ht cho 6
e) 2009
2010
khng chia ht cho 2010
f) n
2
+ 7n + 22 khng chia ht cho 9
Dng 2: Tm s d ca mt php chia
Bi 1:
Tm s d khi chia 2
100

a)cho 9, b) cho 25, c) cho 125
Gii
a) Lu tha ca 2 st vi bi ca 9 l 2
3
= 8 = 9 - 1
Ta c : 2
100
= 2. (2
3
)
33
= 2.(9 - 1)
33
= 2.[B(9) - 1] = B(9) - 2 = B(9) + 7
Vy: 2
100
chia cho 9 th d 7
b) Tng t ta c: 2
100
= (2
10
)
10
= 1024
10
= [B(25) - 1]
10
= B(25) + 1
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16
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Vy: 2
100
chia chop 25 th d 1
c)S dng cng thc Niutn:
2
100
= (5 - 1)
50
= (5
50

- 5. 5
49
+ +
50.49
2
. 5
2
- 50 . 5 ) + 1
Khng k phn h s ca khai trin Niutn th 48 s hng u cha tha s 5 vi s m
ln hn hoc bng 3 nn u chia ht cho 5
3
= 125, hai s hng tip theo:
50.49
2
. 5
2
- 50.5
cng chia ht cho 125 , s hng cui cng l 1
Vy: 2
100
= B(125) + 1 nn chia cho 125 th d 1
Bi 2:
Vit s 1995
1995
thnh tng ca cc s t nhin . Tng cc lp phng chia cho 6 th d
bao nhiu?
Gii
t 1995
1995
= a = a
1
+ a
2
+ + a
n.

Gi
3 3 3 3
1 2 3 n
S a a + a + ...+ a = + =
3 3 3 3
1 2 3 n
a a + a + ...+ a + + a - a
= (a
1
3
- a
1
) + (a
2
3
- a
2
) + + (a
n
3
- a
n
) + a
Mi du ngoc u chia ht cho 6 v mi du ngoc l tch ca ba s t nhin lin tip. Ch
cn tm s d khi chia a cho 6
1995 l s l chia ht cho 3, nn a cng l s l chia ht cho 3, do chia cho 6 d 3
Bi 3: Tm ba ch s tn cng ca 2
100
vit trong h thp phn
gii
Tm 3 ch s tn cng l tm s d ca php chia 2
100
cho 1000
Trc ht ta tm s d ca php chia 2
100
cho 125
Vn dng bi 1 ta c 2
100
= B(125) + 1 m 2
100
l s chn nn 3 ch s tn cng ca n ch
c th l 126, 376, 626 hoc 876
Hin nhin 2
100
chia ht cho 8 v 2
100
= 16
25
chi ht cho 8 nn ba ch s tn cng ca n
chia ht cho 8
trong cc s 126, 376, 626 hoc 876 ch c 376 chia ht cho 8
Vy: 2
100
vit trong h thp phn c ba ch s tn cng l 376
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17
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Tng qut: Nu n l s chn khng chia ht cho 5 th 3 ch s tn cng ca n l 376
Bi 4: Tm s d trong php chia cc s sau cho 7
a) 22
22
+ 55
55
b)3
1993

c) 1992
1993
+ 1994
1995
d)
1930
2
3
Gii
a) ta c: 22
22
+ 55
55
= (21 + 1)
22
+ (56 1)
55
= (BS 7 +1)
22
+ (BS 7 1)
55

= BS 7 + 1 + BS 7 - 1 = BS 7 nn 22
22
+ 55
55
chia 7 d 0
b) Lu tha ca 3 st vi bi ca 7 l 3
3
= BS 7 1
Ta thy 1993 = BS 6 + 1 = 6k + 1, do :
3
1993

= 3
6k + 1
= 3.(3
3
)
2k
= 3(BS 7 1)
2k
= 3(BS 7 + 1) = BS 7 + 3
c) Ta thy 1995 chia ht cho 7, do :
1992
1993
+ 1994
1995
= (BS 7 3)
1993
+ (BS 7 1)
1995
= BS 7 3
1993
+ BS 7 1
Theo cu b ta c 3
1993
= BS 7 + 3 nn
1992
1993
+ 1994
1995
= BS 7 (BS 7 + 3) 1 = BS 7 4 nn chia cho 7 th d 3
d)
1930
2
3 = 3
2860
= 3
3k + 1
= 3.3
3k
= 3(BS 7 1) = BS 7 3 nn chia cho 7 th d 4
Bi tp v nh
Tm s d khi:
a) 2
1994
cho 7
b) 3
1998
+ 5
1998
cho 13
c) A = 1
3
+ 2
3
+ 3
3
+ ...+ 99
3
chia cho B = 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 99
Dng 3: Tm iu kin xy ra quan h chia ht
Bi 1: Tm n e Z gi tr ca biu thc A = n
3
+ 2n
2
- 3n + 2 chia ht cho gi tr ca biu
thc B = n
2
- n
Gii
Chia A cho B ta c: n
3
+ 2n
2
- 3n + 2 = (n + 3)(n
2
- n) + 2
A chia ht cho B th 2 phi chia ht cho n
2
- n = n(n - 1) do 2 chia ht cho n, ta c:
n 1 - 1 2 - 2
n - 1 0 - 2 1 - 3
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18
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
n(n - 1) 0 2 2 6
loi loi

Vy: gi tr ca biu thc A = n
3
+ 2n
2
- 3n + 2 chia ht cho gi tr ca biu thc
B = n
2
- n th n { } 1; 2 e
Bi 2:
a) Tm n e N n
5
+ 1 chia ht cho n
3
+ 1
b) Gii bi ton trn nu n e Z
Gii
Ta c: n
5
+ 1 n
3
+ 1 n
2
(n
3
+ 1) - (n
2
- 1) n
3
+ 1 (n + 1)(n - 1) n
3
+ 1
(n + 1)(n - 1) (n + 1)(n
2
- n + 1) n - 1 n
2
- n + 1 (V n + 1 = 0)
a) Nu n = 1 th 0 1
Nu n > 1 th n - 1 < n(n - 1) + 1 < n
2
- n + 1 nn khng th xy ra n - 1 n
2
- n + 1
Vy gi tr ca n tm c l n = 1
b) n - 1 n
2
- n + 1 n(n - 1) n
2
- n + 1 (n
2
- n + 1 ) - 1 n
2
- n + 1
1 n
2
- n + 1. C hai trng hp xy ra:
+ n
2
- n + 1 = 1 n(n - 1) = 0
n 0
n 1
=

(Tm bi)
+ n
2
- n + 1 = -1 n
2
- n + 2 = 0 (V nghim)
Bi 3: Tm s nguyn n sao cho:
a) n
2
+ 2n - 4 11 b) 2n
3
+ n
2
+ 7n + 1 2n - 1
c) n
4
- 2n
3
+ 2n
2
- 2n + 1 n
4
- 1 d) n
3
- n
2
+ 2n + 7 n
2
+ 1
Gii
a) Tch n
2
+ 2n - 4 thnh tng hai hng t trong c mt hng t l B(11)
n
2
+ 2n - 4 11 (n
2
- 2n - 15) + 11 11 (n - 3)(n + 5) + 11 11
(n - 3)(n + 5) 11
n 3 11 n = B(11) + 3
n + 5 11 n = B(11) - 5

b) 2n
3
+ n
2
+ 7n + 1 = (n
2
+ n + 4) (2n - 1) + 5
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19
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
2n
3
+ n
2
+ 7n + 1 2n - 1 th 5 2n - 1 hay 2n - 1 l (5)
2n 1 = - 5 n = - 2
2n 1 = -1 n = 0
2n 1 = 1 n = 1
2n 1 = 5 n = 3

Vy: n { } 2; 0; 1; 3 e th 2n
3
+ n
2
+ 7n + 1 2n - 1
c) n
4
- 2n
3
+ 2n
2
- 2n + 1 n
4
- 1
t A = n
4
- 2n
3
+ 2n
2
- 2n + 1 = (n
4
- n
3
) - (n
3
- n
2
) + (n
2
- n) - (n - 1)
= n
3
(n - 1) - n
2
(n - 1) + n(n - 1) - (n - 1) = (n - 1) (n
3
- n
2
+ n - 1) = (n - 1)
2
(n
2
+ 1)
B = n
4
- 1 = (n - 1)(n + 1)(n
2
+ 1)
A chia ht cho b nn n = 1 A chia ht cho B n - 1 n + 1 (n + 1) - 2 n + 1
2 n + 1

n = -3
n 1 = - 2
n = - 2
n 1 = - 1
n = 0
n 1 = 1
n 1 = 2
n = 1 (khong Tm)
+

+

Vy: n e { } 3; 2; 0 th n
4
- 2n
3
+ 2n
2
- 2n + 1 n
4
- 1
d) Chia n
3
- n
2
+ 2n + 7 cho n
2
+ 1 c thng l n - 1, d n + 8
n
3
- n
2
+ 2n + 7 n
2
+ 1 th n + 8 n
2
+ 1 (n + 8)(n - 8) n
2
+ 1 65 n
2
+ 1
Ln lt cho n
2
+ 1 bng 1; 5; 13; 65 ta c n bng 0; 2; 8
Th li ta c n = 0; n = 2; n = 8 (T/m)
Vy: n
3
- n
2
+ 2n + 7 n
2
+ 1 khi n = 0, n = 8
Bi tp v nh:
Tm s nguyn n :
a) n
3
2 chia ht cho n 2
b) n
3
3n
2
3n 1 chia ht cho n
2
+ n + 1
c)5
n
2
n
chia ht cho 63
Dng 4: Tn ti hay khng tn ti s chia ht
Bi 1: Tm n e N sao cho 2
n
1 chia ht cho 7
Gii
Nu n = 3k ( k e N) th 2
n
1 = 2
3k
1 = 8
k

- 1 chia ht cho 7
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20
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Nu n = 3k + 1 ( k e N) th 2
n
1 = 2
3k + 1
1 = 2(2
3k
1) + 1 = BS 7 + 1
Nu n = 3k + 2 ( k e N) th 2
n
1 = 2
3k + 2
1 = 4(2
3k
1) + 3 = BS 7 + 3
V y: 2
n
1 chia ht cho 7 khi n = BS 3
Bi 2: Tm n e N :
a) 3
n
1 chia ht cho 8
b) A = 3
2n + 3
+ 2
4n + 1
chia ht cho 25
c) 5
n
2
n
chia ht cho 9
Gii
a) Khi n = 2k (ke N) th 3
n
1 = 3
2k
1 = 9
k
1 chia ht cho 9 1 = 8
Khi n = 2k + 1 (ke N) th 3
n
1 = 3
2k + 1
1 = 3. (9
k
1 ) + 2 = BS 8 + 2
Vy : 3
n
1 chia ht cho 8 khi n = 2k (ke N)
b) A = 3
2n + 3
+ 2
4n + 1
= 27 . 3
2n
+ 2.2
4n
= (25 + 2) 3
2n
+ 2.2
4n
= 25. 3
2n
+ 2.3
2n
+ 2.2
4n

= BS 25 + 2(9
n
+ 16
n
)
Nu n = 2k +1(ke N) th 9
n
+ 16
n
= 9
2k + 1
+ 16
2k + 1
chia ht cho 9 + 16 = 25
Nu n = 2k (ke N) th 9
n
c ch s tn cng bng 1 , cn 16
n
c ch s tn cng bng 6
suy ra 2((9
n
+ 16
n
) c ch s tn cng bng 4 nn A khng chia ht cho 5 nn khng chia
ht cho 25
c) Nu n = 3k (ke N) th 5
n
2
n
= 5
3k
2
3k
chia ht cho 5
3
2
3
= 117 nn chia ht cho 9
Nu n = 3k + 1 th 5
n
2
n
= 5.5
3k
2.2
3k
= 5(5
3k
2
3k
) + 3. 2
3k
= BS 9 + 3. 8
k

= BS 9 + 3(BS 9 1)
k
= BS 9 + BS 9 + 3
Tng t: nu n = 3k + 2 th 5
n
2
n
khng chia ht cho 9

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21
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
CHUYEN E 5: SO CHNH PHNG

I. So chnh phng:
A. Mot so kien thc:
So chnh phng: so bang bnh phng cua mot so khac
V du:
4 = 2
2
; 9 = 3
2

A = 4n
2
+ 4n + 1 = (2n + 1)
2
= B
2
+ S chnh phng khng tn cng bi cc ch s: 2, 3, 7, 8
+ S chnh phng chia ht cho 2 th chia ht cho 4, chia ht cho 3 th chia ht cho
9, chia
ht cho 5 th chia ht cho 25, chia ht cho 2
3
th chia ht cho 2
4
,
+ S

n
11...1 = a th

n
99...9 = 9a 9a + 1 =

n
99...9 + 1 = 10
n

B. Mot so bai toan:
1. Bai 1:
Chng minh rang: Mot so chnh phng chia cho 3, cho 4 ch co the d 0
hoac 1
Giai
Goi A = n
2
(n eN)
a) xet n = 3k (k eN) A = 9k
2
nen chia het cho 3
n = 3k 1 (k eN) A = 9k
2
6k + 1, chia cho 3 d 1
Vay: so chnh phng chia cho 3 d 0 hoac 1
b) n = 2k (k eN) th A = 4k
2
chia het cho 4
n = 2k +1 (k eN) th A = 4k
2
+ 4k + 1 chia cho 4 d 1
Vay: so chnh phng chia cho 4 d 0 hoac 1
Chu y: + So chnh phng chan th chia het cho 4
+ So chnh phng le th chia cho 4 th d 1( Chia 8 cung d 1)
2. Bai 2: So nao trong cac so sau la so chnh phng
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22
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
a) M = 1992
2
+ 1993
2
+ 1994
2
b) N = 1992
2
+ 1993
2
+ 1994
2
+ 1995
2

c) P = 1 + 9
100
+ 94
100
+ 1994
100
d) Q = 1
2
+ 2
2
+ ...+ 100
2

e) R = 1
3
+ 2
3
+ ... + 100
3

Giai
a) cac so 1993
2
, 1994
2
chia cho 3 d 1, con 1992
2
chia het cho 3 M chia
cho 3 d 2 do o M khong la so chnh phng
b) N = 1992
2
+ 1993
2
+ 1994
2
+ 1995
2
gom tong hai so chnh phng chan
chia het cho 4, va hai so chnh phng le nen chia 4 d 2 suy ra N khong
la so chnh phng
c) P = 1 + 9
100
+ 94
100
+ 1994
100
chia 4 d 2 nen khong la so chnh phng
d) Q = 1
2
+ 2
2
+ ...+ 100
2

So Q gom 50 so chnh phng chan chia het cho 4, 50 so chnh phng
le, moi so chia 4 d 1 nen tong 50 so le o chia 4 th d 2 do o Q chia
4 th d 2 nen Q khong la so chnh phng
e) R = 1
3
+ 2
3
+ ... + 100
3

Goi A
k
= 1 + 2 +... + k =
k(k + 1)
2
, A
k 1
= 1 + 2 +... + k =
k(k - 1)
2

Ta co: A
k
2
A
k -1
2
= k
3
khi o:
1
3
= A
1
2

2
3
= A
2
2
A
1
2

.....................
n
3
= A
n
2
= A
n - 1
2

Cong ve theo ve cac ang thc tren ta co:
1
3
+ 2
3
+ ... +n
3
= A
n
2
= ( )
2 2
2 n(n + 1) 100(100 1)
50.101
2 2
+ ( (
= =
( (

la so chnh phng
3. Bai 3:
CMR: Vi mi n e N th cac so sau la s chnh phng.
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23
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
a) A = (10
n
+10
n-1
+...+.10 +1)(10
n+1
+ 5) + 1
A = (
n
11.....1

)(10
n+1
+ 5) + 1
1
1
10 1
.(10 5) 1
10 1
n
n
+
+

= + +

t a = 10
n+1
th A =
a - 1
9
(a + 5) + 1 =
2
2 2
a + 4a - 5 + 9 a + 4a + 4 a + 2
9 9 3
| |
= =
|
\ .

b) B =
n
111.....1

n - 1
555.....5

6 ( c n s 1 v n-1 s 5)
B =
n
111.....1

n
555.....5

+ 1 =
n
111.....1

. 10
n
+
n
555.....5

+ 1 =
n
111.....1

. 10
n
+ 5
n
111.....1
| |
|
\ .

+ 1
at
n
11.....1

= a th 10
n
= 9a + 1 nen
B = a(9a + 1) + 5a + 1 = 9a
2
+ 6a + 1 = (3a + 1)
2

=

2
n - 1
33....34
c) C =
2n
11.....1

.+ 44.....4
n

+ 1
at a =
n
11.....1

Th C =
n
11.....1

n
11.....1

+ 4.
n
11.....1

+ 1 = a. 10
n
+ a + 4 a + 1
= a(9a + 1) + 5a + 1 = 9a
2
+ 6a + 1 = (3a + 1)
2

d) D =
n
99....9

8
n
00.....0

1 . at
n
99....9

= a 10
n
= a + 1
D =
n
99....9

. 10
n + 2
+ 8. 10
n + 1
+ 1 = a . 100 . 10
n
+ 80. 10
n
+ 1
= 100a(a + 1) + 80(a + 1) + 1 = 100a
2
+ 180a + 81 = (10a + 9)
2
= (
n + 1
99....9

)
2
e) E =
n
11.....1

n + 1
22.....2

5 =
n
11.....1

n + 1
22.....2

00 + 25 =
n
11.....1

.10
n + 2
+ 2.
n
11.....1

00 + 25
= [a(9a + 1) + 2a]100 + 25 = 900a
2
+ 300a + 25 = (30a + 5)
2
= (
n
33.....3

5)
2

f) F =
100
44.....4

= 4.
100
11.....1

la so chnh phng th
100
11.....1

la so chnh phng
So
100
11.....1

## la so le nen no la so chnh phng th chia cho 4 phai d 1

That vay: (2n + 1)
2
= 4n
2
+ 4n + 1 chia 4 d 1
100
11.....1

## co hai ch so tan cung la 11 nen chia cho 4 th d 3

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24
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
vay
100
11.....1

## khong la so chnh phng nen F =

100
44.....4

khong la so chnh
phng
Bai 4:
a) Cho cc s A =
2m
11........11

; B =
m + 1
11.......11

; C =
m
66.....66

CMR: A + B + C + 8 l s chnh phng .
Ta co: A
2
10 1
9
m

; B =
1
10 1
9
m+

; C =
10 1
6.
9
m

Nen:
A + B + C + 8 =
2
10 1
9
m

+
1
10 1
9
m+

+
10 1
6.
9
m

+ 8 =
2 1
10 1 10 1 6(10 1) 72
9
m m m +
+ + +

=
2
10 1 10.10 1 6.10 6 72
9
m m m
+ + +
=
( )
2
2
10 16.10 64
10 8
9 3
m m
m
+ +
| | +
=
|
\ .

b) CMR: Vi mi x,y e Z th A = (x+y)(x+2y)(x+3y)(x+4y) + y
4
la s chnh phng.
A = (x
2
+ 5xy + 4y
2
) (x
2
+ 5xy + 6y
2
) + y
4

= (x
2
+ 5xy + 4y
2
) [(x
2
+ 5xy + 4y
2
) + 2y
2
) + y
4

= (x
2
+ 5xy + 4y
2
)
2
+ 2(x
2
+ 5xy + 4y
2
).y
2
+ y
4
= [(x
2
+ 5xy + 4y
2
) + y
2
)
2

= (x
2
+ 5xy + 5y
2
)
2

Bai 5: Tm so nguyen dng n e cac bieu thc sau la so chnh
phng
a) n
2
n + 2 b) n
5
n + 2
Giai
a) Vi n = 1 th n
2
n + 2 = 2 khong la so chnh phng
Vi n = 2 th n
2
n + 2 = 4 la so chnh phng
Vi n > 2 th n
2
n + 2 khong la so chnh phng V
(n 1)
2
= n
2
(2n 1) < n
2
(n - 2) < n
2

b) Ta co n
5
n chia het cho 5 V
n
5
n = (n
2
1).n.(n
2
+ 1)
Vi n = 5k th n chia het cho 5
Vi n = 5k 1 th n
2
1 chia het cho 5
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25
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Vi n = 5k 2 th n
2
+ 1 chia het cho 5
Nen n
5
n + 2 chia cho 5 th d 2 nen n
5
n + 2 co ch so tan cung la
2 hoac 7 nen
n
5
n + 2 khong la so chnh phng
Vay : Khong co gia tr nao cua n thoa man bai toan
Bai 6 :
a)Chng minh rang : Moi so le eu viet c di dang hieu cua hai
so chnh phng
b) Mot so chnh phng co ch so tan cung bang 9 th ch so hang
chuc la ch so chan
Giai
Moi so le eu co dang a = 4k + 1 hoac a = 4k + 3
Vi a = 4k + 1 th a = 4k
2
+ 4k + 1 4k
2
= (2k + 1)
2
(2k)
2

Vi a = 4k + 3 th a = (4k
2
+ 8k + 4) (4k
2
+ 4k + 1) = (2k + 2)
2
(2k + 1)
2

b)A la so chnh phng co ch so tan cung bang 9 nen
A = (10k 3)
2
=100k
2
60k + 9 = 10.(10k
2
6) + 9
So chuc cua A la 10k
2
6 la so chan (pcm)
Bai 7:
Mot so chnh phng co ch so hang chuc la ch so le. Tm ch
so hang n v
Giai
Goi n
2
= (10a + b)
2
= 10.(10a
2
+ 2ab) + b
2
nen ch so hang n v can tm
la ch so tan cung cua b
2

Theo e bai , ch so hang chuc cua n
2
la ch so le nen ch so
hang chuc cua b
2
phai le
Xet cac gia tr cua b t 0 en 9 th ch co b
2
= 16, b
2
= 36 co ch so
hang chuc la ch so le, chung eu tan cung bang 6
Vay : n
2
co ch so hang n v la 6
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26
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Bai tap ve nha:
Bai 1: Cac so sau ay, so nao la so chnh phng
a) A =
50
22.....2

4 b) B = 11115556 c) C =
n
99....9

n
00....0

25
d) D =
n
44.....4

n - 1
88....89 e) M =
2n
11.....1

n
22....2

f) N = 1
2
+ 2
2
+ ...... + 56
2

Bai 2: Tm so t nhien n e cac bieu thc sau la so chnh phng
a) n
3
n + 2
b) n
4
n + 2
Bai 3: Chng minh rang
a)Tong cua hai so chnh phng le khong la so chnh phng
b) Mot so chnh phng co ch so tan cung bang 6 th ch so hang
chuc la ch so le
Bai 4: Mot so chnh phng co ch so hang chuc bang 5. Tm ch so
hang n v

CHUYEN E 6 - CAC BAI TOAN VE NH L TA-LET
A.Kien thc:
1. nh l Ta-let:
* nh l Ta-lt:
ABC
MN // BC
A
`
)

AM AN
=
AB AC

* H qu: MN // BC
AM AN MN
=
AB AC BC
=
B. Bai tap ap dung:
1. Bai 1:
N
M
C B
A
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20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Cho t giac ABCD, ng thang qua A song song vi BC
cat BD E, ng thang qua B song song vi AD cat AC
G
a) chng minh: EG // CD
b) Gia s AB // CD, chng minh rang AB
2
= CD. EG
Giai
Goi O la giao iem cua AC va BD
a) V AE // BC
OE OA
=
OB OC
(1)
BG // AC
OB OG
=
OD OA
(2)
Nhan (1) vi (2) ve theo ve ta co:
OE OG
=
OD OC
EG // CD
b) Khi AB // CD th EG // AB // CD, BG // AD nen
2
AB OA OD CD AB CD
= = AB CD. EG
EG OG OB AB EG AB
= = =
Bai 2:
Cho ABC vuong tai A, Ve ra pha ngoai tam giac o cac tam giac ABD vuong can B,
ACF vuong can C. Goi H la giao iem cua AB va CD, K la giao iem cua Ac va BF.
Chng minh rang:
a) AH = AK
b) AH
2
= BH. CK
Giai
at AB = c, AC = b.
BD // AC (cung vuong goc vi AB)
nen
AH AC b AH b AH b
HB BD c HB c HB + AH b + c
= = = =
H
F
K
D
C
B
A
O
G E
D C
B
A
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28
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Hay
AH b AH b b.c
AH
AB b + c c b + c b + c
= = = (1)
AB // CF (cung vuong goc vi AC) nen
AK AB c AK c AK c
KC CF b KC b KC + AK b + c
= = = =
Hay
AK b AK c b.c
AK
AC b + c b b + c b + c
= = = (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra: AH = AK
b) T
AH AC b
HB BD c
= = va
AK AB c
KC CF b
= = suy ra
AH KC AH KC
HB AK HB AH
= = (V AH = AK)
AH
2
= BH . KC
3. Bai 3: Cho hnh bnh hanh ABCD, ng thang a i qua A lan lt cat BD, BC, DC
theo th t tai E, K, G. Chng minh rang:
a) AE
2
= EK. EG
b)
1 1 1
AE AK AG
= +
c) Khi ng thang a thay oi v tr nhng van qua A th tch BK. DG co gia tr khong
oi
Giai
a) V ABCD la hnh bnh hanh va K e BC nen
AD // BK, theo he qua cua nh l Ta-let ta co:
2
EK EB AE EK AE
= = AE EK.EG
AE ED EG AE EG
= =
b) Ta co:
AE DE
=
AK DB
;
AE BE
=
AG BD
nen
AE AE BE DE BD 1 1
= 1 AE 1
AK AG BD DB BD AK AG
| |
+ + = = + =
|
\ .

