You are on page 1of 99

Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012

Ngyson:22/82011
Ngy ging:23/8/2011
CHNG I : PHP NHN V PHP CHIA A THC
Tun I- Tit 1: 1 NHN N THC VI A THC
I.Mc tiu
+ Kin thc: - HS nm c cc qui tc v nhn n thc vi a thc theo cng thc:
A(B t C) = AB t AC. Trong A, B, C l n thc.
+ K nng: - HS thc hnh ng cc php tnh nhn n thc vi a thc c khng 3 hng t &
khng qu 2 bin.
+ Thi :- Rn luyn t duy sng to, tnh cn thn.
II. Chun b:
+ Gio vin: Bng ph.. Bi tp in sn
+ Hc sinh: n php nhn mt s vi mt tng. Nhn hai lu tha c cng c s.
Bng ph ca nhm. dng hc tp.
III. Tin trnh bi dy:
A.T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c.
- GV: 1/ Hy nu qui tc nhn 1 s vi mt tng? Vit dng tng qut?
2/ Hy nu qui tc nhn hai lu tha c cng c s? Vit dng tng qut?.
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Hnh thnh qui tc.
+ t php nhn n thc vi a thc
+ Nhn n thc vi tng hng t ca a
thc ri Cng cc tch tm c
GV: cho HS kim tra cho kt qu ca nhau &
kt lun: 15x
3
- 6x
2
+ 24x l tch ca n thc
3x vi a thc 5x
2
- 2x + 4
GV: Em hy pht biu qui tc Nhn 1 n thc
vi 1 a thc?
GV: cho HS nhc li v nu tng qut ?
1) Qui tc
?1
Lm tnh nhn (c th ly v d HS nu ra)
3x(5x
2
- 2x + 4) = 3x. 5x
2
+ 3x(- 2x) + 3x.
= 15x
3
- 6x
2
+ 24x
* Qui tc: (SGK)
- Nhn n thc vi tng hng t ca a thc
- Cng cc tch li vi nhau.
Tng qut:A, B, C l cc n thc
A(B t C) = AB t AC
* H2: p dng qui tc.
Gio vin yu cu hc sinh t nghin cu v d
trong SGK trang 4
Gio vin yu cu hc sinh lm ?2
(3x
3
y -
1
2
x
2
+
1
5
xy). 6xy
3
Gi hc sinh ln bng trnh by.
* H3: HS lm vic theo nhm
?3 GV: Gi cho HS cng thc tnh S hnh
thang.
GV: Cho HS bo co kt qu.
S =
1
2
( ) 5 3 (3 ) x x y + + + 1
]
. 2y= 8xy + y
2
+3y
Thay x = 3; y = 2 th S = 58 m
2
2/ p dng :
V d: Lm tnh nhn (- 2x
3
) ( x
2
+ 5x -
1
2
)
= (2x
3
). (x
2
)+(2x
3
).5x+(2x
3
). (-
1
2
)= - 2x
5
- 10x
4
+ x
3
?2: Lm tnh nhn
(3x
3
y -
1
2
x
2
+
1
5
xy). 6xy
3
=3x
3
y.6xy
3
+(-
1
2
x
2
).6xy
3
+
1
5
xy. 6xy
3
= 18x
4
y
4
- 3x
3
y
3
+
6
5
x
2
y
4
?3
S =
1
2
( ) 5 3 (3 ) x x y + + + 1
]
. 2y= 8xy + y
2
+3y
Thay x = 3; y = 2 th S = 58 m
2
Trang 1
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
D- Luy n tp - Cng c :
- GV: Nhn mnh nhn n thc vi a thc &
p dng lm bi tp
* Tm x: x(5 - 2x) + 2x(x - 1) = 15
HS : ln bng gii HS di lp cng lm.
* Tm x:
x(5 - 2x) + 2x(x - 1) = 15

5x - 2x
2
+ 2x
2
- 2x =
15

3x = 15

x = 5
E-BT - Hng dn v nh.
+ Lm cc bi tp : 1,2,3,5 (SGK)
+ Lm cc bi tp : 2,3,5 (SBT)
Ngyson:24/82010
Ngy ging:25/8/2011
Tun I- Tit 2 : NHN A THC VI A THC
I- Mc tiu :
+ Kin thc: - HS nm vng qui tc nhn a thc vi a thc.
- Bit cch nhn 2 a thc mt bin sp xp cng chiu
+ K nng: - HS thc hin ng php nhn a thc (ch thc hin nhn 2 a thc
mt bin sp xp )
+ Thi : - Rn t duy sng to & tnh cn thn.
II. Chun b:
+ Gio vin: - Bng ph
+ Hc sinh: - Bi tp v nh. n nhn n thc vi a thc.
III- Tin trnh bi dy
A- T chc.
B- Kim tra:
- HS1: Pht biu qui tc nhn n thc vi a thc? Cha bi tp 1c trang 5.
(4x
3
- 5xy + 2x) (-
1
2
)
- HS2: Rt gn biu thc: x
n-1
(x+y) - y(x
n-1
+ y
n-1
)
C- Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
Hot ng 1: Xy dng qui tc
GV: cho HS lm v d
Lm php nhn (x - 3) (5x
2
- 3x + 2)
- GV: theo em mun nhn 2 a thc ny vi nhau
ta phi lm nh th no?
- GV: Gi cho HS & cht li:Ly mi hng t
ca a thc th nht ( coi l 1 n thc) nhn vi
a thc ri cng kt qu li.
a thc 5x
3
- 18x
2
+ 11x - 6 gi l tch ca 2 a
thc (x - 3) & (5x
2
- 3x + 2)
- HS so snh vi kt qu ca mnh
GV: Qua v d trn em hy pht biu qui tc nhn
a thc vi a thc?
GV: em hy nhn xt tch ca 2 a thc
Hot ng 2: Cng c qui tc bng bi tp
GV: Cho HS lm bi tp
GV: cho HS nhc li qui tc.
1. Qui tc
V d:
(x - 3) (5x
2
- 3x + 2) =x(5x
2
-3x+ 2)+ (-3) (5x
2
- 3x
+ 2)=5x
3
-3x
2
+2x - 15x
2
+ 9x -6= 5x
3
- 18x
2
+ 11x - 6
Qui tc:
Mun nhn 1 a thc vi 1 a thc ta nhn mi
hng t ca a thc ny vi tng hng t ca a
thc kia ri cng cc tch vi nhau.
* Nhn xt:Tich ca 2 a thc l 1 a thc
?1 Nhn a thc (
1
2
xy -1) vi x
3
- 2x - 6
Gii: (
1
2
xy -1) ( x
3
- 2x - 6) =
1
2
xy(x
3
- 2x - 6) (- 1)
(x
3
- 2x - 6)
=
1
2
xy. x
3
+
1
2
xy(- 2x) +
1
2
xy(- 6) + (-1) x
3
+(-1)(-
2x) + (-1) (-6) =
1
2
x
4
y - x
2
y - 3xy - x
3
+ 2x +6
Trang 2
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
* Hot ng 3: Nhn 2 a thc sp xp.
Lm tnh nhn: (x + 3) (x
2
+ 3x - 5)
GV: Hy nhn xt 2 a thc?
GV: Rt ra phng php nhn:
+ Sp xp a thc theo lu tha gim dn hoc
tng dn.
+ a thc ny vit di a thc kia
+ Kt qu ca php nhn mi hng t ca a
thc th 2 vi a thc th nht c vit ring
trong 1 dng.
+ Cc n thc ng dng c xp vo cng 1
ct
+ Cng theo tng ct.
* Hot ng 4: p dng vo gii bi tp
Lm tnh nhn
a) (xy - 1)(xy +5)
a) (x
3
- 2x
2
+ x - 1)(5 - x)
GV: Hy suy ra kt qu ca php nhn
(x
3
- 2x
2
+ x - 1)(x - 5)
- HS tin hnh nhn theo hng dn ca GV
- HS tr li ti ch
( Nhn kt qu vi -1)
* Hot ng 5: Lm vic theo nhm.?3
3) Nhn 2 a thc sp xp.
Ch : Khi nhn cc a thc mt bin v d trn
ta c th sp xp ri lm tnh nhn.
x
2
+ 3x - 5
x + 3
3x
2
+ 9x - 15
+ x
3
+ 3x
2
- 15x
x
3
+ 6x
2
- 6x - 15
2)p dng:
?2 Lm tnh nhn
a) (xy - 1)(xy +5)= x
2
y
2
+ 5xy - xy - 5= x
2
y
2
+ 4xy
- 5
b) (x
3
- 2x
2
+ x - 1)(5 - x)=5 x
3
-10x
2
+5x-5 - x
4
+
2x
2
- x
2
+ x = - x
4
+ 7 x
3
- 11x
2
+ 6 x - 5
?3 Gi S l din tch hnh ch nht vi 2 kch thc
cho
+ C1: S = (2x +y) (2x - y) = 4x
2
- y
2
Vi x = 2,5 ; y = 1 ta tnh c :
S = 4.(2,5)
2
- 1
2
= 25 - 1 = 24 (m
2
)
+ C2: S = (2.2,5 + 1) (2.2,5 - 1) = (5 +1) (5 -1) =
6.4 = 24 (m
2
)
D- luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV: Em hy nhc li qui tc nhn a thc vi a thc? Vit tng qut?
- GV: Vi A, B, C, D l cc a thc : (A + B) (C + D) = AC + AD + BC + BD
E-BT - Hng dn v nh.
- HS: Lm cc bi tp 8,9 / trang 8 (sgk). bi tp 8,9,10 / trang (sbt)
HD: BT9: Tnh tch (x - y) (x
4
+ xy + y
2
) ri n gin biu thc & thay gi tr vo tnh.
I Mc tiu :
+ Kin thc: - HS nm vng, cng c cc qui tc nhn n thc vi a thc.
qui tc nhn a thc vi a thc
- Bit cch nhn 2 a thc mt bin d sp xp cng chiu
+ K nng: - HS thc hin ng php nhn a thc, rn k nng tnh ton,
trnh by, trnh nhm du, tm ngay kt qu.
+ Thi : - Rn t duy sng to, ham hc & tnh cn thn.
II. Chun b:
+ Gio vin: - Bng ph
+ Hc sinh: - Bi tp v nh. n nhn n thc vi a thc, nhn a thc vi a thc.
III- Tin trnh bi dy:
A- T chc:
B- Kim tra bi c:
- HS1: Pht biu qui tc nhn n thc vi a thc ?Pht biu qui tc nhn a thc vi a thc ?
Vit dng tng qut ?
Trang
Ngy son: 29/8/2011
Ngy ging:30/8/2011
Tun II- Tit 3 LUYN TP
3
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- HS2: Lm tnh nhn ( x
2
- 2x + 3 ) (
1
2
x - 5 )
v cho bit kt qu ca php nhn ( x
2
- 2x + 3 ) (5 -
1
2
x ) ?
* Ch 1: Vi A. B l 2 a thc ta c: ( - A).B = - (A.B)
C- Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca v HS
*Hot ng 1: Luyn tp
Tnh a) (x
2
y
2
-
1
2
xy + 2y )(x -2y)
b) (x
2
- xy + y
2
) (x + y)
GV: cho 2 HS ln bng cha bi tp & HS
khc nhn xt kt qu
+ Ta c th i ch (giao hon ) 2 a thc
trong tch & thc hin php nhn.
- GV: Em hy nhn xt v du ca 2 n
thc ?
-GV: Cho HS ln bng cha bi tp
- HS lm bi tp 12 theo nhm
- GV: tnh gi tr biu thc c ngha ta lm
vic g
+ Tnh gi tr biu thc :
A = (x
2
- 5) (x + 3) + (x + 4) (x - x
2
)
- GV: lm nhanh ta c th lm nh th
no ?
+ Thc hin php rt gm biu thc.
+ Tnh gi tr biu thc ng vi mi gi tr
cho ca x.
Tm x bit:
(12x - 5)(4x -1)+(3x-7)(1-16x) =81
- GV: hng dn
*Hot ng 2 :Nhn xt
. - GV: Cho cc nhm gii bi 14
- GV: Trong tp hp s t nhin s chn
c vit di dng tng qut nh th
no ? 3 s lin tip c vit nh th no ?
1) Cha bi 8 (sgk)
a) (x
2
y
2
-
1
2
xy+2y)(x- 2y)=x
3
y- 2x
2
y
3
-
1
2
x
2
y + xy
2
+2yx-4y
2
b)(x
2
- xy + y
2
) (x + y)= (x + y) (x
2
- xy + y
2
)
= x
3
- x
2
y + x
2
y + xy
2
- xy
2
+ y
3
= x
3
+ y
3
* Ch 2:
+ Nhn 2 n thc tri du tch mang du m (-)
+ Nhn 2 n thc cng du tch mang du dng
+ Khi vit kt qu tch 2 a thc di dng tng phi thu gn
cc hng t ng dng ( Kt qu c vit gn nht).
2) Cha bi 12 (sgk)
- HS lm bi tp 12 theo nhm
Tnh gi tr biu thc :
A = (x
2
- 5)(x + 3) + (x + 4)(x - x
2
)= x
3
+3x
2
- 5x- 15 +x
2
-x
3
+
4x - 4x
2
= - x - 15
thay gi tr cho ca bin vo tnh ta c:
a) Khi x = 0 th A = -0 - 15 = - 15
b) Khi x = 15 th A = -15-15 = -30
c) Khi x = - 15 th A = 15 -15 = 0
d) Khi x = 0,15 th A = - 0,15-15 = - 15,15
3) Cha bi 13 (sgk)
Tm x bit:
(12x-5)(4x-1)+(3x-7)(1-16x) = 81

(48x
2
- 12x - 20x +5) ( 3x + 48x
2
- 7 + 112x = 81

83x - 2 = 81

83x = 83

x = 1
4) Cha bi 14
*Gi cc s cn tm l: n;n+2;n+4
Ta c: n(n+2)=(n+2)(n+4) - 192

n
2
+2n = n
2
+6n-184

4n
=184 46 n
Vy ba s cn tm l: 46;48;50
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV: Mun chng minh gi tr ca mt biu thc no khng ph thuc gi tr ca bin ta phi
lm nh th no ?
+ Qua luyn tp ta p dng kin thc nhn n thc & a thc vi a thc c cc dng biu
thc no?
E-BT - Hng dn v nh.
+ Lm cc bi 11 & 15 (sgk)
HD: a v dng tch c tha s l s 2
Ngy son: Tit4 NHNG HNG NG THC NG NH
Trang 4
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Ngy ging:
I . Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: hc sinh hiu v nh thuc lng tt c bng cng thc v pht biu thnh li v
bnh phng ca tng bng phng ca 1 hiu v hiu 2 bnh phng
- K nng: hc sinh bit p dng cng thc tnh nhm tnh nhanh mt cch hp l gi tr ca
biu thc i s
- Thi : rn luyn tnh nhanh nhn, thng minh v cn thn
II. Chun b:
gv: - Bng ph.
hs: dung c,BT
III tin trnh gi dy:
A.T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c:
HS1: Pht biu qui tc nhn a thc vi a thc. p dng lm php nhn : (x + 2) (x -2)
HS2: p dng thc hin php tnh
b) ( 2x + y)( 2x + y) p s : 4x
2
+ 4xy + y
2

C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV
Hot ng 1. XD hng ng thc th nht
HS1: Pht biu qui tc nhn a thc vi a
thc
- GV: T kt qu thc hin ta c cng thc:
(a +b)
2
= a
2
+2ab +b
2.
- GV: Cng thc ng vi bt k gi tr no
ca a &b Trong trng hp a,b>o. Cng thc
trn c minh ho bi din tch cc hnh
vung v cc hnh ch nht (Gv dng bng
ph)
-GV: Vi A, v B l cc biu thc ta cng c
-GV: A,B l cc biu thc . Em pht biu
thnh li cng thc :
-GV dng bng ph KT kt qu
-GV gii thch sau khi hc sinh lm xong
bi tp ca mnh
*Hot ng2:Xy dng hng ng thc
th 2.
GV: Cho HS nhn xt cc tha s ca phn
kim tra bi c (b). Hiu ca 2 s nhn vi
hiu ca 2 s c KQ nh th no? chnh l
bnh phng ca 1 hiu.
GV: cht li : Bnh phng ca 1 hiu bng
bnh phng s th nht, tr 2 ln tch s th
nht vi s th 2, cng bnh phng s th 2.
HS1: Tr li ngay kt qu
+HS2: Tr li v nu phng php
+HS3: Tr li v nu phng php a v
HT
Hot ng ca HS
1. Bnh phng ca mt tng:
Vi hai s a, b bt k, thc hin php tnh:
(a+b) (a+b) =a
2
+ ab + ab + b
2
= a
2
+ 2ab +b
2
.
(a +b)
2
= a
2
+2ab +b
2.
* a,b > 0: CT c minh ho
a b
a
2
ab
ab b
2
* Vi A, B l cc biu thc :
(A +B)
2
= A
2
+2AB+ B
2
* p dng:
a) Tnh: ( a+1)
2
= a
2
+ 2a + 1
b) Vit biu thc di dng bnh phng ca 1 tng:
x
2
+ 6x + 9 = (x +3)
2

c) Tnh nhanh: 51
2
v 301
2
*51
2
= (50 + 1)
2
= 50
2
+2.50.1+1= 2500 + 100 + 1 = 2601
*301
2
=(300+1)
2
= 300
2
+2.300+1= 90601
2- Bnh phng ca 1 hiu.
Thc hin php tnh [ ] ( ) a b +
2
= a
2
- 2ab + b
2
Vi A, B l cc biu thc ta c:
( A - B )
2
= A
2
- 2AB + B
2
* p dng: Tnh
a) (x -
1
2
)
2
= x
2
- x +
1
4
b) ( 2x - 3y)
2
= 4x
2
- 12xy + 9 y
2
c) 99
2
= (100 - 1)
2
= 10000 - 200 + 1 = 9801
Trang 5
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
* Hot ng3: Xy dng hng ng thc
th3.
- GV: Em hy nhn xt cc tha s trong bi
tp (c) bn cha ?
- GV: chnh l hiu ca 2 bnh phng.
- GV: Em hy din t cng thc bng li ?
Hiu 2 bnh phng ca mi s bng tch ca
tng 2 s vi hiu 2 s
Hiu 2 bnh phng ca mi biu thc bng
tch ca tng 2 biu thc vi hiu 2 hai biu
thc
-GV: Hng dn HS cch c (a - b)
2
Bnh
phng ca 1 hiu & a
2
- b
2
l hiu ca 2 bnh
phng.
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV: cho HS lm bi tp ?7
Ai ng ? ai sai?
+ c vit: x
2
- 10x + 25 = (x - 5)
2
+ Th vit:x
2
- 10x + 25 = (5- x)
2
3- Hiu ca 2 bnh phng
+ Vi a, b l 2 s tu :
(a + b) (a - b) = a
2
- b
2
+ Vi A, B l cc biu thc tu
A
2
- B
2
= (A + B) (A - B)
?3.Hiu 2 bnh phng ca mi s bng tch ca tng 2
s vi hiu 2 s
Hiu 2 bnh phng ca mi biu thc bng tch ca tng
2 biu thc vi hiu 2 hai biu thc
* p dng: Tnh
a) (x + 1) (x - 1) = x
2
- 1
b) (x - 2y) (x + 2y) = x
2
- 4y
2
c) Tnh nhanh
56. 64 = (60 - 4) (60 + 4)
= 60
2
- 4
2
= 3600 -16 = 3584
+ c vit, Th vit:u ng v 2 s i nhau bnh
phng bng nhau
* Nhn xt: (a - b)
2
= (b - a)
2

E-BT - Hng dn v nh. (2)
- Lm cc bi tp: 16, 17, 18 sgk. T cc HT hy din t bng li. Vit cc HT theo chiu xui
v chiu ngc, c th thay cc ch a,b bng cc ch A.B, X, Y
Ngy son:
Ngyging:
Tit 5 LUYN TP
I . MC TIU:
- Kin thc: hc sinh cng c & m rng cc HT bnh phng ca tng bng phng ca 1 hiu
v hiu 2 bnh phng.
- K nng: hc sinh bit p dng cng thc tnh nhm tnh nhanh mt cch hp l gi tr ca
biu thc i s
- Thi : rn luyn tnh nhanh nhn, thng minh v cn thn
II. Chun b:
gv: - Bng ph.
hs: - Bng ph. QT nhn a thc vi a thc.
III. tin trnh gi dy:
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c:
- GV: Dng bng ph
a)Hy du (x) vo thch hp:
TT Cng thc ng Sai
1
2
3
4
5
a
2
- b
2
= (a + b) (a - b)
a
2
- b
2
= - (b + a) (b - a)
a
2
- b
2
= (a - b)
2
(a + b)
2
= a
2
+ b
2
(a + b)
2
= 2ab + a
2
+ b
2
b) Vit cc biu thc sau y di dng bnh phng ca mt tng hoc mt hiu ?
+ x
2
+ 2x + 1 =
+ 25a
2
+ 4b
2
- 20ab =
Trang 6
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
p n (x + 1)
2
; (5a - 2b)
2
= (2b - 5a)
2
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
*H1: Luyn tp
- GV: T em c th nu cch tnh nhm bnh
phng ca 1 s t nhin c tn cng bng ch s
5.
+ p dng tnh: 25
2
, 35
2
, 65
2
, 75
2
+ Mun tnh bnh phng ca 1 s c tn cng
bng 5 ta thc hin nh sau:
- Tnh tch a(a + 1)
- Vit thm 25 vo bn phi
V d: Tnh 35
2
35 c s chc l 3 nn 3(3 +1) = 3.4 = 12
Vy 35
2
= 1225 ( 3.4 = 12)
65
2
= 4225 ( 6.7 = 42)
125
2
= 15625 ( 12.13 = 156 )
-GV: Cho bit tip kt qu ca: 45
2
, 55
2
, 75
2
, 85
2
,
95
2
2- Cha bi 21/12 (sgk)
Vit cc a thc sau di dng bnh phng ca
mt tng hoc mt hiu:
a) 9x
2
- 6x + 1
b) (2x + 3y)
2
+ 2 (2x + 3y) + 1
* GV cht li: Mun bit 1 a thc no c vit
c di dng (a + b)
2
, (a - b)
2
hay khng trc
ht ta phi lm xut hin trong tng c s hng
2.ab
ri ch ra a l s no, b l s no ?
Gio vin treo bng ph:
Vit cc a thc sau di dng bnh phng ca
mt tng hoc mt hiu:
a) 4y
2
+ 4y +1 c) (2x - 3y)
2
+ 2 (2x - 3y) + 1
b) 4y
2
- 4y +1 d) (2x - 3y)
2
- 2 (2x - 3y) + 1
Gio vin yu cu HS lm bi tp 22/12 (sgk)
Gi 2 HS ln bng
*H 2: Cng c v nng cao.
Chng minh rng:
a) (a + b)
2
= (a - b)
2
+ 4ab
- HS ln bng bin i
b) (a - b)
2
= (a + b)
2
- 4ab
Bin i v phi ta c:
(a + b)
2
- 4ab = a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
- 4ab
= a
2
- 2ab + b
2
= (a - b)
2
Vy v tri bng v phi
- Ta c kt qu:
+ (a + b + c)
2
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ 2ab + 2ac + 2bc
1- Cha bi 17/11 (sgk)
Chng minh rng:
(10a + 5)
2
= 100a (a + 1) + 25
Ta c
(10a + 5)
2
= (10a)
2
+ 2.10a .5 + 5
5
= 100a
2
+ 100a + 25= 100a (a + 1) + 25
2- Cha bi 21/12 (sgk)
Ta c:
a) 9x
2
- 6x + 1 = (3x -1)
2
b) (2x + 3y)
2
+ 2 (2x + 3y) + 1
= (2x + 3y + 1)
2
3- Bi tp p dng
a) = (2y + 1)
2
b) = (2y - 1)
2
c) = (2x - 3y + 1)
2
d) = (2x - 3y - 1)
2
4- Cha bi tp 22/12 (sgk)
Tnh nhanh:
a) 101
2
= (100 + 1)
2
= 100
2
+ 2.100 +1 = 10201
b) 199
2
= (200 - 1)
2
= 200
2
- 2.200 + 1 = 39601
c) 47.53 = (50 - 3) (50 + 3) = 50
2
- 3
2
= 2491
5- Cha bi 23/12 sgk
a) Bin i v phi ta c:
(a - b)
2
+ 4ab = a
2
-2ab + b
2
+ 4ab = a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
=
(a + b)
2
Vy v tri bng v phi
b) Bin i v phi ta c:
(a + b)
2
- 4ab = a
2
+2ab + b
2
- 4ab = a
2
- 2ab + b
2
= (a
- b)
2
Vy v tri bng v phi
6- Cha bi tp 25/12 (sgk)
(a + b + c)
2
= [ (a + b )+ c ]
2
(a + b - c)
2
= [ (a +
b )- c ]
2
Trang 7
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- GVcht li : Bnh phng ca mt tng cc s
bng tng cc bnh phng ca mi s hng cng
hai ln tch ca mi s hng vi tng s hng
ng sau n
(a - b - c)
2
= [ (a - b) - c) ]
2
D) Luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV cht li cc dng bin i chnh p dng HT:
+ Tnh nhanh; CM ng thc; thc hin cc php tnh; tnh gi tr ca biu thc.
E-BT - Hng dn v nh.
- Lm cc bi tp 20, 24/SGK 12
* Bi tp nng cao: 7,8/13 (BT c bn & NC)
Ngy son :
Ngy ging:
Tit 6: NHNG HNG NG THC NG NH (Tip)
I . MC TIU :
- Kin thc: hc sinh hiu v nh thuc lng tt c bng cng thc v pht biu thnh li v
lp phng ca tng lp phng ca 1 hiu .
- K nng: hc sinh bit p dng cng thc tnh nhm tnh nhanh mt cch hp l gi tr ca
biu thc i s
- Thi : rn luyn tnh nhanh nhn, thng minh v cn thn
II. Chun b:
-gv: - Bng ph.
- hs: - Bng ph. Thuc ba hng ng thc 1,2,3
III. tin trnh gi dy:
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c:- GV: Dng bng ph
+ HS1: Hy pht biu thnh li & vit cng thc bnh phng ca mt tng 2 biu thc, bnh
phng ca mt hiu 2 biu thc, hiu 2 bnh phng ?
+ HS2: Nu cch tnh nhanh c th tnh c cc php tnh sau: a)
2
31 ; b) 49
2
; c) 49.31
C. Bi mi:
Hat ng ca gio vin
Hot ng 1. XD hng ng thc th 4:
Gio vin yu cu HS lm ?1
- HS: thc hin theo yu cu ca GV
- GV: Em no hy pht biu thnh li ?
- GV cht li: Lp phng ca 1 tng 2 s
bng lp phng s th nht, cng 3 ln tch
ca bnh phng s th nht vi s th 2,
cng 3 ln tch ca s th nht vi bnh
phng s th 2, cng lp phng s th 2.
GV: HS pht biu thnh li vi A, B l cc
biu thc.
Tnh
a) (x + 1)
3
=
b) (2x + y)
3
=
- GV: Nu tnh 2 chiu ca kt qu
+ Khi gp bi ton yu cu vit cc a thc
x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 3x + 1
Hat ng ca HS
4)Lp phng ca mt tng
?1 Hy thc hin php tnh sau & cho bit kt qu
(a+ b)(a+ b)
2
= (a+ b)(a
2
+ b
2
+ 2ab)
(a + b )
3
= a
3
+ 3a
2
b + 3ab
2
+ b
3
Vi A, B l cc biu thc
(A+B)
3
= A
3
+3A
2
B+3AB
2
+B
3