1 1 1
AE AK AG
= + (pcm)
c) Ta co:
BK AB BK a
= =
KC CG KC CG
(1);
KC CG KC CG
= =
(2)
G
b
a
E
K
D
C
B A
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29
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Nhan (1) vi (2) ve theo ve ta co:
BK a
= BK. DG = ab
b DG
khong oi (V a = AB; b =
AD la o dai hai canh cua hnh bnh hanh ABCD khong oi)
4. Bai 4:
Cho t giac ABCD, cac iem E, F, G, H theo th t chia trong
cac canh AB, BC, CD, DA theo t so 1:2. Chng minh rang:
a) EG = FH
b) EG vuong goc vi FH
Giai
Goi M, N theo th t la trung iem cua CF, DG
Ta co CM =
1
2
CF =
1
3
BC
BM 1
=
BC 3

BE BM 1
= =
BA BC 3

EM // AC
EM BM 2 2
= EM = AC
AC BE 3 3
= (1)
Tng t, ta c: NF // BD
NF CF 2 2
= NF = BD
BD CB 3 3
= (2)
m AC = BD (3)
T (1), (2), (3) suy ra : EM = NF (a)
Tng t nh trn ta c: MG // BD, NH // AC v MG = NH =
1
3
AC (b)
Mt khc EM // AC; MG // BD V AC BD EM MG

0
EMG = 90 (4)
Tng t, ta c:

0
FNH = 90 (5)
T (4) v (5) suy ra

0
EMG = FNH = 90 (c)
T (a), (b), (c) suy ra AEMG = AFNH (c.g.c) EG = FH
b) Gi giao im ca EG v FH l O; ca EM v FH l P; ca EM v FN l Q th

0
PQF = 90

0
QPF + QFP = 90 m

QPF = OPE (i nh),

OEP = QFP ( AEMG = AFNH)
Suy ra

0
EOP = PQF = 90 EO OP EG FH
5. Bi 5:
Q
P
O
N
M
H F
G
E
D
C
B
A
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30
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Cho hnh thang ABCD c y nh CD. T D v ng thng song song vi BC, ct AC ti
M v AB ti K, T C v ng thng song song vi AD, ct AB ti F, qua F ta li v ng
thng song song vi AC, ct BC ti P. Chng minh rng
a) MP // AB
b) Ba ng thng MP, CF, DB ng quy
Gii
a) EP // AC
CP AF
=
PB FB
(1)
AK // CD
CM DC
=
AM AK
(2)
cc t gic AFCD, DCBK la cc hnh bnh hnh nn
AF = DC, FB = AK (3)
Kt hp (1), (2) v (3) ta c
CP CM
PB AM
= MP // AB
(nh l Ta-lt o) (4)
b) Gi I l giao im ca BD v CF, ta c:
CP CM
PB AM
= =
DC DC
AK FB
=
M
DC DI
FB IB
= (Do FB // DC)
CP DI
PB IB
= IP // DC // AB (5)
T (4) v (5) suy ra : qua P c hai ng thng IP, PM cng song song vi AB // DC nn
theo tin clt th ba im P, I, M thng hang hay MP i qua giao im ca CF v DB
hay ba ng thng MP, CF, DB ng quy
6. Bi 6:
Cho AABC c BC < BA. Qua C k ng thng vung goc vi tia phn gic BE ca

ABC;
ng thng ny ct BE ti F v ct trung tuyn BD ti
G. Chng minh rng on thng EG b on thng DF
chia lm hai phn bng nhau
Gii
Gi K l giao im ca CF v AB; M l giao im ca
DF v BC
AKBC c BF va l phn gic va l ng cao nn
I
P
F K
M
D
C
B
A
M
G
K
F
D E C
B
A
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31
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
AKBC cn ti B BK = BC v FC = FK
Mt khc D l trung im AC nn DF l ng trung bnh ca AAKC DF // AK hay
DM // AB
Suy ra M l trung im ca BC
DF =
1
2
AK (DF l ng trung bnh ca AAKC), ta c
BG BK
=
GD DF
( do DF // BK)
BG BK 2BK
=
GD DF AK
= (1)
Mt khc
CE DC - DE DC AD
1 1
DE DE DE DE
= = = (V AD = DC)
CE AE - DE DC AD
1 1
DE DE DE DE
= = =
Hay
CE AE - DE AE AB
1 2 2
DE DE DE DF
= = = (v
AE
DE
=
AB
DF
: Do DF // AB)
Suy ra
CE AK + BK 2(AK + BK)
2 2
DE DE AK
= = (Do DF =
1
2
AK)
CE 2(AK + BK) 2BK
2
DE AK AK
= = (2)
T (1) v (2) suy ra
BG
GD
=
CE
DE
EG // BC
Gi giao im ca EG v DF l O ta c
OG OE FO
= =
MC MB FM
| |
|
\ .
OG = OE
Bi tp v nh
Bi 1:
Cho t gic ABCD, AC v BD ct nhau ti O. ng thng qua O v song song vi BC ct
AB E; ng thng song song vi CD qua O ct AD ti F
a) Chng minh FE // BD
b) T O k cc ng thng song song vi AB, AD ct BD, CD ti G v H.
Chng minh: CG. DH = BG. CH
Bi 2:
Cho hnh bnh hnh ABCD, im M thuc cnh BC, im N thuc tia i ca tia BC sao
cho BN = CM; cc ng thng DN, DM ct AB theo th t ti E, F.
Chng minh:
a) AE
2
= EB. FE
b) EB =
2
AN
DF
| |
|
\ .
. EF
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32
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG

CHUYEN E 7 CAC BAI TOAN S DUNG NH L TALET VA
TNH CHAT NG PHAN GIAC

A. Kien thc:
2. Tnh chat ng phan giac:
AABC ,AD la phan giac goc A
BD AB
=
CD AC

ADla phan giac goc ngoai tai A:
BD' AB
=
CD' AC

B. Bai tap van dung
1. Bai 1:
Cho AABC co BC = a, AB = b, AC = c, phan giac AD
a) Tnh o dai BD, CD
b) Tia phan giac BI cua goc B cat AD I; tnh t so:
AI
ID

Giai
a) AD la phan giac cua

BAC nen
BD AB c
CD AC b
= =

BD c BD c ac
BD =
CD + BD b + c a b + c b + c
= =
Do o CD = a -
ac
b + c
=
ab
b + c

b) BI la phan giac cua

ABC nen
AI AB ac b + c
c :
ID BD b + c a
= = =
D'
C
B
A
D C B
A
a
c
b
I
D C B
A
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33
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
2. Bai 2:
Cho AABC, co

B< 60
0
a) Chng minh AD < AB
b) Goi AM la phan giac cua AADC. Chng minh rang
BC > 4 DM
Giai
a)Ta co

A
2
>

A + C
2
=

0
0
180 - B
60
2
=

b) Goi BC = a, AC = b, AB = c, AD = d
Trong AADC, AM la phan giac ta co
=
CM AC

= =

DM =
AD + AC b + d
= ; CD =
ab
b + c
( Van dung bai 1) DM =
abd
(b + c)(b + d)

e c/m BC > 4 DM ta c/m a >
4abd
(b + c)(b + d)
hay (b + d)(b + c) > 4bd (1)
That vay : do c > d (b + d)(b + c) > (b + d)
2
> 4bd . Bat ang thc (1) c c/m
Bai 3:
Cho AABC, trung tuyen AM, cac tia phan giac cua cac goc AMB , AMC cat AB, AC
theo th t D va E
a) Chng minh DE // BC
b) Cho BC = a, AM = m. Tnh o dai DE
c) Tm tap hp cac giao diem I cua AM va DE neu AABC co
BC co nh, AM = m khong oi
d) AABC co ieu kien g th DE la ng trung bnh cua no
E
D
M
I
C B
A
M
D B C
A
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34
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Giai
a) MD la phan giac cua

AMB nen
DA MB
DB MA
= (1)
ME la phan giac cua

AMC nen
EA MC
EC MA
= (2)
T (1), (2) va gia thiet MB = MC ta suy ra
DA EA
DB EC
= DE // BC
b) DE // BC
BC AB AM
= = . at DE = x
x
m -
x 2a.m
2
x =
a m a + 2m
=
c) Ta co: MI =
1
2
DE =
a.m
a + 2m
khong oi I luon cach M mot oan khong oi nen tap
hp cac iem I la ng tron tam M, ban knh MI =
a.m
a + 2m
(Tr giao iem cua no vi
BC
d) DE la ng trung bnh cua AABC DA = DB MA = MB AABC vuong A
4. Bai 4:
Cho AABC ( AB < AC) cac phan giac BD, CE
a) ng thang qua D va song song vi BC cat AB
K, chng minh E nam gia B va K
b) Chng minh: CD > DE > BE
Giai
a) BD la phan giac nen
= < =
DC BC BC EB DC EB
< (1)
Mat khac KD // BC nen
DC KB
= (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
AK AE AK + KB AE + EB
KB EB KB EB
< <

AB AB
KB > EB
KB EB
< E nam gia K va B
E
D
M
K
C
B
A
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35
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
b) Goi M la giao iem cua DE va CB. Ta co

CBD = KDB(Goc so le trong)

KBD = KDB
ma E nam gia K va B nen

KDB >

EDB

KBD >

EDB

EBD >

EDB EB < DE
Ta lai co

CBD + ECB = EDB + DEC

DEC>

ECB

DEC>

DCE (V

DCE =

ECB)
Suy ra CD > ED CD > ED > BE
5. Bai 5:
Cho AABC vi ba ng phan giac AD, BE, CF. Chng minh
a. 1 . . =
FB
FA
EA
EC
DC
DB
.
b.
AB CA BC CF BE AD
1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + > + + .
Giai
a)AD la ng phan giac cua

## BAC nen ta co:

DB AB
=
DC AC
(1)
Tng t: vi cac phan giac BE, CF ta co:
EC BC
=
EA BA
(2) ;
FA CA
=
FB CB
(3)
T (1); (2); (3) suy ra:
DB EC FA AB BC CA
. . = . .
DC EA FB AC BA CB
= 1
b) t AB = c , AC = b , BC = a , AD = d
a
.
Qua C k ng thng song song vi AD , ct tia BA H.
Theo L Talt ta c:
CH BH
=
BA.CH c.CH c
BH BA + AH b + c
= = =
Do CH < AC + AH = 2b nn:
2
a
bc
d
b c
<
+

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
a a
b c
d bc b c d b c
+ | | | |
> = + > +
| |
\ . \ .

Chng minh tng t ta c :
1 1 1 1
2
b
d a c
| |
> +
|
\ .
V
1 1 1 1
2
c
d a b
| |
> +
|
\ .
Nn:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2
a b c
d d d b c a c a b
(
| | | | | |
+ + > + + + + +
| | | (
\ . \ . \ .

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
.2
2
a b c
d d d a b c
| |
+ + > + +
|
\ .

H
F
E
D
C
B
A
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36
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
1 1 1 1 1 1
a b c
d d d a b c
+ + > + +
( pcm )
Bi tp v nh
Cho AABC co BC = a, AC = b, AB = c (b > c), cac phan giac BD, CE
a) Tnh o dai CD, BE roi suy ra CD > BE
b) Ve hnh bnh hanh BEKD. Chng minh: CE > EK
c) Chng minh CE > BD

CHUYEN E 8 CH SO TAN CUNG

A. Kien thc:
1. Mot so tnh chat:
a) Tnh chat 1:
+ Cac so co ch so tan cung la 0; 1; 5; 6khi nang len luy tha bac bat ky nao th ch so
tan cung khong thay oi
+ Cac so co ch so tan cung la 4; 9 khi nang len luy tha bac le th ch so tan cung
khong thay oi
+ Cac so co ch so tan cung la 3; 7; 9 khi nang len luy tha bac 4n (n eN) th ch so
tan cung la 1
+ Cac so co ch so tan cung la 2; 4; 8 khi nang len luy tha bac 4n (n eN) th ch so
tan cung la 6
b) Tnh chat 2: Mot so t nhien bat ky khi nang len luy tha bac 4n + 1 (n eN) th ch
so tan cung khong thay oi
c) Tnh chat 3:
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37
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
+ Cac so co ch so tan cung la 3 khi nang len luy tha bac 4n + 3 (n eN) th ch so tan
cung la 7; Cac so co ch so tan cung la 7 khi nang len luy tha bac 4n + 3 (n eN) th
ch so tan cung la 3
+ Cac so co ch so tan cung la 2 khi nang len luy tha bac 4n + 3 (n eN) th ch so tan
cung la 8; Cac so co ch so tan cung la 8 khi nang len luy tha bac 4n + 3 (n eN) th
ch so tan cung la 2
+ Cac so co ch so tan cung la 0; 1; 4; 5; 6; 9 khi nang len luy tha bac 4n + 3 (n eN)
th ch so tan cung la khong oi
2. Mot so phng phap:
+ Tm ch so tan cung cua x = a
m
th ta xet ch so tan cung cua a:
- Neu ch so tan cung cua a la cac ch so: 0; 1; 5; 6 th ch so tan cung cua x la 0; 1; 5;
6
- Neu ch so tan cung cua a la cac ch so: 3; 7; 9 th :
* V a
m
= a
4n + r
= a
4n
. a
r

Neu r la 0; 1; 2; 3 th ch so tan cung cua x la ch so tan cung cua a
r

Neu r la 2; 4; 8 th ch so tan cung cua x la ch so tan cung cua 6.a
r

B. Mot so v du:
Bai 1:
Tm ch so tan cung cua
a) 243
6
; 167
2010
b) ( )
9
9
7 ;
( )
14
14
14 ;
( )
7
6
5
4
(
(

Giai
a) 243
6
= 243
4 + 2
= 243
4
. 243
2

243
2

co ch so tan cung la 9 nen ch so tan cung cua 243
6
la 9
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38
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Ta co 2010 = 4.502 + 2 nen 167
2010
= 167
4. 502 + 2
= 167
4.502
.167
2

167
4.502
co ch so tan cung la 6; 167
2
co ch so tan cung la 9 nen ch so tan cung cua
167
2010
la ch so tan cung cua tch 6.9 la 4
b) Ta co:
+) 9
9
- 1 = (9 1)(9
8
+ 9
7
+ .......+ 9 + 1) = 4k (k eN) 9
9
= 4k + 1 ( )
9
9
7 = 7
4k + 1

= 7
4k
.7 nen co ch so tan cung la 7
14
14
= (12 + 2)
14
= 12
14
+ 12.14
13
.2 + ....+ 12.12.2
13
+ 2
14
chia het cho 4, v cac hang t
trc 2
14
eu co nhan t 12 nen chia het cho 4; hang t 2
14
= 4
7
chia het cho 4 hay
14
14
= 4k
( )
14
14
14 = 14
4k
co ch so tan cung la 6
+) 5
6
co ch so tan cung la 5 nen ( )
7
6
5 = 5.(2k + 1) 5.(2k + 1) 1 = 4 q (k, q eN)
5.(2k + 1) = 4q + 1
( )
7
6
5
4
(
(

= 4
4q + 1
= 4
4q
. 4 co ch so tan cung la ch so tan cung
tch 6. 4 la 4
Bai 2: Tm ch so tan cung cua
A = 2
1

+ 3
5
+ 4
9
+ 5
13
+...... + 2004
8009

Giai
a) Luy tha cua moi so hang cua A chia 4 th d 1(Cac so hang cua A co dang n
4(n 2) + 1

(n e {2; 3; ...; 2004} ) nen moi so hang cua A va luy tha cua no co ch so tan cung
giong nhau (Tnh chat 2) nen ch so tan cung cua A la ch so tan cung cua tong cac so
hang
T 2 en 2004 co 2003 so hang trong o co 2000 : 10 = 200 so hang co ch so tan cung
bang 0,Tong cac ch so tan cung cua A la
(2 + 3 + ...+ 9) + 199.(1 + 2 + ... + 9) + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 9009 co ch so tan cung la 9
Vay A co ch so tan cung la 9
Bai 3: Tm
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20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
a) Hai ch so tan cung cua 3
999
;
( )
7
7
7
b) Ba ch so tan cung cua 3
100

c) Bon ch so tan cung cua 5
1994

Giai
a) 3
999
= 3.3
998
=3. 9
499

= 3.(10 1)
499
= 3.(10
499
499.10
498
+ ...+499.10 1)
= 3.[BS(100) + 4989] = ...67
7
7
= (8 1)
7
= BS(8) 1 = 4k + 3
( )
7
7
7 = 7
4k + 3
= 7
3
. 7
4k
= 343.(...01)
4k
= ...43
b) 3
100
= 9
50
= (10 1)
50
= 10
50
50. 10
49
+ ...+
50.49
2
. 10
2
50.10 + 1
= 10
50
50. 10
49
+ ...+
49
2
. 5000 500 + 1 = BS(1000) + 1 = ...001
Chu y:
+ Neu n la so le khong chi het cho 5 th ba ch so tan cung cua n
100
la 001
+ Neu mot so t nhien n khong chia het cho 5 th n
100
chia cho 125 d 1
HD C/m: n = 5k + 1; n = 5k + 2
+ Neu n la so le khong chia het cho 5 th n
101
va n co ba ch so tan cung nh nhau
c) Cach 1: 5
4
= 625
Ta thay so (...0625)
n
= ...0625
5
1994
= 5
4k + 2
= 25.(5
4
)
k
= 25.(0625)
k
= 25.(...0625) = ...5625
Cach 2: Tm so d khi chia 5
1994
cho 10000 = 2
4
. 5
4

Ta thay 5
4k
1 chia het cho 5
4
1 = (5
2
1)(5
2
+ 1) chia het cho 16
Ta co: 5
1994
= 5
6
. (5
1988
1) + 5
6

Do 5
6
chia het cho 5
4
, con 5
1988
1 chia het cho 16 nen 5
6
(5
1988
1) chia het cho 10000
Ta co 5
6

= 15625
Vay bon ch so tan cung cua 5
1994
la 5625
Chu y: Neu viet 5
1994
= 5
2
. (5
1992
1) + 5
2

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40
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Ta co: 5
1992
1 chia het cho 16; nhng 5
2
khong chia het cho 5
4

Nh vay trong bai toan nay ta can viet 5
1994
di dang 5
n
(5
1994 n
1) + 5
n
; n > 4 va
1994 n chia het cho 4
C. Van dung vao cac bai toan khac
Bai 1:
Chng minh rang: Tong sau khong la so chnh phng
a) A = 19
k
+ 5
k
+ 1995
k
+ 1996
k
( ke N, k chan)
b) B = 2004
2004k
+ 2001
Giai
a) Ta co:
19
k
co ch so tan cung la 1
5
k
co ch so tan cung la 5
1995
k
co ch so tan cung la 5
1996
k
co ch so tan cung la 6
Nen A co ch so tan cung la ch so tan cung cua tong cac ch so tan cung cua tong
1 + 5 + 5 + 6 = 17, co ch so tan cung la 7 nen khong the la so chnh phng
b) Ta co :k chan nen k = 2n (n e N)
2004
2004k
= (2004
4
)
501k
= (2004
4
)
1002n
= (...6)
1002n
la luy tha bac chan cua so co ch
so tan cung la 6 nen co ch so tan cung la 6 nen B = 2004
2004k
+ 2001 co ch so tan
cung la 7, do o B khong la so chnh phng
Bai 2:
Tm so d khi chia cac bieu thc sau cho 5
a) A = 2
1
+ 3
5
+ 4
9
+...+ 2003
8005

b) B = 2
3
+ 3
7
+4
11
+...+ 2005
8007

Giai
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41
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
a) Ch so tan cung cua A la ch so tan cung cua tong
(2 + 3 +... + 9) + 199.(1 + 2 + ... + 9) + 1 + 2 + 3 = 9005
Ch so tan cung cua A la 5 nen chia A cho 5 d 0
b)Tng t, ch so tan cung cua B la ch so tan cung cua tong
(8 + 7 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 3 + 2 + 9) + 199.(1 + ...+ 9) + 8 + 7 + 4 + 5 = 9024
B co ch so tan cung la 4 nen B chia 5 d 4
Bai tap ve nha
Bai 1: Tm ch so tan cung cua: 3
102
;
( )
5
3
7 ; 3
20
+ 2
30
+ 7
15
- 8
16