?2 Lp phng ca 1 tng 2 biu thc bng
p dng
a) (x + 1)
3
= x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 3x + 1
b)(2x+y)
3
=(2x)
3
+3(2x)
2
y+3.2xy
2
+y
3
= 8x
3
+ 12 x
2
y + 6xy
2
+ y
3
5) Lp phng ca 1 hiu
(a + (- b ))
3
( a, b tu )
Trang 8
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
8x
3
+ 12 x
2
y + 6xy
2
+ y
3
di dng lp phng ca 1 tng ta phn tch
ch ra c s hng th nht, s hng th 2
ca tng:
a) S hng th nht l x, s hng th 2 l 1
b) Ta phi vit 8x
3
= (2x)
3
l s hng th nht
& y s hng th 2
Hot ng 2. XD hng ng thc th 5:
- GV: Vi A, B l cc biu thc cng thc
trn c cn ng khng?
GV yu cu HS lm bI tp p dng:
Yu cu hc sinh ln bng lm?
GV yu cu HS hot ng nhm cu c)
c) Trong cc khng nh khng nh no ng
khng nh no sai ?
1. (2x -1)
2
= (1 - 2x)
2
; 2. (x - 1)
3
= (1 - x)
3
3. (x + 1)
3
= (1 + x)
3
; 4. (x
2
- 1) = 1 - x
2
5. (x - 3)
2
= x
2
- 2x + 9
- Cc nhm trao i & tr li
- GV: em c nhn xt g v quan h ca (A -
B)
2
vi
(B - A)
2
(A - B)
3
Vi (B - A)
3

(a - b )
3
= a
3
- 3a
2
b + 3ab
2
- b
3
Lp phng ca 1 hiu 2 s bng lp phng s th nht,
tr 3 ln tch ca bnh phng s th nht vi s th 2,
cng 3 ln tch ca s th nht vi bnh phng s th 2,
tr lp phng s th 2.
Vi A, B l cc biu thc ta c:
(A - B )
3
= A
3
- 3A
2
B + 3AB
2
- B
3
?2 p dng: Tnh
a)(x-
1
3
)
3
=x
3
-3x
2
.
1
3
+3x. (
1
3
)
2
- (
1
3
)
3
= x
3
- x
2
+ x. (
1
3
) - (
1
3
)
3
b)(x-2y)
3
=x
3
-3x
2
.2y+3x.(2y)
2
-(2y)
3
= x
3
- 6x
2
y + 12xy
2
- 8y
3
c) 1- ; 2-S ; 3- ; 4-
S ; 5- S
HS nhn xt:
+ (A - B)
2
= (B - A)
2

+ (A - B)
3
= - (B - A)
3

D. Luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV: cho HS nhc li 2 HT
- Lm bi 29/trang14 ( GV dng bng ph)
+ Hy in vo bng
(x - 1)
3
(x + 1)
3
(y - 1)
2
(x - 1)
3
(x + 1)
3
(1 - y)
2
(x + 4)
2
N H N H U
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
Hc thuc cc HT- Lm cc bi tp: 26, 27, 28 (sgk) & 18, 19 (sbt)
* Chng minh ng thc: (a - b )
3
(a + b )
3
= 2a(a
2
+ 3b
2
)
* Chp bi tp : in vo trng tr thnh lp phng ca 1 tng hoc 1 hiu
a) x
3
+ + + c) 1 - + - 64x
3
b) x
3
- 3x
2
+ - d) 8x
3
- + 6x -
Ngy son :
Ngy ging:
Tit 7 NHNG HNG NG THC NG NH (Tip)
I. Mc tiu :
- Kin thc: H/s nm c cc HT : Tng ca 2 lp phng, hiu ca 2 lp phng, phn bit c
s khc nhau gia cc khi nim " Tng 2 lp phng", " Hiu 2 lp phng" vi khi nim " lp
phng ca 1 tng" " lp phng ca 1 hiu".
- K nng: HS bit vn dng cc HT " Tng 2 lp phng, hiu 2 lp phng" vo gii BT
- Thi : Gio dc tnh cn thn, rn tr nh.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph .
-HS: 5 HT hc + Bi tp.
Trang 9
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
III. Tin trnh bi dy:
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c:
- GV a KT ra bng ph
- + HS1: Tnh a). (3x-2y)
3
= ; b). (2x +
1
3
)
3
=
+ HS2: Vit cc HT lp phng ca 1 tng, lp phng ca 1 hiu v pht biu thnh li?
p n v biu im a, (5) HS1 (3x - 2y) = 27x
3
- 54x
2
y + 36xy
2
- 8y
3
b, (5) (2x +
1
3
)
3
= 8x
3
+4x
2
+
2
3
x +
1
27

C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
Hot ng 1. XD hng ng thc th 6:
+ HS1: Ln bng tnh
-GV: Em no pht biu thnh li?
*GV: Ngi ta gi (a
2
+ab + b
2
) & A
2
- AB + B
2
l
cc bnh phng thiu ca a-b & A-B
+ Tng 2 lp phng ca 2 s bng tch ca tng
2 s vi bnh phng thiu ca hiu 2 s
+ Tng 2 lp phng ca biu thc bng tch ca
tng 2 biu thc vi bnh phng thiu ca hiu 2
biu thc.
Hot ng 2. XD hng ng thc th 7:
- Ta gi (a
2
+ab + b
2
) & A
2
- AB + B
2
l bnh
phng thiu ca tng a+b& (A+B)
- GV: Em hy pht biu thnh li
- GV cht li
(GV dng bng ph)
a). Tnh:(x - 1) ) (x
2
+ x + 1)
b). Vit 8x
3
- y
3
di dng tch
c). in du x vo c p s ng ca tch
(x+2)(x
2
-2x+4)
x
3
+ 8

x
3
- 8

(x + 2)
3

(x - 2)
3
- GV: a h s 7 HT bng bng ph.
- GV cho HS ghi nh 7 HTN
-Khi A = x & B = 1 th cc cng thc trn c
vit ntn?
6). Tng 2 lp phng:
Thc hin php tnh sau vi a,b l hai s tu : (a + b)
(a
2
- ab + b
2
) = a
3
+ b
3
-Vi a,b l cc biu thc tu ta cng c
A
3
+ B
3
= (A + B) ( A
2
- AB + B
2
)
a). Vit x
3
+ 8 di dng tch
C: x
3
+ 8 = x
3
+ 2
3
= (x + 2) (x
2
-2x + 4)
b).Vit (x+1)(x
2
-x + 1) = x
3
+ 1
3
= x
3
+ 1
7). Hiu ca 2 lp phng:
Tnh: (a - b) (a
2
+ ab) + b
2
) nvi a,b tu
C: a
3
+ b
3
= (a-b) (a
2
+ ab) + b
2
)
Vi A,B l cc biu thc ta cng c
A
3
- B
3
= (A - B) ( A
2
+ AB + B
2
)
+ Hiu 2 lp phng ca 2 s th bng tch ca 2 s
vi bnh phng thiu ca 2 s .
+ Hiu 2 lp phng ca 2 biu thc th bng tch ca
hiu 2 biu thc vi bnh phng thiu ca tng 2
biu thc
p dng
a). Tnh:(x - 1) ) (x
2
+ x + 1) = x
3
-1
b). Vit 8x
3
- y
3
di dng tch
8x
3
-y
3
=(2x)
3
-y
3
=(2x - y)(4x
2
+ 2xy + y
2
)
A
3
+ B
3
= (A + B) ( A
2
- AB + B
2
)
A
3
- B
3
= (A - B) ( A
2
+ AB + B
2
)
+ Cng du (A + B) Hoc (A - B)
+ Tng 2 lp phng ng vi bnh phng thiu ca
hiu.
+ Hiu 2 lp phng ng vi bnh phng thiu ca
tng
Khi A = x & B = 1
( x + 1)
2
= x
2
+ 2x + 1; ( x - 1)
2
= x
2
- 2x + 1
( x
3
+1
3
)=(x+1)(x
2
-x+1);(x
3
-1
3
)=(x -1)(x
2
+ x + 1)
(x
2
- 1
2
) = (x - 1) ( x + 1)
(x +1)
3
=x
3
+3x
2
+3x+1; (x -1)
3
= x
3
-3x
2
+3x-1
D. Luyn tp - Cng c:
Trang 10
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
1). Chng t rng:
a) A = 2005
3
- 1 M2004 ; b) B = 2005
3
+ 125 M2010 c) C = x
6
+ 1 Mx
2
+ 1
2). Tm cp s x,y tho mn : x
2
(x + 3) + y
2
(y + 5) - (x + y)(x
2
- xy + y
2
) = 0

3x
2
+ 5y
2
= 0

x = y = 0
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Vit cng thc nhiu ln. c din t bng li.
- Lm cc bi tp 30, 31, 32/ 16 SGK.
- Lm bi tp 20/5 SBT
* Chp nng cao
Tm cp s nguyn x,y tho mn ng thc sau:
(2x - y)(4x
2
+ 2xy + y
2
) + (2x + y)(4x
2
- 2xy + y
2
) - 16x(x
2
- y) = 32
HDBT 20. Bin i tch, thm bt a v dng HT
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 8 LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu :
- Kin thc: HS cng c v ghi nh mt cch c h thng cc HT hc.
- K nng: K nng vn dng cc HT vo cha bi tp.
- Thi : Rn luyn tnh cn thn, yu mn hc.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph.
- HS: 7 HTN, BT.
III. Tin trnh bi dy:
A. T chc.
B. Kim tra bi c. + HS1: Rt gn cc biu thc sau:
a). ( x + 3)(x
2
- 3x + 9) - ( 54 + x
3
)
b). (2x - y)(4x
2
+ 2xy + y
2
) - (2x + y)(4x
2
- 2xy + y
2
)
+ HS2: CMR: a
3
+ b
3
= (a + b)
3
- 3ab (a + b)
p dng: Tnh a
3
+ b
3
bit ab = 6 v a + b = -5
+ HS3: Vit CT v pht biu thnh li cc HTN:- Tng, hiu ca 2 lp phng
C.Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
*H: Luyn tp
GV gi 1 HS ln bng lm phn b ? Tng t bi KT
ming ( khc du)
Cha bi 31/16 C th HS lm theo kiu

'

5
6
b a
ab

a = (-3); b = (-2)

C ngay a
3
+ b
3
= (-3)
3
+ (-2)
3
= -27 - 8 = -35
* HSCM theo cch t tha s chung nh sau
VD: (a + b)
3
- 3ab (a + b)= (a + b) [(a + b)
2
- 3ab)]
= (a + b) [a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
- 3ab]= (a + b)(a
2
- ab + b
2
) =
a
3
+ b
3
Cha bi 33/16: Tnh
a) (2 + xy)
2
; b)(5 - 3x)
2
; c) ( 2x - y)(4x
2
+ 2xy +
y
2
)
d)(5x - 1)
3
; e) ( 5 - x
2
) (5 + x
2)
) ; g)( x + 3)(x
2
- 3x
1. Cha bi 30/16 ( cha)
2. Cha bi 31/16
3. Cha bi 33/16: Tnh
a) (2 + xy)
2
= 4 + 4xy + x
2
y
2
b) (5 - 3x)
2
= 25 - 30x + 9x
2
c) ( 2x - y)(4x
2
+ 2xy + y
2
) = (2x)
3
- y
3
= 8x
3
- y
3
d) (5x - 1)
3
= 125x
3
- 75x
2
+ 15x - 1
e) ( 5 - x
2
) (5 + x
2)
) = 5
2
- (x
2
)
2
= 25 - x
4
g)(x +3)(x
2
-3x + 9) = x
3
+ 3
3
= x
3
+ 27
Trang 11
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
+ 9)
- GV cho HS nhn xt KQ, sa ch sai.
-Cc em c nhn xt g v KQ php tnh?
- GV cho HS lm vic theo nhm v HS ln bng
in kt qu lm.
Rt gn cc biu thc sau:a). (a + b)
2
- (a - b)
b). (a + b)
3
- (a - b)
3
- 2b
3

c). (x + y + z)
2
- 2(x + y + z)(x + y) + (x + y)
2

- 3 HS ln bng.
- Mi HS lm 1 .
Tnh nhanha). 34
2
+ 66
2
+ 68.66 ;b). 74
2
+ 24
2
- 48.74
Tnh gi tr ca biu thc:a) x
2
+ 4x + 4 Ti x = 98
b) x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 3x + 1 Ti x =99
- GV: Em no hy nu cch tnh nhanh cc gi tr ca
cc biu thc trn?
- HS pht biu kin..
4. Cha bi 34/16
Rt gn cc biu thc sau:
a)(a + b)
2
-(a - b)
2
= a
2
+ + 2ab - b
2
= 4ab
b). (a + b)
3
- (a - b)
3
- 2b
3
= a
3
+ 3a
2
b + b
3
- a
3
+ 3a
2
b
- 3ab
2
+ b
3
- 2b
3
= 6a
2
b
c). (x + y + z)
2
- 2(x + y + z)(x + y) + (x + y)
2
= z
2
5. Cha bi 35/17: Tnh nhanh
a)34
2
+66
2
+ 68.66 = 34
2
+ 66
2
+ 2.34.66
= (34 + 66)
2
= 100
2
= 10.000
b)74
2
+24
2
- 48.74 = 74
2
+ 24
2
- 2.24.74
= (74 - 24)
2
= 50
2
= 2.500
6. Cha bi 36/17
a) (x + 2)
2
= (98 + 2)
2
= 100
2
= 10.000
b) (x + 1)
3
= (99 + 1)
3
= 100
3
= 1000.000
D. Luyn tp - Cng c- Gv: Nu cc dng bi tp p dng tnh nhanh. p dng HT tnh
nhanh - Cng c KT - cc HTN bng bi tp 37/17 nh sau:
- GV: Chia HS lm 2 nhm mi nhm 7 em ( GV dng bng ph cho HS dn)
+ Nhm 1 t s 1 n s 7 (ca bng 1); + Nhm 2 ch A n ch G (ca bng 2)
( Nhm 1, 2 hi xem ai l ngi gi tay sau ch u tin) ch tip theo li ca nhm 2 dn nhm
1 in. Nhm 1 dn, nhm 2 in c nh vy n ht.
1 (x-y)(x
2
+xy+y
2
) B x
3
+ y
3
A
2 (x + y)( x -xy) D x
3
- y
3
B
3 x
2
- 2xy + y
2
E x
2
+ 2xy + y
2
C
4 (x + y )
2
C x
2
- y
2
D
5 (x + y)(x
2
-xy+y
2
) A (x - y )
2
E
6 y
3
+3xy
2
+3x
2
y+3x
3
G x
3
-3x
2
y+3xy
2
-y
3
F
7 (x - y)
3
F (x + y )
3
G
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Hc thuc 7 HTN.
- Lm cc BT 38/17 SGK - Lm BT 14/19 SBT
Ngy son :
Ngy ging:
Tit 9 : PHN TCH A THC THNH NHN T - BNG PHNG PHP
T NHN T CHUNG
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: HS hiu phn tch a thc thnh nhn t c ngha l bin i a thc thnh tch ca
a thc. HS bit PTTTNT bng p
2
t nhn t chung.
- K nng: Bit tm ra cc nhn t chung v t nhn t chung i vi cc a thc khng qua 3
hng t.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph, sch bi tp, sch nng cao.
- HS: n li 7 HTN.
III. Tin trnh bi dy.
A. T chc.
B. Kim tra bi c: HS1: Vit 4 HT u. p dng
Trang 12
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
CMR (x+1)(y-1)=xy-x+y-1
- HS2: Vit 3 HTcui.
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
.H1`: Hnh thnh bi mi t v d
- Hy vit 2x
2
- 4x thnh tch ca nhng a thc.
+ GV cht li v ghi bng.
- Ta thy: 2x
2
= 2x.x
4x = 2x.2
}

2x l nhn t chung.
Vy 2x
2
- 4x = 2x.x-2x.2 = 2x(x-2).
+ GV: Vic bin i 2x
2
- 4x= 2x(x-2). c gi l
phn tch a thc thnh nhn t.
+ GV: Em hy nu cch lm va ri( Tch cc s
hng thnh tich sao cho xut hin tha s chung,
t tha s chung ra ngoi du ngoc ca nhn t).
+GV: Em hy nu /n PTTTNT?
+ Gv: Ghi bng.
+ GV: trong a thc ny c 3 hng t (3s hng)
Hy cho bit nhn t chung ca cc hng t l
nhn t no.
+ GV: Ni v ghi bng.
+ GV: Nu kq bn khc lm l
15x
3
- 5x
2
+ 10x = 5

(3x
3
- x
2
+ 2x) th kq ng
hay sai? V sao?
+ GV: - Khi PTTTNT th mi nhn t trong tch
khng c cn c nhn t chung na.
+ GV: Lu hs : Khi trnh bi khng cn trnh by
ring r nh VD m trnh by kt hp, cch trnh
by p dng trong VD sau.
H2: Bi tp p dng
Phn tch a thc sau thnh nhn t
a) x
2
- x
b) 5x
2
(x-2y)-15x(x-2y
b) 3(x- y)-5x(y- x
+ Gv: Cht li v lu cch i du cc hng t.
GV cho HS lm bi tp p dng cch i du cc
hng t ?
GV yu cu HS lm bi tp ?3 SGK trang 19
Gi 3 HS ln bng
Mi HS lm 1 phn
( Tch bng 0 khi 1 trong 2 tha s bng 0 )
1) V d 1:SGKtrang 18
Ta thy: 2x
2
= 2x.x
4x = 2x.

2

2x l nhn t chung.
Vy 2x
2
- 4x = 2x.x-2x.2 = 2x(x-2).
- Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t ( hay tha s) l
bin i a thc thnh 1 tch ca nhng a
thc.
*V d 2. PTT thnh nhn t
15x
3
- 5x
2
+ 10x= 5x(3x
2
- x + 2 )
2. p dng
PTT sau thnh nhn t
a) x
2
- x = x.x - x= x(x -1)
b) 5x
2
(x-2y)-15x(x-2y)=5x.x(x-2y)-3.5x(x-2y) =
5x(x- 2y)(x- 3)
c)3(x-y)-5x(y- x)=3(x- y)+5x(x- y)= (x- y)(3 + 5x)
VD: -5x(y-x) =-(-5x)[-(y-x)]=5x(-y+x)=5x(x-y)
* Ch : Nhiu khi lm xut hin nhn t
chung ta cn i du cc hng t vi t/c: A = -(-
A).
?2 Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t:
a) 3x(x-1)+2(1- x)=3x(x- 1)- 2(x- 1) = (x- 1)(3x- 2)
b)x
2
(y-1)-5x(1-y)= x
2
(y- 1) +5x(y-1) = (y- 1)(x+5).x
c)(3- x)y+x(x - 3)=(3- x)y- x(3- x) = (3- x)(y- x)
T Tm x sao cho: 3x
2
- 6x = 0
+ GV: Mun tm gi tr ca x tho mn ng thc
trn hy PTT trn thnh nhn t
- Ta c 3x
2
- 6x = 0 3x(x - 2) = 0 x = 0
Hoc x - 2 = 0

x = 2
Vy x = 0 hoc x = 2
D- Luyn tp - Cng c: GV: Cho HS lm bi tp 39/19
a) 3x- 6y = 3(x - 2y) ; b)
2
5
x
2
+ 5x
3
+ x
2
y = x
2
(
2
5
+ 5x + y)
c) 14x
2
y- 21xy
2
+ 28x
2
y = 7xy(2x - 3y + 4xy) ; d)
2
5
x(y-1)-
2
5
y(y-1)=
2
5
(y-1)(x-1)
Trang 13
?1
?3
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
e) 10x(x - y) - 8y(y - x) = 10x(x - y) + 8y(x - y) = 2(x - y)(5x + 4y)
* Lm bi tp 42/19 SGK CMR: 55
n+1
-55
n
M54 (n

N)
Ta c: 55
n+1
-55
n
= 55
n
(55-1)= 55
n
.54M54
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
Lm cc bi 40, 41/19 SGK - Ch nhn t chung c th l mt s, c th l 1 n thc hoc a
thc( c phn h s v bin - p
2
i du)
Ngy soan:
Ngy ging:
Tit 10: PHN TCH A THC THNH NHN T BNG PHNG PHP
DNG HNG NG THC
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: HS hiu c cc PTTTNT bng p
2
dng HT thng qua cc v d c th.
- K nng: Rn k nng PTTTNT bng cch dng HT.
- Thi : Gio dc tnh cn thn, t duy l gic hp l.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph.
- HS: Lm bi tp v nh+ thuc 7 HTN.
III. Tin trnh bi dddaV
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c:
- HS1: Cha bi 41/19: Tm x bit
a) 5x(x - 2000) - x + 2000 = 0 b) x
3
- 13x = 0
- HS2: Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
a) 3x
2
y + 6xy
2
b) 2x
2
y(x - y) - 6xy
2
(y - x)
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
H1: Hnh thnh phng php PTTTN
GV: Lu vi cc s hng hoc biu thc khng phi
l chnh phng th nn vit di dng bnh phng
ca cn bc 2 ( Vi cc s>0).
Trn y chnh l p
2
phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
bng cch dng HT

p dng vo bi tp.
Gv: Ghi bng v cht li:
+ Trc khi PTTTNT ta phi xem a thc c
nhn t chung khng? Nu khng c dng ca HT
no hoc gn c dng HT no

Bin i v dng
HT

Bng cch no.


GV: Ghi bng v cho HS tnh nhm nhanh.
H2: Vn dng PP PTTTNT
+ GV: Mun chng minh 1 biu thc sM4 ta phi
lm ntn?
+ GV: Cht li ( mun chng minh 1 biu thc s no
M4 ta phi bin i biu thc di dng tch c
tha s l 4.
1) V d:
Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
a) x
2
- 4x + 4 = x
2
- 2.2x + 4 = (x- 2)
2
= (x- 2)(x- 2)
b) x
2
- 2 = x
2
- 2
2
= (x - 2 )(x + 2 )
c) 1- 8x
3
= 1
3
- (2x)
3
= (1- 2x)(1 + 2x + x
2
)
Phn tch cc a thc thnh nhn t.
a) x
3
+3x
2
+3x+1 = (x+1)
3
b) (x+y)
2
-9x
2
= (x+y)
2
-(3x)
2
= (x+y+3x)(x+y-3x)
Tnh nhanh: 105
2
-25 = 105
2
-5
2
=
(105-5)(105+5) = 100.110 = 11000
2) p dng:
V d: CMR:
(2n+5)
2
-25M4 mi n

Z
(2n+5)
2
-25 = (2n+5)
2
-5
2
= (2n+5+5)(2n+5-5)
= (2n+10)(2n) = 4n
2
+20n = 4n(n+5)M4
Vy (2n+5)
2
-25 4
D- Luyn tp - Cng c: * HS lm bi 43/20 (theo nhm)
Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t.
b) 10x-25-x
2
= -(x
2
-2.5x+5
2
) = -(x-5)
2
= -(x-5)(x-5)
Trang 14
?1
?2
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
c) 8x
3
-
1
8
= (2x)
3
-(
1
2
)
3
= (2x-
1
2
)(4x
2
+x+
1
4
)
d)
1
25
x
2
-64y
2
= (
1
5
x)
2
-(8y)
2
= (
1
5
x-8y)(
1
5
x+8y)
Bi tp trc nghim:(Chn p n ng)
phn tch 8x
2
- 18 thnh nhn t ta thng s dng phng php :
A t nhn t chung B. Dng hng ng thc
C. C 2 phng php trn D.Tch mt hng t thnh nhiu hng t
Bi tp nng cao
Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
a) 4x
4
+4x
2
y+y
2
= (2x
2
)
2
+2.2x
2
.y+y
2
= [(2x
2
)+y]
2
b) a
2n
-2a
n
+1 t a
n
= A
C: A
2
-2A+1 = (A-1)
2
Thay vo: a
2n
-2a
n
+1 = (a
n
-1)
2
+ GV cht li cch bin i.
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Hc thuc bi
- Lm cc bi tp 44, 45, 46/20 ,21 SGK
- Bi tp 28, 29/16 SBT
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 11: PHN TCH A THC THNH NHN T BNG PHNG
PHP NHM NHIU HNG T
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: HS bit nhm cc hng t thch hp, phn tch thnh nhn t trong mi nhm lm
xut hin cc nhn t chung ca cc nhm.
- K nng: Bin i ch yu vi cc a thc c 4 hng t khng qua 2 bin.
- Thi : Gio dc tnh linh hot t duy lgic.
II. Chun b:
-Gv: Bng ph
- HS: Hc bi + lm bi tp.
III. Tin trnh bi dy:
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c
- HS1: Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t. a) x
2
-4x+4 b) x
3
+
1
27
c) (a+b)
2
-(a-b)
2
- Trnh by cch tnh nhanh gi tr ca biu thc: 52
2
- 48
2
p n: a) (x-2)
2
hoc (2-c)
2
b) (x+
1
3
)(x
2
-
1
3 9
x
+
) c) 2a.2b=4a.b
* (52+48)(52-48)=400
C. Bi mi
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
*H1.Hnh thnh PP PTTTNT bng cch nhm
hng t
GV: Em c NX g v cc hng t ca a thc ny.
GV: Nu ta coi biu thc trn l mt a thc th cc hng
t khng c nhn t chung. Nhng nu ta coi biu thc
trn l tng ca 2 a thc no th cc a thc ny ntn?
1) V d: PTTTNT
x
2
- 3x + xy - 3y= (x
2
- 3x) + (xy - y)
= x(x-3)+y(x -3)= (x- 3)(x + y)
V d 2: PTTTNT
2xy + 3z + 6y + xz = (2xy + 6y) +(3z + xz)=
2y(x + 3) + x(x + 3) = (x + 3)(2y + z)
Trang 15
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Vy nu ta coi a thc cho l tng ca 2 a thc (x
2
-
3x)&(xy - 3y) hoc l tng ca 2 a thc
(x
2
+ xy) v -3x- 3y th cc hng t ca mi a thc li c
nhn t chung.
- Em vit a thc trn thnh tng ca 2 a thc v tip
tc bin i.
- Nh vy bng cch nhm cc hng t li vi nhau, bin
i lm xut hin nhn t chung ca mi nhm ta
bin i c a thc cho thnh nhn t.
GV: Cch lm trn c gi PTTTNT bng P
2
nhm
cc hng t.
HS ln bng trnh by cch 2.
+ i vi 1 a thc c th c nhiu cch nhm cc hng
t thch hp li vi nhua lm xut hin nhn t chung
ca cc nhm v cui cng cho ta cng 1 kq