Bai 2: Tm hai, ba ch so tan cung cua: 3
555
;
( )
9
7
2
Bai 3: Tm so d khi chia cac so sau cho 2; cho 5:
a) 3
8
; 14
15
+ 15
14

b) 2009
2010
2008
2009

CHUYEN E 9 ONG D

A. nh ngha:
Neu hai so nguyen a va b co cung so d trong phep chia cho mot so t nhien m = 0 th
ta noi a ong d vi b theo moun m, va co ong d thc: a b (mod m)
V du:7 10 (mod 3) , 12 22 (mod 10)
+ Chu y: a b (mod m) a b m
B. Tnh chat cua ong d thc:
1. Tnh chat phan xa: a a (mod m)
2. Tnh chat oi xng: a b (mod m) b a (mod m)
3. Tnh chat bac cau: a b (mod m), b c (mod m) th a c (mod m)
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42
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
4. Cong , tr tng ve:
a b (mod m)
a c b d (mod m)
c d (mod m)

He qua:
a) a b (mod m) a + c b + c (mod m)
b) a + b c (mod m) a c - b (mod m)
c) a b (mod m) a + km b (mod m)
5. Nhan tng ve :
a b (mod m)
ac bd (mod m)
c d (mod m)

He qua:
a) a b (mod m) ac bc (mod m) (c e Z)
b) a b (mod m) a
n
b
n
(mod m)
6. Co the nhan (chia) hai ve va moun cua mot ong d thc vi mot so nguyen dng
a b (mod m) ac bc (mod mc)
Chang han: 11 3 (mod 4) 22 6 (mod 8)
7.
ac bc (mod m)
a b (mod m)
(c, m) = 1

Chang han :
16 2 (mod 7)
8 1 (mod 7)
(2, 7) = 1

C. Cac v du:
1. V du 1:
Tm so d khi chia 92
94
cho 15
Giai
Ta thay 92 2 (mod 15) 92
94
2
94
(mod 15) (1)
Lai co 2
4
1 (mod 15) (2
4
)
23
. 2
2
4 (mod 15) hay 2
94
4 (mod 15) (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra 92
94
4 (mod 15) tc la 92
94
chia 15 th d 4
2. V du 2:
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43
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Chng minh: trong cac so co dang 2
n
4(n e N), co vo so so chia het cho 5
That vay:
T 2
4
1 (mod 5) 2
4k
1 (mod 5) (1)
Lai co 2
2
4 (mod 5) (2)
Nhan (1) vi (2), ve theo ve ta co: 2
4k + 2
4 (mod 5) 2
4k + 2
- 4 0 (mod 5)
Hay 2
4k + 2
- 4 chia het cho 5 vi moi k = 0, 1, 2, ... hay ta c vo so so dang 2
n
4
(n e N) chia het cho 5
Chu y: khi giai cac bai toan ve ong d, ta thng quan tam en a 1 (mod m)
a 1 (mod m) a
n
1 (mod m)
a -1 (mod m) a
n
(-1)
n
(mod m)
3. V du 3: Chng minh rang
a) 20
15
1 chia het cho 11 b) 2
30
+ 3
30
chi het cho 13
c) 555
222
+ 222
555
chia het cho 7
Giai
a) 2
5
- 1 (mod 11) (1); 10 - 1 (mod 11) 10
5
- 1 (mod 11) (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra 2
5
. 10
5
1 (mod 11) 20
5
1 (mod 11) 20
5
1 0 (mod 11)
b) 2
6
- 1 (mod 13) 2
30
- 1 (mod 13) (3)
3
3
1 (mod 13) 3
30
1 (mod 13) (4)
T (3) va (4) suy ra 2
30
+ 3
30
- 1 + 1 (mod 13) 2
30
+ 3
30
0 (mod 13)
Vay: 2
30
+ 3
30
chi het cho 13
c) 555 2 (mod 7) 555
222
2
222
(mod 7) (5)
2
3
1 (mod 7) (2
3
)
74
1 (mod 7) 555
222
1 (mod 7) (6)
222 - 2 (mod 7) 222
555
(-2)
555
(mod 7)
Lai co (-2)
3
- 1 (mod 7) [(-2)
3
]
185
- 1 (mod 7) 222
555
- 1 (mod 7)
Ta suy ra 555
222
+ 222
555
1 - 1 (mod 7) hay 555
222
+ 222
555
chia het cho 7
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44
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
4. V du 4: Chng minh rang so
4n + 1
2
2 + 7 chia het cho 11 vi moi so t nhien n
That vay:Ta co: 2
5
- 1 (mod 11) 2
10
1 (mod 11)
Xet so d khi chia 2
4n + 1
cho 10. Ta co: 2
4
1 (mod 5) 2
4n
1 (mod 5)
2.2
4n
2 (mod 10) 2
4n + 1
2 (mod 10) 2
4n + 1
= 10 k + 2
Nen
4n + 1
2
2 + 7 = 2
10k + 2
+ 7 =4. 2
10k
+ 7 = 4.(BS 11 + 1)
k
+ 7 = 4.(BS 11 + 1
k
) + 7
= BS 11 + 11 chia het cho 11
Bai tap ve nha:
Bai 1: CMR:
a) 2
28
1 chia het cho 29
b)Trong cac so co dang2
n
3 co vo so so chia het cho 13
Bai 2: Tm so d khi chia A = 20
11
+ 22
12
+ 1996
2009
cho 7.

CHUYEN E 10 TNH CHIA HET OI VI A THC

A. Dang 1: Tm d cua phep chia ma khong thc hien phep chia
1. a thc chia co dang x a (a la hang)
a) nh l Bdu (Bezout, 1730 1783):
So d trong phep chia a thc f(x) cho nh thc x a bang gia tr cua f(x) tai x = a
Ta co: f(x) = (x a). Q(x) + r
ang thc ung vi moi x nen vi x = a, ta co
f(a) = 0.Q(a) + r hay f(a) = r
Ta suy ra: f(x) chia het cho x a f(a) = 0
b) f(x) co tong cac he so bang 0 th chia het cho x 1
c) f(x) co tong cac he so cua hang t bac chan bang tong cac he so cua cac hang t bac
le th chia het cho x + 1
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45
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
V du : Khong lam phep chia, hay xet xem A = x
3
9x
2
+ 6x + 16 chia het cho
B = x + 1, C = x 3 khong
Ket qua:
A chia het cho B, khong chia het cho C
2. a thc chia co bac hai tr len
Cach 1: Tach a thc b chia thanh tong cua cac a thc chia het cho a thc chia va d
Cach 2: Xet gia tr rieng: goi thng cua phep chia la Q(x), d la ax + b th
f(x) = g(x). Q(x) + ax + b
V du 1: Tm d cua phep chia x
7
+ x
5
+ x
3
+ 1 cho x
2
1
Cach 1: Ta biet rang x
2n
1 chia het cho x
2
1 nen ta tach:
x
7
+ x
5
+ x
3
+ 1 = (x
7
x) + (x
5
x) +(x
3
x) + 3x + 1
= x(x
6
1) + x(x
4
1) + x(x
2
1) + 3x + 1 chia cho x
2
1 d 3x + 1
Cach 2:
Goi thng cua phep chia la Q(x), d la ax + b, Ta co:
x
7
+ x
5
+ x
3
+ 1 = (x -1)(x + 1).Q(x) + ax + b vi moi x
ang thc ung vi moi x nen vi x = 1, ta co 4 = a + b (1)
vi x = - 1 ta co - 2 = - a + b (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra a = 3, b =1 nen ta c d la 3x + 1
Ghi nh:
a
n
b
n
chia het cho a b (a = -b)
a
n
+ b
n
( n le) chia het cho a + b (a = -b)
V du 2: Tm d cua cac phep chia
a) x
41
chia cho x
2
+ 1
b) x
27
+ x
9
+ x
3
+ x cho x
2
1
c) x
99
+ x
55
+ x
11
+ x + 7 cho x
2
+ 1
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46
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
H s
ca a
thc chia
H s th 2
ca a thc
b chia
+
H s th
1a thc b
chia
a
Giai
a) x
41
= x
41
x + x = x(x
40
1) + x = x[(x
4
)
10
1] + x chia cho x
4

1 d x nen chia cho
x
2
+ 1 d x
b) x
27
+ x
9
+ x
3
+ x = (x
27
x) + (x
9

x) + (x
3
x) + 4x
= x(x
26
1) + x(x
8
1) + x(x
2
1) + 4x chia cho x
2
1 d 4x
c) x
99
+ x
55
+ x
11
+ x + 7 = x(x
98
+ 1) + x(x
54
+ 1) + x(x
10
+ 1) 2x + 7
chia cho x
2
+ 1 d 2x + 7
B. S o HORN
1. S o
e tm ket qua cua phep chia f(x) cho x a
(a la hang so), ta s dung s o horn
Neu a thc b chia la a
0
x
3
+ a
1
x
2
+ a
2
x + a
3
,
a thc chia la x a ta c thng la
b
0
x
2
+ b
1
x + b
2
, d r th ta co
V du:
a thc b chia: x
3
-5x
2
+ 8x 4, a thc chia x 2
Ta co s o
1 - 5 8 - 4
2 1 2. 1 + (- 5) = -3 2.(- 3) + 8 = 2 r = 2. 2 +(- 4) = 0
Vay: x
3
-5x
2
+ 8x 4 = (x 2)(x
2
3x + 2) + 0 la phep chia het
2. Ap dung s o Horn e tnh gia tr cua a thc tai x = a
Gia tr cua f(x) tai x = a la so d cua phep chia f(x) cho x a
r

= ab
2
+ a
3
a
3
b
2
= ab
1
+ a
2
b
1
= ab
0
+ a
1
a
2
a
1
b
0
= a
0
a
0
a
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47
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
1. V du 1:
Tnh gia tr cua A = x
3
+ 3x
2
4 tai x = 2010
Ta co s o:
1 3 0 -4
a = 2010 1 2010.1+3 = 2013 2010.2013 + 0
= 4046130
2010.4046130 4
= 8132721296
Vay: A(2010) = 8132721296
C. Chngs minh mot a thc chia het cho mot a thc khac
I. Phng phap:
1. Cach 1: Phan tch a thc b chia thanh nhan t co mot tha so la a thc chia
2. Cach 2: bien oi a thc b chia thanh mot tong cac a thc chia het cho a thc chia
3. Cach 3: Bien oi tng ng f(x) g(x) f(x) g(x) g(x)
4. cach 4: Chng to moi nghiem cua a thc chia eu la nghiem cua a thc b chia
II. V du
1.V du 1:
Chng minh rang: x
8n
+ x
4n
+ 1 chia het cho x
2n
+ x
n
+ 1
Ta co: x
8n
+ x
4n
+ 1 = x
8n
+ 2x
4n
+ 1 - x
4n
= (x
4n
+ 1)
2
- x
4n
= (x
4n
+ x
2n
+ 1)( x
4n
- x
2n
+ 1)
Ta lai co: x
4n
+ x
2n
+ 1 = x
4n
+ 2x
2n
+ 1 x
2n
= (x
2n
+ x
n
+ 1)( x
2n
- x
n
+ 1)
chia het cho x
2n
+ x
n
+ 1
Vay: x
8n
+ x
4n
+ 1 chia het cho x
2n
+ x
n
+ 1
2. V du 2:
Chng minh rang: x
3m + 1
+ x
3n + 2
+ 1 chia het cho x
2
+ x + 1 vi moi m, n e N
Ta co: x
3m + 1
+ x
3n + 2
+ 1 = x
3m + 1
- x + x
3n + 2
x
2
+ x
2
+ x + 1
= x(x
3m
1) + x
2
(x
3n
1) + (x
2
+ x + 1)
V x
3m
1 va x
3n
1 chia het cho x
3
1 nen chia het cho x
2
+ x + 1
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48
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Vay: x
3m + 1
+ x
3n + 2
+ 1 chia het cho x
2
+ x + 1 vi moi m, n e N
3. V du 3: Chng minh rang
f(x) = x
99
+ x
88
+ x
77
+ ... + x
11
+ 1 chia het cho g(x) = x
9
+ x
8
+ x
7
+ ....+ x + 1
Ta co: f(x) g(x) = x
99
x
9
+ x
88
x
8
+ x
77
x
7
+ ... + x
11
x + 1 1
= x
9
(x
90
1) + x
8
(x
80
1) + ....+ x(x
10
1) chia het cho x
10
1
Ma x
10
1 = (x 1)(x
9
+ x
8
+ x
7
+...+ x + 1) chia het cho x
9
+ x
8
+ x
7
+...+ x + 1
Suy ra f(x) g(x) chia het cho g(x) = x
9
+ x
8
+ x
7
+...+ x + 1
Nen f(x) = x
99
+ x
88
+ x
77
+ ... + x
11
+ 1 chia het cho g(x) = x
9
+ x
8
+ x
7
+ ....+ x + 1
4. V du 4: CMR: f(x) = (x
2
+ x 1)
10
+ (x
2
- x + 1)
10
2 chia het cho g(x) = x
2
x
a thc g(x) = x
2
x = x(x 1) co 2 nghiem la x = 0 va x = 1
Ta co f(0) = (-1)
10
+ 1
10
2 = 0 x = 0 la nghiem cua f(x) f(x) cha tha so x
f(1) = (1
2
+ 1 1)
10
+ (1
2
1 + 1)
10
2 = 0 x = 1 la nghiem cua f(x) f(x) cha tha so
x 1, ma cac tha so x va x 1 khong co nhan t chung, do o f(x) chia het cho x(x
1)
hay f(x) = (x
2
+ x 1)
10
+ (x
2
- x + 1)
10
2 chia het cho g(x) = x
2
x
5. V du 5: Chng minh rang
a) A = x
2
x
9
x
1945
chia het cho B = x
2
x + 1
b) C = 8x
9
9x
8
+ 1 chia het cho D = (x 1)
2

c) C (x) = (x + 1)
2n
x
2n
2x 1 chia het cho D(x) = x(x + 1)(2x + 1)
Giai
a) A = x
2
x
9
x
1945
= (x
2
x + 1) (x
9
+ 1) (x
1945
x)
Ta co: x
2
x + 1 chia het cho B = x
2
x + 1
x
9
+ 1 chia het cho x
3
+ 1 nen chia het cho B = x
2
x + 1
x
1945
x = x(x
1944
1) chia het cho x
3
+ 1 (cung co nghiem la x = - 1)
nen chia het cho B = x
2
x + 1
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49
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Vay A = x
2
x
9
x
1945
chia het cho B = x
2
x + 1
b) C = 8x
9
9x
8
+ 1 = 8x
9
8 - 9x
8
+ 9 = 8(x
9
1) 9(x
8
1)
= 8(x 1)(x
8
+ x
7
+ ...+ 1) 9(x 1)(x
7

+ x
6
+ ...+ 1)
= (x 1)(8x
8
x
7
x
6
x
5
x
4
x
3
x
2
x 1)
(8x
8
x
7
x
6
x
5
x
4
x
3
x
2
x 1) chia het cho x 1 v co tong he so bang 0
suy ra (x 1)(8x
8
x
7
x
6
x
5
x
4
x
3
x
2
x 1) chia het cho (x 1)
2

c) a thc chia D (x) = x(x + 1)(2x + 1) co ba nghiem la x = 0, x = - 1, x = -
1
2

Ta co:
C(0) = (0 + 1)
2n
0
2n
2.0 1 = 0 x = 0 la nghiem cua C(x)
C(-1) = (-1 + 1)
2n
(- 1)
2n
2.(- 1) 1 = 0 x = - 1 la nghiem cua C(x)
C(-
1
2
) = (-
1
2
+ 1)
2n
(-
1
2
)
2n
2.(-
1
2
) 1 = 0 x = -
1
2
la nghiem cua C(x)
Moi nghiem cua a thc chia la nghiem cua a thc b chia pcm
6. V du 6:
Cho f(x) la a thc co he so nguyen. Biet f(0), f(1) la cac so le. Chng minh rang f(x)
khong co nghiem nguyen
Gia s x = a la nghiem nguyen cua f(x) th f(x) = (x a). Q(x). Trong o Q(x) la a thc
co he so nguyen, do o f(0) = - a. Q(0), f(1) = (1 a). Q(1)
Do f(0) la so le nen a la so le, f(1) la so le nen 1 a la so le, ma 1 a la hieu cua 2 so
le khong the la so le, mau thuan
Vay f(x) khong co nghiem nguyen
Bai tap ve nha:
Bai 1: Tm so d khi
a) x
43
chia cho x
2
+ 1
b) x
77
+ x
55
+ x
33
+ x
11
+ x + 9 cho x
2
+ 1
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50
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Bai 2: Tnh gia tr cua a thc x
4
+ 3x
3
8 tai x = 2009
Bai 3: Chng minh rang
a) x
50
+ x
10
+ 1 chia het cho x
20
+ x
10
+ 1
b) x
10
10x + 9 chia het cho x
2
2x + 1
c) x
4n + 2
+ 2x
2n + 1
+ 1 chia het cho x
2
+ 2x + 1
d) (x + 1)
4n + 2
+ (x 1)
4n + 2
chia het cho x
2
+ 1
e) (x
n
1)(x
n + 1
1) chia het cho (x + 1)(x 1)
2

CHUYEN E 11 CAC BAI TOAN VE BIEU THC HU T

A. Nhac lai kien thc:
Cac bc rut gon bieu thc hu t
a) Tm KX: Phan tch mau thanh nhan t, cho tat ca cac nhan t khac 0
b) Phan tch t thanh nhan , chia t va mau cho nhan t chung
B. Bai tap:
Bai 1: Cho bieu thc A =
4 2
4 2
5 4
10 9
x x
x x
+
+

a) Rut gon A
b) tm x e A = 0
c) Tm gia tr cua A khi 2 1 7 x =
Giai
a)kx :
x
4
10x
2
+ 9 = 0 [(x
2
)
2
x
2
] (9x
2
9) = 0 x
2
(x
2
1) 9(x
2
1) = 0
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51
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
(x
2
1)(x
2
9) = 0 (x 1)(x + 1)(x 3)(x + 3) = 0
x 1
x 1 1
x 3 3
x 3
x
x
=

= =

= =

T : x
4
5x
2
+ 4 = [(x
2
)
2
x
2
] (x
2
4) = x
2
(x
2
1) 4(x
2
1)
= (x
2
1)(x
2
4) = (x 1)(x + 1)(x 2)(x + 2)
Vi x = 1; x = 3 th
A =
(x - 1)(x + 1)(x - 2)(x + 2) (x - 2)(x + 2)
(x - 1)(x + 1)(x - 3)(x + 3) (x - 3)(x + 3)
=
b) A = 0
(x - 2)(x + 2)
(x - 3)(x + 3)
= 0 (x 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = 2
c) 2 1 7 x =
2 1 7 2 8 4
2 1 7 2 6 3
x x x
x x x
= = =

= = =

* Vi x = 4 th A =
(x - 2)(x + 2) (4 - 2)(4 + 2) 12
(x - 3)(x + 3) (4 - 3)(4 + 3) 7
= =
* Vi x = - 3 th A khong xac nh
2. Bai 2:
Cho bieu thc B =
3 2
3 2
2 7 12 45
3 19 33 9
x x x
x x x
+
+

a) Rut gon B
b) Tm x e B > 0
Giai
a) Phan tch mau: 3x
3
19x
2
+ 33x 9 = (3x
3
9x
2
) (10x
2
30x) + (3x 9)
= (x 3)(3x
2
10x + 3) = (x 3)[(3x
2
9x) (x 3)] = (x 3)
2
(3x 1)
kx: (x 3)
2
(3x 1) = 0 x = 3 va x =
1
3

b) Phan tch t, ta co:
2x
3
7x
2
12x + 45 = (2x
3
6x
2
) - (x
2
- 3x) (15x - 45) = (x 3)(2x
2
x 15)
= (x 3)[(2x
2
6x) + (5x 15)] = (x 3)
2
(2x + 5)
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52
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Vi x = 3 va x =
1
3

Th B =
3 2
3 2
2 7 12 45
3 19 33 9
x x x
x x x
+
+
=
2
2
(x - 3) (2x + 5) 2x + 5
(x - 3) (3x - 1) 3x - 1
=
c) B > 0
2x + 5
3x - 1
> 0
1
3
3 1 0
5 1
2 5 0
2 3
5 3 1 0 1
2 3
2 5 0
5
2
x
x
x x
x
x
x x
x
x

>

>

> >
+ >

<

< <

+ <

<

3. Bai 3
Cho bieu thc C =
2 2
1 2 5 1 2
:
1 1 1 1
x x
x x x x
| |
+
|
+
\ .

a) Rut gon bieu thc C
b) Tm gia tr nguyen cua x e gia tr cua bieu thc B la so nguyen
Giai
a) kx: x = 1
C =
2 2
1 2 5 1 2 1 2(1 ) 5 ( 1)( 1) 2
: .
1 1 1 1 (1 )(1 ) 1 2 2 1
x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
( + + + | |
+ = =
| (
+ +
\ .

b) B co gia tr nguyen khi x la so nguyen th
2
2 1 x

co gia tr nguyen
2x 1 la (2)
2 1 1 1
2 1 1 0
2 1 2 1, 5
2 1 2 1
x x
x x
x x
x x
= =

= =

= =

= =

oi chieu kx th ch co x = 0 thoa man
4. Bai 4
Cho bieu thc D =
3 2
2
2
2 4
x x x
x x x
+
+ +

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53
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
a) Rut gon bieu thc D
b) Tm x nguyen e D co gia tr nguyen
c) Tm gia tr cua D khi x = 6
Giai
a) Neu x + 2 > 0 th 2 x + = x + 2 nen
D =
3 2
2
2
2 4
x x x
x x x
+
+ +
=
3 2 2
2
2 ( 1)( 2)
( 2) 4 ( 2) ( 2)( 2) 2
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x
+ +
= =
+ + + +

Neu x + 2 < 0 th 2 x + = - (x + 2) nen
D =
3 2
2
2
2 4
x x x
x x x
+
+ +
=
3 2
2
2 ( 1)( 2)
( 2) 4 ( 2) ( 2)( 2) 2
x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x
+ +
= =
+ + + +

Neu x + 2 = 0 x = -2 th bieu thc D khong xac nh
b) e D co gia tr nguyen th
2
2
x x
hoac
2
x
co gia tr nguyen
+)
2
2
x x
co gia tr nguyen
2
x(x - 1) 2 x - x 2
x > - 2 x > - 2

V x(x 1) la tch cua hai so nguyen lien tiep nen chia het cho 2 vi moi x > - 2
+)
2
x
co gia tr nguyen
x 2 x = 2k
2k (k Z; k < - 1)
x < - 2 x < - 2
x

= e

c) Khia x = 6 x > - 2 nen D =
2
2
x x
=
6(6 1)
15
2

=
Bai tap ve nha
Bai 1:
Cho bieu thc A =
2
2 3 2
: 1
3 2 5 6 1
x x x x
x x x x x
| | | |
+
| |
+ + + +
\ . \ .

a) Rut gon A
b) Tm x e A = 0; A > 0
Bai 2:
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54
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Cho bieu thc B =
3 2
3 2
3 7 5 1
2 4 3
y y y
y y y
+
+

a) Rut gon B
b) Tm so nguyen y e
2D
2y + 3
co gia tr nguyen
c) Tm so nguyen y e B > 1

CHUYEN E 12 CAC BAI TOAN VE BIEU THC (TIEP)

* Dang 2: Cac bieu thc co tnh quy luat
Bai 1: Rut gon cac bieu thc
a) A =
| |
2 2 2
3 5 2 1
......
(1.2) (2.3)
( 1)
n
n n
+
+ + +
+

Phng phap: Xuat phat t hang t cuoi e tm ra quy luat
Ta co
| |
2
2 1
( 1)
n
n n
+
+
=
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 1
( 1) ( 1)
n
n n n n
+
=
+ +
Nen
A =
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( 1)
......
1 2 2 3 3 ( 1) 1 ( 1) ( 1)
n n
n n n n n
+
+ + + = =
+ + +

b) B =
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
1 . 1 . 1 ........ 1
2 3 4 n
| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

Ta co
2
2 2 2
1 1 ( 1)( 1)
1
k k k
k k k
+
= = Nen
B =
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1.3 2.4 3.5 ( 1)( 1) 1.3.2.4...( 1)( 1) 1.2.3...( 1) 3.4.5...( 1) 1 1 1
. . ... . .
2 3 4 2 .3 .4 ... 2.3.4...( 1) 2.3.4.... 2 2
n n n n n n n n
n n n n n n n
+ + + + +
= = = =

c) C =
150 150 150 150
......
5.8 8.11 11.14 47.50
+ + + + =
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
150. . ......
3 5 8 8 11 47 50
| |
+ + +
|
\ .

= 50.
1 1 9
50. 45
5 50 10
| |
= =
|
\ .

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55
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
d) D =
1 1 1 1
......
1.2.3 2.3.4 3.4.5 ( 1) ( 1) n n n
+ + + +
+
=
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
. ......
2 1.2 2.3 2.3 3.4 ( 1) ( 1) n n n n
| |
+ + +
|
+
\ .

=
1 1 1 ( 1)( 2)
2 1.2 ( 1) 4 ( 1)
n n
n n n n
( +
=
(
+ +

Bai 2:
a) Cho A =
1 2 2 1
...
1 2 2 1
m m
m n

+ + + +

; B =
1 1 1 1
......
2 3 4 n
+ + + + . Tnh
A
B

Ta co
A =
1
1 1 1 1
... 1 1 ... 1 ... ( 1)
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
n
n n n n
n n
n n n n

| |
| | | |
+ + + + + + + = + + + +
| | |

\ . \ .
\ .

=
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
... 1 ... nB
1 2 2 1 2 2 1
n n
n n n n
| | | |
+ + + + + = + + + =
| |

\ . \ .

A
B
= n
b) A =
1 1 1 1
......
1.(2n - 1) 3.(2n - 3) (2n - 3).3 (2n - 1).1
+ + + + ; B = 1 +
1 1
......
3 2n - 1
+ +
Tnh A : B
Giai
A =
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 ... 1
2n 2n - 1 3 2n - 3 2n - 3 3 2n - 1
( | | | | | | | |
+ + + + + + + +
| | | | (
\ . \ . \ . \ .

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 ...... ...... 1
2n 3 2n - 1 2n - 3 2n - 1 2n - 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 A 1
.2. 1 ...... .2.B
2n 3 2n - 1 2n - 3 2n B n
( | | | |
= + + + + + + + + +
| | (
\ . \ .
| |
= + + + + = =
|
\ .

Bai tap ve nha
Rut gon cac bieu thc sau:
a)
1 1 1
+......+
1.2 2.3 (n - 1)n
+ b)
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 3 5 n
. . ......
2 1 4 1 6 1 (n + 1) 1

c)
1 1 1
+......+
1.2.3 2.3.4 n(n + 1)(n +2)
+
* Dang 3: Rut gon; tnh gia tr bieu thc thoa man ieu kien cua bien
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56
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Bai 1: Cho
1
x 3
x
+ = . Tnh gi tr ca cc biu thc sau :
a)
2
2
1
A x
x
= + ; b)
3
3
1
B x
x
= + ; c)
4
4
1
C x
x
= + ; d)
5
5
1
D x
x
= + .
Li gii
a)
2
2
2
1 1
A x x 2 9 2 7
x x

= + = + - = - =

;
b)
3
3
3
1 1 1
B x x 3 x 27 9 18
x x x

= + = + - + = - =

;
c)
2
4 2
4 2
1 1
C x x 2 49 2 47
x x

= + = + - = - =

;
d)
2 3 5
2 3 5
1 1 1 1
A.B x x x x D 3
x x x x

= + + = + + + = +

D = 7.18 3 = 123.

Bai 2: Cho
x y z
+ + = 2
a b c
(1);
a b c
+ + = 2
x y z
(2).
Tnh gia tr bieu thc D =
2
2 2
a b c
+ +
x y z
| |
| | | |
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

T (1) suy ra bcx + acy + abz = 0 (3)
T (2) suy ra
2 2
2 2 2 2
a b c ab ac bc a b c ab ac bc
+ + + 2 . 4 + + 4 2 .
x y z xy xz yz x y z xy xz yz
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
+ + = = + +
| | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
\ . \ . \ . \ .
(4)
Thay (3) vao (4) ta co D = 4 2.0 = 4
Bai 3
a) Cho abc = 2; rut gon bieu thc A =
a b 2c
ab + a + 2 bc + b + 1 ac + 2c + 2
+ +
Ta co :
A =
a ab 2c a ab 2c
ab + a + 2 abc + ab + a ac + 2c + 2 ab + a + 2 2 + ab + a ac + 2c + abc
+ + = + +
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57
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
=
a ab 2c a ab 2 ab + a + 2
1
ab + a + 2 2 + ab + a c(a + 2 + ab) ab + a + 2 2 + ab + a a + 2 + ab ab + a + 2
+ + = + + = =
b) Cho a + b + c = 0; rut gon bieu thc B =
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
a b c
a - b - c b - c - a c - b - a
+ +
T a + b + c = 0 a = -(b + c) a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
+ 2bc a
2
- b
2
- c
2
= 2bc
Tng t ta co: b
2
- a
2
- c
2
= 2ac ; c
2
- b
2
- a
2
= 2ab (Hoan v vong quanh), nen
B =
2 2 2 3 3 3
a b c a b c
2bc 2ac 2ab 2abc
+ +
+ + = (1)
a + b + c = 0 -a = (b + c) -a
3
= b
3
+ c
3
+ 3bc(b + c) -a
3
= b
3
+ c
3
3abc
a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc (2)
Thay (2) vao (1) ta co B =
3 3 3
a b c 3abc 3
2abc 2abc 2
+ +
= = (V abc = 0)
c) Cho a, b, c tng oi mot khac nhau thoa man: (a + b + c)
2
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2

Rut gon bieu thc C =
2 2 2
2 2 2
a b c
+
a + 2bc b + 2ac c + 2ab
+
T (a + b + c)
2
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
ab + ac + bc = 0
a
2
+ 2bc = a
2
+ 2bc (ab + ac + bc) = a
2
ab + bc ac = (a b)(a c)
Tng t: b
2
+ 2 ac = (b a)(b c) ; c
2
+ 2ab = (c a)(c b)
C =
2 2 2 2 2 2
a b c a b c
+ -
(a - b)(a - c) (b - a)(b - c) (c - a)(c - b) (a - b)(a - c) (a - b)(b - c) (a - c)(b - c)
+ = +
=
2 2 2
a (b - c) b (a - c) c (b - c) (a - b)(a - c)(b - c)
- 1
(a - b)(a - c)(b - c) (a - b)(a - c)(b - c) (a - b)(a - c)(b - c) (a - b)(a - c)(b - c)
+ = =
* Dang 4: Chng minh ang thc thoa man ieu kien cua bien
1. Bai 1: Cho
1 1 1
+ + = 2
a b c
(1);
2 2 2
1 1 1
+ + = 2
a b c
(2).
Chng minh rang: a + b + c = abc
T (1) suy ra
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + 2. + + 4 2. + + 4 + +
a b c ab bc ac ab bc ac a b c
| | | | | |
= =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

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58
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG

1 1 1 a + b + c
+ + 1 1
ab bc ac abc
= = a + b + c = abc
2. Bai 2: Cho a, b, c 0 v a + b + c 0 tha mn iu kin
1 1 1 1
a b c a b c
+ + =
+ +
.
Chng minh rng trong ba s a, b, c c hai s i nhau.
T suy ra rng :
2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009
1 1 1 1
a b c a b c
+ + =
+ +
.
Ta c :
1 1 1 1
a b c a b c
+ + =
+ +

1 1 1 1
0
a b c a b c
+ + - =
+ +

a b a b
0
ab c(a b c)
+ +
+ =
+ +

a b 0 a b
c(a b c) ab
(a b). 0 (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = 0 b c 0 b c
abc(a b c)
c a 0 c a

+ = = -

+ + +

+ = + = = -

+ +

+ = = -

T suy ra :
2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
a b c a ( c) c a
+ + = + + =
-

2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009
1 1 1
a b c a ( c) c a
= =
+ + + - +

2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009
1 1 1 1
a b c a b c
+ + =
+ +
.
3. Bai 3: Cho
a b c b c a
+ +
b c a a b c
+ = + (1)
chng minh rang : trong ba so a, b, c ton tai hai so bang nhau
T (1)
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
a c + ab + bc = b c + ac + a b a (b - c) - a(c b ) bc(c - b) = 0 +
(c b)(a
2
ac = ab + bc) = 0 (c b)(a b)( a c) = 0 pcm
4. Bai 4: Cho (a
2
bc)(b abc) = (b
2
ac)(a abc); abc = 0 va a= b
Chng minh rang:
1 1 1
+ + = a + b + c
a b c

T GT a
2
b b
2
c - a
3
bc + ab
2
c
2
= ab
2
a
2
c ab
3
c + a
2
bc
2

(a
2
b ab
2
) + (a
2
c b
2
c) = abc
2
(a b) + abc(a - b)(a + b)
(a b)(ab + ac + bc) = abc(a b)(a + b + c)
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59
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG

ab + ac + bc
= a + b + c
abc

1 1 1
+ + = a + b + c
a b c

5. Bai 5: Cho a + b + c = x + y + z =
a b c
+ + = 0
x y z
; Chng minh rang: ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2
=
0
T x + y + z = 0 x
2
= (y + z)
2
; y
2
= (x + z)
2
; z
2
= (y + x)
2

ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2
= a(y + z)
2
+ b(x + z)
2
+ c (y + x)
2
=
= (b + c)x
2
+ (a + c)y
2
+ (a + b)z
2
+ 2(ayz + bxz + cxy) (1)
T a + b + c = 0 - a = b + c; - b = a + c; - c = a + b (2)
T
a b c
+ + = 0
x y z
ayz + bxz + cxy = 0 (3). Thay (2), (3) vao (1); ta co:
ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2
= -( ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2
) ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2
= 0
6. Bai 6: Cho
a b c
+ 0
b - c c - a a - b
+ = ; chng minh:
2 2 2
a b c
+ 0
(b - c) (c - a) (a - b)
+ =
T
a b c
+ 0
b - c c - a a - b
+ =
2 2
a b c b ab + ac - c
=
b - c a - c b - a (a - b)(c - a)

+ =

2 2
2
a b ab + ac - c
(b - c) (a - b)(c - a)(b - c)

## = (1) (Nhan hai ve vi

1
b - c
)
Tng t, ta co:
2 2
2
b c bc + ba - a
(c - a) (a - b)(c - a)(b - c)

= (2) ;
2 2
2
c a ac + cb - b
(a - b) (a - b)(c - a)(b - c)

= (3)
Cong tng ve (1), (2) va (3) ta co pcm
7. Bai 7:
Cho a + b + c = 0; chng minh:
a - b b - c c - a c a b
+ +
c a b a - b b - c c - a
| || |
+ +
| |
\ .\ .
= 9 (1)
at
a - b b - c c - a
= x ; ;
c a b
y z = =
c 1 a 1 b 1
= ;
a - b x b - c c - a y z
= =
(1) ( )
1 1 1
x + y + z + + 9
x y z
| |
=
|
\ .

Ta co: ( )
1 1 1 y + z x + z x + y
x + y + z + + 3 + +
x y z x y z
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
(2)
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60
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Ta lai co:
2 2
y + z b - c c - a c b bc + ac - a c c(a - b)(c - a - b) c(c - a - b)
. .
x a b a - b ab a - b ab(a - b) ab
| |
= + = = =
|
\ .

=
| |
2
c 2c - (a + b + c)
2c
ab ab
= (3)
Tng t, ta co:
2
x + z 2a
y bc
= (4) ;
2
x + y 2b
z ac
= (5)
Thay (3), (4) va (5) vao (2) ta co:
( )
1 1 1
x + y + z + + 3
x y z
| |
=
|
\ .
+
2 2 2
2c 2a 2b
ab bc ac
+ + = 3 +
2
abc
(a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
) (6)
T a + b + c = 0 a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc (7) ?
Thay (7) vao (6) ta co: ( )
1 1 1
x + y + z + + 3
x y z
| |
=
|
\ .
+
2
abc
. 3abc = 3 + 6 = 9
Bai tap ve nha:
1) cho
1 1 1
+ + 0
x y z
= ; tnh gia tr bieu thc A =
2 2 2
yz xz xy
+ +
x y z

HD: A =
3 3 3
xyz xyz xyz
+ +
x y z
; van dung a + b + c = 0 a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc
2) Cho a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc ; Tnh gia tr bieu thc A =
a b c
+ 1 + 1 + 1
b c a
| || || |
| | |
\ .\ .\ .

3) Cho x + y + z = 0; chng minh rang: 3 0
y z x z x y
x y z
+ + +
+ + + =
4) Cho a + b + c = a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= 1;
a b c
x y z
= = . Chng minh xy + yz + xz = 0

CHUYEN E 13 CAC BAI TOAN VE TAM GIAC ONG DANG

A. Kien thc:
* Tam giac ong dang:
a) trng hp th nhat: (c.c.c)
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61
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
AABC ABC
AB AC BC
= =
A'B' A'C' B'C'

b) trng hp th nhat: (c.g.c)
AABC ABC
AB AC
=
A'B' A'C'
;

A = A'
c. Trng hp ong dang th ba (g.g)
AABC ABC

A = A' ;

B = B'
AH; AHla hai ng cao tng ng th:
A'H'
AH
= k (T so ong dang);
A'B'C'
ABC
S
S
= K
2

B. Bai tap ap dung
Bai 1:
Cho AABC co

B = 2 C, AB = 8 cm, BC = 10 cm.
a)Tnh AC
b)Neu ba canh cua tam giac tren la ba so t nhien lien tiep th
moi canh la bao nhieu?
Giai
Cach 1:
Tren tia oi cua tia BA lay iem E sao cho:BD = BC
AACD AABC (g.g)
AB AC
=
2
AC AB. AD =AB.(AB + BD) = = AB(AB + BC)
= 8(10 + 8) = 144 AC = 12 cm
Cach 2:
Ve tia phan giac BE cua

## ABC AABE AACB

2
AB AE BE AE + BE AC
= AC = AB(AB + CB)
AC AB CB AB + CB AB + CB
= = = = 8(8 + 10) = 144
AC = 12 cm
E
D
C
B
A
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62
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
b) Goi AC = b, AB = a, BC = c th t cau a ta co b
2
= a(a + c) (1)
V b > anen co the b = a + 1 hoac b = a + 2
+ Neu b = a + 1 th (a + 1)
2

= a
2
+ ac 2a + 1 = ac a(c 2) = 1
a = 1; b = 2; c = 3(loai)
+ Neu b = a + 2 th a(c 4) = 4
- Vi a = 1 th c = 8 (loai)
- Vi a = 2 th c = 6 (loai)
- vi a = 4 th c = 6 ; b = 5
Vay a = 4; b = 5; c = 6
Bai 2:
Cho AABC can tai A, ng phan giac BD; tnh BD
biet BC = 5 cm; AC = 20 cm
Giai
Ta co
CD BC 1
=
= CD = 4 cm va BC = 5 cm
Bai toan tr ve bai 1
Bai 3:
Cho AABC can tai A va O la trung iem cua BC. Mot iem O di ong tren AB, lay
iem E tren AC sao cho
2
OB
CE =
BD
. Chng minh rang
c) DO, EO lan lt la phan giac cua cac goc BDE, CED
d) khoang cach t O en oan ED khong oi khi D di ong tren
AB
Giai
D
C B
A
2
1
3
2
1
H
I
O
E
D
C B
A
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63
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
a) T
2
OB
CE =
BD

CE OB
=
OB BD
va

B = C (gt) ADBO AOCE
b) T cau a suy ra

2 3 O = E (1)
V B, O ,C thang hang nen

0
3 O + DOE EOC 180 + = (2)
trong tam giac EOC th

0
2 E + C EOC 180 + = (3)
T (1), (2), (3) suy ra

DOE B C = =
DO OE
=
DB OC
va
DO OE
=
DB OB
(Do OC = OB) va

DOE B C = =
c) T cau b suy ra

1 2 D = D DO la phan giac cua cac goc BDE
Cung t cau b suy ra

1 2 E = E EO la phan giac cua cac goc CED
c) Goi OH, OI la khoang cach t O en DE, CE th OH = OI, ma O co nh nen OH
khong oi OI khong oi khi D di ong tren AB
Bai 4: (e HSG huyen Loc ha nam 2007 2008)
Cho AABC can tai A, co BC = 2a, M la trung iem BC, lay D, E thuoc AB, AC sao cho

DME = B
a) Chng minh tch BD. CE khong oi
b)Chng minh DM la tia phan giac cua

BDE
c) Tnh chu vi cua AAED neu A ABC la tam giac eu
Giai
a) Ta co

DMC = DME + CME = B + BDM, ma

DME = B(gt)
nen

CME = BDM, ket hp vi

B = C ( AABC can tai A)
suy ra ABDM ACME (g.g)

2
BD BM
= BD. CE = BM. CM = a
CM CE
khong oi
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64
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
b) ABDM ACME
DM BD DM BD
= =
ME CM ME BM

MDE = BMD hay
DM la tia phan giac cua

BDE
c) chng minh tng t ta co EM la tia phan giac cua

DEC
ke MH CE ,MI DE, MK DB th MH = MI = MK
DK =DI AEIM = AEHM EI = EH
Chu vi AAED la P
AED
= AD + DE + EA = AK +AH = 2AH (V AH = AK)
A ABC la tam giac eu nen suy ra A CME cung la tam giac eu CH =
MC
2 2
a
=
AH = 1,5a P
AED
= 2 AH = 2. 1,5 a = 3a
Bai 5:
Cho tam giac ABC, trung tuyen AM. Qua iem D thuoc canh
BC, ve ng thang song song vi AM, cat AB, AC tai E va F
a) chng minh DE + DF khong oi khi D di ong tren BC
b) Qua A ve ng thang song song vi BC, cat FE tai K.
Chng minh rang K la trung iem cua FE
Giai
a) DE // AM
DE BD BD
= DE = .AM
AM BM BM
(1)
DF // AM
DF CD CD CD
= DF = .AM = .AM
AM CM CM BM
(2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
DE + DF =
BD CD
.AM + .AM
BM BM
=
BD CD BC
+ .AM = .AM = 2AM
BM BM BM
| |
|
\ .
khong oi
b) AK // BC suy ra AFKA AAMC (g.g)
FK KA
=
AM CM
(3)
K
H
I
M
E
D
C B
A
K
F
E
D
M
C
B
A
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65
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
EK KA EK KA EK KA EK KA EK KA
= = =
ED BD ED + EK BD + KA KD BD + DM AM BM AM CM
= = (2)
(V CM = BM)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
FK EK
AM AM
= FK = EK hay K la trung iem cua FE
Bai 6: (e HSG huyen Thach ha nam 2003 2004)
Cho hnh thoi ABCD canh a co

0
A = 60 , mot ng thang bat ky qua C cat tia oi cua
cac tia BA, DA tai M, N
a) Chng minh rang tch BM. DN co gia tr khong oi
b) Goi K la giao iem cua BN va DM. Tnh so o cua goc BKD
Giai
a) BC // AN
MB CM
=
BA CN
(1)
CD// AM
=
CN DN
(2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
2
= MB.DN = BA.AD = a.a = a
BA DN

b) AMBD va ABDN co

MBD = BDN = 120
0

= =
BD BA CN DN DN
= = (Do ABCD la hnh thoi co

0
A = 60 nen AB = BC = CD =
DA) AMBD ABDN
Suy ra

1 1 M = B . AMBD va ABKD co

BDM = BDK va

1 1 M = B nen

0
BKD = MBD = 120
Bai 7:
Cho hnh bnh hanh ABCD co ng cheo ln
AC,tia Dx cat SC, AB, BC lan lt tai I, M, N. Ve
CE vuong goc vi AB, CF vuong goc vi AD, BG
1
1
K
M
N
D
C
B
A
I
K
F
G
E
M
D
C
B
A
N
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66
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
vuong goc vi AC. Goi K la iem oi xng vi D qua I. Chng minh rang
a) IM. IN = ID
2

b)
KM DM
=
KN DN

c) AB. AE + AD. AF = AC
2

Giai
IM CI
=
ID AI
(1)
T CD // AN
CI ID

AI IN
= (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
IM
ID
=
ID
IN
hay ID
2
= IM. IN
b) Ta co
DM CM DM CM DM CM
= = =
MN MB MN + DM MB + CM DN CB
(3)
T ID = IK va ID
2
= IM. IN suy ra IK
2
= IM. IN