Lm bi
tp p dng.
H2: p dng gii bi tp
GV dng bng ph PTTTNT
- Bn Thi lm: x
4
- 9x
3
+ x
2
- 9x = x(x
3
- 9x
2
+ x- 9)
- Bn H lm: x
4
- 9x
3
+ x
2
- 9x = (x
4
- 9x
3
) +(x
2
- 9x)= x
3
(x-
9) + x(x- 9) = (x- 9)(x
3
+ x)
- Bn An lm: x
4
- 9x
3
+ x
2
- 9x = (x
4
+ x
2
)- (9x
3
+ 9x) =
x
2
(x
2
+1)- 9x(x
2
+1) = (x
2
+1)(x
2
- 9x)= x(x- 9)(x
2
+1)
- GV cho HS tho lun theo nhm.
- GV: Qu trnh bin i ca bn Thi, H, An, c sai
ch no khng?
- Bn no lm n kq cui cng, bn no cha lm n
kq cui cng.
- GV: Cht li(ghi bng)
* H3: Tng kt
. PTTTNT l bin i a thc thnh 1 tch ca cc a
thc (c bc khc 0). Trong tch khng th phn tch
tip thnh nhn t c na.
C2: = (2xy + xz)+(3z + 6y)
= x(2y + z) + 3(z + 2y) = (2y+z)(x+3)
2. p dng
Tnh nhanh
15.64 + 25.100 + 36.15 + 60.100
= (15.64+6.15)+(25.100+ 60.100)
=15(64+36)+100(25 +60)
=15.100 + 100.85=1500 + 850= 10000
C2:=15(64 +36)+25.100 +60.100
= 15.100 + 25.100 + 60.100
=100(15 + 25 + 60) =10000
- Bn An lm ra kq cui cng l
x(x-9)(x
2
+1) v mi nhn t trong tch khng
th phn tch thnh nhn t c na.
- Ngc li: Bn Thi v H cha lm n kq
cui cng v trong cc nhn t vn cn phn
tch c thnh tch.
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
* Lm bi tp nng cao.
1. PTTTNT :
a) xa + xb + ya + yb - za - zb
b) a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
- c
2
+ 2cd - d
2
c) xy(m
2
+n
2
) - mn(x
2
+y
2
)
p n: a) (a+b)(x+y-z) ;
b) (a+b+c-d)(a+b-c+d) ;
c)(mx-ny)(my-nx)
2. Tm y bit:
y + y
2
- y
3
- y
4
= 0

y(y+1) - y
3
(y+1) = 0

(y+1)(y-y
3
) = 0

y(y+1)
2
(1-y) = 0

y = 0, y = 1, y = -1
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp 47, 48, 49 50SGK.
Trang 16
?1
?2
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
BT: CMR nu n l s t nhin l th A=n
3
+3n
2
-n-3 chia ht cho 8.
BT 31, 32 ,33/6 SBT.
Ngy soan:
Ngy ging:
Tit 12 LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: HS bit vn dng PTTTNT nh nhm cc hng t thch hp, phn tch thnh nhn t
trong mi nhm lm xut hin cc nhn t chung ca cc nhm.
- K nng: Bit p dng PTTTNT thnh tho bng cc phng php hc
- Thi : Gio dc tnh linh hot t duy lgic.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph
- HS: Hc bi + lm bi tp.
Iii,Tin trnh bi dy
A- T chc
B- Kim tra bi c: 15' (cui tit hc)
1. Trc nghim: Chn p n ng .
Cu 1 phn tch 8x
2
- 18 thnh nhn t ta thng s dng phng php:
A) Dng hng ng thc B) t nhn t chung
C) C hai phng php trn D) Tch 1 hng t thnh 2 hng t
Cu 2: Gi tr ln nht ca biu thc: E = 5 - 8x - x
2
l:
A. E = 21 khi x = - 4 B. E = 21 khi x = 4
C. E = 21 vi mi x D. E = 21 khi x = t 4
2, T lun:
Cu 3: Tnh nhanh: 87
2
+ 73
2
- 27
2
- 13
2
Cu 4: : Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
a) x( x + y) - 5x - 5y b) 6x - 9 - x
2
c) xy + a
3
- a
2
x - ay
p n & thang im
Cu 1: C (0,5)
Cu 2: A (0,5)
Cu 3: (3) Tnh nhanh: 87
2
+ 73
2
- 27
2
- 13
2
= ( 87
2
- 13
2
) + (73
2
- 27
2
)
= ( 87-13)( 87+13)+ (73- 27)(73+ 27) =74. 100 + 46.100 =7400 +4600 = 12000
Cu 4:(6) Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
a) x( x + y) - 5x - 5y = x( x + y) - 5(x +y)= ( x + y)(x - 5) (2)
b) 6x - 9 - x
2
= - ( x
2
- 6x + 9) = - ( x - 3 )
2
(2)
c) xy + a
3
- a
2
x ay = (xy - ay)+(a
3
- a
2
x) = y( x - a) + a
2
(a - x)
= y( x - a) - a
2
(x - a) = ( x - a) (y - a
2
) (2)
C- Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: (luyn tp PTTTNT)
- GV:cho hs ln bng trnh by
a) x
2
+ xy + x + y
b) 3x
2
- 3xy + 5x - 5y
c) x
2
+ y
2
+ 2xy - x - y
- Hs khc nhn xt
- GV: cho HS ln bng lm bi 48
1) Bi 1. PTTTNT:
a) x
2
+ xy + x + y = (x
2
+ xy) + (x + y)
= x(x + y) + (x + y) = (x + y)(x + 1)
b) 3x
2
- 3xy + 5x - 5y
= (3x
2
- 3xy) + (5x - 5y) (1)
=3x(x-y)+ 5(x - y) = (x - y)(3x + 5)
c) x
2
+ y
2
+2xy - x - y
= (x + y)
2
- (x + y) = (x + y)(x + y - 1)
2) Bi 48 (sgk)
Trang 17
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
a) x
2
+ 4x - y
2
+ 4
c) x
2
- 2xy + y
2
- z
2
+ 2zt - t
2

- GV: Cht li PP lm bi
* H2: ( Bi tp trc nghim)
Bi 3 ( GV dng bng ph)
a) Gi tri ln nht ca a thc.
P = 4x-x
2
l : A . 2 ; B. 4; C. 1 ; D . - 4
b) Gi tr nh nht ca a thc
P = x
2
- 4x + 5 l:A.1 ; B. 5; C. 0 D. KQ khc
Bi 4:
a) a thc 12x - 9- 4x
2
c phn tch thnh nhn t l:
A. (2x- 3)(2x + 3) ; B. (3 - 2x)
2
C. - (2x - 3)
2
; D. - (2x + 3)
2
b) a thc x
4
- y
4
c PTTNT l: A. (x
2
-y
2
)
2
B. (x
- y)(x+ y)(x
2
- y
2
) ; C. (x - y)(x + y)(x
2
+ y
2
) D. (x - y)(x + y)
(x - y)
2
*H3: Dng ton tm x
Bi 50
Tm x, bit:
a) x(x - 2) + x - 2 = 0
b) 5x(x - 3) - x + 3 = 0
- GV: cho hs ln bng trnh by
a) x
2
+ 4x - y
2
+ 4 = (x + 2)
2
- y
2
= (x + 2 + y) (x + 2 - y)
c)x
2
-2xy +y
2
-z
2
+2zt- t
2
=(x -y)
2
- (z - t)
2
= (x -y + z- t) (x -y - z + t)
3. Bi 3.
a) Gi tri ln nht ca a thc: B . 4
b) Gi tr nh nht ca a thc A. 1
4.Bi 4:
a) a thc 12x - 9- 4x
2
c phn tch
thnh nhn t l:
C. - (2x - 3)
2

b) a thc x
4
- y
4
c PTTNT l:
C. (x - y)(x + y)(x
2
+ y
2
)
5) Bi 50 (sgk)/23
Tm x, bit: a) x(x - 2) + x - 2 = 0

( x - 2)(x+1) = 0

+

1 0 1
2 0 2
x x
x x

b) 5x(x - 3) - x + 3 = 0

(x - 3)( 5x - 1)
= 0



5
1
0 1 5
3 0 3
x x
x x

D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
+ Nh vy PTTTNT gip chng ta gii quyt c rt nhiu cc bi ton nh rt gn biu thc,
gii phng trnh, tm max, tm min
+ Nhc li phng php gii tng loi bi tp
- Lu cch trnh by
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp: 47, 49 (sgk)
- Xem li cc phng php PTTTNT.
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 13: PHN TCH A THC THNH NHN T BNG CCH PHI HP
NHIU PHNG PHP
I.Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: HS vn dng c cc PP hc phn tch a thc thnh nhn t.
- K nng: HS lm c cc bi ton khng qu kh, cc bi ton vi h s nguyn l ch yu, cc
bi ton phi hp bng 2 PP.
- Thi : HS c gio dc t duy lgc tnh sng to.
II. Chun b:
- GV:Bng ph. - HS: Hc bi.
Iii. Tin trnh bi dy.
A. T chc.
B. Kim tra bi c: GV: Cha bi kim tra 15' tit trc
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV
*H1: V d
Hot ng ca HS
1)V d:
Trang 18
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
GV: Em c nhn xt g v cc hng t ca a thc
trn?
Hy vn dng p
2
hc PTTTNT:
- GV : gii bi tp ny ta p dng 2 p
2
l t
nhn t chung v dng HT.
- Hy nhn xt a thc trn?
- GV: a thc trn c 3 hng t u l HT v ta c
th vit 9=3
2
Vy hy phn tch tip
GV : Cht li s dng 2 p
2
HT + t NTC.
GV: Bi ging ny ta s dng c 3 p
2
t nhn t
chung, nhm cc hng t v dng HT.
* H2: Bi tp p dng
- GV: Dng bng ph ghi trc ni dung
a) Tnh nhanh cc gi tr ca biu thc.
x
2
+2x+1-y
2
ti x = 94,5 & y= 4,5
b)Khi phn tch a thc x
2
+ 4x- 2xy- 4y + y
2
thnh
nhn t, bn Vit lm nh sau:
x
2
+ 4x-2xy- 4y+ y
2
=(x
2
-2xy+ y
2
)+(4x- 4y)
=(x- y)
2
+4(x- y)=(x- y) (x- y+4)
Em hy ch r trong cch lm trn, bn Vit s
dng nhng phng php no phn tch a thc
thnh nhn t.
GV: Em hy ch r cch lm trn.
a) V d 1:
Phn tch a thc sau thnh nhn t.
5x
3
+10x
2
y+5xy
2
=5x(x
2
+2xy+y
2
)=5x(x+y)
2
b)V d 2:
Phn tch a thc sau thnh nhn t
x
2
-2xy+y
2
-9 = (x-y)
2
-3
2
= (x-y-3)(x-y+3)
Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
2x
3
y-2xy
3
-4xy
2
-2xy
Ta c : 2x
3
y-2xy
3
-4xy
2
-2xy = 2xy(x
2
-y
2
-2y-1
= 2xy[x
2
-(y
2
+2y+1)]=2xy(x
2
-(y+1)
2
]=2xy(x-y+1)
(x+y+1)
2) p dng
a) Tnh nhanh cc gi tr ca biu thc.
x
2
+2x+1-y
2
ti x = 94,5 & y= 4,5.
Ta c x
2
+2x+1-y
2
= (x+1)
2
-y
2
=(x+y+1)(x-y+1)
Thay s ta c vi x= 94,5 v y = 4,5
(94,5+4,5+1)(94,5 -4,5+1)=100.91 = 9100
b)Khi phn tch a thc x
2
+ 4x- 2xy- 4y + y
2
thnh nhn t, bn Vit lm nh sau:
x
2
+ 4x-2xy- 4y+ y
2
=(x
2
-2xy+ y
2
)+(4x- 4y)
=(x- y)
2
+4(x- y)=(x- y) (x- y+4)
Em hy ch r trong cch lm trn, bn Vit s
dng nhng phng php no phn tch a
thc thnh nhn t.
Cc phng php:
+ Nhm hng t.
+ Dng hng ng thc.
+ t nhn t chung
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- HS lm bi tp 51/24 SGK
Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t:
a) x
3
-2x
2
+x=x(x
2
-2x+1) =x(x-1)
2
b) 2x
2
+4x+2-2y
2
=(2x
2
+4x)+(2-2y
2
)=2x(x+2)+2(1-y
2
) =2[x(x+2)+(1-y
2
)]=2(x
2
+2x+1-y
2
)
=2[(x+1)
2
-y
2
)] =2(x+y+1)(x-y+1)
c) 2xy-x
2
-y
2
+16 =-(-2xy+x
2
+y
2
-16)=-[(x-y)
2
-4
2
] =-(x-y+4)(x-y-4)=(y-x-4)(-x+y+4) =(x-y-4)(y-
x+4)
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp 52, 53 SGK
- Xem li bi cha.
Ngy soan :
Ngy ging:
Tit 14 LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu :
- Kin thc: HS c rn luyn v cc p
2
PTTTNT ( Ba p
2
c bn). HS bit thm p
2
:
" Tch hng t" cng, tr thm cng mt s hoc cng 1 hng t vo biu thc.
- K nng: PTTTNT bng cch phi hp cc p
2
.
- Thi : Rn luyn tnh cn thn, t duy sng to.
Trang 19
?1
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph
- HS: Hc bi, lm bi tp v nh, bng nhm.
Iii.tin trnh bI dy:
A. T chc
B. Kim tra bi c: GV: a KT t bng ph
- HS1: Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
a) xy
2
-2xy+x b) x
2
-xy+x-y c) x
2
+3x+2
- HS2: Phn tch TTNT
a) x
4
-2x
2
b) x
2
-4x+3
p n: 1.a) xy
2
-2xy+x=x(y
2
-2y+1)=x(y-1)
2
b) x
2
-xy+x-y=x(x-y)+(x-y)=(x-y)(x+1)
b)x
2
+2x+1+x+1 =x+1)
2
+(x+1) = x+1)(x+2)
2) a) x
4
-2x
2
=x
2
(x
2
-2)
b) x
2
-4x+3=x
2
-4x+4-1=(x+2)
2
-x = (x-x+1)(x-2-1) = (x-1)(x-3)
C.Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1. T chc luyn tp:
Cha bi 52/24 SGK.
CMR: (5n+2)
2
- 4M5 n

Z
- Gi HS ln bng cha
- Di lp hc sinh lm bi v theo di bi cha
ca bn.
- GV: Mun CM mt biu thc chia ht cho mt
s nguyn a no vi mi gi tr nguyn ca
bin, ta phi phn tch biu thc thnh nhn t.
Trong c cha nhn t a.
Cha bi 55/25 SGK.
Tm x bit
a) x
3
-
1
4
x=0
b) (2x-1)
2
-(x+3)
2
=0
c) x
2
(x-3)
3
+12- 4x
GV gi 3 HS ln bng cha?
- HS nhn xt bi lm ca bn.
- GV:+ Mun tm x khi biu thc =0. Ta bin i
biu thc v dng tch cc nhn t.
+ Cho mi nhn t bng 0 ri tm gi tr biu thc
tng ng.
+ Tt c cc gi tr ca x tm c u tho mn
ng thc cho

l cc gi tr cn tm cu x.
1) Cha bi 52/24 SGK.
CMR: (5n+2)
2
- 4M5 n

Z
Ta c: (5n+2)
2
- 4 =(5n+2)
2
-2
2
=[(5n+2)-2][(5n+2)+2] =5n(5n+4)M5n l cc s
nguyn
2) Cha bi 55/25 SGK.
a) x
3
-
1
4
x = 0

x(x
2
-
1
4
) = 0

x[x
2
-(
1
2
)
2
] = 0

x(x-
1
2
)(x+
1
2
) = 0

2
1
0
2
1
2
1
0
2
1
0 0
x x
x x
x x
Vy x= 0 hoc x =
1
2
hoc x=-
1
2
b) (2x-1)
2
-(x+3)
2
= 0

[(2x-1)+(x+3)][(2x-1)-
(x+3)]= 0

(3x+2)(x-4) = 0

2
3 2 0
3
4 0
4
x x
x
x

+

' '


c) x
2
(x-3)
3
+12- 4x =x
2
(x-3)+ 4(3-x)=x
2
(x-3)- 4(x-3)
=(x-3)(x
2
- 4)=(x-3)(x
2
-2
2
) =(x-3)(x+2)(x-2)=0
Trang 20
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Cha bi 54/25
Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t.
a) x
3
+ 2x
2
y + xy
2
- 9x
b) 2x- 2y- x
2
+ 2xy- y
2
- HS nhn xt kq.
- HS nhn xt cch trnh by.
GV: Cht li: Ta cn ch vic i du khi m
du ngoc hoc a vo trong ngoc vi du(-)
ng thc.
* H2: Cu hi trc nghim
Bi tp ( Trc nghim)- GV dng bng ph.
1) Kt qu no trong cc kt lun sau l sai.
A. (x+y)
2
- 4 = (x+y+2)(x+y-2)
B. 25y
2
-9(x+y)
2
= (2y-3x)(8y+3x)
C. x
n+2
-x
n
y
2
= x
n
(x+y)(x-y)
D. 4x
2
+8xy-3x-6y = (x-2y)(4x-3)

2 0 2
2 0 2
3 0 3
x x
x x
x x

3)Cha bi 54/25
a) x
3
+ 2 x
2
y + xy
2
- 9x=x[(x
2
+2xy+y
2
)-9]=x[(x+y)
2
-
3
2
]
=x[(x+y+3)(x+y-3)]
b) 2x- 2y-x
2
+ 2xy- y
2
= 21(x-y)-(x
2
-2xy+x
2
)
= 2(x-y)-(x-y)
2
=(x-y)(2- x+y)
4) Bi tp ( Trc nghim)
2) Gi tr nh nht ca biu thc
E= 4x
2
+ 4x +11 l:
A.E =10 khi x=-
1
2
; B. E =11 khi x=-
1
2
C.E = 9 khi x
=-
1
2
;D.E =-10 khi x=-
1
2
1.- Cu D sai 2.- Cu A ng
D- Luyn tp - Cng c: Ngoi cc p
2
t nhn t chung, dng HT, nhm cc hng t ta cn s
dng cc p
2
no PTTTNT?
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp 56, 57, 58 SGK * Bi tp nng cao.
Cho a thc: h(x)=x
3
+2x
2
-2x-12
Phn tch h(x) thnh tch ca nh thc x-2 vi tam thc bc 2 .* Hng dn: Phn tch h(x) v dng :
h(x)=(x-2)(ax
2
+bx+c) Dng p
2
h s bt nh Hoc bng p
2
tch h s

Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 15 CHIA N THC CHO N THC
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: HS hiu c khi nim n thc A chia ht cho n thc B.
- K nng: HS bit c khi no th n thc A chia ht cho n thc B, thc hin ng php chia
n thc cho n thc (Ch yu trong trng hp chia ht)
- Thi : Rn tnh cn thn, t duy l gc.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph.
- HS: Bi tp v nh.
Iii. Tin trnh bi dy
A. T chc.
B) Kim tra bi c: GV a ra KT trn bng ph
- HS1: PTTTNT f(x) = x
2
+3x+2 G(x) = (x
2
+x+1)(x
2
+x+2)-12
- HS2: Cho a thc: h(x) = x
3
+2x
2
-2x-12
Phn tch h(x) thnh tch ca nh thc x-2 vi tam thc bc 2.
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
Trang 21
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- GV lp 6 v lp 7 ta nh ngha v php chia ht
ca 1 s nguyn a cho mt s nguyn b
- Em no c th nhc li nh ngha 1 s nguyn a chia
ht cho 1 s nguyn b?
- GV: Cht li: + Cho 2 s nguyn a v b trong b

0.
Nu c 1 s
nguyn q sao cho a = b.q Th ta ni rng a chia ht cho b
( a l s b chia, b l s chia, q l thng)
- GV: Tit ny ta xt trng hp n gin nht l chia
n thc cho n thc.
* H1: Hnh thnh qui tc chia n thc cho n thc
GV yu cu HS lm ?1
Thc hin php tnh sau:
a) x
3
: x
2
; b)15x
7
: 3x
2

c) 4x
2
: 2x
2
; d) 5x
3
: 3x
3

e) 20x
5
: 12x
GV: Khi chia n thc 1 bin cho n thc
1 bin ta thc hin chia phn h s cho phn h s, chia
phn bin s cho phn bin s ri nhn cc kq li vi
nhau.
GV yu cu HS lm ?2
*Nhc li v php chia:
- Trong php chia a thc cho a thc ta cng c
nh ngha sau:
+ Cho 2 a thc A & B , B

0. Nu tm c 1
a thc Q sao cho A = Q.B th ta ni rng a thc
A chia ht cho a thc B. A c gi l a thc
b chia, B c gi l a thc chia Q c gi l
a thc thng ( Hay thng)
K hiu: Q = A : B hoc
Q =
A
B
(B

0)
1) Quy tc:
Thc hin php tnh sau:
a) x
3
: x
2
= x
b) 15x
7
: 3x
2
= 5x
5
c) 4x
2
: 2x
2
= 2
d) 5x
3
: 3x
3
=
5
3
e) 20x
5
: 12x =
4
20
12
x
=
4
5
3
x
* Ch : Khi chia phn bin:
x
m
: x
n
= x
m-n
Vi m n
x
n
: x
n
= 1 (x)
x
n
: x
n
= x
n-n
= x
0
=1Vi x

0
Thc hin cc php tnh sau:
Trang 22
?1
?2
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Cc em c nhn xt g v cc bin v cc m ca cc
bin trong n thc b chia v n thc chia?
- GV: Trong cc php chia trn ta thy rng
+ Cc bin trong n thc chia u c mt trong n thc
b chia.
+ S m ca mi bin trong n thc chia khng ln
hn s m ca bin trong n thc b chia.

cng l hai iu kin n thc A chia ht cho


n thc B
HS pht biu qui tc
* H2: Vn dng qui tc
a) Tm thng trong php chia bit n thc b chia l :
15x
3
y
5
z, n thc chia l: 5x
2
y
3
b) Cho P = 12x
4
y
2
: (-9xy
2
)
Tnh gi tr ca P ti x = -3 v y = 1,005
- GV: Cht li:
- Khi phi tnh gi tr ca 1 biu thc no trc ht ta
thc hin cc php tnh trong biu thc v rt gn, sau
mi thay gi tr ca bin tnh ra kt qu bng s.
- Khi thc hin mt php chia lu tha no cho 1 lu
tha no ta c th vit di dng dng du gch ngang
cho d nhn v d tm ra kt qu.
a) 15x
2
y
2
: 5xy
2
=
15
5
x
= 3x
b) 12x
3
y : 9x
2
=
12 4
9 3
xy xy
* Nhn xt :
n thc A chia ht cho n thc B khi c 2
K sau:
1) Cc bin trong B phi c mt trong A.
2) S m ca mi bin trong B khng c ln
hn s m ca mi bin trong A
* Quy tc: SGK ( Hy pht biu quy tc)
2. p dng
a) 15x
3
y
5
z : 5x
2
y
3
=
3 5
2 3
15
. . .
5
x y
z
x y
= 3.x.y2.z =
3xy
2
z
b) P = 12x
4
y
2
: (-9xy
2
) =
4 2
3 3
2
12 4 4
. . .1
9 3 3
x y
x x
x y

Khi x= -3; y = 1,005 Ta c P =


3
4
( 3)
3

=
4
.(27) 4.9 36
3

D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- Hy nhc li qui tc chia n thc cho n thc.
- Vi iu kin no n thc A chia ht cho n
thc B.
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Hc bi.
- Lm cc bi tp: 59, 60,61, 62 SGK (26 - 27)
* BT nng cao:
Thc hin cc php tnh:
{3ax
2
[ax(4a - 5x) + 7ax] + a
2
x
3
[15(a + x) - 21]}: 9a
3
x
3
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 16 CHIA A THC CHO A THC
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: + HS bit c 1 a thc A chia ht cho n thc B khi tt c cc hng t ca a
thc A u chia ht cho B.
+ HS nm vng quy tc chia a thc cho n thc.
- K nng:Thc hin ng php chia a thc cho n thc (ch yu trong trng hp chia
ht).Bit trnh by li gii ngn gn (chia nhm tng n thc ri cng KQ li vi nhau).
- Thi : Rn tnh cn thn, t duy l gc.
II. Chun b:
Trang 23
?3
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- GV: Bng ph.
- HS: Bng nhm.
Iii. Tin trnh bi dy
A. T chc.
B. Kim tra bi c: GV a ra KT cho HS:
- Pht biu QT chia 1 n thc A cho 1 n thc B ( Trong trng hp A chia ht cho B)
- Thc hin php tnh bng cch nhm nhanh kt qu.
a) 4x
3
y
2
: 2x
2
y ; b) -21x
2
y
3
z
4
: 7xyz
2
; c) -15x
5
y
6
z
7
: 3x
4
y
5
z
5
d) 3x
2
y
3
z
2
: 5xy
2
f) 5x
4
y
3
z
2
: (-3x
2
yz)
p n: a) 2xy b) -3xy
2
z
2
c) -5xyz
2
d)
2
3
5
xyz
e)
2 2
5
3
x y z

C.Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
- GV: a ra vn .
Cho n thc : 3xy
2
- Hy vit 1 a thc c hng t u chia ht cho 3xy
2
.
Chia cc hng t ca a thc cho 3xy
2
- Cng cc KQ va tm c vi nhau.
2 HS a 2 VD v GV a VD:
+ a thc 5xy
3
+ 4x
2
-
10
3
y
gi l thng ca php
chia a thc 15x
2
y
5
+ 12x
3
y
2
- 10xy
3
cho n thc
3xy
2
GV: Qua VD trn em no hy pht biu quy tc:
- GV: Ta c th b qua bc trung gian v thc hin
ngay php chia.
(30x
4
y
3
- 25x
2
y
3
- 3x
4
y
4
) : 5x
2
y
3
= 6x
2
- 5 -
2
3
5
x y
HS ghi ch
- GV dng bng ph
Nhn xt cch lm ca bn Hoa.
+ Khi thc hin php chia.
(4x
4
- 8x
2
y
2
+ 12x
5
y) : (-4x
2
)
Bn Hoa vit:
4x
4
- 8x
2
y
2
+ 12x
5y
= -4x
2
(-x
2
+ 2y
2
- 3x
3
y)
+ GV cht li:
+ GV: p dng lm php chia
( 20x
4
y - 25x
2
y
2
- 3x
2
y) : 5x
2
y
- HS ln bng trnh by.
1) Quy tc:
Thc hin php chia a thc: (15x
2
y
5
+
12x
3
y
2
- 10xy
3
) : 3xy
2
=(15x
2
y
5
: 3xy
2
) + (12x
3
y
2
: 3xy
2
) - (10xy
3
: 3xy
2
)
= 5xy
3
+ 4x
2
-
10
3
y
* Quy tc:
Mun chia a thc A cho n thc B ( Trng
hp cc hng t ca A u chia ht cho n thc
B). Ta chia mi hng t ca A cho B ri cng cc
kt qu vi nhau.
* V d: Thc hin php tnh:
(30x
4
y
3
- 25x
2
y
3
- 3x
4
y
4
) : 5x
2
y
3
= (30x
4
y
3
: 5x
2
y
3
)-(25x
2
y
3
: 5x
2
y
3
)- (3x
4
y
4
: 5x
2
y
3
) =
6x
2
- 5 -
2
3
5
x y
* Ch : Trong thc hnh ta c th tnh nhm v b
bt 1 s php tnh trung gian.
2. p dngBn Hoa lm ng v ta lun bit
Nu A = B.Q Th A:B = Q (
)
A
Q
B

Ta c:( 20x
4
y - 25x
2
y
2
- 3x
2
y)= 5x
2
y(4x
2
-5y -

3
)
5
Do :[( 20x
4
y - 25x
2
y
2
- 3x
2
y) : 5x
2
y=(4x
2
-5y -

3
)
5
]
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
* HS lm bi tp 63/28
Khng lm php chia hy xt xem a thc A c chia ht cho n thc B khng? V sao?
A = 15x
2
y

+ 17xy
3
+ 18y
2
B = 6y
2
- GV: Cht li: a thc A chia ht cho n thc B v mi hng t ca a thc A u chia ht cho
n thc B.
Trang 24
?1
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
* Cha bi 66/29
- GV dng bng ph: Khi gii bi tp xt a thc
A = 5x
4
- 4x
3
+ 6x
2
y c chia ht cho n thc
B = 2x
2
hay khng?
+ H tr li: "A khng chia ht cho B v 5 khng chia ht cho 2"
+ Quang tr li:"A chia ht cho B v mi hng t ca A u chia ht cho B"
- GV: Cht li: Quang tr li ng v khi xt tnh chia ht ca n thc A cho n thc B ta ch
quan tm n phn bin m khng cn xt n s chia ht ca cc h s ca 2 n thc.
* Bi tp nng cao. 4/36
1/ Xt ng thc: P: 3xy
2
= 3x
2
y
3
+ 6x
2
y
2
+ 3xy
3
+ 6xy
2
a) Tm a thc P
b)Tm cp s nguyn (x, y) P = 3
p n a) P = (3x
2
y
3
+ 6x
2
y
2
+ 3xy
3
+ 6xy
2
) : 3xy
2
= xy + 2x + y + 2
b) P = 3

xy + 2x + y + 2 = 3

x(y + 2) + (y + 2 ) = 3

(x + 1) (y + 2) = 3 = 1.3 = 3.1 = (-1).(-3) = (-3).(-1).


E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Hc bi
- Lm cc bi tp 64, 65 SGK
- Lm bi tp 45, 46 SBT
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 17 CHIA A THC SP XP
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: HS hiu c khi nim chia ht v chia c d. Nm c cc bc trong thut ton
php chia a thc A cho a thc B.
- K nng: Thc hin ng php chia a thc A cho a thc B (Trong B ch yu l nh thc,
trong trng hp B l n thc HS c th nhn ra php chia A cho B l php chia ht hay khng
chia ht).
- Thi : Rn tnh cn thn, t duy l gc.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph
- HS: Bng nhm.
Iii. Tin trnh bi dy
A. T chc.
B. Kim tra bi c: - HS1:
+ Pht biu quy tc chia 1 a thc A cho 1 n thc B ( Trong trng hp mi hng t ca a thc
A chia ht cho B)
+ Lm php chia. a) (-2x
5
+ 3x
2
- 4x
3
) : 2x
2
b) (3x
2
y
2
+ 6x
2
y
3
- 12xy) : 3xy
- HS2:
+ Khng lm php chia hy gii thch r v sao a thc A = 5x
3
y
2
+ 2xy
2
- 6x
3
y
Chia ht cho n thc B = 3xy
+ Em c nhn xt g v 2 a thc sau: A = 2x
4
- 13x
3
+ 15x
2
+ 11x 3 B = x
2
- 4x - 3
p n:
1) a) = - x
3
+
3
2
- 2x b) = xy + 2xy
2
- 4
2) - Cc hng t ca a thc A u chia ht cho n thc B v:
- Cc bin trong n thc B u c mt trong mi hng t ca a thc A
Trang 25
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- S m ca mi bin trong n thc B khng ln hn s m ca bin trong mi hng t ca a
thc A.
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Tm hiu php chia ht ca a thc 1 bin
sp xp
Cho a thc A= 2x
4
-13x
3
+ 15x
2
+ 11x - 3
B = x
2
- 4x - 3
- GV: Bn nhn xt 2 a thc A v B
- GV cht li : L 2 a thc 1 bin sp xp theo
lu tha gim dn.
- Thc hin php chia a thc A cho a thc B
+ a thc A gi l a thc b chia
+ a thc B gi l a thc chia .
Ta t php chia
1) Php chia ht.
Cho a thc
A = 2x
4
- 13x
3
+ 15x
2
+ 11x - 3
B = x
2
- 4x - 3
B1: 2x
4
: x
2
= 2x
2
Nhn 2x
2
vi a thc chia x
2
- 4x- 3
2x
4
- 12x
3
+ 15x
2
+11x -3 x
2
- 4x- 3
- 2x
4
- 8x
3
- 6x
2
2x
2
0 - 5x
3
+ 21x
2
+ 11x - 3
2x
4
- 13x
3
+ 15x
2
+ 11x - 3 x
2
- 4x - 3
GV gi nh SGK
- GV: Trnh by li cch thc hin php chia trn
y.
- GV: Nu ta gi a thc b chia l A, a thc chia
l B, a thc thng l Q Ta c:
A = B.Q
H2: Tm hiu php chia cn d ca a thc
1 bin sp xp
Thc hin php chia:
5x
3
- 3x
2
+ 7 cho a thc x
2
+ 1
- NX a thc d?
+ a thc d c bc nh hn a thc chia nn php
chia khng th tip tc c

Php chia c d.

a thc - 5x + 10 l a thc d (Gi tt l d).


* Nu gi a thc b chia l A, a thc chia l B,a
thc thng l Q v a thc d l R. Ta c:
A = B.Q + R( Bc ca R nh hn bc ca B)
B2: -5x
3
: x
2
= -5x
B3: x
2
: x
2
= 1
2x
4
- 12x
3
+15x
2
+ 11x-3 x
2
- 4x - 3
2x
4
- 8x
3
- 6x
2
2x
2
- 5x + 1
- 5x
3
+ 21x
2
+ 11x- 3
-5x
3
+ 20x
2
+ 15x- 3
0 - x
2
- 4x - 3
x
2
- 4x - 3
0

Php chia c s d cui cng = 0

Php chia ht.


* Vy ta c:
2x
4
- 12x
3
+ 15x
2
+ 11x - 3
= (x
2
- 4x - 3)( 2x
2
- 5x + 1)
2. Php chia c d:
Thc hin php chia:
5x
3
- 3x
2
+ 7 cho a thc x
2
+ 1
5x
3
- 3x
2
+ 7 x
2
+ 1
- 5x
3
+ 5x 5x - 3
- 3x
2
- 5x + 7
- -3x
2
- 3
- 5x + 10
+ Kim tra kt qu:
( 5x
3
- 3x
2
+ 7): (x
2
+ 1)
=(5x
3
- 3x
2
+ 7)=(x
2
+1)(5x-3)-5x +10
* Ch : Ta CM c vi 2 a thc tu
A&B c cng 1 bin (B

0) tn ti duy nht 1 cp
a thc Q&R sao cho:
A = B.Q + R Trong R = 0 hoc bc ca R nh
hn bc ca B ( R c gi l d trong php chia
A cho B
Trang 26
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- Cha bi 67/31 * Bi 68/31
a) ( x
3
- 7x + 3 - x
2
) : (x - 3) p dng hng ng thc ng nh
p n a) ( x
3
- x
2
- 7x + 3

) : (x - 3) a) (x
2
+ 2xy + 1) : (x + y)
= x
2
+ 2x 1

b) (125 x
3
+ 1) : (5x + 1)

c) (x
2
- 2xy + y
2
) : (y - x)
p n a) = x + y b) = (5x + 1)
2
c) = y - x
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Hc bi. Lm cc bi tp : 69, 70,74/ Trang 31-32 SGK.
Ngy son:
Ngy ging :
Tit 18 LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: HS thc hin php chia a thc 1 bin sp xp 1 cch thnh tho.
- K nng: Luyn k nng lm php chia a thc cho a thc bng p
2
PTTTNT.
- Thi : Rn tnh cn thn, lm vic khoa hc, t duy l gc.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Gio n, sch tham kho.
- HS: Bng nhm + BT.
Iii. Tin trnh bi dy
A. T chc.
B. Kim tra bi c: - HS1: Lm php chia.
(2x
4
+ x
3
- 3x
2
+ 5x - 2) : ( x
2
- x + 1) p n : Thng l: 2x
2
+ 3x 2
- HS2: p dng HT thc hin php chia?
a) (x
2
+ 2xy + y
2
) : (x + y)
b) (125x
3
+ 1 ) : ( 5x + 1 )
p n: a) x + y b) 25x
2
+ 5x + 1
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Luyn cc BTdng thc hin php
chia
Cho a thc A = 3x
4
+ x
3
+ 6x - 5 v B = x
2
+
1
Tm d R trong php chia A cho B ri vit
di dng
A = B.Q + R
- GV: Khi thc hin php chia, n d cui
cng c bc < bc ca a thc chia th dng
li.
Lm php chia
a) (25x
5
- 5x
4
+ 10x
2
) : 5x
2

b) (15x
3
y
2
- 6x
2
y - 3x
2
y
2
) : 6x
2
y

1) Cha bi 69/31 SGK
3x
4
+ x
3
+ 6x - 5 x
2
+ 1
- 3x
4
+ 3x
2
3x
2
+ x - 3
0 + x
3
- 3x
2
+ 6x-5
- x
3
+ x
-3x
2
+ 5x - 5
- -3x
2
- 3
5x - 2
Vy ta c: 3x
4
+ x
3
+ 6x - 5
= (3x
2
+ x - 3)( x
2
+ 1) +5x - 2
2) Cha bi 70/32 SGK
Lm php chiaa) (25x
5
- 5x
4
+ 10x
2
) : 5x
2

= 5x
2
(5x
3
- x
2
+ 2) : 5x
2
= 5x
3
- x
2
+ 2
b) (15x
3
y
2
- 6x
2
y - 3x
2
y
2
) : 6x
2
y = 6x
2
y(
2
15 1 15 1
1) : 6 1
6 2 6 2
xy y x y xy y
3. Cha bi 71/32 SGK
a)AMB v a thc B thc cht l 1 n thc m cc
Trang 27
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
+ GV: Khng thc hin php chia hy xt xem
a thc A c chia ht cho a thc B hay
khng.
a) A = 15x
4
- 8x
3
+ x
2
; B =
2
1
2
x
b) A = x
2
- 2x + 1 ; B = 1 x
H2: Dng ton tnh nhanh
* Tnh nhanh
a) (4x
2
- 9y
2
) : (2x-3y)
b) (8x
3
+ 1) : (4x
2
- 2x + 1)
c)(27x
3
- 1) : (3x - 1)
d) (x
2
- 3x + xy - 3y) : (x + y)
- HS ln bng trnh by cu a
- HS ln bng trnh by cu b
* H3: Dng ton tm s d
Tm s a sao cho a thc 2x
3
- 3x
2
+ x + a (1)
Chia ht cho a thc x + 2 (2)
- Em no c th bit ta tm A bng cch no?
- Ta tin hnh chia a thc (1) cho a thc (2)
v tm s d R & cho R = 0

Ta tm c a
Vy a = 30 th a thc (1) Ma thc (2)
* H4: Bi tp m rng
1) Cho a thc f(x) = x
3
+ 5x
2
- 9x 45;
g(x) = x
2
9. Bit f(x) Mg(x) hy trnh by 3
cch tm thng
C1: Chia BT; C2: f(x) = (x + 5)(x
2
- 9)
C3: Gi a thc thng l ax + b ( V a thc
chia bc 2, a thc b chia bc 3 nn thng
bc 1)

f(x) = (x
2
- 9)(a + b)
2)Tm a thc d trong php chia
(x
2005
+ x
2004
) : ( x
2
- 1)
hng t ca a thc A u chia ht cho n thc B.
b)A = x
2
- 2x + 1 = (1 -x)
2
M(1 - x)
4. Cha bi 73/32
* Tnh nhanh
a) (4x
2
- 9y
2
) : (2x-3y) = [(2x)
2
- (3y)
2
] :(2x-3y)
= (2x - 3y)(2x + 3y):(2x-3y) =2x + 3y
c) (8x
3
+ 1) : (4x
2
- 2x + 1)= [(2x)
3
+ 1] :(4x
2
- 2x + 1)
= 2x + 1
b)(27x
3
-1): (3x-1)= [(3x)
3
-1]: (3x - 1) =9x
2
+ 3x + 1
d) (x
2
- 3x + xy - 3y) : (x + y) = x(x - 3) + y (x - 3) : (x
+ y)= (x + y) (x - 3) : ( x + y) = x - 3
5. Cha bi 74/32 SGK
2x
3
- 3x
2
+ x +a x + 2
- 2x
3
+ 4x
2
2x
2
- 7x + 15
- 7x
2
+ x + a
- -7x
2
- 14x
15x + a
- 15x + 30
a - 30
Gn cho R = 0

a - 30 = 0

a = 30
6) Bi tp nng cao (BT3/39 KTNC)
*C1: x
3
+ 5x
2
- 9x 45
=(x
2
- 9)(ax + b) = ax
3
+ bx
2
- 9ax - 9b

'

'

5
1
45 9
9 9
5
1
b
a
b
a
b
a

Vy thng l x + 5
2) Bi tp 7/39 KTNC
Gi thng l Q(x) d l r(x) = ax + b ( V bc ca a
thc d < bc ca a thc chia). Ta c:
(x
2005
+ x
2004
)= ( x
2
- 1). Q(x) + ax + b
Thay x = t 1 Tm c a = 1; b = 1
Vy d r(x) = x + 1
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- Nhc li:
+ Cc p
2
thc hin php chia
+ Cc p
2
tm s d
+ Tm 1 hng t trong a thc b chia
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- n li ton b chng. Tr li 5 cu hi mc A
- Lm cc bi tp 75a, 76a, 77a, 78ab, 79abc, 80a, 81a, 82a.
Trang 28
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 19 N TP CHNG I
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: H thng ton b kin thc ca chng.
- K nng: H thng li 1 s k nng gii cc bi tp c bn ca chng I.
- Thi : Rn tnh cn thn, lm vic khoa hc, t duy l gc.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph
- HS: n li kin thc chng.
Iii. Tin trnh bi dy
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c:Trong qu trnh n tp
C- Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
H1: n tp phn l thuyt
* GV: Cht li
- Mun nhn 1 n thc vi 1 a thc ta
ly n thc nhn vi tng hng t
ca a thc ri cng cc tch li
- Mun nhn 1 a thc vi 1 a thc ta
nhn mi hng t ca a thc ny vi
tng hng t ca a thc kia ri cng cc
tch li vi nhau
- Khi thc hin ta c th tnh nhm, b
qua cc php tnh trung gian
3/ Cc hng ng thc ng nh
- Pht biu 7 hng ng thc ng nh
( GV dng bng ph a 7 HT)
4/ Cc phng php phn tch a thc
thmh nhn t.
5/ Khi no th n thc A chia ht cho
n thc B?
6/ Khi no th 1 a thc A chia ht cho 1
n thc B
- GV: Hy ly VD v n thc, a thc
chia ht cho 1 n thc.
- GV: Cht li: Khi xt tnh chia ht ca
a thc A cho n thc B ta ch tnh n
phn bin trong cc hng t
+ A MB

A = B. Q
7- Chia hai a thc 1 bin sp xp
H2: p dng vo bi tp
Rt gn cc biu thc.
a) (x + 2)(x -2) - ( x- 3 ) ( x+ 1)
b)(2x + 1 )
2
+ (3x - 1 )
2
+2(2x + 1)(3x
- 1)
- HS ln bng lm bi
I) n tp l thuyt
-1/ Nhn 1 n thc vi 1 a thc
A(B + C) = AB + AC
2/ Nhn a thc vi a thc
(A + B) (C + D) = AC + BC + AD + BD
- n thc A chia ht cho n thc B khi
+ Cc bin trong B u c mt trong A v s m ca mi
bin trong B khng ln hn s m ca bin trong A
- a thc A chia ht cho 1 n thc B:
Khi tt c cc hng t ca A chia ht cho n thc B th a
thc A chia ht cho B
Khi: f(x) = g(x). q(x) + r(x) th: a thc b chia f(x), a
thc chia g(x)

0, a thc thng q(x), a thc d r(x)


+ R(x) = 0

f(x) : g(x) = q(x)


Hay f(x) = g(x). q(x)
+ R(x)

f(x) : g(x) = q(x) + r(x)


Hay f(x) = g(x). q(x) + r(x)
Bc ca r(x) < bc ca g(x)
II) Gii bi tp
1. Bi 78
a) (x + 2)(x -2) - ( x- 3 ) ( x+ 1)= x
2
- 4 - (x
2
+ x - 3x- 3)
= x
2
- 4 - x
2
- x + 3x + 3 = 2x - 1
b)(2x + 1 )
2
+ (3x - 1 )
2
+2(2x + 1)(3x- 1)
= 4x
2
+ 4x+1 + 9x
2
- 6x+1+12x
2
- 4x + 6x -2= 25x
2
2. Bi 81:
2
2
( 4) 0
3
x x
x = 0 hoc x = t 2
b) (x + 2)
2
- (x - 2)(x + 2) = 0

(x + 2)(x + 2 - x + 2) = 0
Trang 29
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Cch 2
[(2x + 1) + (3x - 1)]
2
= (5x)
2
= 25x
2
* GV: Mun rt gn c biu thc
trc ht ta quan st xem biu thc c
dng ntn? Hoc c dng HT no ? Cch
tm & rt gn
(HS lm vic theo nhm)
Bi 81:
Tm x bit
a)
2
2
( 4) 0
3
x x
b) (x + 2)
2
- (x - 2)(x + 2) = 0
c)x + 2 2 x
2
+ 2x
3
= 0
i din cc nhm bo co kt qu
Bi 79:
Phn tch a thc sau thnh nhn t
a) x
2
- 4 + (x - 2)
2

b) x
3
- 2x
2
+ x - xy
2

a) x
3
- 4x
2
- 12x + 27
+ GV cht li cc p
2
PTTTNT
+Bi tp 57( b, c)
b) x
4
5x
2
+ 4
c) (x +y+z)
3
x
3
y
3
z
3

GVHD phn c
x
3
+ y
3
= (x + y)
3
- 3xy ( x + y)
+Bi tp 80: Lm tnh chia
C th :
-t php chia
-Khng t php chia phn tch v tri
l tch cc a thc.
HS theo di GVHD ri lm
+Bi tp 82:
Chng minh
a)x
2
- 2xy + y
2
+ 1 > 0 Mi x, y

R
b) x - x
2
-1 < 0 vi mi x

4(x + 2 ) = 0

x + 2 = 0

x = -2
c) x + 2 2 x
2
+ 2x
3
= 0

x + 2 x
2
+ 2 x
2
+ 2x
3
= 0

x( 2 x + 1) + 2 x
2
( 2 x + 1) = 0

( 2 x + 1) (x +( 2 x
2
) = 0

x( 2 x + 1) ( 2 x + 1) =
0

x( 2 x + 1)
2
= 0

x = 0 hoc x =
1
2

3. Bi 79 Phn tch a thc sau thnh nhn t


a) x
2
- 4 + (x - 2)
2
= x
2
- 2x
2
+ (x - 2)
2
= (x - 2)(x + 2) +
(x - 2)
2
= (x - 2 )(x + 2 + x - 2) = (x - 2 ) . 2x
b) x
3
- 2x
2
+ x - xy
2
= x(x - 2x + 1 - y
2
)= x[(x - 1)
2
- y
2
]
= x(x - y - 1 )(x + y - 1)
c) x
3
- 4x
2
- 12x + 27 = x
3
+ 3
3
- (4x
2
+ 12x)
= (x + 3)(x
2
- 3x + 9) - 4x (x + 3) = (x + 3 ) (x
2
- 7x + 9)
Bi tp 57
a) x
4
-5x
2
+ 4= x
4
-x
2
-4x
2
+4 = x
2
(x
2
- 1) -4x
2
+ 4 = ( x
2
-4) ( x
2
-1) = ( x -2) (x + 2) (x -1) ( x + 1)
c) (x +y+z)
3
-x
3
-y
3
- z
3
= (x +y+z)
3
- (x + y)
3
+ 3xy ( x +
y)- z
3

= ( x + y + z) (3yz + 3 xz) + 3xy (x+y) = 3(x + y) ( yz + xz
+ z
2
+ xy) = 3 ( x +y ) ( y +z ) ( z + x )
+ Bi tp 80:
a) ( 6x
3
-7x
2
-x +2 ) : ( 2x +1 ) = ( 6x
3
+3x
2
-10x
2
-5x + 4x
+2 ) : ( 2x +1) =
2
3 (2 1) 5 (2 1) 2(2 1) : (2 1) x x x x x x 1 + + + + +
]

= (2x+1) ( 3x
2
-5x +2) : ( 2x +1) = ( 3x
2
-5x +2)
b) ( x
4
- x
3
+ x
2
+3x) : ( x
2
- 2x +3)
=
4 3 2 3 2 2
( 2 3 ) ( 2 3 ) : ( 2 3) x x x x x x x x 1 + + + +
]
] [ ) 3 2 ( ) 3 2 (
2 2 2
+ + + x x x x x x :(x
2
-2x+3)=x
2
+x
c)( x
2
y
2
+6x +9) : ( x + y + 3)
=(x+3)
2
-y
2
=(x+3+y)(x+3-y)=x+3-y
Bi tp 82:
a) x
2
- 2xy + y
2
+ 1 > 0 Mi x, y

R
x
2
- 2xy + y
2
+ 1= (x -y )
2
+ 1 > 0
v (x - y)
2
0 mi x, y
Vy ( x - y)
2
+ 1 > 0 mi x, y

R
b) x - x
2
-1= - ( x
2
x +1)
= - ( x -
1
2
)
2
-
3
4
< 0 V ( x -
1
2
)
2
0 vi mi x
- ( x -
1
2
)
2
0 vi mi x

- ( x -
1
2
)
2
-
3
4
< 0 vi
mi x
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV nhc li cc dng bi tp
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
Trang 30
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- n li bi
- Gi sau kim tra
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 20 KIM TRA VIT CHNG I

I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: Kim tra kin thc c bn ca chng I nh: PTTTNT,nhn chia a thc, cc hng
ng thc, tm gi tr biu thc, CM ng thc.
- K nng: Vn dng KT hc tnh ton v trnh by li gii.
- Thi : GD cho HS thc c ng , tch cc, t gic, trung thc trong hc tp.
II. ra
1. Lm php tnh chia: a. ( 125a
3
b
4
c
5
+ 10a
3
b
2
c
2
) : (-5a
3
b
2
c
2
)
b. ( 8x
2
26x +21) : ( 2x 3 )
2. Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t: a. ( 1 + 2x) ( 1 2x) ( x + 2) ( x 2)
b. 3x
2
6xy + 3y
2
12z
2

3. Tm a a thc 2x
3
+ 5x
2
2x +a chia ht cho a thc 2x
2
x + 1
4. Tm gi tr nh nht ca biu thc: A = 4x
2
4x + 5.
Bi Li gii vn tt im
1
Mi phn 1 im
a. KQ : -25b
2
c
3
- 2
b. 4x 7
1
1
2
Mi phn 1 im
a. 5( 1- x)( 1 + x)
b. 3(x y + 2z)( x y + 2z)
1
1
3
Thng: x + 3 d a 3
( HS t php chia thc hin ng th t)
php chia ht th a 3 = 0
a = 3
0,5
0,5
4 A =4x
2
4x + 5 = ( 2x 1)
2
+ 4

4=> A
min
= 4 x=
1
2
1
V. Thu bi, nhn xt:
nh gi gi KT: u , nhc
Dn d: V nh lm li bi KT . Xem trc chng II
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
chng II: PHN THC I S
Tit 21: PHN THC I S
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc : HS nm vng nh ngha phn thc i s . Hiu r hai phn thc bng nhau
A C
AD BC
B D

- K nng : Vn dng nh ngha nhn bit hai phn thc bng nhau.
II. Chun b:
GV: Bng ph
HS: SGK, bng nhm
Iii. Tin trnh bi dy
Trang 31
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c: HS1: Thc hin cc php tnh sau:
a) 159M3 b) 215M5 c) ( x
2
+ 5x + 6) : ( x + 2 )
HS2: Thc hin php chia:
a) (x
2
+ 9x + 21) : (x + 5) b) (x - 1) : ( x
2
+ 1) c) 217 : 3 =
p n : HS1: a) = 53 b) = 43 c) = x + 3
HS2: a) = ( x + 4) +
1
5 x +
b) Khng thc hin c. c) = 72 +
1
3
C- Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Hnh thnh nh ngha phn thc
- GV : Hy quan st v nhn xt cc biu thc sau:
a)
3
4 7
2 4 4
x
x x

+
b)
2
15
3 7 8 x x +
c)
12
1
x
u c dng
( 0)
A
B
B

- Hy pht biu nh ngha ?
- GV dng bng ph a nh ngha :
- GV : em hy nu v d v phn thc ?
- a thc ny c phi l PTS khng?
2x + y
Hy vit 4 PTS
GV: s 0 c phi l PTS khng? V sao?
Mt s thc a bt k c phi l PTS khng? V sao?
H2: Hnh thnh 2 phn thc bng nhau
GV: Cho phn thc
( 0)
A
B
B

v phn thc
C
D
( D O) Khi
no th ta c th kt lun c
A
B
=
C
D
?
GV: Tuy nhin cch nh ngha sau y l ngn gn nht 02
phn thc i s bng nhau.
* H3: Bi tp p dng
C th kt lun
2
3 2
3
6 2
x y x
xy y

hay khng?

Xt 2 phn thc:
3
x
v
2
2
3 6
x x
x
+
+
c bng nhau khng?
HS ln bng trnh by.
+ GV: Dng bng ph
1) nh ngha
Quan st cc biu thc
a)
3
4 7
2 4 4
x
x x

+
b)
2
15
3 7 8 x x +
c)
12
1
x

u c dng
( 0)
A
B
B

nh ngha: SGK/35
* Ch : Mi a thc cng c coi
l phn thc i s c mu =1
x+ 1,
2
2
1
y
x
+
+
, 1, z
2
+5
Mt s thc a bt k cng l mt
phn thc i s v lun vit c
di dng
1
a
* Ch : Mt s thc a bt k l
PTS ( VD 0,1 - 2,
1
2
, 3 )
2) Hai phn thc bng nhau
* nh ngha: sgk/35

A
B
=
C
D
nu AD = BC
* VD:
2
1 1
1 1
x
x x

+
v (x-1)(x+1) = 1.
(x
2
-1)

2
3 2
3
6 2
x y x
xy y

v 3x
2
y. 2y
2

= x. 6xy
2

( v cng bng 6x
2
y
3
)

3
x
=
2
2
3 6
x x
x
+
+

v x(3x+6) = 3(x
2
+ 2x)
Trang 32
?1
?2
?3
?4
?5
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Bn Quang ni :
3 3
3
x
x
+
= 3. Bn Vn ni:
3 3
3
x
x
+
=
1 x
x
+
Bn no ni ng? V sao?
HS ln bng trnh by
Bn Vn ni ng v:
(3x+3).x = 3x(x+1)
- Bn Quang ni sai v 3x+3 3.3x
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
1) Hy lp cc phn thc t 3 a thc sau: x - 1; 5xy; 2x + 7.
2) Chng t cc phn thc sau bng nhau
a)
5 20
7 28
y xy
x

b)
3 ( 5) 3
2( 5) 2
x x x
x
+

+
3) Cho phn thc P =
2
2
9
2 12
x
x

+
a) Tm tp hp cc gi tr ca bin lm cho mu ca phn thc O.
b) Tm cc gi tr ca bin c th nhn t ca phn thc nhn gi tr 0.
p n:
3) a) Mu ca phn thc 0 khi x
2
+ x - 12 0

x
2
+ 4x- 3x - 12 0

x(x-3) + 4(x-3) 0

(x-3)( x+ 4) 0

x 3 ; x - 4
b) T thc nhn gi tr 0 khi 9 - x
2
= 0

x
2
= 9

x = t 3
Gi tr x = 3 lm cho mu c gi tr bng 0, x = 3 loi
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
Lm cc bi tp: 1(c,d,e)
Bi 2,3 (sgk)/36
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 22 TNH CHT C BN CA PHN THC
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: +HS nm vng t/c c bn ca phn thc lm c s cho vic rt gn phn thc.
+ Hiu c qui tc i du c suy ra t t/c c bn ca PT ( Nhn c t v mu vi -1).
-K nng: HS thc hin ng vic i du 1 nhn t no ca phn thc bng cch i du 1
nhn t no cho vic rt gn phn thc sau ny.
-Thi : Yu thch b mn
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph
- HS: Bi c + bng nhm
III. Tin trnh bi dy
A.T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c: HS1: Pht biu nh ngha 2 phn thc bng nhau?
Tm phn thc bng phn thc sau:
2
2
3 2
1
x x
x
+ +

(hoc
2
3 15
2 10
x x
x
+
+
)
HS2: - Nu cc t/c c bn ca phn s vit dng tng qut.
- Gii thch v sao cc s thc a bt k l cc phn thc i s
p n:
2
2
3 2
1
x x
x
+ +

=
2
2
2 2
1
x x x
x
+ + +

=
2
( 1) 2( 1)
1
x x x
x
+ + +

=
( 1)( 2)
( 1)( 1)
x x
x x
+ +
+
=
2
1
x
x
+

- HS2:
A
B
=
Am
Bm
=
:
:
A n
B n
( B; m; n

0 ) A,B l cc s thc.
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
Trang 33
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
* H1: Hnh thnh tnh cht c bn ca phn thc
Tnh cht c bn ca phn s?
HS:- Pht biu t/c
- Vit di dng TQ ? Cn c k g ?
Cho phn thc
3
x
hy nhn c t v mu phn thc ny vi x + 2 ri
so snh phn thc va nhn vi phn thc cho.
Cho phn thc
2
3
3
6
x y
xy
hy chia c t v mu phn thc ny cho 3xy
ri so snh phn thc va nhn c.
GV: Cht li
-GV: Qua VD trn em no hy cho bit PTS c nhng T/c no?
- HS pht biu.
GV: Em hy so snh T/c ca phn s vi T/c ca PTS
Dng T/c c bn ca phn thc hy gii thch v sao c th vit:
a)
2 ( 1) 2
( 1)( 1) 1
x x x
x x x

+ +
- GV: Cht li
*H2: Hnh thnh qui tc i du
b)
A A
B B

V sao?
GV: Ta p dng T/c nhn c t v mu ca phn thc vi ( - 1)
HS pht biu qui tc?
Vit di dng tng qut
Dng quy tc i du hy in 1 a thc thch hp vo trng
GV yu cu HS tho lun nhm
- Cc nhm tho lun v vit bng nhm
1) Tnh cht c bn ca phn
thc

2
( 2) 2
3( 2) 3 6
x x x x
x x
+ +

+ +
Ta c:
2
2
3 6 3
x x x
x
+

+
(1)

2
3 2
3 : 3
6 : 3 2
x y xy x
xy xy y

Ta c
2
3 2
3
6 2
x y x
xy y

(2)
* Tnh cht: ( SGK)
. .
;
. .
A AM A A N
B B M B B N


A, B, M, N l cc a thc B, N
khc a thc O, N l 1 nhn t
chung.
a) C mu v t u c x -
1 l nhn t chung

Sau khi chia c t v mu cho x


-1 ta c phn thc mi l
2
1
x
x +
b)
A A
B B

A.(-B) = B .(-A) = (-AB)


2) Quy tc i du:
A A
B B

a)
4 4
y x x y
x x


b)
2 2
5 5
11 11
x x
x x


D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- HS lm bi tp 4/38 ( GV dng bng ph)
Ai ng ai sai trong cch vit cc phn thc i s bng nhau sau:
Lan:
2
2
3 3
2 5 2 5
x x x
x x x
+ +


Hng:
2
2
( 1) 1
1
x x
x x
+ +

+
Giang :
4 4
3 3
x x
x x

Huy:
2 2
( 9) (9 )
2(9 ) 2
x x
x

p n:
- Lan ni ng p dng T/c nhn c t v mu vi x
- Giang ni ng: P
2
i du nhn c t v mu vi (-1)
Trang 34
?5
?4
?3
?2
?1
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Hng ni sai v:
Khi chia c t v mu cho ( x + 1) th mu cn li l x ch khng phi l 1.
- Huy ni sai: V bn nhn t vi ( - 1 ) m cha nhn mu vi ( - 1)

Sai du
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Hc bi
- Lm cc bi tp 5, 6 SGK/38
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 23 RT GN PHN THC
I. Mc tiu :
- Kin thc: + KS nm vng qui tc rt gn phn thc.
+ Hiu c qui tc i du ( Nhn c t v mu vi -1) p dng vo rt gn.
- K nng: HS thc hin vic rt gn phn thc bng cch phn tich t thc v mu thc thnh
nhn t, lm xut hin nhn t chung.
- Thi : Rn t duy lgic sng to
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph
- HS: Bi c + bng nhm
Iii. Tin trnh bi dy
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c: HS1: Pht biu qui tc v vit cng thc biu th:
- Tnh cht c bn ca phn thc - Qui tc i du
HS2: in a thc thch hp vo trng
a)
2 2
3 3 ...
2( ) 2
x y
x y

b)
2 3 2
... 1
x x x
x
+

p n: a) 3(x+y) b) x
2
- 1 hay (x-1)(x+1)
C- Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Hnh thnh PP rt gn phn thc
Cho phn thc:
3
2
4
10
x
x y
a) Tm nhn t chung ca c t v mu
b)Chia c t v mu cho nhn t chung
- GV: Cch bin i
3
2
4
10
x
x y
thnh
2
5
x
y
gi l rt gn phn thc.
- GV: Vy th no l rt gn phn thc?
GV: Cho HS nhc li rt gn phn thc l g?
+ Cho phn thc:
2
5 10
25 50
x
x x
+
+
a) Phn tch t v mu thnh nhn t ri tm nhn t
chung
b) Chia c t v mu cho nhn t chung
- GV: Cho HS nhn xt kt qu
+ (x+2) l nhn t chung ca t v mu
+ 5 l nhn t chung ca t v mu
1) Rt gn phn thc
Gii:

3
2
4
10
x
x y
=
2
2
2 .2 2
2 .5 5
x x x
x y y

- Bin i mt phn thc cho thnh mt phn


thc n gin hn bng phn thc cho gi l
rt gn phn thc.