IK IN IK - IM IN - IK KM KN KM IM
= = = =
IM IK IM IK IM IK KN IK

KM IM CM CM
=
= = (4)
T (3) va (4) suy ra
KM DM
=
KN DN

c) Ta co AAGB AAEC
AE AC
= AB.AE = AC.AG
AG AB
AB. AE = AG(AG + CG) (5)
ACGB AAFC
AF CG CG
=
AF . AD = AC. CG AF . AD = (AG + CG) .CG (6)
Cong (5) va (6) ve theo ve ta co: AB. AE + AF. AD = (AG + CG) .AG + (AG + CG)
.CG
AB. AE + AF. AD = AG
2
+2.AG.CG + CG
2
= (AG + CG)
2
= AC
2

Vay: AB. AE + AD. AF = AC
2

Bai tap ve nha
Bai 1
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67
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Cho Hnh bnh hanh ABCD, mot ng thang cat AB, AD, AC lan lt tai E, F, G
Chng minh:
+ =
AE AF AG

HD: Ke DM // FE, BN // FE (M, N thuoc AC)
Bai 2:
Qua nh C cua hnh bnh hanh ABCD, ke ng thang cat BD, AB, AD E, G, F
chng minh:
a) DE
2
=
FE
EG
. BE
2

b) CE
2
= FE. GE
(Gi y: Xet cac tam giac DFE va BCE, DEC va BEG)
Bai 3
Cho tam giac ABC vuong tai A, ng cao AH, trung tuyen BM, phan giac CD cat nhau
tai mot iem. Chng minh rang
a)
. . 1
HC MA BD
=
b) BH = AC

CHUYEN E 14 PHNG TRNH BAC CAO

A.Muc tieu:
* Cung co, on tap kien thc va ky nang giai cac Pt bac cao bang cach phan tch thanh
nhan t
* Khac sau ky nang phan tch a thc thanh nhan t va ky nang giai Pt
B. Kien thc va bai tap:
I. Phng phap:
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68
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
* Cach 1: e giai cac Pt bac cao, ta bien oi, rut gon e da Pt ve dang Pt co ve trai la
mot a thc bac cao, ve phai bang 0, van dung cac phng phap phan tch a thc
thanh nhan t e a Pt ve dang pt tch e giai
* Cach 2: at an phu
II. Cac v du:
1.V du 1: Giai Pt
a) (x + 1)
2
(x + 2) + (x 1)
2
(x 2) = 12
... 2x
3
+ 10x = 12 x
3
+ 5x 6 = 0 (x
3
1) + (5x 5) (x 1)(x
2
+ x + 6) =
0

2
2
x = 1
x - 1 = 0
x 1
1 23
x + x + 6 = 0 x + 0
2 4

=
| |

+ =
|

\ .
(V
2
1 23
x + 0
2 4
| |
+ =
|
\ .
vo nghiem)
b) x
4
+ x
2
+ 6x 8 = 0 (1)
Ve phai cua Pt la mot a thc co tong cac he so bang 0, nen co mot nghiem x = 1 nen
co nhan t la x 1, ta co
(1) (x
4
x
3
) + (x
3
x
2
) + (2x
2
2x) + (8x 8) = 0
... (x 1)(x
3
+ x
2
+ 2x + 8) (x 1)[(x
3
+ 2x
2
) (x
2
+ 2x) + (4x 8) ] = 0
(x 1)[x
2
(x + 2) x(x + 2) + 4(x + 2) = 0 (x 1)(x + 2)(x
2
x + 4) = 0 ....
c) (x 1)
3
+ (2x + 3)
3
= 27x
3
+ 8
x
3
3x
2
+ 3x 1 + 8x
3
+ 36x
2
+ 54x + 27 27x
3
8 = 0
- 18x
3
+ 33x
2
+ 57 x + 18 = 0 6x
3
- 11x
2
- 19x - 6 = 0 (2)
Ta thay Pt co mot nghiem x = 3, nen ve trai co nhan t x 3:
(2) (6x
3
18x
2
) + (7x
2
21x) + (2x 6) = 0
6x
2
(x 3) + 7x(x 3) + 2(x 3) = 0 (x 3)(6x
2
+ 7x + 2) = 0
(x 3)[(6x
2
+ 3x) + (4x + 2)] = 0 (x 3)[3x(2x + 1) + 2(2x + 1)] = 0
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69
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
(x 3)(2x + 1)(3x + 2) .....
d) (x
2
+ 5x)
2
2(x
2
+ 5x) = 24 [(x
2
+ 5x)
2
2(x
2
+ 5x) + 1] 25 = 0
(x
2
+ 5x - 1)
2
25 = 0 (x
2
+ 5x - 1 + 5)( (x
2
+ 5x - 1 5) = 0
(x
2
+ 5x + 4) (x
2
+ 5x 6) = 0 [(x
2
+ x) +(4x + 4)][(x
2
x) + (6x 6)] = 0
(x + 1)(x + 4)(x 1)(x + 6) = 0 ....
e) (x
2
+ x + 1)
2
= 3(x
4
+ x
2
+ 1) (x
2
+ x + 1)
2
- 3(x
4
+ x
2
+ 1) = 0
(x
2
+ x + 1)
2
3(x
2
+ x + 1)( x
2
- x + 1) = 0
( x
2
+ x + 1)[ x
2
+ x + 1 3(x
2
- x + 1)] = 0 ( x
2
+ x + 1)( -2x
2
+ 4x - 2) = 0
(x
2
+ x + 1)(x
2
2x + 1) = 0 ( x
2
+ x + 1)(x 1)
2
= 0...
f) x
5
= x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 2 (x
5
1) (x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1) = 0
(x 1) (x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1) (x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1) = 0
(x 2) (x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1) = 0
+) x 2 = 0 x = 2
+) x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1 = 0 (x
4
+ x
3
) + (x + 1) + x
2
= 0 (x + 1)(x
3
+ 1) + x
2
= 0
(x + 1)
2
(x
2
x + 1) + x
2
= 0 (x + 1)
2
[(x
2
2.x.
1
2
+
1
4
) +
3
4
] + x
2
= 0
(x + 1)
2
2
1 3
x + +
2 4
(
| |
(
|
\ .
(

+ x
2
= 0 Vo nghiem v (x + 1)
2
2
1 3
x + +
2 4
(
| |
(
|
\ .
(

> 0 nhng
khong xay ra dau bang
Bai 2:
a) (x
2
+ x - 2)( x
2
+ x 3) = 12 (x
2
+ x 2)[( x
2
+ x 2) 1] 12 = 0
(x
2
+ x 2)
2
(x
2
+ x 2) 12 = 0
at x
2
+ x 2 = y Th
(x
2
+ x 2)
2
(x
2
+ x 2) 12 = 0 y
2
y 12 = 0 (y 4)(y + 3) = 0
* y 4 = 0 x
2
+ x 2 4 = 0 x
2
+ x 6 = 0 (x
2
+ 3x) (2x + 6) = 0
(x + 3)(x 2) = 0....
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70
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
* y + 3 = 0 x
2
+ x 2 + 3 = 0 x
2
+ x + 1 = 0 (vo nghiem)
b) (x 4)( x 5)( x 6)( x 7) = 1680 (x
2
11x + 28)( x
2
11x + 30) = 1680
at x
2
11x + 29 = y , ta co:
(x
2
11x + 28)( x
2
11x + 30) = 1680 (y + 1)(y 1) = 1680 y
2
= 1681 y = 41
y = 41 x
2
11x + 29 = 41 x
2
11x 12 = 0 (x
2
x) + (12x 12) = 0
(x 1)(x + 12) = 0.....
* y = - 41 x
2
11x + 29 = - 41 x
2
11x + 70 = 0 (x
2
2x.
11
2
+
121
4
)+
159
4
= 0
c) (x
2
6x + 9)
2
15(x
2
6x + 10) = 1 (3)
at x
2
6x + 9 = (x 3)
2
= y > 0, ta co
(3) y
2
15(y + 1) 1 = 0 y
2
15y 16 = 0 (y + 1)(y 15) = 0
Vi y + 1 = 0 y = -1 (loai)
Vi y 15 = 0 y = 15 (x 3)
2
= 16 x 3 = 4
+ x 3 = 4 x = 7
+ x 3 = - 4 x = - 1
d) (x
2
+ 1)
2
+ 3x(x
2
+ 1) + 2x
2
= 0 (4)
at x
2
+ 1 = y th
(4) y
2
+ 3xy + 2x
2
= 0 (y
2
+ xy) + (2xy + 2x
2
) = 0 (y + x)(y + 2x) = 0
+) x + y = 0 x
2
+ x + 1 = 0 : Vo nghiem
+) y + 2x = 0 x
2
+ 2x + 1 = 0 (x + 1)
2
= 0 x = - 1
Bai 3:
a) (2x + 1)(x + 1)
2
(2x + 3) = 18 (2x + 1)(2x + 2)
2
(2x + 3) = 72. (1)
at 2x + 2 = y, ta co
(1) (y 1)y
2
(y + 1) = 72 y
2
(y
2
1) = 72
y
4
y
2
72 = 0
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71
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
at y
2
= z > 0 Th y
4
y
2
72 = 0 z
2
z 72 = 0 (z + 8)( z 9) = 0
* z + 8 = 0 z = - 8 (loai)
* z 9 = 0 z = 9 y
2
= 9 y = 3 x = ...
b) (x + 1)
4
+ (x 3)
4
= 82 (2)
at y = x 1 x + 1 = y + 2; x 3 = y 2, ta co
(2) (y + 2)
4
+ (y 2)
4
= 82
y
4
+8y
3
+ 24y
2
+ 32y + 16 + y
4
- 8y
3
+ 24y
2
- 32y + 16 = 82
2y
4
+ 48y
2
+ 32 82 = 0 y
4
+ 24y
2
25 = 0
at y
2
= z > 0 y
4
+ 24y
2
25 = 0 z
2
+ 24 z 25 = 0 (z 1)(z + 25) = 0
+) z 1 = 0 z = 1 y = 1 x = 0; x = 2
+) z + 25 = 0 z = - 25 (loai)
Chu y: Khi giai Pt bac 4 dang (x + a)
4
+ (x + b)
4
= c ta thng at an phu y = x +
a + b
2

c) (4 x)
5
+ (x 2)
5
= 32 (x 2)
5
(x 4)
5
= 32
at y = x 3 x 2 = y + 1; x 4 = y 1; ta co:
(x 2)
5
(x 4)
5
= 32 (y + 1)
5
- (y 1)
5
= 32
y
5
+ 5y
4
+ 10y
3
+ 10y
2
+ 5y + 1 (y
5
- 5y
4
+ 10y
3
- 10y
2
+ 5y - 1) 32 = 0
10y
4
+ 20y
2
30 = 0 y
4
+ 2y
2
3 = 0
at y
2
= z > 0 y
4
+ 2y
2
3 = 0 z
2
+ 2z 3 = 0 (z 1)(z + 3) = 0 ........
d) (x - 7)
4
+ (x 8)
4
= (15 2x)
4

at x 7 = a; x 8 = b ; 15 2x = c th - c = 2x 15 a + b = - c , Nen
(x - 7)
4
+ (x 8)
4
= (15 2x)
4
a
4
+ b
4
= c
4
a
4
+ b
4
- c
4
= 0 a
4
+ b
4
(a + b)
4
= 0
4ab(a
2
+
3
2
ab + b
2
) = 0
2
2
3 7
4ab a + b + b
4 16
(
| |
(
|
\ .
(

= 0 4ab = 0
(V
2
2
3 7
a + b + b
4 16
| |
|
\ .
> 0 nhng khong xay ra dau bang) ab = 0 x = 7; x = 8
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72
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
e) 6x
4
+ 7x
3
36x
2
7x + 6 = 0
2
2
1 1
6 x 7 x - 36 0
x x
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .

(V x = 0 khong la nghiem). at
1
x -
x
= y
2
2
1
x
x
+ = y
2
+ 2 , th
2
2
1 1
6 x 7 x - 36 0
x x
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .
6(y
2
+ 2) + 7y 36 = 0 6y
2
+ 7y 24 = 0
(6y
2
9y) + (16y 24) = 0 (3y + 8 )(2y 3) = 0
+) 3y + 8 = 0 y = -
8
3

1
x -
x
= -
8
3
... (x + 3)(3x 1) = 0
x = - 3
x + 3 = 0
1
3x - 1 = 0 x =
3

+) 2y 3 = 0 y =
3
2

1
x -
x
=
3
2
... (2x + 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 2
x - 2 = 0
1
2x + 1 = 0 x = -
2

Bai 4: Chng minh rang: cac Pt sau vo nghiem
a) x
4
3x
2
+ 6x + 13 = 0 ( x
4
4x
2
+ 4) +(x
2
+ 6x + 9) = 0 (x
2
2)
2
+ (x + 3)
2
= 0
Ve trai (x
2
2)
2
+ (x + 3)
2
> 0 nhng khong ong thi xay ra x
2
= 2 va x = -3
b) x
6
+ x
5
+ x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1 = 0 (x 1)( x
6
+ x
5
+ x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1) = 0
x
7
1 = 0 x = 1
x = 1 khong la nghiem cua Pt x
6
+ x
5
+ x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1 = 0
Bai tap ve nha:
Bai 1: Giai cac Pt
a)(x
2
+ 1)
2
= 4(2x 1)
HD: Chuyen ve, trien khai (x
2
+ 1)
2
, phan tch thanh nhan t: (x 1)
2
(x
2
+ 2x + 5) = 0
b) x(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) = 24 (Nhan 2 nhan t vi nhau, ap dung PP at an phu)
c) (12x + 7)
2
(3x + 2)(2x + 1) = 3 (Nhan 2 ve vi 24, at 12x + 7 = y)
d) (x
2
9)
2
= 12x + 1 (Them, bt 36x
2
)
e) (x 1)
4
+ (x 2)
4
= 1 ( at y = x 1,5; s: x = 1; x = 2)
f) (x 1)
5
+ (x + 3)
5
= 242(x + 1) (at x + 1 = y; s:0; -1; -2 )
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73
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
g) (x + 1)
3
+ (x - 2)
3
= (2x 1)
3

at x + 1 = a; x 2 = b; 1 - 2x = c th a + b + c = 0 a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc
h) 6x
4
+ 5x
3
38x
2
+ 5x + 6 = 0 (Chia 2 ve cho x
2
; at y =
1
x +
x
)
i) x
5
+ 2x
4
+ 3x
3

+ 3x
2
+ 2x + 1 = 0 (Ve trai la a thc co tong cac he so bac chan
bang tong cac he so bac le...)
Bai 2: Chng minh cac pt sau vo nghiem
a) 2x
4
10x
2
+ 17 = 0
(Phan tch ve trai thanh tong cua hai bnh phng)
b) x
4
2x
3

+ 4x
2
3x + 2 = 0
(Phan tch ve trai thanh tch cua 2 a thc co gia tr khong am....)

CHUYEN E 1 5 S DUNG CONG THC DIEN TCH E THIET
LAP QUAN HE O DAI CUA CAC OAN THANG
Ngay soan:23 3 - 2010
A. Mot so kien thc:
1. Cong thc tnh dien tch tam giac:
S =
1
2
a.h (a o dai mot canh, h o dai ng cao tng ng)
2. Mot so tnh chat:
Hai tam giac co chung mot canh, co cung o dai ng cao th co cung dien tch
Hai tam giac bang nhau th co cung dien tch
B. Mot so bai toan:
1. Bai 1:
Cho AABC co AC = 6cm; AB = 4 cm; cac ng cao AH; BK; CI. Biet AH =
CI + BK
2

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74
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Tnh BC
Giai
Ta co: BK =
ABC
2S
AC
; CI =
ABC
2S
AB

BK + CI = 2. S
ABC

1 1
AC AB
| |
+
|
\ .

2AH = 2.
1
2
. BC. AH .
1 1
AC AB
| |
+
|
\ .
BC.
1 1
AC AB
| |
+
|
\ .
= 2
BC = 2 :
1 1
AC AB
| |
+
|
\ .
= 2 :
1 1
6 4
| |
+
|
\ .
= 4,8 cm
Bai 2:
Cho AABC co o dai cac canh la a, b, c; o dai cac ng cao tng ng la h
a
, h
b
, h
c
.
Biet rang a + h
a
= b + h
b
= c + h
c
. Chng minh rang AABC la tam giac eu
Giai
Goi S
ABC
= S
Ta xet a + h
a
= b + h
b
a b = h
a
h
b
=
2S 2S 1 1 a - b
- 2S. - 2S.
b a b a ab
| |
= =
|
\ .

a b =
a - b
2S.
ab
(a b)
2S
1 -
ab
| |
|
\ .
= 0 AABC can C hoac vuong C (1)
Tng t ta co: AABC can A hoac vuong A (2); AABC can B hoac vuong B (3)
T (1), (2) va (3) suy ra AABC can hoac vuong ba nh (Khong xay ra vuong tai ba
nh) AABC la tam giac eu
Bai 3:
Cho iem O nam trong tam giac ABC, cac tia AO, BO, Co cat cac canh cua tam giac
ABC theo th t tai A, B, C. Chng minh rang:
a)
OA' OB' OC'
1
AA' BB' CC'
+ + = b)
OA OB OC
2
AA' BB' CC'
+ + =
c) M =
OA OB OC
6
OA' OB' OC'
+ + = . Tm v tr cua O e tong M co gia tr nho nhat
K
I
H C B
A
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75
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
d) N =
OA OB OC
. . 8
OA' OB' OC'
= . Tm v tr cua O e tch N co gia
tr nho nhat
Giai
Goi S
ABC
= S, S
1
= S
BOC
, S
2
= S
COA
, S
3
= S
AOB
. Ta co:

3 2 3 2
OA'C OA'B 1
S S S S OA
= =
OA' S S S
+
= (1)

OA'C OA'B OA'C OA'B 1
AA'C AA'B AA'C AA'B
S S S S S OA'
= =
AA' S S S S S
+
= =
+
(2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
2 3
S S OA

AA' S
+
=
Tng t ta co
1 3
2
S S OB

OB' S
+
= ;
1 2
3
S S OC

OC' S
+
= ;
2
S OB'

BB' S
= ;
3
S OC'

CC' S
=
a)
3 1 2
S S S OA' OB' OC' S
1
AA' BB' CC' S S S S
+ + = + + = =
b)
2 3 1 3 1 2
S S S S S S OA OB OC 2S
2
AA' BB' CC' S S S S
+ + +
+ + = + + = =
c) M =
2 3 1 3 3 3 1 2 1 2 2 1
1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1
S S S S S S S S S S S S OA OB OC
OA' OB' OC' S S S S S S S S S
| | | | | | + + +
+ + = + + = + + + + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Ap dung Bt Co si ta co
3 3 1 2 2 1
2 1 2 3 3 1
S S S S S S
2 2 2 6
S S S S S S
| | | | | |
+ + + + + > + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

ang thc xay ra khi S
1
= S
2
= S
3
O la trong tam cua tam giac ABC
d) N =
( )( )( )
2 3 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
S S S S S S S S S S S S
. .
S S S S .S .S
+ + + + + +
=
N
2
=
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 3
2 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
S S S S S S 4S S .4S S .4S S
64
S .S .S S .S .S
+ + +
> > N > 8
ang thc xay ra khi S
1
= S
2
= S
3
O la trong tam cua tam giac ABC
Bai 4:
Cho tam giac eu ABC, cac ng caoAD, BE, CF; goi A, B, C la hnh chieu cua M
C'
B'
A'
O
C
B
A
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76
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
(nam ben trong tam giac ABC) tren AD, BE, CF. Chng minh rang: Khi M thay oi v
tr trong tam giac ABC th:
a) AD + BE + CF khong oi
b) AA + BB + CC khong oi
Giai
Goi h = AH la chieu cao cua tam giac ABC th h khong oi
Goi khoang cach t M en cac canh AB; BC; CA la MP; MQ; MR th AD + BE + CF
= MQ + MR + MP
V M nam trong tam giac ABC nen
S
BMC
+ S
CMA
+ S
BMA
= S
ABC

BC.(MQ + MR + MP) = BC . AH
MQ + MR + MP = AH AD + BE + CF = AH = h
Vay: AD + BE + CF = AH = h khong oi
b) AA + BB + CC = (AH AD)+(BE BE) (CF CF)
= (AH + BE + CF) (AD + BE + CF) = 3h h = 2h khong oi
Bai 5:
Cho tam giac ABC co BC bang trung bnh cong cua AC va AB; Goi I la giao iem cua
cac phan giac, G la trong tam cua tam giac. Chng minh: IG // BC
Giai
Goi khoang cach t a, I, G en BC lan lt la AH, IK, GD
V I la giap iem cua ba ng phan giac nen khoang cach
t I en ba canh AB, BC, CA bang nhau va bang IK
V I nam trong tam giac ABC nen:
S
ABC
= S
AIB
+ S
BIC
+ S
CIA
BC.AH = IK(AB+BC+CA) (1)
R
Q
P
C'
B'
A'
M
F
E
D C B
A
M K H
G I
D
C B
A
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77
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Ma BC =
AB + CA
2
AB + CA = 2 BC (2)
Thay (2) vao (1) ta co: BC. AH = IK. 3BC IK =
1
3
AH (a)
V G la trong tam cua tam giac ABC nen:
S
BGC
=
1
3
S
ABC
BC . GD =
1
3
BC. AH GD =
1
3
AH (b)
T (a) va (b) suy ra IK = GD hay khoang cach t I, G en BC bang nhau nen IG // BC
Bai tap ve nha:
1) Cho C la iem thuoc tia phan giac cua

0
xOy = 60 , Mla iem bat ky nam tren ng
vuong goc vi OC tai C va thuoc mien trong cua

## xOy , goi MA, MB th t la khoang

cach t M en Ox, Oy. Tnh o dai OC theo MA, MB
2) Cho M la iem nam trong tam giac eu ABC. A, B, C la hnh chieu cua M tren
cac canh BC, AC, AB. Cac ng thang vuong goc vi BC tai C, vuong goc vi CA tai
A , vuong goc vi AB tai B cat nhau D, E, F. Chng minh rang:
a) Tam giac DEF la tam giac eu
b) AB + BC + CA khong phu thuoc v tr cua M trong tam giac ABC

CHUYEN E 16 BAT ANG THC

Phn I : cc kin thc cn lu
1-inhngha:
0
0
A B A B
A B A B
> >

s s

2-tnh cht
+ A>B A B <
+ A>B v B >C A > C
+ A>B A + C >B + C
+ A>B v C > D A +C > B + D
+ A > B > 0 A
n
> B
n
n
+ A > B A
n
> B
n
vi n l
+ A > B A
n
> B
n
vi n chn
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78
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
+ A>B v C > 0 A.C > B.C
+ A>B v C < 0 A.C < B.C
+ 0 < A < B v 0 < C < D 0 < A.C < B.D
+ m > n > 0 v A > 1 A
m
> A
n