2
5 10
25 50
x
x x
+
+
=
5( 2) 5( 2) 1
25 ( 2) 5.5 ( 2) 5
x x
x x x x x
+ +

+ +
Trang 35
?1
?2
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
+ 5(x+2) l nhn t chung ca t v mu
Tch cc nhn t chung cng gi l nhn t chung
- GV: mun rt gn phn thc ta lm nh th no?.
* H2: Rn k nng rt gn phn thc
Rt gn phn thc:
b)
2 2
3 2 2 2
2 1 ( 1) 1
5 5 5 ( 1) 5
x x x x
x x x x x
+ + + +

+ +
- HS ln bng
GV lu :
GV yu cu HS ln bng lm ?4
- HS ln bng trnh by
- HS nhn xt kq
Mun rt gn phn thc ta c th:
+ Phn tch t v mu thnh nhn t (nu cn)
ri tm nhn t chung
+Chia c t v mu cho nhn t chung .
2) V d
V d 1: a)
3 2 2
2
2
4 4 ( 4 4)
4 ( 2)( 2)
( 2) ( 2)
( 2)( 2) 2
x x x x x x
x x x
x x x x
x x x
+ +

+


+ +
b)
2 2
3 2 2 2
2 1 ( 1) 1
5 5 5 ( 1) 5
x x x x
x x x x x
+ + + +

+ +
c)
1 ( 1) 1
( 1) ( 1)
x x
x x x x x



* Ch : Trong nhiu trng hp rt gn phn
thc, nhn ra nhn t chung ca t v mu c
khi ta i du t hoc mu theo dng A = - (-A).
a)
3( ) 3( )
3
x y y x
y x y x



b)
3( 5) 3(5 ) 3
5(5 ) 5(5 ) 5
x x
x x



c)
2( 3)(1 ) 3
4( 5)( 1) 2( 5)
x x x
x x x

+ +
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
Rt gn phn thc:
e)
2
2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x xy x y x x y x y
x xy x y x x y x y
+

+ + +
=
( )( 1)
( )( 1)
x y x
x y x

+
x y
x y

+
* Cha bi 8/40 ( SGK) ( Cu a, d ng) Cu b, c sai
* Bi tp nng cao: Rt gn cc phn thc
a) A =
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2
x y z xy
x y z xz
+ +
+ +
=
2 2
2 2
( )
( )
x y z
x z y
+
+
=
( )( )
( )( )
x y z z y z x y z
x y z x z y x z y
+ + + +

+ + + +
b)
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
( )( )( )( )
( )( )( )
a b ab b c bc c a ca a b a c b c a b c
a b c
a b ab b c bc c a ca a b a c b c
+ + + +
+ +
+ +
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
Hc bi
Lm cc bi tp 7,9,10/SGK 40
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 24 LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu:
Trang 36
?3
?4
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Kin thc: HS bit phn tch t v mu thnh nhn t ri p dng vic i du t hoc mu
lm xut hin nhn t chung ri rt gn phn thc.
- K nng: HS vn dng cc P
2
phn tch TTNT, cc HT ng nh phn tch t v mu ca
phn thc thnh nhn t.
- Thi : Gio dc duy lgic sng to
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp
Iii.Tin trnh bi dy
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c: HS1: Mun rt gn phn thc ta c th lm ntn?
- Rt gn phn thc sau:
a)
4 3
2 5
12
3
x y
x y
b)
3
15( 3)
9 3
x
x

p n: a) =
2
2
4x
y
b) = -5(x-3)
2

C. Bi mi .
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: T chc luyn tp
Cu no ng, cu no sai?
a)
3
9 3
xy x
y

b)
3 3
9 3 3
xy x
y
+

+
c)
3 3 1 1
9 9 3 3 6
xy x x
y
+ + +

+ +
d)
3 3
9 9 3
xy x x
y
+

+
p dng qui tc i du ri rt gn
GV: Cht li: Khi t v mu c vit di
dng tch ta c th rt gn tng nhn t chung
cng bin ( Theo cch tnh nhm ) c ngay
kt qu
- Khi bin i cc a thc t v mu thnh
nhn t ta ch n phn h s ca cc bin
nu h s c c chung

Ly c chung
lm tha s chung
- Bin i tip biu thc theo HT, nhm
hng t, t nhn t chung

1) Cha bi 8 (40) SGK
Cu a, d l p s ng
Cu b, c l sai
2. Cha bi 9/40
a)
3 3
36( 2) 36( 2)
32 16 16(2 )
x x
x x


=
3 2
36( 2) 9( 2)
16( 2) 4
x x
x


b)
2
2
( ) ( )
5 5 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 5
x xy x x y x y x x
y xy y y x y y x y



3. Cha bi 11/40 . Rt gn
a)
3 2 2
5 3
12 2
18 3
x y x
xy y


b)
3 2
2
15 ( 5) 3( 5)
20 ( 5) 4
x x x
x x x
+ +

+
4. Cha bi 12/40
Phn tch t v mu thnh nhn t ri rt gn
a)
2 2
4 3
3 12 12 3( 4 4)
8 ( 8)
x x x x
x x x x
+ +


=
2
2 2
3( 2) 3( 2)
( 2)( 2 4) ( 2 4)
x x
x x x x x x x

+ + + +
b)
2 2
2
7 14 7 7( 2 1)
3 3 3 ( 1)
x x x x
x x x x
+ + + +

+ +
=
2
7( 1) 7( 1)
3 ( 1) 3
x x
x x x
+ +

+
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV: Nng cao thm HT ( a + b)
n
Trang 37
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
p dng vo nhiu BT rt gn
(A + B)
n
= A
n
+ nA
n - 1
B +
2 2
1)
...
2
n n
nn
A B B

+ +
- Khai trin ca (A + B)
n
c n + 1 hng t
- S m ca A gim t n n 0 v s m ca B tng t 0 n n trong mi hng t, tng cc s m
ca A & B bng n
- H s ca mi hng t c tnh nh sau: Ly s m ca A ca hng t ng trc ri nhn
vi h s ca hng t ng trc n ri em chia cho s cc hng t ng trc n
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm bi 13/40
BT sau: Rt gn A =
2 2
2 2
2 3
2 5 3
x xy y
x xy y

+
Tm cc gi tr ca bin mu ca phn thc c gi tr khc 0.
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 25 QUY NG MU THC CA NHIU PHN THC
I. Mc tiu :
- Kin thc: HS hiu " Quy ng mu thc nhiu phn thc l bin i cc phn thc cho thnh
nhng phn thc mi c cng mu thc & ln lt bng nhng phn thc chn". Nm vng cc
bc qui ng mu thc.
- K nng: HS bit tm mu thc chung, bit tm nhn t ph ca mi mu thc, khi cc mu thc
cu cc phn thc cho trc c nhn t i nhau, HS bit i du c nhn t chung v tm ra
mu thc chung.
- Thi : thc hc tp - T duy lgic sng to .
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph
- HS: Bng nhm
Iii.Tin trnh bi dy.
A.T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c:- Pht biu T/c c bn ca phn thc
- Hy tm cc phn thc bng nhau trong cc phn thc sau
a)
2
3
x
x +
b)
5
3 x
c)
2 ( 3)
( 3)( 3)
x x
x x

+
d)
5( 3)
( 3)( 3)
x
x x
+
+
p n: (a) = (c) ; (b) = (d)
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Gii thiu bi mi
Cho 2 phn thc:
1 1
&
x y x y +
Em no c th bin
i 2 phn thc cho thnh 2 phn thc mi tng
ng bng mi phn thc & c cng mu.
- HS nhn xt mu 2 phn thc
GV: Vy qui ng mu thc l g ?
* H2: Phng php tm mu thc chung
- Mun tm MTC trc ht ta phi tm hiu MTC c
t/c ntn ?
Cho 2 phn thc:
1 1
&
x y x y +

1 ( )
( )( )
x y
x y x y x y

+ +
;
1 ( )
( )( )
x y
x y x y x y
+

+
Q mu thc nhiu phn thc l bin i cc
phn thc cho thnh cc phn thc mi c
cng mu thc v ln lt bng cc phn thc
cho
Trang 38
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- GV: Cht li: MTC phi l 1 tch chia ht cho tt c
cc mu ca mi phn thc cho
Cho 2 phn thc
2
2
6x yz
v
3
5
4xy
c
a) C th chn mu thc chung l 12x
2
y
3
z hoc
24x
3
y
4
z hay khng ?
b) Nu c th mu thc chung no n gin hn ?
GV: Qua cc VD trn em hy ni 1 cch tng qut
cch tm MTC ca cc phn thc cho trc ?
H3: Hnh thnh phng php quy ng mu thc
cc phn thc
B1: Phn thc cc mu thc thnh nhn t ri tm
MTC:
B2. Tm nhn t ph cn phi nhn thm vi mu
thc c MTC
B3. Nhn c t v mu ca mi phn thc vi nhn t
ph tng ng
- HS tin hnh PT mu thc thnh nhn t.
Qui tc: SGK
* H4: Bi tp p dng
Qui ng mu thc 2 phn thc

2
3
5 x x
v
5
2 10 x
- Phn tch cc mu thnh nhn t tm MTC
-Tm nhn t ph.
+ Nhn t ph ca mu thc th nht l : 2
+ Nhn t ph ca mu thc th hai l: x
-Nhn c t v mu ca mi phn thc cho vi
nhn t ph tng ng ta c
1. Tm mu thc chung
+ Cc tch 12x
2
y
3
z & 24x
3
y
4
z
u chia ht cho cc mu 6x
2
yz & 4xy
3
. Do vy
c th chn lm MTC
+ Mu thc 12x
2
y
3
n gin hn
* V d:
Tm MTC ca 2 phn thc sau:
2 2
1 5
;
4 8 4 6 6 x x x x +
+ B1: PT cc mu thnh nhn t
4x
2
-8x+ 4 = 4( x
2
- 2x + 1)= 4(x - 1)
2
6x
2
- 6x = 6x(x - 1)
+ B2: Lp MTC l 1 tch gm
- Nhn t bng s l 12: BCNN(4; 6)
- Cc lu tha ca cng 1 biu thc vi s m
cao nhtMTC :12.x(x - 1)
2
Tm MTC: SGK/42
2. Quy ng mu thc
V d * Quy ng mu thc 2 phn thc sau:
2 2
1 5
&
4 8 4 6 6 x x x x +
2 2 2
4 8 4 4( 2 1) 4( 1) x x x x x + + (1)
2
6 6 6 ( 1) x x x x ; MTC : 12x(x - 1)
2
*
2
1
4 8 4 x x +
=
2
1.3
4( 1) .3
x
x x
=
2
3
12 ( 1)
x
x x
*
2
5.2( 1) 10( 1)
6 ( 1)2( 1) 12 ( 1)
x x
x x x x x


p dng : ?2 QMT 2 phn thc

2
3
5 x x
v
5
2 10 x
MTC: 2x(x-5)
*
2
3
5 x x
=
3
( 5) x x
6
2 ( 5) x x


*
5
2 10 x
=
5
2( 5) x
=
5. 5
2.( 5) 2 ( 5)
x x
x x x x


?3 Qui ng mu thc 2 phn thc
2
3
5 x x
v
5
10 2x

*
2
3
5 x x
=
6
2 ( 5) x x
;

5
2 10 x
=
5
2 ( 5)
x
x x
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
HS lm bi tp 14;15/43 - Nu qui tc i du cc phn thc.
Trang 39
?1
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Hc bi. Lm cc bi tp 16,18/43 (sgk)
Ngy son:
Ngy ging
Tit 26 LUYNTP
I- Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: HS thc hnh thnh tho vic qui ng mu thc cc phn thc, lm c s cho vic
thc hin php tnh cng cc phn thc i s cc tit tip theo
- Mc qui ng khng qu 3 phn thc vi mu thc l cc a thc c dng d phn tch thnh
nhn t.
- K nng: qui ng mu thc cc phn thc nhanh.
- Thi : T duy l gc, nhanh, cn thn.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bi son, bng ph
- HS: Bi tp + bng nhm
Iii- Tin trnh bi dy:
A.T chc:
B. Kim tra bi c: - HS1: + Qui ng mu thc nhiu phn thc l g?
+ Mun qui ng mu thc nhiu phn thc ta lm ntn?
- HS2: Qui ng mu thc hai phn thc :
5
2 6 y +
v
2
3
9 y
p n:
5
2 6 y +
=
5 5( 3)
2( 3) 2( 3)( 3)
y
y y y

+ +
;
2
3
9 y
=
2
3 3 6
9 ( 3)( 3) 2( 3)( 3) y y y y y


+ +
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H: T chc luyn tp
1. Cha bi 14b
Qui ng mu thc cc phn thc
3 5
4
15x y
v
4 2
11
12x y
- GV cho HS lm tng bc theo quy tc:
2. Cha bi 15b/43
Qui ng mu thc cc phn thc
2
2
8 16
x
x x +
v
2
3 12
x
x
- HS tm MTC, nhn t ph.
- Nhn t ph ca phn thc (1) l: 3x
- Nhn t ph ca phn thc (2) l: (x - 4)
- Nhn c t v mu vi nhn t ph ca tng
phn thc, ta c kt qu.
3. Cha bi 16/43
Qui ng mu thc cc phn thc:
a)
2
3
4 3 5
1
x x
x
+

;
2
1 2
1
x
x x

+ +
v -2
- 1HS tm mu thc chung.
- 1HS quy ng mu thc cc phn thc.
Bi 14b
Qui ng mu thc cc phn thc
3 5
4
15x y
v
4 2
11
12x y
3 5 4 5
4.4 16
15 .4 60
x x
x y x x y

;
3
4 2 3
11.5
12 .5
y
x y y
=
3
4 5
55
60
y
x y

Bi 15b/43
2
2
8 16
x
x x +
v
2
3 12
x
x
+ Ta c : x
2
- 2.4x +4
2
= (x - 4)
2
3x
2
-12x = 3x(x - 4) ; MTC: 3x(x - 4)
2
2
2
8 16
x
x x +
=
2
2
( 4)
x
x
=
2
2 2
2 .3 6
3 ( 4) 3 ( 4)
x x x
x x x x


2
3 12
x
x
=
2
( 4)
3 ( 4) 3 ( 4)
x x x
x x x x


Bi 16/43
a)x
3
- 1 = (x -1)(x
2
+ x + 1); MTC: (x-1)(x
2
+x+1)
*
2
3
4 3 5
1
x x
x
+

=
2
2
4 3 5
( 1)( 1)
x x
x x x
+
+ +
Trang 40
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
b)
10
2 x +
;
5
2 4 x
;
1
6 3x
- GV gi HS ln bng.
- GV cho HS nhn xt.
* GV: Cht li khi c 1 mu thc chia ht cho
cc mu thc cn li th ta ly ngay mu thc
lm mu thc chung.
- Khi mu thc c cc nhn t i nhau th ta
p dng qui tc i du.
4. Cha bi 18/43
Qui ng mu thc cc phn thc:
- 2 HS ln bng cha bi18
- GV cho HS nhn xt, sa li cho chnh xc.
*
2
1 2
1
x
x x

+ +
=
2
(1 2 )( 1)
( 1)( 1)
x x
x x x

+ +
* -2 =
3
2
2( 1)
( 1)( 1)
x
x x x

+ +
b)Ta c:
1
6 3x
=
1
3( 2) x

2x - 4 = 2 (x - 2)
3x - 6 = 3 ( x- 2) ; MTC: 6 ( x - 2)( x + 2)
*
10
2 x +
=
10.6( 2) 60( 2)
6( 2)( 2) 6( 2)( 2)
x x
x x x x

+ +
*
5
2 4 x
=
5.3( 2) 15( 2)
3.2( 2)( 2) 6( 2)( 2)
x x
x x x x
+ +
+ +
*
1
3( 2) x

=
1.2( 2) 2( 2)
3( 2)2( 2) 6( 2)( 2)
x x
x x x x
+ +

+ +
Bi 18/43 a)
3
2 4
x
x +
v
2
3
4
x
x
+

Ta c:2x + 4 = 2 (x + 2)
x
2
- 4 = ( x - 2 )(x + 2) ;MTC: 2(x - 2)(x + 2)
*
3
2 4
x
x +
=
3 3 ( 2)
2( 2) 2( 2)( 2)
x x x
x x x

+ +
*
2
3
4
x
x
+

=
3 2( 3)
( 2)( 2) 2( 2)( 2)
x x
x x x x
+ +

+ +
b)
2
5
4 4
x
x x
+
+ +
v
3 6
x
x +
x
2
+ 4x + 4 = (x + 2)
2
;3x + 6 = 3(x + 2)
MTC: 3(x + 2)
2
Vy:
2
5
4 4
x
x x
+
+ +
=
2 2
5 3( 5)
( 2) 3( 2)
x x
x x
+ +

+ +
3 6
x
x +
=
2
( 2)
3( 2) 3( 2)
x x x
x x
+

+ +
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
GV: Cho HS nhc li cc bc qui ng mu thc cc phn thc.
- Nu nhng ch khi qui ng.
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm tip cc bi tp: 19, 20 sgk
- Hng dn bi 20:
MTC: 2 phn thc l: x
3
+ 5x
2
- 4x - 20 phi chia ht cho cc mu thc.
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 27 PHP CNG CC PHN THC I S
I- Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: HS nm c php cng cc phn thc (cng mu, khng cng mu). Cc tnh cht
giao hon v kt hp ca php cng cc phn thc
- K nng:HS bit cch trnh by li gii ca php tnh cng cc phn thc theo trmh t:
Trang 41
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Bit vn dng tnh cht giao hon v kt hp ca php cng cc phn thcmt cch linh hot
thc hin php cng cc phn thc hp l n gin hn
- Thi : T duy l gc, nhanh, cn thn.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bi son, bng ph - HS: + bng nhm, php cng cc phn s, qui ng phn thc.
Iii- Tin trnh bi dy:
A- T chc:
B- Kim tra:- HS1: + Mun qui ng mu thc nhiu phn thc ta lm ntn?
+ Nu r cch thc hin cc bc
- HS2: Qui ng mu thc hai phn thc :
2
3
2 8 x
v
2
5
4 4 x x + +

p n:
2
3
2 8 x
=
2
3 3( 2)
2( 2)( 2) 2( 2)( 2)
x
x x x x
+

+ +
;
2
5
4 4 x x + +
=
2 2
5 2.5( 2)
( 2) 2( 2)( 2)
x
x x x

+ +
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Php cng cc phn thc cng
mu
1) Cng hai phn thc cng mu
- GV: Php cng hai phn thc cng mu
tng t nh qui tc cng hai phn s cng
mu. Em hy nhc li qui tc cng hai
phn s cng mu v t pht biu php
cng hai phn thc cng mu ?
- HS vit cng thc tng qut.
GV cho HS lm VD.
- GV cho HS lm ?1.
- HS thc hnh ti ch
- GV: theo em phn li gia ca php cng
ny c vit theo trnh t no?
* H2: Php cng cc phn thc khc
mu
2) Cng hai phn thc c mu thc
khc nhau
- GV: Hy p dng qui ng mu thc cc
phn thc & qui tc cng hai phn thc
cng mu thc hin php tnh.
- GV: Qua php tnh ny hy nu qui tc
cng hai phn thc khc mu?
* V d 2:
Nhn xt xem mi du " = " biu thc
c vit l biu thc no?
+ Dng cui cng c phi l qu trnh bin
i rt gn phn thc tng.
- GV cho HS lm ?3
Thc hin php cng
1) Cng hai phn thc cng mu
* Qui tc:
Mun cng hai phn thc cng mu , ta cng cc t thc
vi nhau v gi nguyn mu thc.
A C B C
B A A
+
+
( A, B, C l cc a thc, A khc a thc 0)
V d:
2
4 4
3 6 3 6
x x
x x
+
+
+ +
2
2
4 4 ( 2)
3 6 3 6
x x x
x x
+ + +

+ +
=
2
3
x +
?1
2 2 2 2
3 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 5 3
7 7 7 7
x x x x x
x y x y x y x y
+ + + + + +
+
2) Cng hai phn thc c mu thc khc nhau
?2 Thc hin php cng
2
6 3
4 2 8 x x x
+
+ +
Ta c: x
2
+ 4x = x(x + 4)
2x + 8 = 2( x + 4) =>MTC: 2x( x + 4)
6 3 6.2 3
( 4) 2( 4) ( 4).2 2 ( 4)
x
x x x x x x x
+ +
+ + + +
12 3
2 ( 4)
x
x x
+
+
=
3( 4) 3
2 ( 4) 2
x
x x x
+

+
?3 Gii: 6y - 36 = 6(y - 6)
y
2
- 6y = y( y - 6) =>MTC: 6y(y - 6)
2
12 6
6 36 6
y
y y y

+

=
12 6
6( 6) ( 6)
y
y y y

+

=
2 2
12 36 ( 6) 6
6 ( 6) 6 ( 6) 6
y y y y
y y y y y
+


Trang 42
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012

2
12 6
6 36 6
y
y y y

+

- GV: Php cng cc s c tnh cht g th
php cng cc phn thc cng c tnh cht
nh vy.
- HS nu cc tnh cht v vit biu thc
TQ.
- GV: Cho cc nhm lm bi tp ?4
p dng tnh cht giao hon v kt hp ca
php cng cc phn thc lm php tnh
sau:
2 2
2 1 2
4 4 2 4 4
x x x
x x x x x
+
+ +
+ + + + +
=
- Cc nhm tho lun v thc hin php
cng.
* Cc tnh cht
1- Tnh cht giao hon:
A C C A
B D D B
+ +
2- Tnh cht kt hp:

A C E A C E
B D F B D F
_ _
+ + +

, ,

?4
2 2
2 1 2
4 4 2 4 4
x x x
x x x x x
+
+ +
+ + + + +
=
=
2 2
2 2 1
4 4 4 4 2
x x x
x x x x x
+
+ +
+ + + + +
=
=
2
2 1
( 2) 2
x x
x x
+ +
+
+ +
=
1 1 2
1
2 2 2
x x
x x x
+ +
+
+ + +

D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
+ Khi thc hin php tnh cng nhiu phn thc ta c th :
+ Nhm cc hng t thnh cc tng nh ( t hng t hn mt cch thch hp)
+ Thc hin cc php tnh trong tng tng nh v rt gn kt qu
+ Tnh tng cc kt qu tm c
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Hc bi
- Lm cc bi tp : 21 - 24 (sgk)/46
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 28 LUYN TP
I- Mc tiu :
- Kin thc: HS nm c php cng cc phn thc (cng mu, khng cng mu). Cc tnh cht
giao hon v kt hp ca php cng cc phn thc
- K nng: HS bit cch trnh by li gii ca php tnh cng cc phn thc theo trmh t:
+ Vit kt qu phn tch cc mu thnh nhn t ri tm MTC
+ Vit dy biu thc lin tip bng nhau theo th t tng cho vi cc mu c phn tch
thnh nhn t bng tng cc phn thc qui ng . Mu bng phn thc tng ( C t bng tng cc
t v c mu l mu thc chung) bng phn thc rt gn ( nu c th)
+ i du thnh tho cc phn thc.
- Thi : T duy l gc, nhanh, cn thn.
II- Chun b :
- GV: Bi son, bng ph
- HS: + bng nhm, cng phn thc.
iii- Tin trnh bi dy:
A- T chc:
B- Kim tra:
- HS1: Nu cc bc cng cc phn thc i s?
- p dng: Lm php tnh a)
2 3 2 2
5 4 3 4
2 2
xy y xy y
x y x y
+
+
b)
2 2
2 1 2
1 1 1
x x x x
x x x
+
+ +

- HS2: Lm php tnh a)
2 2
4 2 2 5 4
3 3 3
x x x x
x x x

+ +

b)
1 1
2 ( 2)(4 7) x x x
+
+ + +
Trang 43
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
p n:
HS1: a)
2 3 2 2
5 4 3 4
2 2
xy y xy y
x y x y
+
+
=
2 3
5 4 3 4
2
xy y xy y
x y
+ +
=
2 3 2
8 4
2
xy
x y xy

b)
2 2
2 1 2
1 1 1
x x x x
x x x
+
+ +

=
2 2
2 1 2
1
x x x x
x
+

=
2 2
2 1 ( 1)
1
1 1
x x x
x
x x
+


- HS2: a)
2 2
4 2 2 5 4
3 3 3
x x x x
x x x

+ +

=
2 2
4 2 2 5 4
3
x x x x
x
+ +

=
2 2
6 9 ( 3)
3
3 3
x x x
x
x x
+


b)
1 1
2 ( 2)(4 7) x x x
+
+ + +
=
4 7 1
( 2)(4 7)
x
x x
+ +
+ +
=
4( 2) 4
( 2)(4 7) 4 7
x
x x x
+

+ + +
C- Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1) Cha bi 23 (v nh)
Lm cc php tnh cng
- HS ln bng trnh by.
2) Cha bi 25(c,d)
3) Cha bi 26
GV: gii thch cc khi nim: Nng xut
lm vic, khi lng cng vic & thi
gian hon thnh
+ Thi gian xc 5000m
3
u tin l ?
+ Phn vic cn li l?
+ Thi gian lm nt cng vic cn li l?
+ Thi gian hon thnh cng vic l?
+ Vi x = 250m
3
/ngy th thi gian hon
thnh cng vic l?
Bi 23a)
2 2
4 4
2 2 (2 ) ( 2 )
y x y x
x xy y xy x x y y y x
+ +

=
4
(2 ) (2 )
y x
x x y y x y

+


2 2
4 (2 )
(2 )
y x x y
xy x y xy
+

b)
2 2
1 3 14
2 4 ( 4 4)( 2)
x
x x x x x

+ +
+ + +
=
2 2
2 2 2
( 2) 4 ( 6)( 2) 6
( 2) ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) ( 2)
x x x x
x x x x x
+ + +

+ + +
Bi 25(c,d)
c)
2
3 5 25
5 25 5
x x
x x x
+
+

=
3 5 25
( 5) 5(5 )
x x
x x x
+
+


2
5(3 5) (25 ) 15 25 25
5 ( 5) 5 ( 5)
x x x x x x
x x x x
+ + +


=
2 2
10 25 ( 5) ( 5)
5 ( 5) 5 ( 5) 5
x x x x
x x x x x
+


d) x
2
+
4 4 4 4
2
2 2 2
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
x x x x
x
x x x
+ + + +
+ + +

=
2
2
1 x
Bi 26 + Thi gian xc 5000m
3
u tin l
5000
x
( ngy)
+ Phn vic cn li l: 11600 - 5000 = 6600m
3
+ Thi gian lm nt cng vic cn li l:
6600
25 x +
( ngy)
+ Thi gian hon thnh cng vic l:
5000
x
+
6600
25 x +
( ngy)
+ Vi x = 250m
3
/ngy th thi gian hon thnh cng vic l:

5000 6600
44
250 275
+
( ngy)
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV: Nhc li phng php trnh by li gii ca php ton
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp 25. 26 (a,b,c)/ 27(sgk)
Trang 44
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 30 PHP TR CC PHN THC I S
I- Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: HS nm c php tr cc phn thc (cng mu, khng cng mu).
+ Bit thc hin php tr theo qui tc
A C A C
B D B D
_
+

,

- K nng: HS bit cch trnh by li gii ca php tnh tr cc phn thc theo trmh t:
+ Vit kt qu phn tch cc mu thnh nhn t ri tm MTC
+ Vit dy biu thc lin tip bng nhau theo th t hiu cho vi cc mu c phn tch
thnh nhn t bng tng i s cc phn thc qui ng . Mu bng phn thc hiu ( C t bng hiu
cc t v c mu l mu thc chung) bng phn thc rt gn ( nu c th)
- Thi : T duy l gc, nhanh, cn thn.
- Bit vn dng tnh cht i du cc phn thc mt cch linh hot thc hin php tr cc phn
thc hp l n gin hn
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bi son, bng ph
- HS: + bng nhm, php tr cc phn s, qui ng phn thc.
III- Tin trnh bi dy:
A- T chc:
B- Kim tra:- HS1: Nu cc bc cng cc phn thc i s?
- p dng: Lm php tnh: a)
2 2
2 2
3 1 1 3
1 1
x x x x
x x
+
+
+ +
b)
2
1 2 3
2 6 3
x x
x x x
+ +
+
+ +
C- Bi mi
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Tm hiu phn thc i nhau
1) Phn thc i
- HS nghin cu bi tp ?1
- HS lm php cng
- GV: cht li : Hai phn thc gi l i
nhau nu tng ca n bng khng
- GV: Em hy a ra cc v d v hai phn
thc i nhau.
- GV a ra tng qut.
* Phn thc i ca
A
B

l -
A
B

m phn
thc i ca
A
B

l
A
B
* -
A
B

=
A
B
* H2: Hnh thnh php tr phn thc
2) Php tr
- GV: Em hy nhc li qui tc tr s hu t
a cho s hu t b.
- Tng t nu qui tc tr 2 phn thc.
1) Phn thc i
?1 Lm php cng
3 3 3 3 0
0
1 1 1 1
x x x x
x x x x

+
+ + + +
2 phn thc
3 3
&
1 1
x x
x x

+ + l 2 phn thc i nhau.