+ m > n > 0 v 0 <A < 1 A
m
< A
n

+A < B v A.B > 0
B A
1 1
>
3 - mt s hng bt ng thc
+ A
2
> 0 vi A ( du = xy ra khi A = 0 )
+ A
n
> 0 vi A ( du = xy ra khi A = 0 )
+ 0 > A vi A (du = xy ra khi A = 0 )
+ - A < A = A
+ A B A B + > + ( du = xy ra khi A.B > 0)
+ B A B A s ( du = xy ra khi A.B < 0)
Phn II : mt s phng php chng minh bt ng thc
1) Phng php 1: dng nh ngha
Kin thc : chng minh A > B Ta chng minh A B > 0
Lu dng hng bt ng thc M
2
> 0 vi M
V d 1 x, y, z chng minh rng :
a) x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> xy+ yz + zx
b) x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> 2xy 2xz + 2yz
Gii:
a) Ta xt hiu : x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- xy yz zx =
2
1
.2 .( x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- xy yz zx)
=
2
1
2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) x y x z y z ( + +

> 0 ng vi mi x;y;z R e
V (x-y)
2
>0 vix ; y .Du bng xy ra khi x = y
(x- z)
2
>0 vix ; z . Du bng xy ra khi x = z
(y- z)
2
>0 vi z; y . Du bng xy ra khi z = y
Vy x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> xy+ yz + zx . Du bng xy ra khi x = y =z
b)Ta xt hiu:
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- ( 2xy 2xz +2yz ) = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- 2xy +2xz 2yz = ( x y + z)
2
0 >
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79
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
ng vi mi x;y;z R e
Vy x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> 2xy 2xz + 2yz ng vi mi x;y;z R e
Du bng xy ra khi x + y = z
V d 2: chng minh rng :
a)
2
2 2
2 2
|
.
|

\
| +
>
+ b a b a
; b)
2
2 2 2
3 3
|
.
|

\
| + +
>
+ + c b a c b a
c) Hy tng qut bi ton
gii
a) Ta xt hiu
2
2 2
2 2
|
.
|

\
| +

+ b a b a
=
( )
4
2
4
2
2 2 2 2
b ab a b a + +

+
= ( ) ab b a b a 2 2 2
4
1
2 2 2 2
+ = ( ) 0
4
1
2
> b a
Vy
2
2 2
2 2
|
.
|

\
| +
>
+ b a b a
Du bng xy ra khi a = b
b)Ta xt hiu:
2
2 2 2
3 3
|
.
|

\
| + +

+ + c b a c b a
= ( ) ( ) ( ) | | 0
9
1
2 2 2
> + + a c c b b a
Vy
2
2 2 2
3 3
|
.
|

\
| + +
>
+ + c b a c b a
Du bng xy ra khi a = b =c
c)Tng qut:
2
2 1
2 2
2
2
1
.... ....
|
.
|

\
| + + +
>
+ + +
n
a a a
n
a a a
n n

* Tm li cc bc chng minh A>B theo nh ngha
Bc 1: Ta xt hiu H = A - B
Bc 2:Bin i H = (C+D)
2
hoc H=(C+D)
2
+ .+(E+F)
2

Bc 3: Kt lun A > B
2) phng php 2 : Dng php bin i tng ng
Lu :
Ta bin i bt ng thc cn chng minh tng ng vi bt ng thc ng hoc bt
ng thc c chng minh l ng.
V d 1: Cho a, b, c, d,e l cc s thc chng minh rng
a) ab
b
a > +
4
2
2
b) b a ab b a + + > + + 1
2 2
c) ( ) e d c b a e d c b a + + + > + + + +
2 2 2 2 2

Gii:
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80
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
a) ab
b
a > +
4
2
2
ab b a 4 4
2 2
> + 0 4 4
2 2
> + b a a ( ) 0 2
2
> b a (Bt ny lun ng)
Vy ab
b
a > +
4
2
2
(du bng xy ra khi 2a = b)
b) b a ab b a + + > + + 1
2 2
) ) ( 2 1 ( 2
2 2
b a ab b a + + > + +
0 1 2 1 2 2
2 2 2 2
> + + + + + b b a a b ab a 0 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (
2 2 2
> + + b a b a (lun ng)
Vy b a ab b a + + > + + 1
2 2
Du bng xy ra khi a = b = 1
c) ( ) e d c b a e d c b a + + + > + + + +
2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) e d c b a e d c b a + + + > + + + + 4 4
2 2 2 2 2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
> + + + + + + + c ac a d ad a c ac a b ab a
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
> + + + c a d a c a b a
V d 2: Chng minh rng: ( )( ) ( )( )
4 4 8 8 2 2 10 10
b a b a b a b a + + > + +
Gii:
( )( ) ( )( )
4 4 8 8 2 2 10 10
b a b a b a b a + + > + +
12 8 4 4 8 12 12 10 2 2 10 12
b b a b a a b b a b a a + + + > + + +
( ) ( ) 0
2 2 8 2 2 2 2 8
> + a b b a b a b a a
2
b
2
(a
2
-b
2
)(a
6
-b
6
) > 0 a
2
b
2
(a
2
-b
2
)
2
(a
4
+ a
2
b
2
+b
4
) > 0
V d 4: cho ba s thc khc khng x, y, z tha mn:

+ + < + +
=
z y x
z y x
z y x
1 1 1
1 . .

Chng minh rng : c ng mt trong ba s x,y,z ln hn 1
Gii: Xt (x-1)(y-1)(z-1) = xyz + (xy + yz + zx) + x + y + z - 1
= (xyz - 1) + (x + y + z) - xyz(
z y x
1 1 1
+ + ) = x + y + z - ( 0 )
1 1 1
> + +
z y x

(v
z y x
1 1 1
+ + < x+y+z theo gt) 2 trong 3 s x-1 , y-1 , z-1 m hoc c ba s-1 , y-1, z-1 l
dng.
N trng hp sau xy ra th x, y, z >1 x.y.z>1 Mu thun gt x.y.z =1 bt buc phi
xy ra trng hp trn tc l c ng 1 trong ba s x ,y ,z l s ln hn 1
3) Phng php 3: dng bt ng thc quen thuc
A) mt s bt ng thc hay dng
1) Cc bt ng thc ph:
a) xy y x 2
2 2
> + b) xy y x > +
2 2
du( = ) khi x = y = 0
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81
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
c) ( ) xy y x 4
2
> + d) 2 > +
a
b
b
a

2)Bt ng thc C sy:
n
n
n
a a a a
n
a a a a
....
....
3 2 1
3 2 1
>
+ + + +
Vi 0 >
i
a
3)Bt ng thc Bunhiacopski
( )( ) ( )
2
2 2 1 1
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
2
.... .... . ....
n n n n
x a x a x a x x a a a + + + > + + + + + +
4) Bt ng thc Tr-b - sp:
Nu

s s
s s
C B A
c b a

3
.
3 3
C B A c b a cC bB aA + + + +
>
+ +

Nu

> >
s s
C B A
c b a

3
.
3 3
C B A c b a cC bB aA + + + +
s
+ +

Du bng xy ra khi

= =
= =
C B A
c b a

B) cc v d
v d 1
Cho a, b ,c l cc s khng m chng minh rng (a+b) (b+c)(c+a) > 8abc
Gii: Dng bt ng thc ph: ( ) xy y x 4
2
> +
Tac ( ) ab b a 4
2
> + ; ( ) bc c b 4
2
> + ; ( ) ac a c 4
2
> +
( )
2
b a + ( )
2
c b + ( )
2
a c + > ( )
2 2 2 2
8 64 abc c b a = (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) > 8abc
Du = xy ra khi a = b = c
v d 2: Cho a > b > c > 0 v 1
2 2 2
= + + c b a chng minh rng
3 3 3
1
2
a b c
b c a c a b
+ + >
+ + +

Do a,b,c i xng , gi s a > b > c

+
>
+
>
+
> >
b a
c
c a
b
c b
a
c b a
2 2 2

p dng BT Tr- b-sp ta c
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
>
+
+
+
+
+ b a
c
c a
b
c b
a c b a
b a
c
c
c a
b
b
c b
a
a .
3
. . .
2 2 2
2 2 2
=
2
3
.
3
1
=
2
1

Vy
2
1
3 3 3
>
+
+
+
+
+ b a
c
c a
b
c b
a
Du bng xy ra khi a = b = c =
3
1

v d 3: Cho a,b,c,d > 0 v abcd =1 .Chng minh rng :
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82
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
( ) ( ) ( ) 10
2 2 2 2
> + + + + + + + + + a c d d c b c b a d c b a
Ta c ab b a 2
2 2
> + ; cd d c 2
2 2
> +
Do abcd =1 nn cd =
ab
1
(dng
2
1 1
> +
x
x )
Ta c 4 )
1
( 2 ) ( 2
2 2 2
> + = + > + +
ab
ab cd ab c b a (1)
Mt khc: ( ) ( ) ( ) a c d d c b c b a + + + + + = (ab + cd) + (ac + bd) + (bc + ad)
= 2 2 2
1 1 1
+ + > |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+
bc
bc
ac
ac
ab
ab ( ) ( ) ( ) 10
2 2 2 2
> + + + + + + + + + a c d d c b c b a d c b a
v d 4: Chng minh rng : ac bc ab c b a + + > + +
2 2 2

Gii: Dng bt ng thc Bunhiacopski
Xt cp s (1,1,1) v (a,b,c) ta c ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
. 1 . 1 . 1 ) ( 1 1 1 c b a c b a + + > + + + +
3( ) ( ) ac bc ab c b a c b a + + + + + > + + 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
ac bc ab c b a + + > + +
2 2 2
(pcm)
Du bng xy ra khi a = b = c
4) Phng php 4: dng tnh cht ca t s
A. Kin thc
1) Cho a, b ,c l cc s dng th
a Nu 1 >
b
a
th
c b
c a
b
a
+
+
> b Nu 1 <
b
a
th
c b
c a
b
a
+
+
<
2) Nu b,d >0 th t
d
c
d b
c a
b
a
d
c
b
a
<
+
+
< <
B. Cc v d:
v d 1: Cho a,b,c,d > 0 .Chng minh rng : 2 1 <
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
<
b a d
d
a d c
c
d c b
b
c b a
a

Theo tnh cht ca t l thc ta c
d c b a
d a
c b a
a
c b a
a
+ + +
+
<
+ +
<
+ +
1 (1)
Mt khc :
d c b a
a
c b a
a
+ + +
>
+ +
(2)
T (1) v (2) ta c
d c b a
a
+ + +
<
c b a
a
+ +
<
d c b a
d a
+ + +
+
(3)
Tng t ta c :
d c b a
a b
d c b
b
d c b a
b
+ + +
+
<
+ +
<
+ + +
(4)
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83
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG

d c b a
c b
a d c
c
d c b a
c
+ + +
+
<
+ +
<
+ + +
(5);
d c b a
c d
b a d
d
d c b a
d
+ + +
+
<
+ +
<
+ + +
(6)
cng v vi v ca (3); (4); (5); (6) ta c
2 1 <
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
<
b a d
d
a d c
c
d c b
b
c b a
a
(pcm)
v d 2 : Cho:
b
a
<
d
c
v b,d > 0
Chng minh rng
b
a
<
d
c
d b
cd ab
<
+
+
2 2

Gii: T
b
a
<
d
c
2 2
d
cd
b
ab
<
d
c
d
cd
d b
cd ab
b
ab
= <
+
+
<
2 2 2 2

b
a
<
d
c
d b
cd ab
<
+
+
2 2
(pcm)
v d 3 : Cho a;b;c;d l cc s nguyn dng tha mn : a + b = c+d =1000
tm gi tr ln nht ca
d
b
c
a
+
gii : Khng mt tnh tng qut ta gi s :
c
a

d
b
s
d
b
d c
b a
c
a
s
+
+
s ; 1 s
c
a
v a + b = c + d
a, Nu: b 998 s th
d
b
998 s
d
b
c
a
+ s 999
b, Nu: b = 998 th a =1
d
b
c
a
+ =
d c
999 1
+ t gi tr ln nht khi d = 1; c = 999
Vy: gi tr ln nht ca
d
b
c
a
+ = 999 +
999
1
khi a = d = 1; c = b = 999
V d 4 : Vi mi s t nhin n >1 chng minh rng :
4
3 1
....
2
1
1
1
2
1
<
+
+ +
+
+
+
<
n n n n

Ta c
n n n k n 2
1 1 1
=
+
>
+
vi k = 1,2,3, ,n-1
Do :
2
1
2 2
1
...
2
1
2
1
...
2
1
1
1
= = + + > + +
+
+
+ n
n
n n n n n

V d 5: CMR: A =
2 2 2 2
1
........
4
1
3
1
2
1
1
n
+ + + + + v i n 2 khng l s t nhin
HD:
2 2
1 1 1 1
; ;.....
2 1.2. 3 2.3
< <
V d 6: Cho a ,b ,c ,d > 0 .Chng minh rng :
2 3
a b b c c d d a
a b c b c d c d a d a b
+ + + +
< + + + <
+ + + + + + + +

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84
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Gii :
V a ,b ,c ,d > 0 nn ta c:
a b a b a b d
a b c d a b c a b c d
+ + + +
< <
+ + + + + + + +
(1)

b c b c b c a
a b c d b c d a b c d
+ + + + +
< <
+ + + + + + + +
(2)

d a d a d a c
a b c d d a b a b c d
+ + + +
< <
+ + + + + + + +
(3)
Cng cc v ca 4 bt ng thc trn ta c :
2 3
a b b c c d d a
a b c b c d c d a d a b
+ + + +
< + + + <
+ + + + + + + +
(pcm)
5. Phng php 5:Dng bt ng thc trong tam gic
Lu : Nu a;b;cl s o ba cnh ca tam gic th : a; b; c > 0
V |b-c| < a < b+c ; |a-c| < b < a+c ; |a-b| < c < b+a
V d1:
Cho a; b; cl s o ba cnh ca tam gic chng minh rng
a, a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
< 2(ab + bc + ac)
b, abc > (a+b-c).(b+c-a).(c+a-b)
Gii
a)V a,b,c l s o 3 cnh ca mt tam gic nn ta c

+ < <
+ < <
+ < <
b a c
c a b
c b a
0
0
0

+ <
+ <
+ <
) (
) (
) (
2
2
2
b a c c
c a b b
c b a a

Cng tng v cc bt ng thc trn ta c a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
< 2(ab + bc + ac)
b) Ta c a > b-c
2 2 2
) ( c b a a > > 0
b > a-c
2 2 2
) ( a c b b > > 0
c > a-b 0 ) (
2 2 2
> > b a c c
Nhn v cc bt ng thc ta c: ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
a b c a b c b c a c a b
( ( (
>

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
. . a b c a b c b c a c a b abc a b c b c a c a b > + + + > + + +
V d2: (i bin s)
Cho a,b,c l ba cnh ca mt tam gic. Chng minh rng
2
3
>
+
+
+
+
+ b a
c
a c
b
c b
a
(1)
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85
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
t x= b + c ; y= c + a ;z = a + b ta c a =
2
x z y +
; b =
2
y x z +
; c =
2
z y x +

ta c (1)
z
z y x
y
y x z
x
x z y
2 2 2
+
+
+
+
+

2
3
> 3 1 1 1 > + + + + +
z
y
z
x
y
z
y
x
x
z
x
y

( 6 ) ( ) ( ) > + + + + +
z
y
y
z
z
x
x
z
y
x
x
y
l Bt ng?
V d 3: (i bin s)
Cho a, b, c > 0 v a + b + c <1. Chng minh rng : 9
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
>
+
+
+
+
+ ab c ac b bc a
(1)
Gii: t x = bc a 2
2
+ ; y = ac b 2
2
+ ; z = ab c 2
2
+
Ta c ( ) 1
2
< + + = + + c b a z y x
(1) 9
1 1 1
> + +
z y x
Vi x + y + z < 1 v x ,y,z > 0
Theo bt ng thc Csi ta c:
> + + z y x 3.
3
xyz v > + +
z y x
1 1 1
3. . 3
1
xyz
( ) 9
1 1 1
. >
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
z y x
z y x
6) phng php lm tri :
Chng minh BT sau :
a)
1 1 1 1
...
1.3 3.5 (2 1).(2 1) 2 n n
+ + + <
+

b)
1 1 1
1 ... 2
1.2 1.2.3 1.2.3.....n
+ + + + <
Gii :
a) Ta c :
( ) ( )
( ) 2 1 (2 1)
1 1 1 1 1
.
2 1 . 2 1 2 (2 1).(2 1) 2 2 1 2 1
k k
n n k k k k
+
| |
= =
|
+ + +
\ .

Cho n chy t 1 n k .Sau cng li ta c

1 1 1 1 2 1
... . 1
1.3 3.5 (2 1).(2 1) 2 2 1 2 n n n
| |
+ + + = <
|
+ +
\ .
(pcm)
b) Ta c :
( )
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 ... 1 .....
1.2 1.2.3 1.2.3..... 1.2 1.2.3 1 . n n n
+ + + + < + + + +

<
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 .... 2 2
2 2 3 1 n n n
| | | | | |
+ + + + < <
| | |

\ . \ . \ .
(pcm)
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86
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Bi tp v nh:
1) Chng minh rng: x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+3 > 2 (x + y + z)
HD: Ta xt hiu: x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+3 2( x+ y +z ) = x
2
- 2x + 1 + y
2
-2y +1 + z
2
-2z +1
2) Cho a ,b,c l s o ba cnh tam gic. Chng minh rng : 1 2
a b c
b c c a a b
< + + <
+ + +

(HD:
2 a a a a
b c a b c a b c
+
< =
+ + + + +
v
a a
b c a b c
>
+ + +
)
3) 1 <
1 1 1 1 1
... ...
n + 1 n + 2 2n + 1 3n 3n + 1
+ + + + + + < 2
p dng phng php lm tri
4) Cho a, b, c > 0. Chng minh rng
bc ac ab
a b c
+ + > a + b + c
HD:
bc ac
a b
+ = c
b a
a b
| |
+
|
\ .
> 2c;
ac ab
b c
+ ? ;
bc ab
a c
+ ?

CHUYEN E 17 VE NG THANG SONG SONG E TAO
THANH CAC CAP OAN THANG TY LE

A.Phng phap:
Trong cac bai tap van dung nh l Talet. Nhieu khi ta can ve them ng phla mot
ng thang song song vi mot ng thang cho trc,. ay la mot cach ve ng phu
hay dung, v nh o ma tao thanh c cac cap oan thang t le
B. Cac v du:
1) V du 1:
Tren cac canh BC, CA, AB cua tam giac ABC, lay tng ng
cac iem P, Q, R sao cho ba ng thang AP, BQ, CR cat
nhau tai mot iem.
O
F
E
R
Q
C P B
A
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87
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Chng minh:
AR BP CQ
. . 1
RB PC QA
= (nh l Ce va)
Giai
Qua A ke ng thang song song vi BC cat cac ng thang CR, BQ tai E, F. Goi O la
giao iem cua AP, BQ, CR
AARE ABRC
AR AE
=
RB BC
(a)
ABOP AFOA
BP OP
=
FA OA
(1)
APOC AAOE
PC PO
=
AE AO
= (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra:
BP PC BP FA
=
FA AE PC AE
= (b)
AAQF ACQB
CQ BC
=
AQ FA
(c)
Nhan (a), (b), (c) ve theo ve ta co:
AR BP CQ AE FA BC
. . . . 1
RB PC QA BC AE FA
= =
* ao lai: Neu
AR BP CQ
. . 1
RB PC QA
= th bai ng thang AP, BQ, CR ong quy
2) V du 2:
Mot ng thang bat ky cat cac canh( phan keo dai cua cac canh) cua tam giac ABC
tai P, Q, R.
Chng minh rang:
RB.QA.PC
1
RA.CQ.BP
= (nh l Me-ne-la-uyt)
Giai:
Qua A ke ng thang song song vi BC cat PR tai E. Ta co
ARAE ARBP
RB BP
=
RA AE
(a)
AAQE ACQP
QA AE
=
QC CP
(b)
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88
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Nhan ve theo ve cac ang thc (a) va (b) ta co
RB QA BP AE
. = .
RA QC AE CP
(1)
Nhan hai ve ang thc (1) vi
PC
BP
ta co:
RB PC QA BP AE PC
. . = . . 1
RA BP QC AE CP BP
=
ao lai: Neu
RB.QA.PC
1
RA.CQ.BP
= th ba iem P, Q, R thang hang
3) V du 3:
Cho tam giac ABC, trung tuyen AM. Goi I la iem bat ky tren
canh BC. ng thang qua I song song vi AC cat AB K; ng
thang qua I song song vi AB cat AC, AM theo th t D, E.
Chng minh DE = BK
Giai
Qua M ke MN // IE (Ne AC).Ta co:
DE AE DE MN
=
MN AN AE AN
= (1)
MN // IE, ma MB = MC AN = CN (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
DE MN
AE CN
= (3)
Ta lai co
MN CN MN AB
AB AC CN AC
= = (4)
T (4) va (5) suy ra
DE AB
AE AC
= (a)
Tng t ta co:
BK AB
KI AC
= (6)
V KI // AC, IE // AC nen t giac AKIE la hnh bnh hanh nen KI = AE (7)
T (6) va (7) suy ra
BK BK AB
KI AE AC
= = (b)
T (a) va (b) suy ra
DE BK
AE AE
= DE = BK
N
D
I
M
E
K
C
B
A
E
R
Q
C P B
A
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89
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
4) V du 4:
ng thang qua trung iem cua canh oi AB, CD cua t
giac ABCD cat cac ng thang AD, BC theo th t I, K.
Chng minh: IA . KC = ID. KB
Giai
Goi M, N theo th t la trung iem cua AB, CD
Ta co AM = BM; DN = CN
Ve AE, BF lan lt song song vi CD
AAME = ABMF (g.c.g) AE = BF
Theo nh l Talet ta co:
IA AE BF
=
ID DN CN
= (1)
Cung theo nh l Talet ta co:
KB BF
=
KC CN
(2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
IA KB
=
ID KC
IA . KC = ID. KB
5) V du 5:
Cho

xOy , cac iem A, B theo th t chuyen ong tren cac tia Ox, Oy sao cho
1 1 1
+
OA OB k
= (k la hang so). Chng minh rang AB luon i qua mot iem co nh
Giai
Ve tia phan giac Oz cua

xOy cat AB C. ve CD // OA
(D e OB)

DOC = DCO = AOC
ACOD can tai D DO = DC
Theo nh l Talet ta co
CD BD CD OB - CD
=
OA OB OA OB
=

CD CD 1 1 1
1
OA OB OA OB CD
+ = + = (1)
F
E
I
K
M
N D
C
B
A
z
O
y
x
D
C
B
A
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90
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Theo gia thiet th
1 1 1
+
OA OB k
= (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra CD = k , khong oi
Vay AB luon i qua mot iem co nh la C sao cho CD = k va CD // Ox , D e OB
6) V du 6:
Cho iem M di ong tren ay nho AB cua hnh thang
ABCD, Goi O la giao iem cua hai canh ben DA, CB.
Goi G la giao iem cua OA va CM, H la giao iem cua
OB va DM. Chng minh rang: Khi M di ong tren AB
th tong
OG OH
+
GD HC
khong oi
Giai
Qua O ke ng thang song vi AB cat CM, DM theo
th t I va K. Theo nh l Talet ta co:
OG OI
GD CD
= ;
OH OK
HC CD
=
OG OH OI OK IK
+
GD HC CD CD CD
= + =

OG OH IK
+
GD HC CD
= (1)
Qua M ve ng thang vuong goc vi AB cat IK, CD theo th t P va Q, ta co:
IK MP FO
CD MQ MQ
= = khong oi v FO la khoang cach t O en AB, MQ la ng cao cua
hnh thang nen khong oi (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
OG OH FO
+
GD HC MQ
= khong oi
7) V du 7:
Cho tam giac ABC (AB < AC), phan giac AD. Tren AB lay iem M, tren AC lay iem
N sao cho BM = CN, goi giao iem cua CM va BN la O, T O ve ng thang song
song vi AD cat AC, AB tai E va F.
Q
P
F
K I
H
G
M
O
D C
B
A
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91
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Chng minh rang: AB = CF; BE = CA
Giai.

BAD = AEF (goc ong v)
Ma

DAF OFC = (ong v);

AFE = OFC (oi nh)
Suy ra

AEF AFE = AAFE can tai A AE =AF (a)
Ap dung nh l Talet vao AACD , vi I la giao iem
cua EF vi BC ta co
CF CI CF CA
=
CA CD CI CD
= (1)

BAC nen
CA BA
CD BD
= (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra
CF BA
CI BD
= (3)
Ke ng cao AG cua AAFE . BP // AG (P eAD); CQ // AG (Qe OI)
th

BPD = CQI = 90
0

Goi trung iem cua BC la K, ta co ABPK = ACQK (g.c.g) CQ = BP
ABPD = ACQI (g.c.g) CI = BD (4)
Thay (4) vao (3) ta co
CF BA
BD BD
= CF = BA (b)
T (a) va (b) suy ra BE = CA
Bai tap ve nha
1) Cho tam giac ABC. iem D chia trong BC theo t so 1 : 2, iem O chia trong AD
theo t so 3 : 2. goi K la giao iem cua BO va AC. Chng minh rang
KA
KC
khong oi
2) Cho tam giac ABC (AB > AC). Lay cac iem D, E tuy y th t thuoc cac canh AB,
AC sao cho BD = CE. Goi giao iem cua DE, BC la K, chng minh rang :
T so
KE
KD
khong oi khi D, E thay oi tren AB, AC
G
P
O
K
I
N
D
Q
C B
M
A
F
E
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92
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
(HD: Ve DG // EC (G e BC).

CHUYEN E 18 BO E HNH THANG VA CHUM NG THANG ONG
QUY

A. Kien thc
1) Bo e hnh thang:
Trong hnh thang co hai ay khong bang nhau, ng thang i qua giao iem cua cac
ng cheo va i qua giao iem cua cac ng thang cha hai canh ben th i qua trung
iem cua hai ay
Chng minh:
Goi giao iem cua AB, CD la H, cua AC, BD la G, trung iem cua AD, BC la E va F
Noi EG, FG, ta co: AADG ACBG (g.g) , nen :
AD AG 2AE AG AE AG
CB CG 2CF CG CF CG
= = = (1)
Ta lai co :

EAG FCG = (SL trong ) (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra : AAEG ACFG (c.g.c)
Do o:

AGE CGF = E , G , H thang hang (3)
Tng t, ta co: AAEH ABFH

AHE BHF =
H , E , F thang hang (4)
T (3) va (4) suy ra : H , E , G , F thang hang
2) Chum ng thang ong quy:
Neu cac ng thang ong quy cat hai ng thang song
song th chung nh ra tren hai ng thang song song ay
cac oan thang tng ng t le
// //
/ /
H
G
E
F
D
C B
A
c b
a
O
n
m
A'
B'
C'
C
B
A
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93
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Neu m // n, ba ng thang a, b, c ong quy O chung cat m tai A, B, C va cat n tai
A, B, C th
AB BC AC
=
A'B' B'C' A'C'
= hoac
AB A'B' AB A'B'
= ;
BC B'C' AC A'C'
=
* ao lai:
+ Neu ba ng thang trong o co hai ng thang cat nhau, nh ra tren hai ng
thang song song cac cap oan thang tng ng t le th ba ng thang o ong quy
+ Neu hai ng thang b cat bi ba ng thang ong quy tao thanh cac cap oan
thang tng ng t le th chung song song vi nhau
B. Ap dung:
1) Bai 1:
Cho t giac ABCD co M la trung iem CD, N la trung iem CB. Biet AM, AN cat BD
thanh ba oan bang nhau. Chng minh rang ABCD la hnh bnh hanh
Giai
Goi E, F la giao iem cua AM, AN vi BD; G, H la giao
iem cua MN vi AD, BD
MN // BC (MN la ng trung bnh cua ABCD)
T giac HBFM la hnh thang co hai canh ben ong
quy tai A, N la trung iem cua ay BF nen theo bo e
hnh thang th N la trung iem cua ay MH
MN = NH (1)
Tng t : trong hnh thang CDEN th M la trung iem cua GN GM = MN (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra GM = MN = NH
Ta co ABNH = ACNM (c.g.c)

BHN = CMN BH // CM hay AB // CD (a)
Tng t: AGDM = ANCM (c.g.c)

DGM = CNM GD // CN hay AD // CB (b)
H
G
F
E
N
M
D
C
B
A
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94
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
T (a) va (b) suy ra t giac ABCD co cac cap canh oi song song nen la hnh bnh hanh
2) Bai 2:
Cho AABC co ba goc nhon, trc tam H, mot ng thang qua H cat AB, AC th t ta P,
Q sao cho HP = HQ. Goi M la trung iem cua BC. Chng minh: HM PQ
Giai
Goi giao iem cua AH va BC la I
T C ke CN // PQ (Ne AB),
ta chng minh MH CN HM PQ
T giac CNPQ la hnh thang, co H la trung iem PQ, hai
canh ben NP va CQ ong quy tai A nen K la trung iem CN MK la ng trung bnh
cua ABCN MK // CN MK // AB (1)
H la trc tam cua AABC nen CHA B (2)
T (1) va (2) suy ra MK CH MK la ng cao cuaACHK (3)
T AH BC MCHK MI la ng cao cua ACHK (4)
T (3) va (4) suy ra M la trc tam cua ACHK MHCN MHPQ
3) bai 3:
Cho hnh ch nhat ABCD co M, N th t la trung iem cua AD, BC. Goi E la mot iem
bat ky thuoc tia oi cua tia DC, K la giao iem cua EM va AC.
Chng minh rang: NM la tia phan giac cua

KNE
Giai
Goi H la giao iem cua KN va DC, giao iem cua AC va MN la I th IM = IN
Ta co: MN // CD (MN la ng trung bnh cua hnh ch nhat ABCD)
T giac EMNH la hnh thang co hai canh ben EM va HN ong quy tai K va I la
trung iem cua MN nen C la trung iem cua EH
I
K
N
M
Q
P
H
C B
A
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95
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Trong AENH th NC va la ng cao, va la ng
trung tuyen nen AENH can tai N NC la tia phan
giac cua

ENH ma NC MN (Do NM BC MN //
AB) NM la tia phan giac goc ngoai tai N cua AENH
Vay NM la tia phan giac cua

KNE
Bai 4:
Tren canh BC = 6 cm cua hnh vuong ABCD lay iem E sao cho BE = 2 cm. Tren tia
oi cua tia CD lay iem F sao cho CF = 3 cm. Goi M la
giao iem cua AE va BF. Tnh

AMC
Giai
Goi giao iem cua CM va AB la H, cua AM va DF la
G
Ta co:
BH AB BH 6
=
CF FG 3 FG
=
Ta lai co
AB BE 2 1
= = CG = 2AB = 12 cm
CG EC 4 2
=
FG = 9 cm
BH 6
BH = 2 cm
3 9
= BH = BE
ABAE = ABCH (c.g.c)

BAE = BCH ma

BAE + BEA = 90
0

Mat khac

BEA = MEC ; MCE = BCH MEC + MCE = 90
0

AMC = 90
0

Bai 5:
Cho t giac ABCD. Qua iem E thuoc AB, H thuoc AC ve cac ng thang song song
vi BD, cat cac canh con lai cua t giac tai F, G
a) Co the ket luan g ve cac ng thang EH, AC, FG
b) Goi O la giao iem cua AC va BD, cho biet OB = OD. Chng minh rang ba ng
thang EG, FH, AC ong quy
// //
I
H E
N
M
K
D C
B
A
H
M
G F
E
D C
B A
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20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Giai
a) Neu EH // AC th EH // AC // FG
Neu EH va AC khong song song th EH, AC, FG ong
quy
b) Goi giao iem cua EH, HG vi AC
Trong hnh thang DFEB co hai canh ben DF, BE ong
quy tai A va OB = OD nen theo bo e hnh thang th M
la trung iem cua EF
Tng t: N la trung iem cua GH
Ta co
ME MF
=
GN HN
nen ba ng thang EG, FH, AC ong quy tai O

CHUYEN E 19 TM GIA TR LN NHAT, NHO NHAT CUA MOT
BIEU THC

A. Gia tr ln nhat, gia tr nho nhat cua mot bieu thc
1) Khai niem: Neu vi moi gia tr cua bien thuoc mot khoang xac nh nao o ma gia
tr cua bieu thc A luon luon ln hn hoac bang (nho hn hoac bang) mot hang so k va
ton tai mot gia tr cua bien e A co gia tr bang k th k goi la gia tr nho nhat (gia tr ln
nhat) cua bieu thc A ng vi cac gia tr cua bien thuoc khoang xac nh noi tren
2) Phng phap
a) e tm gia tr nho nhat cua A, ta can:
+ Chng minh A > k vi k la hang so
O
H
G
F
E
N
M
D C
B
A
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97
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
+ Ch ra da = co the xay ra vi gia tr nao o cua bien
b) e tm gia tr ln nhat cua A, ta can:
+ Chng minh A s k vi k la hang so
+ Ch ra da = co the xay ra vi gia tr nao o cua bien
K hieu : min A la gia tr nho nhat cua A; max A la gia tr ln nhat cua A
B.Cac bai tap tm Gia tr ln nhat, gia tr nho nhat cua mot bieu thc
I) Dang 1: Tam thc bac hai
V du 1 :
a) Tm gia tr nho nhat cua A = 2x
2
8x + 1
b) Tm gia tr ln nhat cua B = -5x
2
4x + 1
Giai
a) A = 2(x
2
4x + 4) 7 = 2(x 2)
2
7 > - 7
min A = - 7 x = 2
b) B = - 5(x
2
+
4
5
x) + 1 = - 5(x
2
+ 2.x.
2
5
+
4
25
) +
9
5
=
9
5
- 5(x +
2
5
)
2
s
9
5

max B =
9
5
x =
2
5

b) V du 2: Cho tam thc bac hai P(x) = a x
2
+ bx + c
a) Tm min P neu a > 0
b) Tm max P neu a < 0
Giai
Ta co: P = a(x
2
+
b
a
x) + c = a(x +
b
2a
)
2
+ (c -
2
b
4a
)
at c -
2
b
4a
= k. Do (x +
b
2a
)
2
> 0 nen:
a) Neu a > 0 th a(x +
b
2a
)
2
> 0 do o P > k min P = k x = -
b
2a

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98
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
b) Neu a < 0 th a(x +
b
2a
)
2
s 0 do o P s k max P = k x = -
b
2a

II. Dang 2: a thc co dau gia tr tuyet oi
1) V du 1: Tm gia tr nho nhat cua
a) A = (3x 1)
2
4 3x - 1 + 5
at 3x - 1 = y th A = y
2
4y + 5 = (y 2)
2
+ 1 > 1
min A = 1 y = 2 3x - 1 = 2
x = 1
3x - 1 = 2
1
3x - 1 = - 2 x = -
3

b) B = x - 2 + x - 3
B = x - 2 + x - 3 = B = x - 2 + 3 - x > x - 2 + 3 - x = 1
min B = 1 (x 2)(3 x) > 0 2 s x s 3
2) V du 2: Tm GTNN cua C =
2 2
x - x + 1 x - x - 2 +
Ta co C =
2 2
x - x + 1 x - x - 2 + =
2 2 2 2
x - x + 1 2 + x - x x - x + 1 + 2 + x - x + > = 3
min C = 3 (x
2
x + 1)(2 + x x
2
) > 0 2 + x x
2
> 0 x
2
x 2 s 0
(x + 1)(x 2) s 0 - 1 x 2 s s
3) V du 3:
Tm gi tr nh nht ca : T = |x-1| + |x-2| +|x-3| + |x-4|
Ta c |x-1| + |x-4| = |x-1| + |4-x| > |x-1+4-x| = 3 (1)
V 2 3 2 3 2 3 x x x x x x + = + > + = 1 (2)
Vy T = |x-1| + |x-2| +|x-3| + |x-4| > 1 + 3 = 4
Ta c t (1) Du bng xy ra khi 1 4 x s s
(2) Du bng xy ra khi 2 3 x s s
Vy T c gi tr nh nht l 4 khi 2 3 x s s
III.Dang 3: a thc bac cao
1) V du 1: Tm gia tr nho nhat cua
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99
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
a) A = x(x 3)(x 4)(x 7) = (x
2
7x)( x
2
7x + 12)
at x
2
7x + 6 th A = (y 6)(y + 6) = y
2
36 > - 36
Min A = - 36 y = 0 x
2
7x + 6 = 0 (x 1)(x 6) = 0 x = 1 hoac x = 6
b) B = 2x
2
+ y
2
2xy 2x + 3 = (x
2
2xy + y
2
) + (x
2
2x + 1) + 2
= (x y)
2
+ (x 1)
2
+ 2 > 2
x - y = 0
x = y = 1
x - 1 = 0

c) C = x
2
+ xy + y
2
3x 3y = x
2
2x + y
2
2y + xy x y
Ta co C + 3 = (x
2
2x + 1) + (y
2
2y + 1) + (xy x y + 1)
= (x 1)
2
+ (y 1)
2
+ (x 1)(y 1). at x 1 = a; y 1 = b th
C + 3 = a
2
+ b
2
+ ab = (a
2
+ 2.a.
b
2
+
2
b
4
) +
2
3b
4
= (a +
b
2
)
2
+
2
3b
4
> 0
Min (C + 3) = 0 hay min C = - 3 a = b = 0 x = y = 1
2) V du 2: Tm gia tr nho nhat cua
a) C = (x + 8)
4
+ (x + 6)
4

at x + 7 = y C = (y + 1)
4
+ (y 1)
4
= y
4
+ 4y
3
+ 6y
2
+ 4y + 1 + y
4
- 4y
3
+ 6y
2
- 4y + 1
= 2y
4
+ 12y
2
+ 2 > 2 min A = 2 y = 0 x = - 7
b) D = x
4
6x
3
+ 10x
2
6x + 9 = (x
4
6x
3
+ 9x
2
) + (x
2
6x + 9)
= (x
2
3x)
2
+ (x 3)
2
> 0 min D = 0 x = 3
IV. Dang phan thc:
1. Phan thc co t la hang so, mau la tam thc bac hai
Bieu thc dang nay at GTNN khi mau at GTLN
V du : Tm GTNN cua A =
2
2
6x - 5 - 9x
=
2 2
- 2 2
9x - 6x + 5 (3x - 1) 4

=
+

V (3x 1)
2
> 0 (3x 1)
2
+ 4 > 4
2 2
1 1 2 2
(3x - 1) 4 4 (3x - 1) 4 4

s >
+ +
A > -
1
2

min A = -
1
2
3x 1 = 0 x =
1
3

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100
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
2. Phan thc co mau la bnh phng cua mot nh thc
a) V du 1: Tm GTNN cua A =
2
2
3x - 8x + 6
x - 2x + 1

+) Cach 1: Tach t thanh cac nhom co nhan t chung vi mau
A =
2 2
2 2 2
3x - 8x + 6 3(x - 2x + 1) - 2(x - 1) + 1 2 1
= 3
x - 2x + 1 (x - 1) x - 1 (x - 1)
= + . at y =
1
x - 1
Th
A = 3 2y + y
2
= (y 1)
2
+ 2 > 2 min A = 2 y = 1
1
x - 1
= 1 x = 2
+) Cach 2: Viet bieu thc A thanh tong cua mot so vi mot phan thc khong am
A =
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
3x - 8x + 6 2(x - 2x + 1) + (x - 4x + 4) (x - 2)
= 2 2
x - 2x + 1 (x - 1) (x - 1)
= + >
min A = 2 x 2 = 0 x = 2
b) V du 2: Tm GTLN cua B =
2
x
x 20x + 100 +

Ta co B =
2 2
x x
x 20x + 100 (x + 10)
=
+
. at y =
1
x + 10
x =
1
10
y
th
B = (
1
10
y
).y
2
= - 10y
2
+ y = - 10(y
2
2.y.
1
20
y +
1
400
) +
1
40
= - 10
2
1
y -
10
| |
|
\ .
+
1
40
s
1
40

Max B =
1
40

1
y -
10
= 0 y =
1
10
x = 10
c) V du 3: Tm GTNN cua C =
2 2
2 2
x + y
x + 2xy + y

Ta co: C =
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1
(x + y) (x - y)
x + y 1 1 (x - y) 1
2
.
x + 2xy + y (x + y) 2 2 (x + y) 2
( +

= = + > min A =
1
2
x = y
3. Cac phan thc co dang khac
a)V du : Tm GTNN, GTLN (Cc tr) cua A =
2
3 - 4x
x 1 +

Ta co: A =
2 2 2
2 2 2
3 - 4x (4x 4x 4) (x 1) (x - 2)
1 1
x 1 x 1 x 1
+ +
= = >
+ + +
min A = - 1 x = 2
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101
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Ta lai co: A =
2 2 2
2 2 2
3 - 4x (4x 4) (4x + 4x + 1) (2x 1)
4 4
x 1 x 1 x 1
+ +
= = s
+ + +
max A = 4 x =
1
2

C. Tm GTNN, GTLN cua mot bieu thc biet quan he gia cac bien
1) V du 1: Cho x + y = 1. Tm GTNN cua A = x
3
+ y
3
+ xy
Ta co A = (x + y)(x
2
xy + y
2
) + xy = x
2
+ y
2
(v x + y = 1)
a) Cach 1: Bieu th an nay qua an kia, roi a ve mot tam thc bac hai
T x + y = 1 x = 1 y
nen A = (1 y)
2
+ y
2
= 2(y
2
y) + 1 = 2(y
2
2.y.
1
2
+
1
4
) +
1
2
= 2
2
1 1 1
y - +
2 2 2
| |
>
|
\ .

Vay min A =
1
2
x = y =
1
2

b) Cach 2: S dung k a cho, lam xuat hien mot bieu thc mi co cha A
T x + y = 1 x
2
+ 2xy + y
2
= 1(1). Mat khac (x y)
2
> 0 x
2
2xy + y
2
> 0 (2)
Cong (1) vi (2) ve theo ve, ta co:
2(x
2
+ y
2
) > 1 x
2
+ y
2
>
1
2
min A =
1
2
x = y =
1
2

2)V du 2: Cho x + y + z = 3
a) Tm GTNN cua A = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2

b) Tm GTLN cua B = xy + yz + xz
T Cho x + y + z = 3 Cho (x + y + z)
2
= 9 x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ 2(xy + yz + xz) = 9 (1)
Ta co x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- xy yz zx =
2
1
.2 .( x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- xy yz zx)
=
2
1
2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) x y x z y z ( + +

> 0 x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> xy+ yz + zx (2)
ang thc xay ra khi x = y = z
a) T (1) va (2) suy ra
9 = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ 2(xy + yz + xz) s x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ 2(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
) = 3(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> 3 min A = 3 x = y = z = 1
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20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
b) T (1) va (2) suy ra
9 = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ 2(xy + yz + xz) > xy+ yz + zx + 2(xy + yz + xz) = 3(xy+ yz + zx)
xy+ yz + zx s 3 max B = 3 x = y = z = 1
3) V du 3:
Tm gi tr ln nht ca S = xyz.(x+y).(y+z).(z+x) vi x,y,z > 0 v x + y + z = 1
V x,y,z > 0 ,p dng BT Csi ta c: x+ y + z
3
3 xyz >
3
1 1
3 27
xyz xyz s s
p dng bt ng thc Csi cho x+y ; y+z ; x+z ta c
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
. . 3 . . x y y z z x x y y z x z + + + > + + + ( ) ( ) ( )
3
2 3 . . x y y z z x > + + +
Du bng xy ra khi x = y = z =
1
3
S s
8 1 8
.
27 27 729
=
Vy S c gi tr ln nht l
8
729
khi x = y = z =
1
3

4) V du 4: Cho xy + yz + zx = 1. Tm gi tr nh nht ca
4 4 4
x y z + +
p dng BT Bunhiacpski cho 6 s (x,y,z) ;(x,y,z)
Ta c ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2 2
xy yz zx x y z + + s + +
( )
2
2 2 2
1 x y z s + + (1)
p dng BT Bunhiacpski cho (
2 2 2
, , x y z ) v (1,1,1)
Ta c
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 4
( ) (1 1 1 )( ) ( ) 3( ) x y z x y z x y z x y z + + s + + + + + + s + +
T (1) v (2)
4 4 4
1 3( ) x y z s + +
4 4 4
1
3
x y z + + s
Vy
4 4 4
x y z + + c gi tr nh nht l
1
3
khi x= y = z =
3
3