Tng qut
0
A A
B B

+
+ Ta ni
A
B

l phn thc i ca
A
B

A
B
l phn thc i ca
A
B

-
A
B
=
A
B

v -
A
B

=
A
B
2) Php tr
* Qui tc:
Mun tr phn thc
A
B
cho phn thc
C
D
, ta cng
A
B
vi
Trang 45
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
+ GV: Hay ni cch khc php tr phn
thc th nht cho phn thc th 2 ta ly
phn thc th nht cng vi phn thc i
ca phn thc th 2.
- Gv cho HS lm VD.
* H3: Luyn tp ti lp
- HS lm ?3 tr cc phn thc:

2 2
3 1
1
x x
x x x
+ +



- GV cho HS lm ?4.
-GV: Khi thc hin cc php tnh ta lu
g
+ Php tr khng c tnh giao hon.
+ Khi thc hin mt dy php tnh gm
php cng, php tr lin tip ta phi thc
hin cc php tnh theo th t t tri qua
phi.
* HS lm bi 28
phn thc i ca
C
D

A
B
-
C
D
=
A
B
+
C
D
_

,
* Kt qu ca php tr
A
B
cho
C
D
c gi l hiu ca
&
A C
B D
VD: Tr hai phn thc:
1 1 1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x x y y x y x x y

+

=
1
( ) ( ) ( )
x y x y
xy x y xy x y xy x y xy

+

?3
2 2
3 1
1
x x
x x x
+ +


=
2 2
3 ( 1)
1
x x
x x x
+ +



3 ( 1)
( 1)( 1) ( 1)
x x
x x x x
+ +
+
+
=
( 3) ( 1)( 1)
( 1) ( 1)( 1)
x x x x
x x x x x
+ + +
+
+
=
2 2
3 2 1
( 1)( 1)
x x x x
x x x
+
+
=
1
( 1)( 1)
x
x x x

+
=
1
( 1) x x +
?4 Thc hin php tnh
2 9 9
1 1 1
x x x
x x x
+


=
2 9 9
1 1 1
x x x
x x x
+
+ +

=
2 9 9 3 16
1 1
x x x x
x x
+ + +


Bi 28
a)
2 2 2
2 2 ( 2)
1 5 5 1 1 5
x x x
x x x
+ + +


b)
4 1 4 1 (4 1)
5 5 5
x x x
x x x
+ + +


D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
Nhc li mt s PP lm BT v PTS
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp 29, 30, 31(b) SGK; 24, 25, 26, 27, 28/ SBT
- Ch th t thc hin cc php tnh v phn th ging nh thc hin cc php tnh v s
- GV hng dn bi tp 32: Ta c th p dng kt qu bi tp 31 tnh tng
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 31 LUYN TP
I- Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: HS nm c php tr cc phn thc (cng mu, khng cng mu).
+ Bit thc hin php tr theo qui tc
A C A C
B D B D
_
+

,

- K nng: HS bit cch trnh by li gii ca php tnh tr cc phn thc
+ Vn dng thnh tho vic chuyn tip php tr 2 phn thc thnh php cng 2 phn thc theo qui
tc hc.
Trang 46
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Bit vn dng tnh cht i du cc phn thc mt cch linh hot thc hin php tr cc phn
thc hp l n gin hn
- Thi : T duy l gc, nhanh, cn thn.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bi son, bng ph
- HS: + bng nhm, php tr cc phn s, qui ng phn thc.
III- Tin trnh bi dy:
A- T chc:
B- Kim tra:
HS1:- Pht biu qui tc tr cc phn thc i s
p dng: Thc hin php tr: a)
2 2
1 1
xy x y xy


b)
11 18
2 3 3 2
x x
x x


HS2: Thc hin php tr: a)
2 7 3 5
10 4 4 10
x x
x x
+


b) x
2
+ 1 -
4 2
2
3 2
1
x x
x
+

p n: HS1: a)
2 2
1 1
xy x y xy


=
1
xy
b)
11 18
2 3 3 2
x x
x x


= 6
- HS 2: a)
2 7 3 5
10 4 4 10
x x
x x
+


=
1
2
b) x
2
+ 1 -
4 2
2
3 2
1
x x
x
+

= 3
C- Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1) Cha bi tp 33
Lm cc php tnh sau:
- HS ln bng trnh by
- GV: cht li : Khi no ta i du trn t thc?
- Khi no ta i du di mu?
2) Cha bi tp 34
- HS ln bng trnh by
- Thc hin php tnh:
3) Cha bi tp 35
Thc hin php tnh:
-GV: Nhc li vic i du v cch nhn nhm
cc biu thc.
Bi tp33a)
2 2
3 3 3 3
2 2
3 3
3 3
4 5 6 5 4 5 (6 5)
10 10 10 10
4 5 6 5 4 6
10 10
2 (2 3 ) 2 3
10 10
xy y xy y
x y x y x y x y
xy y xy y
x y x y
y x y x y
x y x y

+
+



b)
2
7 6 3 6
2 ( 7) 2 14
x x
x x x
+ +

+ +
7 6 (3 6)
2 ( 7) 2 ( 7)
x x
x x x x
+ +
+
+ +
=
7 6 3 6 4 2
2 ( 7) 2 ( 7) 7
x x x
x x x x x
+

+ + +
Bi tp 34 a)

4 13 48 4 13 48
5 ( 7) 5 (7 ) 5 ( 7) 5 ( 7)
5 35 5( 7) 1
5 ( 7) 5 ( 7)
x x x x
x x x x x x x x
x x
x x x x x
+ +
+




Bi tp 35 a)
Trang 47
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
4) Cha bi tp 36
- GV cho HS hot ng nhm lm bi tp 36
- GV cho cc nhm nhn xt, GV sa li cho
chnh xc.

2
2
2
1 1 2 (1 )
3 3 9
1 (1 ) 2 (1 )
3 3 9
( 1)( 3) ( 3)( 1) 2 (1 )
9
2 6 2( 3) 2
( 3)( 3) ( 3)( 3) 3
x x x x
x x x
x x x x
x x x
x x x x x x
x
x x
x x x x x
+

+
+
+ +
+
+ + + +

+ +

+ +
Bi tp 36
a) S sn phm phi sn xut 1 ngy theo k hoch l:
10000
x
( sn phm)
S sn phm thc t lm c trong 1 ngy l:

10080
1 x
( sn phm)
S sn phm lm thm trong 1 ngy l:

10080
1 x
-
10000
x
( sn phm)
b) Vi x = 25 th
10080
1 x
-
10000
x
c gi tr bng:
10080
25 1
-
10000
25
= 420 - 400 = 20 ( SP)
D- Luyn tp - Cng c: GV: cho HS cng c bng bi tp:
Thc hin php tnh:
a)
3
4 2
4 1 2 1
16 2 4 2
x x
x x x x
+
+ +
2
4
4
x
x

+
; b)
2 2 2
1 2 3 1 3 2
1 ( 1) ( 1) 1
x x
x x x x
+
+
+ +
2
1
1 x

E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm bi tp 34(b), 35 (b), 37
- Xem trc bi php nhn cc phn thc.
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 32 PHP NHN CC PHN THC
I- Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: HS nm c qui tc nhn 2 phn thc, cc tnh cht giao hon, kt hp, phn phi
ca php nhn i v php cng thc hin cc php tnh cng cc phn thc.
- K nng: HS bit cch trnh by li gii ca php nhn phn thc
+ Vn dng thnh tho , cc tnh cht giao hon, kt hp, phn phi ca php nhn i v php
cng thc hin cc php tnh.
- Bit vn dng tnh cht cc phn thc mt cch linh hot thc hin php tnh.
- Thi : T duy l gc, nhanh, cn thn.
II. Chun b:
GV: Bi son. HS: bng nhm, c trc bi.
Iii- Tin trnh bi dy:
A- T chc:
B- Kim tra: HS1:- Pht biu qui tc tr cc phn thc i s
* p dng: Thc hin php tnh
Trang 48
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
KQ
2 2
2
3 1 1 3
( 1) 1 1
3
( 1)
x x
x x x
x
x
+ +
+
+
+

C- Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Hnh thnh qui tc nhn 2 phn thc i
s
1) Php nhn nhiu phn thc i s
- GV: Ta bit cch nhn 2 phn s l:
.
a c ac
b d bd


Tng t ta thc hin nhn 2 phn thc, ta nhn t
thc vi t thc, mu thc vi mu thc.
- GV cho HS lm ?1.
- GV: Em hy nu qui tc?
- HS vit cng thc tng qut.
- GV cho HS lm VD.
- Khi nhn mt phn thc vi mt a thc, ta coi a
thc nh mt phn thc c mu thc bng 1
- GV cho HS lm ?2.
- HS ln bng trnh by:

+ GV: Cht li khi nhn lu du

- GV cho HS lm ?3.


2) Tnh cht php nhn cc phn thc:
+ GV: ( Php nhn phn thc tng t php nhn
phn s v c T/c nh phn s)
+ HS vit biu thc tng qut ca php nhn phn
thc.
1) Php nhn nhiu phn thc i s
?1
2 2 2 2
3 3
2
3
3 25 3 .( 25)
.
5 6 ( 5).6
3 .( 5)( 5) 5
( 5).6 2
x x x x
x x x x
x x x x
x x x

+ +
+

+
* Qui tc:
Mun nhn 2 phn thc ta nhn cc t thc
vi nhau, cc mu thc vi nhau.

.
A C AC
B D BD

* V d :
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
(3 6)
.(3 6)
2 8 8 2 8 8
3 ( 2) 3 ( 2) 3
2( 4 4) 2( 2) 2( 2)
x x x
x
x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x
+
+
+ + + +
+ +

+ + + +
?2 a)
2 2 2 2
5 5 3
( 13) 3 ( 13) .3 39 3
.
2 13 2 ( 13) 2
x x x x x
x x x x x
_



,
b)
2
2
3 2 ( 2)
4 3 2
x x
x x
+ + _


+
,
=
2
2
(3 2).( 2)
(4 )(3 2)
x x
x x
+ +
+
=
2
( 2) ( 2) 2
(2 )(2 ) 2 2
x x x
x x x x
+ + +

+
c)
3 2
4 2 1 4
(2 1) 3 3(2 1)
x x
x x x
+ 1

1
+ +
]
d)
4
3 2
1 5 2 2
.
3 (1 5 ) 3(1 5 )
x x x
x x x
+ 1

1
+ +
]
?3
2 3 2 3
3 3
6 9 ( 1) ( 3) ( 1)
.
1 2( 3) (1 )( 3) .2
x x x x x
x x x x
+ + +

+ +
=
2 3 2 2 2
3 3
( 3) ( 1) ( 3) ( 1) ( 1)
2( 1)( 3) 2( 3) 2( 3)
x x x x x
x x x x
+ +

+ + +
2) Tnh cht php nhn cc phn thc:
a) Giao hon :
Trang 49
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
+ HS tnh nhanh v cho bit p dng tnh cht no
lm c nh vy.


. .
A C C A
B D D B

b) Kt hp:
. . .
A C E A C E
B D F B D F
1 1

1 1
] ]
c) Phn phi i vi php cng
. . . .
A C E A C A E
B D F B D B F
1
+
1
]
?4
5 3 4
4 2 5 3
3 5 1 7 2
. .
7 2 2 3 3 5 1 2 3
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
+ + +

+ + + + +
D- Luyn tp - Cng c: Lm cc bi tp sau: a)
2
2
3 2 2
.
4 6 4
x x x
x x
+
+
b)
2
5 2
.
1 5
x x x
x x x

+
c)
2 3 1 1
.
1 2 3 2 3
x x x
x x x
+ + _
+

+ +
,
d)
2
36 3
.
2 10 6
x
x x

+
- HS ln bng , HS di lp cng lm
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp 38, 39, 40 ( SGK)
- Lm cc bi 30, 31, 32, 33 ( SBT)
- n li ton b k I
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 33 PHP CHIA CC PHN THC I S
I- Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: HS nm c qui tc chia 2 phn thc, HS nm vng khi nim phn thc nghch
o. Nm vng th t thc hin php tnh chia lin tip
- K nng: HS bit cch trnh by li gii ca php chia phn thc
Vn dng thnh tho cng thc :
: . ;
A C A C
B D B D

vi
C
D
khc 0, thc hin cc php tnh.
Bit vn dng tnh cht cc phn thc mt cch linh hot thc hin dy php tnh.nhn v chia
theo th t t tri qua phi
- Thi : T duy l gc, nhanh, cn thn.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bi son, bng ph
- HS: bng nhm, c trc bi.
Iii- Tin trnh bi dy:
A. T chc:
B- Kim tra:
HS1:- Nu cc tnh cht ca php nhn cc phn thc i s
* p dng: Thc hin php tnh

1 1 x y
x y x y x y
_
+

+ +
,
HS2: a)
3
2
1
1
1
x x
x x
x x
_
+ + +

,
b)
4
4
7 3
.
3 7
x x
x x
+
+

C- Bi mi:
Trang 50
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Tm hiu phn thc nghch o
1) Phn thc nghch o
- Lm php tnh nhn ?1
- GV gii thiu y l 2 phn thc nghch o ca
nhau
- GV: Th no l hai phn thc nghch o ?
- Em hy a ra v d 2 phn thc l nghch o ca
nhau.?
- GV: cht li v gii thiu k hiu 2 phn thc
nghch o .
- GV: Cn c cch k hiu no khc v phn thc
nghch o khng ?
- GV cho HS lm ?2 tm phn thc nghch o ca
cc phn thc sau:
- HS tr li:
* H2: Hnh thnh qui tc chia phn thc
2) Php chia
- GV: Em hy nu qui tc chia 2 phn s.
Tng t nh vy ta c qui tc chia 2 phn thc
* Mun chia phn thc
A
B
cho phn thc
C
D
khc 0 ,
ta lm nh th no?
- GV: Cho HS thc hnh lm ?3.
- GV cht li:
* Khi thc hin php chia. Sau khi chuyn sang php
nhn phn thc th nht vi nghch o ca phn
thc th 2, ta thc hin theo qui tc. Ch phn tch
t thc v mu thnh nhn t rt gn kt qu.
* Php tnh chia khng c tnh cht giao hon & kt
hp. Sau khi chuyn i dy php tnh hon ton ch
c php nhn ta c th thc hin tnh cht giao hon
& kt hp.
1) Phn thc nghch o
?1
3 3
3 3
5 7 ( 5)( 7)
. 1
7 5 ( 7)( 5)
x x x x
x x x x
+ +

+ +
Hai phn thc c gi l nghch o ca nhau
nu tch ca chng bng 1.
+ Nu
A
B
l phn thc khc 0 th
A
B
.
B
A
= 1 do
ta c:
B
A
l phn thc nghch o ca phn
thc
A
B
;
A
B
l phn thc nghch o ca phn
thc
B
A
.
K hiu:
1
A
B

_

,
l nghch o ca
A
B
a)
2
3
2
y
x
c PT nghch o l
2
2
3
x
y

b)
2
6
2 1
x x
x
+
+
c PT nghch o l
2
2 1
6
x
x x

+
c)
1
2 x
c PT nghch o l x-2
d) 3x + 2 c PT nghch o l
1
3 2 x +
.
2) Php chia
* Mun chia phn thc
A
B
cho phn thc
C
D

khc 0 , ta nhn
A
B
vi phn thc nghch o ca
C
D
.
*
: . ;
A C A C
B D B D

vi
C
D

0
?3
2 2
2 2
1 4 2 4 1 4 3
: .
4 3 4 2 4
(1 2 )(1 2 ).3 3(1 2 )
2 ( 4)(1 2 ) 2( 4)
x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x
x x x x

+ +
+ +

+ +
?4
2 2
2 2
2
2
4 6 2 4 5 2
: : . :
5 5 3 5 6 3
20 3 2 3
. . 1
30 2 3 2
x x x x y x
y y y y x y
x y y x y
xy x y x


Trang 51
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
D- Luyn tp - Cng c: GV: Cho HS lm bi tp theo nhm
Tm x t ng thc : a)
2 2
2 2
4 4
.
5 5 2
a b a b
x
a b a ab b

+ + +
; b)
1 1
:
1 1
x x x x
x x x x
+ _ _
+ +

+
, ,
- HS cc nhm trao i & lm bi
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp 42, 43, 44, 45 (sgk)
- Xem li cc bi cha.
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 34: BIN I CC BIU THC HU T- GI TRI CA PHN
THC
I- Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: HS nm c khi nim v biu thc hu t, bit rng mi phn thc v mi a thc
u l cc biu thc hu t.
- Nm vng cch biu din mt biu thc hu t di dng mt dy cc php ton trn nhng phn
thc v hiu rng bin i mt biu thc hu t l thc hin cc php ton trong biu thc bin
n thnh mt phn thc i s.
- K nng: Thc hin thnh tho cc php ton trn cc phn thc i s.
- Bit cch tm iu kin ca bin gi tr ca phn thc c xc nh.
- Thi : T duy l gc, nhanh, cn thn.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bi son, bng ph
- HS: bng nhm, c trc bi.
Iii- Tin trnh bi dy:
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra: Pht biu nh ngha v PT nghch o & QT chia 1 PT cho 1 phn thc.
- Tm phn thc nghch o ca cc phn thc sau:
x y
x y
+

; x
2
+ 3x - 5 ;
1
2 1 x +

* Thc hin php tnh:
2
4 12 3( 3)
:
( 4) 4
x x
x x
+ +
+ +

C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
* H1: Hnh thnh khi nim biu thc hu t
1) Biu thc hu t:
+ GV: a ra VD:
Quan st cc biu thc sau v cho bit nhn xt ca
mnh v dng ca mi biu thc.
0;
2
5
; 7 ; 2x
2
- 5 x +
1
3
, (6x + 1)(x - 2);
2
3 1
x
x +
; 4x +
1
3 x +
;
2
2
2
1
3
1
x
x
x
+

* GV: Cht li v a ra khi nim


* V d:
2
2
2
1
3
1
x
x
x
+

l biu th php chia


2
2
1
x
x
+

cho
1) Biu thc hu t:
0;
2
5
; 7 ; 2x
2
- 5 x +
1
3
, (6x + 1)(x - 2);
2
3 1
x
x +
; 4x +
1
3 x +
;
2
2
2
1
3
1
x
x
x
+

L nhng biu thc hu t.



Trang 52
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
2
3
1 x
* H2: PP bin i biu thc hu t
2) Bin i 1 biu thc hu t.
- Vic thc hin lin tip cc php ton cng, tr,
nhn, chia trn nhng phn thc c trong biu thc
cho bin biu thc thnh 1 phn thc ta gi l
bin i 1 biu thc hu t thnh 1 phn thc.
* GV hng dn HS lm v d: Bin i biu thc.
A =
1
1
1 1
(1 ) : ( )
1
x
x
x x
x
x
+
+

- HS lm ?1. Bin i biu thc:


B =
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
x
x
x
+

+
+
thnh 1 phn thc
* H3: Khi nim gi tr phn thc v cch tm
iu kin phn thc c ngha.
3. Gi tr ca phn thc:
- GV hng dn HS lm VD.
* V d:
3 9
( 3)
x
x x

a) Tm iu kin ca x gi tr ca phn thc


3 9
( 3)
x
x x

c xc nh.
b) Tnh gi tr ca phn thc ti x = 2004
* Nu ti gi tr no ca biu thc m gi tr ca
phn thc cho x th phn thc cho v phn
thc rt gn c cng gi tr.
* Mun tnh gi tr ca phn thc cho ( ng vi gi
tr no ca x) ta c th tnh gi tr ca phn thc
rt gn.
* H4: Luyn tp
Lm bi tp 46 /a
GV hng dn HS lm bi
2) Bin i 1 biu thc hu t.
* V d: Bin i biu thc.
A =
1
1
1 1
(1 ) : ( )
1
x
x
x x
x
x
+
+

=
2
2
1 1 1 1
: .
1 1
x x x x
x x x x x
+ +


?1 B =
2
1
( 1)( 1)
x
x x
+
+
3. Gi tr ca phn thc:
a) Gi tr ca phn thc
3 9
( 3)
x
x x

c xc
nh vi K: x(x - 3)

0 0 x v x - 3
0 3 x
Vy PT x c khi x 0 3 x
b) Rt gn:
3 9
( 3)
x
x x

=
3( 3) 3 3 1
( 3) 2004 668
x
x x x

?2
a) x
2
+ x = (x + 1)x
0 0; 1 x x
2
1 1 1
)
( 1)
x x
b
x x x x x
+ +

+ +
Ti x = 1.000.000 c
gi tr PT l
1
1.000.000
* Ti x = -1
Phn thc cho khng xc nh
HS lm:
1 1
1
1 1
:
1 1
1
1 1
.
1 1
x
x x
x x
x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x
+
+
+

+ +


Khc su li cc kin thc c bn va hc, bit p dng vo gii ton
E. HDVN:
- Lm cc bi tp cn li / SGK+SBT
- Gi sau luyn tp.
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 35 LUYN TP
Trang 53
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
I- Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: HS nm chc phng php bin i cc biu thc hu t thnh 1 dy php tnh thc
hin trn cc phn thc.
- K nng: Thc hin thnh tho cc php tnh theo quy tc hc
+ C k nng tm iu kin ca bin gi tr phn thc xc nh v bit tm gi tr ca phn thc
theo iu kin ca bin.
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp.
Iii- Tin trnh bi dy:
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra:
- Tm iu kin ca x gi tr ca mi phn thc sau xc nh
a)
5
2 4
x
x +
b)
2
1
1
x
x


C. Bi mi :
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
*H1: Kim tra bi c
*H2: T chc luyn tp
1) Cha bi 48
- HS ln bng
- HS khc thc hin ti ch
* GV: cht li : Khi gi tr ca phn thc cho x th
phn thc cho & phn thc rt gn c cng gi tr.
Vy mun tnh gi tr ca phn thc cho ta ch cn
tnh gi tr ca phn thc rt gn
- Khng tnh gi tr ca phn thc rt gn ti cc gi tr
ca bin lm mu thc phn thc = 0
2. Lm bi 50
- GV gi 2 HS ln bng thc hin php tnh
*GV: Cht li p
2
lm ( Th t thc hin cc php tnh)
HS lm bi
a) x

-2
b) x
t 1
1)Bi 48
Cho phn thc:
2
4 4
2
x x
x
+ +
+
a) Phn thc x khi x + 2
0, 2 x
b) Rt gn : =
2
( 2)
2
2
x
x
x
+
+
+
c) Tm gi tr ca x gi tr ca phn thc
= 1
Ta c x = 2 = 1 1 x
d) Khng c gi tr no ca x phn thc
c gi tr = 0 v ti x = -2 phn thc khng
xc dnh.
2.Bi50: a) (
2
2
1
3
1 ( : ) 1
1 x
x
x
x

+
+
=
x
x
x x x
x x x
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x
x x
2 1
1
) 2 1 )( 1 2 )( 1 (
) 1 )( 1 )( 1 2 (
4 1
1
*
1
1 2
1
3 1
:
1
1
2
2
2
2 2

+ +
+ +

+
+


+
+ +
c) (x
2
- 1)
1 1
1
1 1 x x
_


+
,
=
2
2
2
2
1 1 1
( 1).
1
3
x x x
x
x
x
_ + + +

,

Trang 54
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
3. Cha bi 55
- GV cho HS hot ng nhm lm bi 55
- Cc nhm trnh by bi v gii thch r cch lm?
4. Bi tp 53:
- GV cho HS hot ng nhm lm bi 53.
- GV treo bng nhm v cho HS nhn xt, sa li cho
chnh xc.
Bi 55: Cho phn thc:
2
2
2 1
1
x x
x
+ +