D. Mot so chu y:
1) Khi tm GTNN, GTLN ta co the oi bien
V du : Khi tm GTNN cua A =(x 1)
2
+ (x 3)
2
, ta at x 2 = y th
A = (y + 1)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 2y
2
+ 2 > 2
2) Khi tm cc tr cua mot bieu thc, ta co the thay k cua bieu thc nay at cc tr bi
k tng ng la bieu thc khac at cc tr:
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20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
+) -A ln nhat A nho nhat ; +)
1
B
ln nhat B nho nhat (vi B > 0)
+) C ln nhat C
2
ln nhat
V du: Tm cc tr cua A =
( )
4
2
2
x + 1
x + 1

a) Ta co A > 0 nen A nho nhat khi
1
A
ln nhat, ta co
( )
2
2
2
4 4
x + 1
1 2x
1 1
A x + 1 x + 1
= = + > min
1
A
= 1 x = 0 max A = 1 x = 0
b) Ta co (x
2
1)
2
> 0 x
4
- 2x
2
+ 1 > 0 x
4
+ 1 > 2x
2
. (Dau bang xay ra khi x
2
= 1)
V x
4
+ 1 > 0
2
4
2x
x + 1
s 1
2
4
2x
1 1 1 2
x + 1
+ s + = max
1
A
= 2 x
2
= 1
min A =
1
2
x = 1
3) Nhieu khi ta tm cc tr cua bieu thc trong cac khoang cua bien, sau o so samh cac
cc tr o e e tm GTNN, GTLN trong toan bo tap xac nh cua bien
V du: Tm GTLN cua B =
y
5 - (x + y)

a) xet x + y s 4
- Neu x = 0 th A = 0 - Neu 1 y 3 s s th A s 3
- Neu y = 4 th x = 0 va A = 4
b) xet x + y > 6 th A s 0
So sanh cac gia tr tren cua A, ta thay max A = 4 x = 0; y = 4
4) S dung cac hang bat ang thc
V du: Tm GTLN cua A = 2x + 3y biet x
2
+ y
2
= 52
Ap dung Bt Bunhiacopxki: (a x + by)
2
s (a
2
+ b
2
)(x
2
+ y
2
) cho cac so 2, x , 3, y ta co:
(2x + 3y)
2
s (2
2
+ 3
2
)(x
2
+ y
2
) = (4 + 9).52 = 26
2
2x + 3y s 26
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104
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Max A = 26
x y
=
2 3
y =
3x
2
x
2
+ y
2
= x
2
+
2
3x
2
| |
|
\ .
= 52 13x
2
= 52.4 x = 4
Vay: Ma x A = 26 x = 4; y = 6 hoac x = - 4; y = - 6
5) Hai so co tong khong oi th tch cua chung ln nhat khi va ch khi chung bang nhau
Hai so co tch khong oi th tong cua chung ln nhat khi va ch khi chung bang nhau
a)V du 1: Tm GTLN cua A = (x
2
3x + 1)(21 + 3x x
2
)
V (x
2
3x + 1) + (21 + 3x x
2
) = 22 khong oi nen tch (x
2
3x + 1)(21 + 3x x
2
) ln
nhat khi va ch khi x
2
3x + 1 = 21 + 3x x
2
x
2
3x 10 = 0 x = 5 hoac x = - 2
Khi o A = 11. 11 = 121 Max A = 121 x = 5 hoac x = - 2
b) V du 2: Tm GTNN cua B =
(x + 4)(x + 9)
x

Ta co: B =
2
(x + 4)(x + 9) x 13x + 36 36
x + 13
x x x
+
= = +
V cac so x va
36
x
co tch x.
36
x
= 36 khong oi nen
36
x +
x
nho nhat x =
36
x
x = 6
A =
36
x + 13
x
+ nho nhat la min A = 25 x = 6
6)Trong khi tm cc tr ch can ch ra rang ton tai mot gia tr cua bien e xay ra ang
thc ch khong can ch ra moi gia tr e xay ra ang thc
V du: Tm GTNN cua A =
m n
11 5
Ta thay 11
m
tan cung bang 1, 5
n
tan cung bang 5
Neu 11
m
> 5
n
th A tan cung bang 6, neu 11
m
< 5
n
th A tan cung bang 4
khi m = 2; n = 3 th A = 121 124 = 4 min A = 4, chang han khi m = 2, n = 3

CHUYEN E 20 PHNG TRNH NGHIEM NGUYEN

- PHNG PHAP 1: Phng phap a ve dang tong
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105
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Phng phap: Phng phap nay thng s dung vi cac phng trnh co cac bieu
thc cha an viet c di dang tong cac bnh phng.
- Bien oi phng trnh ve dang mot ve la mot tong cua cac bnh phng cac bieu
thc cha an; ve con lai la tong bnh phng cua cac so nguyen (so so hang cua hai ve
bang nhau).
Cac v du minh hoa:
- V du 1: Tm Z y x e ; thoa man: 169 4 5
2 2
= + y xy x (1)
(1) 0 169 25 144 4 4
2 2 2
+ = + = + + x y xy x
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2 144 25
2 169 0
x y x
x y x

+ = +

+ = +

T (I) ta co: Tng t t (II) ta co:

( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
5 5 2 12
;
2 22
5
12 12 2 5
;
19 29
12
x x x y
y y
x
x x x y
y y
x

= = =

= =
=

= = =

= =
=

( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2 2
0 2 13
13
0
13 2 0
26
13
x x y
y
x
x x y
y
x

= =

=
=

= =

=
=

Vay ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5; 2 ; 5; 22 ; 5; 2 ; 5; 22 ; 12; 19 ; 12; 29
,
12;19 ; 12; 29 ; 0;13 ; 0; 13 ; 13; 26 ; 13; 26
x y

e
`

)

V du 2: Tm Z y x e ; thoa man:
2 2
8 x y x y + = (2)
(2) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
4 4 4 4 32 4 4 1 4 4 1 34 2 1 2 1 5 3 x x y y x x y y x y + = + + + = + = +

( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 1 3
2; 1
3; 2
2 1 5
2 1 5
3; 2
2; 1
2 1 3
x
x x
y y
y
x
x x
y y
y

=
= =

= =
=

=
= =

= =
=

Vay ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
; 2; 3 ; 2; 2 ; 1; 3 ; 1; 2 ; 3; 2 ; 3; 1 ; 2; 2 ; 2; 1 x y e
V du 3: Tm Z y x e ; thoa man:
3 3
91 x y = (1)
(1) ( )( )
2 2
91.1 13.7 x y x xy y + + = = (V
( )
2 2
0 x xy y + + > )
(II)
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106
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
1
6 5
;
91 5 6
. 91.1
91
1
x y
x x
x xy y y y
x y x xy y
x y
VN
x xy y
=
= =

+ + = = =

+ + =

=

+ + =

V du 4: Tm Z y x e ; thoa man:
2 2
0 x x y + = (2)
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
0 4 4 4 0 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1
2 2 1 1 0
2 2 1 1 0
2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1 1 0
x x y x x y x y x y x xy
x y x
x y y
x y x
x y y
+ = + = + = + + + =
+ + = =

+ = =

+ + = =

+ = =

Vay: ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
; 0; 0 ; 1; 0 x y e
- PHNG PHAP 2: Phng phap cc han
Phng phap: Phng phap nay thng s dung vi cac phng trnh oi xng
- V phng trnh oi xng nen ; ; x y z co vai tro bnh ang nh nhau. Do o; ta gia
thiet x y z s s ; tm ieu kien cua cac nghiem; loai tr dan cac an e co phng trnh n
gian. Giai phng trnh; dung phep hoan v e suy ra nghiem.
Ta thng gia thiet 1 .... x y z s s s s
Cac v du minh hoa:
V du 1: Tm ; ; x y z Z
+
e thoa man: . . x y z x y z + + = (1)
Nhan xet Tm hng giai:
Ta thay ay la phng trnh oi xng.
Gia s 1 x y z s s s . Khi o:
(1) . . 3 . 3 x y z x y z z x y = + + s s (V ; ; x y z Z
+
e ) { } . 1; 2; 3 x y e
* Neu: . 1 1 2 x y x y z z = = = + = (vo l)
* Neu: . 2 1; 2; 3 x y x y z = = = =
* Neu: . 3 1; 3 2 x y x y z y = = = = < (vo l)
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107
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Vay: ; ; x y z la hoan v cua ( ) 1; 2; 3
V du 2: Tm ; ; x y z Z
+
e thoa man:
1 1 1
2
x y z
+ + = (2)
Nhan xet Tm hng giai:
ay la phng trnh oi xng.
Gia s 1 x y z s s s . Khi o:
(2)
1 1 1 3 3
2 1
2
x x
x y z x
= + + s s =
Vi: { }
1 1 2
1 1 2 1; 2 x y y
y z y
= = + s s e
.Neu:
1
1 0 y
z
= = (vo l)
.Neu: 2 2 y z = =
Vay: ; ; x y z la hoan v cua ( ) 1; 2; 2
- PHNG PHAP 3: Phng phap s dung tnh chat chia het
Cac v du minh hoa:
V du 1: Tm ; x y Z e e:
2
2
1
x x
A
x x
+
=
+ +
nhan gia tr nguyen
Ta co:
2 2
2 2 2
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
x x x x
A
x x x x x x
+ + +
= = = +
+ + + + + +
. Khi o:
e A nh n gia tr nguyen th
2
1
1 x x + +
nhan gia tr nguyen.

( ) ( )
( )
{ }
2 2
1
1 1 1 1;1 x x x x U + + + + e =
V :
( )
2 2
0
1 0; 1 1
1
x
x x x x x
x
=
+ + > e + + =

=

Vay e A nhan gia tr nguyen th: 0 x = hoac 1 x =
V du 2: Tm ; x y Z e thoa man:
2 2 2
2 1 2 . y x x y x y x y + + + = + +
(2) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 0 * y x x x y x + =
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108
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Vi: ( ) 1; * 1 0 1 x x = = = khong phai la ngiem cua phng trnh. Nen:
( )
2
1
2 0 **
1
y x y
x
+ =

.
Phng trnh co nghiem nguyen ( ) { }
0
1
1 (1) 1; 1
1 1
x
x U
x x
=
e e =

=

V du 3: Tm ; x y Z
+
e thoa man: ( )
2
3 1 1
x
y + = + (3)
Ta co:
(3) ( ) ( )
2
3 1 1 2
x
y y y = = + . 3
x
la so le ( ) ; 2 y y + la hai so le lien tiep
( ) ; 2 1 ; 2 y y y y + = + la cac luy tha cua 3, nen:

( )
( )
( )
3 *
3 2 3
2 3 **
m
m n
n
y
m n x m n
y
=

+ = + = <

+ =

Vi: 0; 1 1; 1. m n y x = = = =
Vi: 1; 1 m n > > T ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
* ; ** ; 2 1
2 3
y
y y
y

+ =

( vo l)
Phng trnh co nghiem nguyen:
1
1
x
y
=

- PHNG PHAP 4: Phng phap s dung bat ang thc
Phng phap: Phng phap nay thng s dung vi cac phng trnh ma hai ve la
nhng a thc co tnh bien thien khac nhau.
- Ap dung cac bat ang thc thng gap:
*Bat ang thc Co si:
Cho n so khong am:
1 2 3
; ; ;......;
n
a a a a . Khi o:

1 2 3
1 2 3
......
. . .......
n
n
n
a a a a
a a a a
n
+ + + +
> . Dau = xay ra
1 2 3
......
n
a a a a = = = =
* Bat ang thc Bunhiacopxki:
Cho 2n so thc:
1 2 3
; ; ;......;
n
a a a a va
1 2 3
; ; ;......;
n
b b b b . Khi o:
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109
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
( ) ( )( )
2
1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
. . . .... . . . .... . ....
n n n n
a b a b a b a b a a a a b b b b + + + + s + + + + + + + + .
Dau = xay ra ( ) 1;
i i
a kb i n = = .
*Bat ang thcgia tr tuyet oi:

. 0
. 0
a b a b
a b
a b a b
+ >
+ =

<

Cac v du minh hoa:
V du 1: Tm ; x y Z
+
e thoa:
. . .
3
x y y z z x
z x y
+ + = (1)
Ap dung BT Co si. Ta co:
3
3
. . . . . .
3 3. . . 3. . .
x y y z z x x y y z z x
x y z
z x y z x y
= + + > = .

3
. . 1 . . 1 1 x y z x y z x y z s s = = =
Vay nghiem cua phng trnh la: 1 x y z = = =
V du 2: Tm nghiem nguyen cua phng trnh: ( ) ( )
2
2 2
1 3 1 x y x y + + = + + (2)
(Toan Tuoi th 2)
Theo Bunhiacopxki,ta co:
( ) ( )( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 3 1 x y x y x y + + s + + + + = + +
Dau = xay ra
1
1
1 1 1
x y
x y = = = =
Vay nghiem cua phng trnh la: 1 x y = =
V du 3: Tm tat ca cac so nguyen x thoa man:
3 10 101 990 1000 2004 x x x x x + + + + + + + = (3)
Nhan xet Tm hng giai:
Ta nhan thay: 2104 = 3 + 10 + 101 + 990 + 1000 =101 + 2003 va a a =
Ta co:(3) 3 10 101 990 1000 2004 x x x x x + + + + + + + = .
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110
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Ma
3 3
10 10
101 101 2004 101 2003 101 1
990 990
1000 1000
x x
x x
a a x x x x
x x
x x
>

>

## > + > + > + + + s

+ > +

+ > +

Do o: ( ) ( ) { } { } 1 101 1 101 1; 0;1 102; 101; 100 x x x s + s + e e .
Vi 101 2004 2003 x = = (vo l). Vay nghiem cua phng trnh la: { } 102; 100 xe
1) Tm cc s nguyn x,y,z tho mn:
2 2 2
3 2 3 x y z xy y z + + s + +
V x,y,z l cc s nguyn nn

2 2 2
3 2 3 x y z xy y z + + s + +
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
3
3 2 3 0 3 3 2 1 0
4 4
y y
x y z xy y z x xy y z z
| | | |
+ + + s + + + + + s
| |
\ . \ .

( )
2 2
2
3 1 1 0
2 2
y y
x z
| | | |
+ + s
| |
\ . \ .
(*) M ( )
2 2
2
3 1 1 0
2 2
y y
x z
| | | |
+ + >
| |
\ . \ .
, x y R e
( )
2 2
2
3 1 1 0
2 2
y y
x z
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .
0
2
1
1 0 2
2
1
1 0
y
x
x
y
y
z
z

= =

=

Cc s x,y,z phi tm l
1
2
1
x
y
z
=

PHNG PHAP 5: Phng phap la chon
Phng phap: Phng phap nay c s dung vi cac phng trnh ma ta co the nham
(phat hien de dang) c mot vai gia tr nghiem
- Tren c s cac gia tr nghiem a biet. Ap dung cac tnh chat nh chia het; so d; so
chnh phng; ch so tan cung .. ta chng to rang vi cac gia tr khac phng trnh vo
nghiem
Cac v du minh hoa:
V du 1: Tm ; x y Z
+
e thoa man:
6 3 4
3 1 x x y + + =
Nhan xet Tm hng giai:
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111
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Ta thay vi 0; 1 x y = = th phng trnh c nghiem ung. Ta can chng minh
phng trnh vo nghiem vi 0 x =
+ Vi 0; 1 x y = = th phng trnh c nghiem ung
+ Vi 0 x > . Khi o:

( ) ( )
2 2
6 3 6 3 6 3 3 4 3
2 1 3 1 4 4 1 2 x x x x x x x y x + + < + + < + + + < < + (*)
V
( ) ( )
3 3
1 ; 2 x x + + la hai so nguyen lien tiep nen khong co gia tr nao cua y thoa (*)
Vay 0; 1 x y = = la nghiem cua phng trnh.
V du 2: Tm ; x y Z
+
e thoa:
2 2 1
1 3
y
x x
+
+ = (2)
(Tap ch Toan hoc va tuoi tre )
Goi b la ch so tan cung cua x ( Vi { } 0;1; 2;...;9 be . Khi o:
( )
2
1 x x + co ch so tan
cung la: 1, 5 hoac 9. (*)
Mat khac:
2 1
3
y+
la luy tha bac le cua 3 nen co tan cung la 3 hoac 7. (**)
T (*) va (**) suy ra phng trnh vo nghiem.
V du 3: Tm ; x y Z
+
e thoa man:
2 2
6 13 100 x xy y + = (3)
(3) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
5
3 4 25
25
y
x y
y n n
s

=

= e

Do o: { } { } 5; 4; 3; 0;3; 4;5 3;9;11;13 y x e e
Phng trnh co nghiem nguyen: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
; 5;3 ; 4;9 ; 3;11 ; 0;13 ; 3;11 ; 4;9 ; 5;3 x y e
PHNG PHAP 6: Phng phap lui vo han (xuong thang)
Phng phap: Phng phap nay thng s dung vi nhng phng trnh co (n 1) an
ma he so co c chung khac 1
- Da vao tnh chat chia het ta bieu dien an theo an phu nham ha (giam bt) hang
so t do, e co c phng trnh n gian hn.
- S dung linh hoat cac phng phap e giai phng trnh o.
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112
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
Cac v du minh hoa:
V du 1: Giai phng trnh:
3 3 3
3 9 0 x y z = (1)
Nhan xet Tm hng giai:
Ta thay
( )
3 3 3 3 3 3
3 9 0 3 9 3 x y z x y z = ma
( )
3 3
3 9 3 y z nen
3
3 x
Ta co: (1)
( )
3 3 3 3
1
3 9 3 3 3 3 x y z x x x x =
Khi o: (1)
( ) ( )
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
1 1 1
27 3 9 3 9 3 3 3 3 3 x y z x y z y y y y = .

( )
3 3 3 3
1 1 1
9 27 3 3 3 3 3 x y z z z y z = .
* Tiep tuc s bieu dien tren va neu goi
0 0 0
; ; x y z la nghiem cua (1) va th
( )
0 0 0
; ;
3
x y z
U e va
0 0 0
0 ; ; 9 x y z s s . Thc hien th chon ta c:
0 0 0
0 x y z = = =
Vay nghiem cua phng trnh la:
0 0 0
0 x y z = = =

cc bi tp KHC

1/Dng nh ngha
1) Cho abc = 1 v 36
3
> a . . Chng minh rng +
3
2
a
b
2
+c
2
> ab+bc+ac
Gii
Ta c hiu:
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113
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
+
3
2
a
b
2
+c
2
- ab- bc ac = +
4
2
a
+
12
2
a
b
2
+c
2
- ab- bc ac
= ( +
4
2
a
b
2
+c
2
- ab ac+ 2bc) +
12
2
a
3bc =(
2
a
-b- c)
2
+
a
abc a
12
36
3

=(
2
a
-b- c)
2
+
a
abc a
12
36
3

>0 (v abc=1 v a
3
> 36 nn a >0 )
Vy : +
3
2
a
b
2
+c
2
> ab+bc+ac iu phi chng minh
2) Chng minh rng
a) ) 1 .( 2 1
2 2 4 4
+ + > + + + z x xy x z y x
b) vi mi s thc a , b, c ta c : 0 3 6 2 4 5
2 2
> + + + b a ab b a
c) 0 2 4 2 2 2
2 2
> + + + b a ab b a
Gii :
a) Xt hiu :
H = x xz x y x z y x 2 2 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 4 4
+ + + + = ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 2
1 + + x z x y x
H>0 ta c iu phi chng minh
b) V tri c th vit
H = ( ) ( ) 1 1 1 2
2 2
+ + + b b a
H > 0 ta c iu phi chng minh
c) v tri c th vit
H = ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 + + b b a
H > 0 ta c iu phi chng minh
Ii / Dng bin i tng ng
1) Cho x > y v xy =1 .Chng minh rng :
( )
( )
8
2
2
2 2
>

+
y x
y x

Gii :
Ta c ( ) ( ) 2 2
2 2 2 2
+ = + = + y x xy y x y x (v xy = 1)
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 . 4
2 4
2
2 2
+ + = + y x y x y x
Do BT cn chng minh tng ng vi
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114
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 4
. 8 4 4 y x y x y x > + + ( ) ( ) 0 4 4
2 4
> + y x y x ( )
2
2
2 0 x y
(
>

BT cui ng nn ta c iu phi chng minh
2) Cho xy > 1 .Chng minh rng :
xy y x +
>
+
+
+ 1
2
1
1
1
1
2 2

Gii :
Ta c
xy y x +
>
+
+
+ 1
2
1
1
1
1
2 2
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2 2 2
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ xy y y x

( )( ) ( )( )
0
1 . 1 1 . 1
2
2
2
2
>
+ +

+
+ +

xy y
y xy
xy x
x xy

( )( ) ( )( )
0
1 . 1
) (
1 . 1
) (
2 2
>
+ +

+
+ +

xy y
y x y
xy x
x y x

( ) ( )
( )( )( )
0
1 . 1 . 1
1
2 2
2
>
+ + +

xy y x
xy x y

BT cui ny ng do xy > 1 .Vy ta c iu phi chng minh
Iii / dng bt ng thc ph

1) Cho a , b, c l cc s thc v a + b +c =1
Chng minh rng
3
1
2 2 2
> + + c b a
Gii :
p dng BT BunhiaCpski cho 3 s (1,1,1) v (a,b,c)
Ta c ( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2
. 1 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 c b a c b a + + + + s + +
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
. 3 c b a c b a + + s + +

3
1
2 2 2
> + + c b a (v a+b+c =1 ) (pcm)
2) Cho a,b,c l cc s dng
Chng minh rng ( ) 9
1 1 1
. >
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
c b a
c b a (1)
Gii :
(1) 9 1 1 1 > + + + + + + + +
a
c
a
c
c
b
a
b
c
a
b
a
9 3 > |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ +
b
c
c
b
a
c
c
a
a
b
b
a

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115
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG
p dng BT ph 2 > +
x
y
y
x
Vi x,y > 0
Ta c BT cui cng lun ng
Vy ( ) 9
1 1 1
. > |
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
c b a
c b a (pcm)
Iv / dng phng php bc cu
1) Cho 0 < a, b,c <1 .Chng minh rng :
a c c b b a c b a
2 2 2 3 3 3
3 2 2 2 + + + < + +
Gii :
Do a <1
2
a <1 v b <1 Nn ( )( ) 0 1 0 1 . 1
2 2 2 2
> + > b a b a b a
Hay b a b a + > +
2 2
1 (1)
Mt khc 0 <a,b <1
3 2
a a > ;
3
b b >
3 3 2
1 b a a + > +
Vy b a b a
2 3 3
1+ < +
Tng t ta c :
a c c a
c b c b
2 3 3
2 3 3
1
1
+ < +
+ < +

a c c b b a c b a
2 2 2 3 3 3
3 2 2 2 + + + < + + (pcm)
2) So snh 31
11
v 17
14

Gii :
Ta thy
11
31 <
( )
11
11 5 55 56
32 2 2 2 = = <
Mt khc
( )
14
56 4.14 4 14 14
2 2 2 16 17 = = = <
Vy 31
11
< 17
14
(pcm)
V/ dng tnh cht t s

v d 4: Cho 4 s a,b,c,d bt k, chng minh rng:

2 2 2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( d c b a d b c a + + + s + + +
Gii: Dng bt ng thc Bunhiacopski
ta c ac + bd s
2 2 2 2
. d c b a + +
m ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 d c bd ac b a d b c a + + + + + = + + + ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
. 2 d c d c b a b a + + + + + + s
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116
20 CHUYN BI DNG TON 8
TRNG THCS TIN THNG

2 2 2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( d c b a d b c a + + + s + + +

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117