PTX x
2
- 1

0 x
t
1
d) Ta c:
2
2
2 1
1
x x
x
+ +

=
) 1 )( 1 (
) 1 (
2
+
+
x x
x
=
1
1

+
x
x
c) Vi x = 2 & x = -1
Vi x = -1 phn thc khng x nn bn tr
li sai.Vi x = 2 ta c:
2 1
3
2 1
+

ng
Bi 53:
1 2 1 3 1 5 1
) ) ) )
2 1 4 1
x x x x
a b c d
x x x x
+ + + +
+ +
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV: Nhc li P
2
Thc hin php tnh vi cc biu thc hu t
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Xem li bi cha.
- n li ton b bi tp v chng II
- Tr li cc cu hi n tp
- Lm cc bi tp 57, 58, 59, 60 SGK
54, 55, 60 SBT
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 37 N TP HC K I
I- Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: H thng ho kin thc cho HS nm vng cc khi nim: Phn thc i s, hai
phn thc bng nhau, hai phn thc i nhau, phn thc nghch o, biu thc hu t.
- K nng: Vn dng cc qui tc ca 4 php tnh: Cng, tr, nhn, chia phn thc gii cc bi
ton mt cch hp l, ng quy tc php tnh ngn gn, d hiu.
- Gio dc tnh cn thn, t duy sng to
II. Chun b:
- GV: n tp chng II (Bng ph).
- HS: n tp + Bi tp ( Bng nhm).
Iii- Tin trnh bi dy:
A. T chc:
B. Kim tra: Lng vo n tp
C. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
*H1: Khi nim v phn thc i s v tnh
cht ca phn thc.
+ GV: Nu cu hi SGK HS tr li
1. nh ngha phn thc i s . Mt a thc c
phi l phn thc i s khng?
I. Khi nim v phn thc i s v tnh cht ca
phn thc.
- PTS l biu thc c dng
A
B
vi A, B l nhng
phn thc & B

a thc 0 (Mi a thc mi s thc


u c coi l 1 phn thc i s)
Trang 55
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
2. nh ngha 2 phn thc i s bng nhau.
3. Pht biu T/c c bn ca phn thc .
( Quy tc 1 c dng khi quy ng mu thc)
( Quy tc 2 c dng khi rt gn phn thc)
4. Nu quy tc rt gn phn thc.
5. Mun quy ng mu thc nhiu phn thc c
mu thc khc nhau ta lm nh th no?
- GV cho HS lm VD SGK
x
2
+ 2x + 1 = (x+1)
2
x
2
5 = 5(x
2
1)(x-1) = 5(x+1)(x-1)
MTC: 5(x+1)
2
(x-1)
Nhn t ph ca (x+1)
2
l 5(x-1)
Nhn t ph ca 5(x
2
-1) l (x-1)
*H2: Cc php ton trn tp hp cc phn
thc i s.
+ GV: Cho hc sinh ln lt tr li cc cu hi
6, 7, 8, 9 , 10, 11, 12 v cht li.
*H3: Thc hnh gii bi tp
Cha bi 57 ( SGK)
- GV hng dn phn a.
- HS lm theo yu cu ca gio vin
- 1 HS ln bng
- Di lp cng lm
- Tng t HS ln bng trnh by phn b.
* GV: Em no c cch trnh by bi ton dng
ny theo cch khc
+ Ta c th bin i tr thnh v tri hoc ngc
li
+ Hoc c th rt gn phn thc.
Cha bi 58:
- GV gi 3 HS ln bng thc hin php tnh.
- Hai PT bng nhau
A
B
=
C
D
nu AD = BC
- T/c c bn ca phn thc
+ Nu M

0 th
.
.
A AM
B B M

(1)
+ Nu N l nhn t chung th :
:
(2)
:
A A N
B B N

- Quy tc rt gn phn thc:


+ Phn tch t v mu thnh nhn t.
+ Chia c t v mu cho nhn t chung
- Mun quy ng mu thc nhiu phn thc
+ B
1
: PT cc mu thnh nhn t v tm MTC
+ B
2
: Tm nhn t ph ca tng mu thc
+ B
3
: Nhn c t v mu ca mi phn thc vi nhn
t ph tng ng.
* V d: Quy ng mu thc 2 phn thc
2
2 1
x
x x + +
v
2
3
5 5 x
Ta c:
2 2
( 1)5
2 1 5( 1) ( 1)
x x x
x x x x

+ + +
;
2 2
3 3( 1)
5 5 5( 1) ( 1)
x
x x x
+

+
II. Cc php ton trn tp hp cc PTi s.
* Php cng:+ Cng mu :
A B A B
M M M
+
+
+ Khc mu: Quy ng mu ri thc hin cng
* Php tr:+ Phn thc i ca
A
B
k hiu l
A
B

A
B

=
A A
B B

* Quy tc php tr:


( )
A C A C
B D B D
+
* Php nhn:
: . ( 0)
A C A D C
B D B C D

* Php chia
+ PT nghch o ca phn thc
A
B
khc 0 l
B
A
+
: . ( 0)
A C A D C
B D B C D

III. Thc hnh gii bi tp
1. Cha bi 57 ( SGK)
Chng t mi cp phn thc sau y bng nhau:
a)
3
2 3 x
v
2
3 6
2 6
x
x x
+
+
Ta c: 3(2x
2
+x 6) = 6x
2
+ 3x 18
(2x+3) (3x+6) = 6x
2
+ 3x 18
Vy: 3(2x
2
+x 6) = (2x+3) (3x+6)
Trang 56
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
b) B =
2
1 2 1
: 2
1
x
x
x x x x
_ _
+

+ +
, ,
Ta c:
2
2
1 2 1 ( 2) 2 1
1 ( 1) ( 1)
x x x x x
x x x x x x x
+ + _


+ + + +
,
2
( 1) x
x

=> B =
2
2
( 1) 1
.
( 1) ( 1) 1
x x
x x x x

+ +
1. Cha bi 60. Cho biu thc.

2
2
1 3 3 4 4
2 2 1 2 2 5
x x x
x x x
+ + _
+

+
,
a) Hy tm iu kin ca x gi tr biu
thc xc nh
Gii:
- Gi tr biu thc c xc nh khi no?
- Mun CM gi tr ca biu thc khng ph
thuc vo gi tr ca bin ta lm nh th no?
- HS ln bng thc hin.
2) Cha bi 59
- GV cng HS lm bi tp 59a.
- Tng t HS lm bi tp 59
3)Cha bi 61.
Biu thc c gi tr xc nh khi no?
- Mun tnh gi tr biu thc ti x= 20040 trc
ht ta lm nh th no?
Suy ra:
3
2 3 x
=
2
3 6
2 6
x
x x
+
+
b)
2
2 2
2 2 6
4 7 12
x x
x x x x
+

+ + +

2. Cha bi 58: Thc hin php tnh sau:
a)
2 2
2 1 2 1 4 (2 1) (2 1) 4
: :
2 1 2 1 10 5 (2 1)(2 1) 5(2 1)
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
+ + _


+ +
,
=
8 5(2 1) 10
.
(2 1)(2 1) 4 2 1
x x
x x x x

+ +
c)
3
2 2
1 2
.
1 1 ( 1) ( 1)
x x
x x x x

+ +
=
2 2
2 2 2
1 2 ( 1) 1
( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1) 1
x x x x
x x x x x
+

+ + +
Bi 60:
a) Gi tr biu thc c xc nh khi tt c cc mu
trong biu thc khc 0
2x 2 0 khi x 1
x
2
1 0

(x 1) (x+1) 0 khi x 1 t
2x + 2 0 Khi x 1 t
Vy vi x 1 & x 1 th gi tr biu thc c xc
nh
b)
1 3 3 4( 1)( 1)
.
2( 1) ( 1)( 1) 2( 1) 5
x x x x
x x x x
_ + +
+

+ +
,
=4
Bi 59
Cho biu thc:
xp yp
x p y p

+
Thay P =
. x y
x y

2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
: :
: :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x y xy
xp yp x y x y
xy xy
x p y p
x y
x y x y
x y xy xy xy
x y
x y x y x y x y
x y x xy y
x y x y x y x y
x y x y xy x y
x y
x y x x y y


+
+

_ _
+


, ,




+

Bi 61.
2
2 2 2
5 2 5 2 100
.
10 10 4
x x x
x x x x x
+ _
+

+ +
,
iu kin xc nh: x t 10
Trang 57
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Mt HS rt gn biu thc.
- Mt HS tnh gi tr biu thc.
4) Bi tp 62.
- Mun tm gi tr ca x gi tr ca phn thc
bng 0 ta lm nh th no?
- Mt HS ln bng thc hin.
2
2 2 2
5 2 5 2 100
.
10 10 4
x x x
x x x x x
+ _
+

+ +
,
x x
x
x x
x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
10
4
100
.
) 100 (
) 4 ( 10
4
100
: )
) 100 (
) 10 )( 2 5 (
) 100 (
) 10 )( 2 5 (
(
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2

+
+

+ +
Ti x = 20040 th:
10 1
2004 x

Bi 62:

2
2
10 25
0
5
x x
x x
+

k x

0; x

5
x
2
10x +25 =0 ( x 5 )
2
= 0 x = 5
Vi x =5 gi tr ca phn thc khng xc nh. Vy
khng c gi tr ca x cho gi tr ca phn thc trn
bng 0.
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
- GV: cht li cc dng bi tp
- Khi gii cc bi ton bin i cng knh phc tp ta c th bin i tnh ton ring tng b phn
ca php tnh n kt qu gn nht, sau thc hin php tnh chung trn cc kt qu ca tng
b phn. Cch ny gip ta thc hin php tnh n gin hn, t mc sai lm.
E-BT - Hng dn v nh
- Xem li cc bi cha
- Tr li cc cu hi sgk
- Lm cc bi tp 61,62,63.
Ngy son: 18/12/2008
Ngy ging:
Tit 39 KIM TRA VIT HC K I
( Cng vi tit 31 hnh hc kim tra hai tit )
I. Mc tiu:
- Kin thc: Kim tra kin thc c bn ca chng trnh hc trong k I nh:Nhn, chia a thc
.Phn thc i s, tnh cht c bn , rt gn, QMT, cng phn thc i s.T gic, din tch a
gic.
- K nng: Vn dng KT hc tnh ton v trnh by li gii.
- Thi : GD cho HS thc c ng , tch cc, t gic, trung thc trong hc tp.
V. Thu bi Hng dn v nh:
Nhn xt thc lm bi ca HS
V nh lm li bi kim tra
Ngy son:
Ngy ging:
Tit 40: TR BI KIM TRA HC K I
I.Mc tiu:
Tr bi kim tra nhm gip HS thy c u im, tn ti trong bi lm ca mnh.
Gio vin cha bi tp cho HS.
II. Chun b:
- GV: bi, p n + thang im, bi tr cho HS.
Iii. Tin trnh bi dy
I. T chc:
II. Bi mi:
Trang 58
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
H1: Tr bi kim tra
Tr bi cho cc t trng chia cho tng bn trong
t.
H2: Nhn xt cha bi
+ GV nhn xt bi lm ca HS:
- bit lm cc bi tp t d n kh
- nm c cc kin thc c bn
Nhc im:
-K nng tm TX cha tt.
-Mt s em k nng tnh ton trnh by cn cha tt
* GV cha bi cho HS ( Phn i s )
1) Cha bi theo p n chm
2) Ly im vo s
* GV tuyn dng mt s em im cao, trnh by
sch p.
Nhc nh, ng vin mt s em c im cn cha
cao, trnh by cha t yu cu
H3: Hng dn v nh
-H thng ho ton b kin thc hc k I
-Xem trc chng III-SGK
3 t trng tr bi cho tng c nhn
Cc HS nhn bi c, kim tra li cc bi lm.
HS nghe GV nhc nh, nhn xt rt kinh nghim.
HS cha bi vo v
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 40 TR BI KIM TRA HC K I
I.Mc tiu :
Tr bi kim tra nhm gip HS thy c u im, tn ti trong bi lm ca mnh.
Gio vin cha bi tp cho HS.
II. Chun b:
- GV: bi, p n + thang im, bi tr cho HS.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
I. T chc:
II. Bi mi:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
H1: Tr bi kim tra
Tr bi cho cc t trng chia cho tng bn
trong t.
H2: Nhn xt cha bi
+ GV nhn xt bi lm ca HS:
- bit lm cc bi tp t d n kh
- nm c cc kin thc c bn
Nhc im:
-K nng tm TX cha tt.
-Mt s em k nng tnh ton trnh by cn
cha tt
* GV cha bi cho HS ( Phn i s )
1) Cha bi theo p n chm
Cc t trng tr bi cho tng c nhn
Cc HS nhn bi c, kim tra li cc bi lm.
Gio vin nh gi kt qu bi lm ca hc sinh
HS nghe GV nhc nh, nhn xt rt kinh nghim.
HS cha bi vo v
Trang 59
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
2) Ly im vo s
* GV tuyn dng mt s em im cao,
trnh by sch p.
Nhc nh, ng vin mt s em c im cn
cha cao, trnh by cha t yu cu
H3: Hng dn v nh
-H thng ho ton b kin thc hc k
I
-Xem trc chng III-SGK
Nhc nh hc sinh iu chnh phng php hc tp
trong hc k II
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
CHNG III:
Tit : 41 PHNG TRNH BC NHT C MT N
M U V PHNG TRNH
I. Mc tiu bi ging :
- Kin thc: - HS hiu khi nim phng trnh v thut ng " V tri, v phi, nghim ca phng
trnh , tp hp nghim ca phng trnh. Hiu v bit cch s dng cc thut ng cn thit khc
din t bi gii phng trnh sau ny.
+ Hiu c khi nim gii phng trnh, bc u lm quen v bit cch s dng qui tc chuyn
v v qui tc nhn
- K nng: trnh by bin i.
- Thi : T duy l gc
II. Chun b:
- GV: Bng ph ;
- HS: Bng nhm
III. Tin trnh bi dy:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
Hot ng 1: t vn v gii thiu ni dung chng ( 5

)
-GV gii thiu qua ni dung ca chng:
+ Khi nim chung v PT .
+ PT bc nht 1 n v 1 s dng PT khc .
+ Gii bi ton bng cch lp PT
HS nghe GV trnh by , m phn mc lc
SGK/134 theo di .
Hot ng 2 : Phng trnh mt n ( 16

)
GV vit BT tm x bit 2x + 5 = 3(x-1)+2 sau
gii thiu: H thc 2x +5=3(x-1) + 2
l mt phng trinh vi n s x.
V tri ca phng trnh l 2x+5
V phi ca phng trnh l 3(x-1)+2
- GV: hai v ca phng trnh c cng bin x
l PT mt n .
- Em hiu phng trnh n x l g?
- GV: cht li dng TQ .
- GV: Cho HS lm ?1 cho v d v:
a) Phng trnh n y
b) Phng trnh n u
HS nghe GV trnh by v ghi bi .
* Phng trnh n x c dng: A(x) = B(x)
Trong : A(x) v tri
B(x) v phi
+ HS cho VD
Trang 60
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- GV cho HS lm ?2
Ta ni x=6 tha mn PT ,gi x=6 l nghim
ca PT cho .
- GV cho HS lm ?3
Cho phng trnh: 2(x + 2) - 7 = 3 -x
a) x = - 2 c tho mn phng trnh khng?
+ HS tnh khi x=6 gi tr 2 v ca PT bng nhau
.
HS lm ?3
ti sao?
b) x = 2 c l nghim ca phng trnh khng?
ti sao?
* GV: Tr li bi tp ca bn lm
x
2
= 1

x
2
= ( t 1)
2

x = 1; x =-1
Vy x
2
= 1 c 2 nghim l: 1 v -1
-GV: Nu ta c phng trnh x
2
= - 1 kt qu
ny ng hay sai?
-Vy x
2
= - 1 v nghim.
+ T em c nhn xt g v s nghim ca cc
phng trnh?
- GV nu ni dung ch
Phng trnh: 2(x + 2) - 7 = 3 - x
a) x = - 2 khng tho mn phng trnh
b) x = 2 l nghim ca phng trnh.
Sai v khng c s no bnh phng ln l 1 s
m.
* Ch :
- H thc x = m ( vi m l 1 s no ) cng l
1 phng trnh v phng trnh ny ch r rng
m l nghim duy nht ca n.
- Mt phng trnh c th c 1 nghim. 2
nghim, 3 nghim nhng cng c th khng
c nghim no hoc v s nghim
Hot ng 3 : Gii phng trnh (8

)
- GV: Vic tm ra nghim ca PT( gi tr ca
n) gi l GPT(Tm ra tp hp nghim)
+ Tp hp tt c cc nghim ca 1 phng trnh
gi l tp nghim ca PT .K hiu: S
+GV cho HS lm ?4 .
Hy in vo trng
+Cch vit sau ng hay sai ?
a) PT x
2
=1 c S={ } 1
;b) x+2=2+x c S = R
2 HS ln bng lm ?4 .
a) PT : x =2 c tp nghim l S = { } 2
b) PT v nghim c tp nghim l S =
HS a) Sai v S ={ } 1;1
b) ng v mi x

R u tha mn PT
Hot ng 4 : Phng trnh tng ng(8

)
GV yu cu HS c SGK .
Nu : K hiu ch 2 PT tng ng.
GV ? PT x-2=0 v x=2 c T khng ?
Tng t x
2
=1 v x = 1 c T khng ?
+ Yu cu HS t ly VD v 2 PTT .
1HS c to .
HS ghi bi : x+1 = 0 x = -1
C v chng c cng tp nghim S = { } 2
Khng v chng khng cng tp nghim
{ } { }
1 2
1;1 ; 1 S S
Hot ng 5 : Luyn tp (6

)
Bi 1/SGK ( Gi HS lm ) Lu vi mi PT
tnh KQ tng v ri so snh .
Bi 5/SGK : Gi HS tr li
HS :
KQ x =-1l nghim ca PT a) v c)
HS tr li ming : 2PT khng tng ng v
chng khng cng tp hp nghim .
Hot ng 6 : E-BT - Hng dn v nh (2

)
+ Nm vng k/n PT 1n , nghim ,tp hp nghim , 2PTT .
+ Lm BT : 2 ;3 ;4/SGK ; 1 ;2 ;6 ;7/SBT. c : C th em cha bit
+ n quy tc chuyn v .
Trang 61
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit 42 PHNG TRNH BC NHT MT N
V CCH GII
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS hiu khi nim phng trnh bc nht 1 n s
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc chuyn v v qui tc nhn
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii phng trnh bc nht 1 n s
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Chun b:
- GV:Bng ph .
- HS: Bng nhm , 2 tnh cht v ng thc
III. Tin trnh bi dy :
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
Hot ng 1: Kim tra(7

)
1)Cha BT 2/SGK
2) Th no l 2PTT ? Cho VD ?
? 2PT : x-2 = 0 v x(x-2) = 0 c tng ng vi
nhau khng ?
GV nhn xt cho im .
HS1: t = 0 ; t = -1 l nghim .
HS2 :Nu /n , cho VD .
Khng T v x = 0 l nghim ca PT
x(x-2) = 0 nhng khng l nghim ca PT x-2
= 0
Hot ng 2 : nh ngha phng trnh bc nht mt n (8

)
GV gii thiu /n nh SGK
a cc VD : 2x-1=0 ; 5-
1
4
x=0 ; -2+y=0 ;
3-5y=0. Y/c HS xc nh h s a,b ?
Y/c HS lm BT 7/SGK ?Cc PT cn li ti sao
khng l PTBN ?
1HS c li
HS tr li tng PT
HS tr li ming : PT a) ; c) ; d) l PTBN
Hot ng 3 : Hai quy tc bin i phng trnh (10

)
GV a BT : Tm x bit : 2x-6=0
Yu cu HS lm .
Ta tm x t 1 ng thc s .Trong qu trnh thc
hin tm x ta thc hin nhng QT no ?
Nhc li QT chuyn v ?
Vi PT ta cng c th lm tng t .
a)Quy tc chuyn v :
- Yu cu HS c SGK
- Cho HS lm ?1
b)Quy tc nhn vi mt s :
HS : 2x-6=0
2x=6 x=6 :2=3
HS : Ta thc hin QT chuyn v , QT
chia .
HS nhc li QT chuyn v
HS c QT chuyn v
Lm ?1 a) x - 4 = 0

x = 4
b)
3
4
+ x = 0

x = -
3
4
c) 0,5 - x = 0

x = 0,5
- Yu cu HS c SGK
- Cho HS lm ?2
Cho HSH nhm
HS c to .
Lm ?2 a)
2
x
= -1

x = - 2
b) 0,1x = 1,5

x = 15
c) - 2,5x = 10

x = - 4
Hot ng 4 : - Cch gii phng trnh bc nht 1 n(10

)
GV nu phn tha nhn SGK/9.
Cho HS c 2 VD /SGK
HS nu t/c.
HS c 2 VD/SGK
Trang 62
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
GVHDHS gii PTTQ v nu PTBN ch c duy
nht 1 nghim x = -
b
a

HS lm ?3
HS lm theo s HD ca GV
ax+b = 0 ax=-b x = -
b
a
HS lm ?3
0,5 x + 2,4 = 0

- 0,5 x = -2,4

x = - 2,4 : (- 0,5)

x = 4,8
=> S={ } 4, 8
Hot ng 5 : D- Luyn tp - Cng c :
Bi tp 6/SGK :
C1: S =
1
2
[(7+x+4) + x] x = 20
C2: S =
1
2
.7x +
1
2
.4x + x
2
= 20
Bi tp 8/SGK :(H nhm )
GV kim tra 1 s nhm .
? Trong cc PT sau PT no l PT bc nht .
a) x-1=x+2 ; b) (x-1)(x-2)=0
c) ax+b=0 ; d) 2x+1=3x+5
HS lm bi theo s HD ca GV
KQ
a) { } { } { } { } 5 ; ) 4 ; ) 4 ; ) 1 S b S c S d S
HS :a) Khng l PTBN v PT0x=3
b) Khng l PTBN v PTx
2
-3x+2 =0
c) C l PTBN nu a

0 , b l hng s
d) L PTBN .
Hot ng 6 :Hng dn v nh (3

)
Hc thuc nh ngha , s nghim ca PT bc nht
1 n , hai QT bin i phng trnh .
Lm bi tp : 9/SGK
10;13;14;15/SBT
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 43PHNG TRNH A C V
DNG ax + b = 0 (a

0)
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS hiu cch bin i phng trnh a v dng ax + b = 0
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc chuyn v v qui tc nhn gii cc phng trnh
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii phng trnh bc nht 1 n s
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. phng tin thc hin
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm
III. Tin trnh bi d
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra:
- HS1: Gii cc phng trnh sau
a) x - 5 = 3 - x
b) 7 - 3x = 9 - x
- HS2: Gii cc phng trnh sau:
c) x + 4 = 4(x - 2)
d)
5 3 5 2
2 3
x x

2- Ba mi:
- GV: t vn : Qua bi gii phng trnh ca
a) x - 5 = 3 - x

2x = 8

x = 4 ; S = {4}
b) 7 - 3x = 9 - x

3x = -2

x =
2
3

;
S =
2
3

c) x + 4 = 4(x - 2)

x + 4 = 4x - 8

3x = 12

x = 4

S = {4}
Trang 63
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
bn lm ta thy bn ch yu vn dng 2 qui
tc gii nhanh gn c phng trnh. Trong
qu trnh gii bn bin i cui cng cng
a c v dng
ax + b = 0. Bi ny ta s nghin cu k hn
* H1: Cch gii phng trnh
1, Cch gii phng trnh
- GV nu VD
2x - ( 3 - 5x ) = 4(x +3) (1)
- GV: hng dn: gii c phng trnh
bc 1 ta phi lm g ?
- p dng qui tc no?
- Thu gn v gii phng trnh?
- Ti sao li chuyn cc s hng cha n sang 1
v , cc s hng khng cha n sang 1 v . Ta
c li gii
- GV: Cht li phng php gii
* V d 2: Gii phng trnh
5 2
3
x
+ x = 1 +
5 3
2
x
- GV: Ta phi thc hin php bin i no
trc?
- Bc tip theo lm ntn mt mu?
- Thc hin chuyn v.
* Hy nu cc bc ch yu gii PT ?
- HS tr li cu hi
* H2: p dng
2) p dng
V d 3: Gii phng trnh
2
(3 1)( 2) 2 1 11
3 2 2
x x x + +

- GV cng HS lm VD 3.
- GV: cho HS lm ?2 theo nhm
x -
5 2
6
x +
=
7 3
4
x

x =
25
11
-GV: cho HS nhn xt, sa li
- GV cho HS lm VD4.
- Ngoi cch gii thng thng ra cn c cch
gii no khc?
- GV nu cch gii nh sgk.
- GV nu ni dung ch :SGK
* H3: Tng kt
D- Luyn tp - Cng c: - Nu cc bc gii
phng trnh bc nht
- Cha bi 10/12
a) Sai v chuyn v m khng i du
d)
5 3 5 2
2 3
x x

15 - 9x = 10x - 4

19 x = 19

x = 1

S = {1}
1- Cch gii phng trnh
* V d 1: Gii phng trnh:
2x - ( 3 - 5x ) = 4(x +3) (1)
Phng trnh (1)

2x -3 + 5x = 4x + 12

2x + 5x - 4x = 12 + 3

3x = 15

x = 5
vy S = {5}
* V d 2:
5 2
3
x
+ x = 1 +
5 3
2
x

2(5 2) 6 6 3(5 3 )
6 6
x x x + +

10x - 4 + 6x = 6 + 15 - 9x

10x + 6x + 9x = 6 + 15 + 4

25x = 25

x = 1 , vy S = {1}
+Thc hin cc php tnh b du ngoc hoc
qui ng mu kh mu
+Chuyn cc hng t c cha n v 1 v, cn cc
hng s sang v kia
+Gii phng trnh nhn c
2) p dng
V d 3: Gii phng trnh
2
(3 1)( 2) 2 1 11
3 2 2
x x x + +

2
2(3 1)( 2) 3(2 1) 11
6 2
x x x + +


x = 4
vy S = {4}
Cc nhm gii phng trnh np bi
V d 4:

1 1 1
2
2 3 6
x x x
+

x - 1 = 3

x = 4 . Vy S = {4}
V d5:
x + 1 = x - 1

x - x = -1 - 1

0x = -2 , PTv nghim
V d 6:
x + 1 = x + 1
Trang 64
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
b) Sai v chuyn v m khng i du
4- Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp 11, 12, 13 (sgk)
- n li phng php gii phng trnh .

x - x = 1 - 1

0x = 0
phng trnh nghim ng vi mi x.

Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 44LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS hiu cch bin i phng trnh a v dng ax + b = 0
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc chuyn v v qui tc nhn gii cc phng trnh
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii phng trnh - Rn luyn k nng gii phng trnh v cch
trnh by li gii.
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. phng tin thc hin:
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm
III. Tin trnh bi d
Hot ng caGV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra
- HS1: Trnh by bi tp 12 (b)/sgk
- HS2: Trnh by bi tp 13/sgk
- Gii phng trnh
x(x +2) = x( x + 3)

x
2
+ 2x = x
2
+ 3x

x
2
+ 2x - x
2
- 3x = 0

- x = 0

x = 0
2- Bi mi
* H1: T chc luyn tp
1) Cha bi 17 (f)
* HS ln bng trnh by

2) Cha bi 18a
- 1HS ln bng
3) Cha bi 14.
- Mun bit s no trong 3 s nghim ng
phng trnh no ta lm nh th no?
GV: i vi PT
x
= x c cn thay x = 1 ; x = 2 ;
x = -3 th nghim khng? (Khng v
x
= x

x 0

2 l nghim )
4) Cha bi 15
- Hy vit cc biu thc biu th:
+ Qung ng t i trong x gi
+ Qung ng xe my i t khi khi hnh n
khi gp t?
HS1:
10 3 6 8
1
12 9
x x + +
+

30 9 60 32
36 36
x x + +

30x + 9 = 60 + 32x

2x = - 51

x =
51
2

- HS 2: Sai v x = 0 l nghim ca phng trnh


1) Cha bi 17 (f)
(x-1)- (2x- 1)=9-x

x-1-2x + 1 = 9 - x

x - 2x + x = 9

0x = 9 .
Phng trnh v nghim S = {}
2) Cha bi 18a
2 1
3 2 6
x x x
x
+

2x - 6x - 3 = x - 6x

2x - 6x + 6x - x = 3

x = 3, S = {3}
3) Cha bi 14
- 1 l nghim ca phng trnh
6
1 x
= x + 4
2 l nghim ca phng trnh
x
= x
- 3 l nghim ca phng trnh
x
2
+ 5x + 6 = 0
4) Cha bi 15
Gii + Q t i trong x gi: 48x (km)
+ Qung ng xe my i t khi khi hnh n
khi gp t l: x + 1 (h)
+ Qung ng xe my i trong x + 1 (h)
l: 32(x + 1) km
Trang 65
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Ta c phng trnh no?
5) Cha bi 19(a)
- HS lm vic theo nhm
- Cc nhm tho lun theo gi ca gv
- Cc nhm nhn xt cho nhau
6) Cha bi 20
- GV hng dn HS gi s ngh ra l x
( x

N) , kt qu cui cng l A.
- Vy A= ?
- x v A c quan h vi nhau nh th no?
* H2: Tng kt
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
a) Tm iu kin ca x gi tr phng trnh:
3 2
2( 1) 3(2 1)
x
x x
+
+
xc nh c
- Gi tr ca phng trnh c xc nh c khi
no?
b) Tm gi tr ca k sao cho phng trnh :
(2x +1)(9x + 2k) - 5(x +2) = 40
c nghim x = 2
*Bi tp nng cao:
Gii phng trnh
1 2 3 4
5
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
x x x x x + + + +
+ + + +
4- Hng dn v nh:
- Xem li bi cha
- Lm bi tp phn cn li
Ta c phng trnh: 32(x + 1) = 48x

32x + 32 = 48x

48x - 32x = 32

16x = 32

x = 2
5) Cha bi 19(a)
- Chiu di hnh ch nht: x + x + 2 (m)
- Din tch hnh ch nht: 9 (x + x + 2) m
- Ta c phng trnh:
9( 2x + 2) = 144

18x + 18 = 144

18x = 144 - 18

18x = 126

x = 7
6) Cha bi 20
S ngh ra l x ( x

N)

A = {[(x + 5)2 - 10 ]3 + 66 }:6


A = (6x + 66) : 6 = x + 11

x = A - 11
Vy s c kt qu 18 l: x = 18 - 11 = 7
Gii
2(x- 1)- 3(2x + 1) 0

2x - 2 - 6x - 3 0

- 4x - 5 0

x
5
4

Vy vi x


5
4

phng trnh xc nh c
b) Tm gi tr ca k sao cho phng trnh :
(2x +1)(9x + 2k) - 5(x +2) = 40
c nghim x = 2
+ V x = 2 l nghim ca phng trnh nn ta
c:
(2.2 + 1)(9.2 + 2k) - 5(x +2) = 40

5(18 + 2k) - 20 = 40

90 + 10k-20=40

70 + 10 k = 40

10k = -30

k = -3

Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 45PHNG TRNH TCH
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS hiu cch bin i phng trnh tch dng A(x) B(x) C(x) = 0
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc gii cc phng trnh tch
- K nng: Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t gii phng trnh tch
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II.phng tin thc hin :
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm, c trc bi
III. Tin trnh bi d
Hot ng caGV Hot ng ca HS
* H 1: Kim tra bi c
1- Kim tra
Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
a) x
2
+ 5x
b) 2x(x
2
- 1) - (x
2
- 1)
a) x
2
+ 5x = x( x + 5)
b) 2x(x
2
- 1) - (x
2
- 1)= ( x
2
- 1) (2x - 1)
c) (x
2
- 1) + (x + 1)(x - 2)
Trang 66
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
c) (x
2
- 1) + (x + 1)(x - 2)
2- Bi mi
* H2: Gii thiu dng phng trnh tch v
cch gii
1) Phng trnh tch v cch gii
- GV: hy nhn dng cc phng trnh sau
a) x( x + 5) = 0
b) (2x - 1) (x +3)(x +9) = 0
c) ( x + 1)(x - 1)(x - 2) = 0
- GV: Em hy ly v d v PT tch?
- GV: cho HS tr li ti ch
? Trong mt tch nu c mt tha s bng 0
th tch bng 0 v ngc li nu tch
bng 0 th t nht mt trong cc tha s ca
tch bng 0
* V d 1
- GVhng dn HS lm VD1, VD2.
- Mun gii phng trnh c dng
A(x) B(x) = 0 ta lm nh th no?
- GV: gii phng trnh c dng A(x)
B(x) = 0 ta p dng
A(x) B(x) = 0

A(x) = 0 hoc B(x) = 0


* H3: p dng gii bi tp
2) p dng:
Gii phng trnh:
- GV hng dn HS .
- Trong VD ny ta gii cc phng
trnh qua cc bc nh th no?
+) Bc 1: a phng trnh v dng c
+) Bc 2: Gii phng trnh tch ri kt
lun.
- GV: Nu cch gii PT (2)
b) (x + 1)(x +4) = (2 - x)(2 + x) (2)

( x + 1)(x +4) - (2 - x)(2 + x) = 0

x
2
+ x + 4x + 4 - 2
2
+ x
2
= 0

2x
2
+ 5x = 0
Vy tp nghim ca PT l {
5
2

; 0 }
- GV cho HS lm ?3.
-GV cho HS hot ng nhm lm VD3.
- HS nu cch gii
+ B1 : Chuyn v
+ B2 : - Phn tch v tri thnh nhn t
- t nhn t chung
- a v phng trnh tch
+ B3 : Gii phng trnh tch.
- HS lm ?4.
= ( x + 1)(x - 1)(x - 2)
1) Phng trnh tch v cch gii
Nhng phng trnh m khi bin i 1 v ca
phng trnh l tch cc biu thc cn v kia bng
0. Ta gi l cc phng trnh tch
V d1:x( x + 5) = 0

x = 0 hoc x + 5 = 0

x = 0
x + 5 = 0

x = -5
Tp hp nghim ca phng trnh S = {0 ; - 5}
* V d 2: Gii phng trnh:
( 2x - 3)(x + 1) = 0

2x - 3 = 0
hoc x + 1 = 0

2x - 3 = 0

2x = 3

x = 1,5
x + 1 = 0

x = -1
Vy tp hp nghim ca phng trnh l:
S = {-1; 1,5 }
2) p dng:a) 2x(x - 3) + 5( x - 3) = 0 (1)
- GV: yu cu HS nu hng gii v cho nhn xt
la chn phng n
PT (1)

(x - 3)(2x + 5) = 0

x - 3 = 0

x = 3
2x + 5 = 0

2x = -5

x =
5
2

Vy tp nghim ca PT l {
5
2

; 3 }
HS lm :
(x - 1)(x
2
+ 3x - 2) - (x
3
- 1) = 0

(x - 1)(x
2
+ 3x - 2) - (x - 1)(x
2
+ x + 1) = 0

(x -
1)(x
2
+ 3x - 2- x
2
- x - 1) = 0

(x - 1)(2x - 3) = 0
Vy tp nghim ca PT l: {1 ;
3
2
}
V d 3:
2x
3
= x
2
+ 2x +1

2x
3
- x
2
- 2x + 1=0

2x ( x
2
1 ) - ( x
2
1 ) = 0

( x 1) ( x +1) (2x -1) = 0


Vy tp hp nghim ca phng trnh l
S = { -1; 1; 0,5 }
HS lm : (x
3
+ x
2
) + (x
2
+ x) = 0

(x
2
+ x)(x + 1) = 0

x(x+1)(x+1) = 0
Vy tp nghim ca PT l:{0 ; -1}
Trang 67
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
* H 4 : Tng kt
D- Luyn tp - Cng c:
+ Cha bi 21(c)
+ Cha bi 22 (b)
4- Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp: 21b,d ; 23,24 , 25
+ Cha bi 21(c)
(4x + 2) (x
2
+ 1) = 0
Tp nghim ca PT l:{
1
2

}
+ Cha bi 22 (c)
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 46LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu bi ging :
- Kin thc: - HS hiu cch bin i phng trnh tch dng A(x) B(x) C(x) = 0
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc gii cc phng trnh tch
+ Khc su pp gii pt tch
- K nng: Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t gii phng trnh tch
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. phng tin thc hin
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm, c trc bi
III. Tin trnh bi d
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra:
* H1: Kim tra bi c
HS1: Gii cc phng trnh sau:
a) x
3
- 3x
2
+ 3x - 1 = 0
b) x( 2x - 7 ) - 4x + 14 = 0
HS2: Cha bi tp chp v nh (a,b)
a) 3x
2
+ 2x - 1 = 0
b) x
2
- 6x + 17 = 0
HS3: Cha bi tp chp v nh (c,d)
c) 16x
2
- 8x + 5 = 0
d) (x - 2)( x + 3) = 50
* H2: T chc luyn tp
2- Bi mi
1) Cha bi 23 (a,d)
- HS ln bng di lp cng lm
2) Cha bi 24 (a,b,c)
- HS lm vic theo nhm.
Nhm trng bo co kt qu
3) Cha bi 26
GV hng dn tr chi
- GV chia lp thnh cc nhm, mi nhm
HS1:
a) x
3
- 3x
2
+ 3x - 1= 0

(x - 1)
3
= 0 ,S = {1}
b) x( 2x - 7 ) - 4x + 14 = 0 , S = {2 ,
7
2
}
HS 2:a) 3x
2
+ 2x - 1 = 0

3x
2
+ 3x - x - 1 = 0

(x + 1)(3x - 1) = 0

x = -1 hoc x =
1
3
b) x
2
- 6x + 17 = 0

x
2
- 6x + 9 + 8 = 0

( x - 3)
2
+ 8 = 0

PT v nghim
HS 3:c) 16x
2
- 8x + 5 = 0

(4x - 1)
2
+ 4 4
PT v nghim
d) (x - 2)( x + 3) = 50

x
2
+ x - 56 = 0

(x - 7)
(x+8) = 0

x = 7 ; x = - 8
1) Cha bi 23 (a,d)
a ) x(2x - 9) = 3x( x - 5)

2x
2
- 9x - 3x
2
+ 15 x = 0

6x - x
2
= 0

x(6 - x) = 0

x = 0 hoc 6 - x = 0

x = 6
Vy S = {0, 6}
d)
3
7
x - 1 =
1
7
x(3x - 7)

3x - 7 = x( 3x - 7)

(3x - 7 )(x - 1) = 0

x =
7
3
; x = 1 .Vy: S = {1;
7
3
}
2) Cha bi 24 (a,b,c)
a) ( x
2
- 2x + 1) - 4 = 0

(x - 1)
2
- 2
2
= 0

( x + 1)(x - 3) = 0
Trang 68
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
gm 4 HS. Mi nhm HS ngi theo hng
ngang.
- GV pht s 1 cho HS s 1 ca cc nhm
s 2 cho HS s 2 ca cc nhm,
HS s 4 chuyn gi tr tm c ca t cho
GV.
- Nhm no np kt qu ng u tin l
thng.
3- Cng c:
- GV: Nhc li phng php gii phng
trnh tch
- Nhn xt thc hin bi 26
4- Hng dn v nh
- Lm bi 25
- Lm cc bi tp cn li
* Gii phng trnh
a) (x +1)(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4) = 24
b) x
2
- 2x
2
= 400x + 9999
- Xem trc bi phng trnh cha n s
mu.

S {-1 ; 3}
b) x
2
- x = - 2x + 2

x
2
- x + 2x - 2 = 0

x(x - 1) + 2(x- 1) = 0

(x - 1)(x +2) = 0

S = {1 ; - 2}
c) 4x
2
+ 4x + 1 = x
2

(2x + 1)
2
- x
2
= 0

(3x + 1)(x + 1) = 0

S = {- 1; -
1
3
}
3) Cha bi 26
- s 1: x = 2
- s 2: y =
1
2
- s 3: z =
2
3
- s 4: t = 2
Vi z =
2
3
ta c phng trnh:
2
3
(t
2
- 1) =
1
3
( t
2
+ t)

2(t+ 1)(t - 1) = t(t + 1)

(t +1)( t + 2) = 0
V t > 0 (gt) nn t = - 1 ( loi)
Vy S = {2}
HS ghi BTVN
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 47PHNG TRNH CHA N MU
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS hiu cch bin i v nhn dng c phng trnh c chn mu
+ Hiu c v bit cch tm iu kin xc nh c phng trnh .
+ Hnh thnh cc bc gii mt phng trnh cha n mu
- K nng: gii phng trnh cha n mu.
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. phng tin thc hin
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm, c trc bi
III Tin trnh bi d
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra:
Hy phn loi cc phng trnh:
a) x - 2 = 3x + 1 ; b)
2
x
- 5 = x + 0,4
c) x +
1
1
1 1
x
x x
+

; d)
4
1 1
x x
x x
+

+
e)
2
2( 3) 2 2 ( 1)( 3)
x x x
x x x x
+
+ +
* H1: gii thiu bi mi
2- Bi mi
+ Phng trnh a, b c cng mt loi
+ Phng trnh c, d, e c cng mt loi v
c cha n s mu
Trang 69
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
* H2: V d m u
1) V d m u
-GV yu cu HS GPT bng phng php quen
thuc.
-HS tr li ?1:
Gi tr x = 1 c phi l nghim ca PT hay khng?
V sao?
* Ch : Khi bin i PT m lm mt mu cha n
ca PT th PT nhn c c th khng tng ng
vi phng trnh ban u.
* x

1 chnh l KX ca PT(1) trn. Vy khi


GPT c cha n s mu ta phi ch n yu t
c bit l KX ca PT .
* H3: Tm hiu KX ca PT
- GV: PT cha n s mu, cc ga tr ca n m ti
t nht mt mu thc trong PT nhn gi tr bng 0,
chc chn khng l nghim ca phng trnh c
2) Tm iu kin xc nh ca mt PT.
? x = 2 c l nghim ca PT
2 1
1
2
x
x
+

khng?
+) x = 1 v x = 2 c l nghim ca phng trnh
2 1
1
1 2 x x
+
+
khng?
- GV: Theo em nu PT
2 1
1
2
x
x
+

c nghim hoc PT
2 1
1
1 2 x x
+
+
c nghim th phi tho mn iu
kin g?
- GV gii thiu iu kin ca n tt c cc mu
trong PT u khc 0 gi l KX ca PT.
* H3: Phng php gii phng trnh cha n s
mu
3) Gii phng trnh cha n s mu
- GV nu VD.
- iu kin xc nh ca phng trnh l g?
- Quy ng mu 2 v ca phng trnh.
- 1 HS gii phng trnh va tm c.
- GV: Qua v d trn hy nu cc bc khi gii 1
phng trnh cha n s mu?
3- Cng c:
- HS lm cc bi tp 27 a, b: Gii phng trnh:
1) V d m u
Gii phng trnh sau:
x +
1
1
1 1
x
x x
+

(1)
x +
1
1 1
x
x x


= 1

x = 1
Gi tr x = 1 khng phi l nghim ca
phng trnh v khi thay x = 1 vo
phng trnh th v tri ca phng trnh
khng xc nh
2) Tm iu kin xc nh ca mt
phng trnh.
- HS ng ti ch tr li bi tp
* V d 1: Tm iu kin xc nh ca
mi phng trnh sau:
a)
2 1
1
2
x
x
+

; b)
2 1
1
1 2 x x
+
+
Gii
a) KX ca phng trnh l x

2
b) KX ca PT l x -2 v x 1
3) Gii PT cha n s mu
* V d: Gii phng trnh
2 2 3
2( 2)
x x
x x
+ +

(2)
- KX ca PT l: x

0 ; x

2.
(2)

2( 2)( 2) (2 3)
2 ( 2) 2 ( 2)
x x x x
x x x x
+ +

2(x+2)(x- 2) = x(2x + 3)

2x
2
- 8 = 2x
2
+ 3x

3x = -8

x = -
8
3
. Ta thy x = -
8
3

tho mn vi KX ca phng trnh.
Vy tp nghim ca PTl: S = {-
8
3
}
* Cch gii phng trnh cha n s
mu: ( SGK)
Trang 70
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
a)
2 5
5
x
x

+
= 3 (3) b)
2
6 3
2
x
x
x

+
4- Hng dn v nh:
- Lm cc bi tp 27 cn li v 28/22 sgk
Bi tp 27 a)
2 5
5
x
x

+
= 3
- KX ca phng trnh:x -5.
Vy nghim ca PT l: S = {- 20}
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 48PHNG TRNH CHA N MU (tip)
I. Mc tiu bi ging :
- Kin thc: - HS hiu cch bin i v nhn dng c phng trnh c cha n mu
+ Nm chc cc bc gii mt phng trnh cha n mu
- K nng: gii phng trnh cha n mu. K nng trnh by bi gai, hiu c ngha tng
bc gii. Cng c qui ng mu thc nhiu phn thc
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Chun b ca gio vin v hc sinh.
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm, nm chc cc bc gii mt phng trnh cha n mu
III. Tin trnh bi d
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra:
1) Nu cc bc gii mt PT cha n mu
* p dng: gii PT sau:
3 2 1
2 2
x
x
x x



2) Tm iu kin xc nh ca phng trnh c ngha ta
lm vic g ?
p dng: Gii phng trnh:
4
1 1
x x
x x
+

+

2- Bi mi
- GV: xem xt phng trnh cha n mu khi no
c nghim, khi no v nghim bi ny s nghin cu
tip.
* H1: p dng cch GPT vo bi tp
4) p dng
+) Hy nhn dng PT(1) v nu cch gii
+ Tm KX ca phng trnh
+ Quy ng mu hai v v kh mu
+ Gii phng trnh
- GV: T phng trnh x(x+1) + x(x - 3) = 4x
- GV: C cch no gii khc cch ca bn trong bi
kim tra khng?
- C th chuyn v ri mi quy ng
+) GV cho HS lm ?3.
+)Lm bi tp 27 c, d
Gii cc phng trnh
c)
2
( 2 ) (3 6)
0
3
x x x
x
+ +

(1)
- HS ln bng trnh by
- HS1: Tr li v p dng gii phng trnh
+KX : x 2
+ x = 2

TX => PT v nghim
- HS2: KX : x t 1
+ x = 1

TX => PT v nghim
4) p dng
+) Gii phng trnh
2
2( 3) 2 2 ( 1)( 3)
x x x
x x x x
+
+ +
(1)
KX : x 3; x -1
(1) x(x+1) + x(x - 3) = 4x

x
2
+ x + x
2
- 3x - 4x = 0

2x( x - 3) = 0

x = 0
x = 3( Khng tho mn KX:loi)
Vy tp nghim ca PT l: S = {0}
HS lm ?3
Bi tp 27 c, d
2
( 2 ) (3 6)
0
3
x x x
x
+ +

(1) KX: x 3
Suy ra: (x
2
+ 2x) - ( 3x + 6) = 0

x(x + 2) - 3(x + 2) = 0
Trang 71
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- GV: cho HS nhn xt
+ Quy ng lm mt mu lun
d)
5
3 2 x +
= 2x 1
- GV gi HS ln bng.
- HS nhn xt, GV sa li cho chnh xc.
* H2: Tng kt
3- Cng c:
Gii phng trnh

2 3 3 2
2 3 2 1
x x
x x
+

+
(1) Bn H lm nh sau:

(2- 3x)( 2x + 1) = ( 3x + 2)( - 2x - 3)

- 6x
2
+ x + 2 = - 6x
2
- 13x - 6

14x = - 8

x = -
4
7
Vy nghim ca phng trnh l: S = {-
4
7
}
Nhn xt li gii ca bn H?
4- Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp: 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, sgk
1) Tm x sao cho gi tr biu thc:

2
2
2 3 2
4
x x
x

= 2
2)Tm x sao cho gi tr 2 biu thc:
6 1 2 5
&
3 2 3
x x
x x
+
+
bng nhau?

(x + 2)( x - 3) = 0

x = 3
( Khng tho mn KX: loi)
hoc x = - 2
Vy nghim ca phng trnh S = {-2}
d)
5
3 2 x +
= 2x - 1 KX: x -
2
3
Suy ra: 5 = ( 2x - 1)( 3x + 2)

6x
2
+ x - 7 = 0

( 6x
2
- 6x ) + ( 7x - 7) =
0

6x ( x -1)+7( x - 1) = 0

( x- 1 )( 6x + 7)
= 0

x = 1 hoc x =
7
6

tho mn KX
Vy nghim ca PT l : S = {1 ;
7
6

}
Bi 36 ( sbt )
- Bn H lm :
+ p s ng
+ Nghim ng
+ Thiu iu kin X
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 49LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu bi ging :
- Kin thc: - HS hiu cch bin i v nhn dng c phng trnh c cha n mu
+ Nm chc cc bc gii mt phng trnh cha n mu
- K nng: gii phng trnh cha n mu. K nng trnh by bi gai, hiu c ngha tng
bc gii. Cng c qui ng mu thc nhiu phn thc
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II.phng tin thc hin.
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm, bi tp v nh.
- Nm chc cc bc gii mt phng trnh cha n mu
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra: 15 pht (cui gi)
2- Bi mi: ( T chc luyn tp)
* H1: T chc luyn tp
1) Cha bi 28 (c)
- HS ln bng trnh by
Bi 28 (c)
Gii phng trnh
x +
2
2
1 1
x
x x
+

3 4
2 2
1 x x x
x x
+ +

KX: x 0
Trang 72
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012

- GV cho HS nhn xt, sa li cho chnh
xc.
2) Cha bi 28 (d)
- Tm KX
-QMT , gii phng trnh tm c.
- Kt lun nghim ca phng trnh.
3) Cha bi 29
GV cho HS tr li ming bi tp 29.
4) Cha bi 31(b)
-HS tm KX
-QMT cc phn thc trong phng trnh.
-Gii phng trnh tm c
5)Cha bi 32 (a)
- HS ln bng trnh by
- HS gii thch du

m khng dng du

* H2: Kim tra 15 pht


6)Kim tra 15 pht
- HS lm bi kim tra 15 pht.
1: (chn)
Cu1: ( 4 im)
Cc khng nh sau ng hay sai? v sao?
a) PT:
2
4 8 (4 2 )
0
1
x x
x
+

+
.C nghim l x =
2
b)PT:
2
( 3)
0
x x
x

.C tp nghim lS={0;3}
Cu2: ( 6 im )
Gii phng trnh :
( ) ( )
2 3
2 1 2 1
2 2 3
1 1 1
x x
x
x x x x
+
+
+
+ +
Suy ra: x
3
+ x = x
4
+ 1

x
4
- x
3
- x + 1 = 0

(x - 1)( x
3
- 1) = 0

(x - 1)
2
(x
2
+ x +1) = 0

(x - 1)
2
= 0

x = 1
(x
2
+ x +1) = 0 m (x +
1
2
)
2
+
3
4
> 0
=> x = 1 tho mn PT . Vy S = {1}
Bi 28 (d) :
Gii phng trnh :
3 2
1
x x
x x
+
+
+
= 2 (1)
KX: x 0 ; x -1
(1) x(x+3) + ( x - 2)( x + 1) = 2x (x + 1)

x
2
+ 3x + x
2
- x - 2 - 2x
2
- 2x = 0

0x - 2 = 0 => phng trnh v nghim


Bi 29: C 2 li gii ca Sn & H u sai v cc
bn khng ch n KX ca PT l
x 5.V kt lun x=5 l sai m S ={

}.
hay phng trnh v nghim.
Bi 31b: Gii phng trnh .

3 2 1
( 1)( 2) ( 3)( 1) ( 2)( 3) x x x x x x
+
+
KX: x

1, x

2 ; x

-1; x

3
suy ra: 3(x-3)+2(x-2)= x-1

4x =12

x=3 khng tho mn KX.

PT VN
Bi 32 (a)
Gii phng trnh:
1 1
2 2
x x
_
+ +

,
(x
2
+1) KX: x

1
2
x
_
+

,
-
1
2
x
_
+

,
(x
2
+1) = 0
1
2
x
_
+

,
x
2
= 0
=>x=
2
1
l nghim ca PT
* p n v thang im
Cu1: ( 4 im)
- Mi phn 2 im
1:
a) ng v: x
2
+ 1 > 0 vi mi x
Nn 4x - 8 + 4 - 2x = 0

x = 2
b) Sai v KX: x

0 m tp nghim lS={0;3}
khng tho mn
Cu2: ( 6 im )

(2x
2
+ 2x + 2) + ( 2x
2
+ 3x - 2x - 3 ) = 4x
2
- 1

3x = 0

x = 0 tho mn KX.
Vy S = {0}
2:
Cu1: ( 4 im)
Trang 73
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
2:(l)
Cu1: ( 4 im)
Cc khng nh sau ng hay sai? v sao?
a) PT:
2
( 2)(2 1) 2
1
x x x
x x
+
+
= 0 C tp
nghim l S = {- 2 ; 1}
b)PT:
2
2 1
1
x x
x
+ +
+
= 0 .C tp nghim l
S ={- 1}
Cu2: ( 6 im )
Gii phng trnh :
2
3 2
1 2 5 4
1 1 1
x
x x x x

+
+ +
3- Cng c v Hng dn v nh:
a) ng v: x
2
- x + 1 > 0 vi mi x
nn 2(x - 1)(x + 2) = 0

S = {- 2 ; 1}
b) Sai v KX: x

-1 m tp nghim l S ={-
1 }
khng tho mn.
Cu2: ( 6 im )
KX: x

x
2
+ x + 1 + 2x
2
- 5 = 4(x - 1)

3x
2
- 3x = 0

3x(x - 1) = 0

x = 0
hoc x = 1 (loi) khng tho mn
Vy S = { 0 }
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 50GII BI TON BNG CCH LP
PHNG TRNH
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS hiu cch chn n s v t iu kin thch hp cho n
- Bit cch biu din mt i lng cha bit thng qua biu thc cha n. T hnh thnh cc bc
gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh.
- K nng: - Vn dng gai mt s bi ton bc nht
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. phng tin thc hin
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: Bng nhm . Nm chc cc bc gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra: Lng vo bi mi
2- Bi mi
* H1: Gii thiu bi mi
GV: Cho HS c BT c " Va g va ch"
- GV: tiu hc ta bit cch gii bi ton c
ny bng phng php gi thit tm liu ta c
cch khc gii bi ton ny khng? Tit ny
ta s nghin cu.
* H2: Biu din mt i lng bi biu thc
cha n
1)Biu din mt i lng bi biu thc cha
n
- GV cho HS lm VD1
- HS tr li cc cu hi:
- Qung ng m t i c trong 5 h l?
- Qung ng m t i c trong 10 h l?
- Thi gian t i c qung ng 100
1) Biu din mt i lng bi biu thc cha
n
* V d 1:
Gi x km/h l vn tc ca t khi :
- Qung ng m t i c trong 5 h l 5x
(km)
- Qung ng m t i c trong 10 h l
10x (km)
- Thi gian t i c qung ng 100
Trang 74
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
km l ?
* V d 2:
Mu s ca phn s ln hn t s ca n l 3
n v. Nu gi x ( x

z , x 0) l mu s th
t s l ?
- HS lm bi tp ?1 v ?2 theo nhm.
- GV gi i din cc nhm tr li.
* H3: V d v gii bi ton bng cch lp
phng trnh
- GV: cho HS lm li bi ton c hoc tm tt
bi ton sau nu (gt) , (kl) bi ton
- GV: hng dn HS lm theo tng bc sau:
+ Gi x ( x

z , 0 < x < 36) l s g


Hy biu din theo x:
- S ch
- S chn g
- S chn ch
+ Dng (gt) tng chn g v ch l 100 thit
lp phng trnh
- GV: Qua vic gii bi ton trn em hy nu
cch gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh?
3- Cng c:
- GV: Cho HS lm bi tp ?3
4- Hng dn v nh
- HS lm cc bi tp: 34, 35, 36 sgk/25,26
- Nghin cu tip cch gii bi ton bng cch
lp phng trnh.
km l
100
x
(h)
* V d 2:
Mu s ca phn s ln hn t s ca n l 3
n v. Nu gi x ( x

z , x 0) l mu s th
t s l x 3.
?1 a) Qung ng Tin chy c trong x
pht nu vn tc TB l 180 m/ pht l: 180.x
(m)
b) Vn tc TB ca Tin tnh theo ( km/h) nu
trong x pht Tin chy c Q l 4500 m l:
4, 5.60
x
( km/h) 15 x 20
?2 Gi x l s t nhin c 2 ch s, biu thc
biu th STN c c bng cch:
a) Vit thm ch s 5 vo bn tri s x l:
500+x
b)Vit thm ch s 5 vo bn phi s x l:
10x + 5
2) V d v gii bi ton bng cch lp
phng trnh
Gi x ( x

z , 0 < x < 36) l s g


Do tng s g l 36 con nn s ch l:
36 - x ( con)
S chn g l: 2x
S chn ch l: 4( 36 - x)
Tng s chn g v chn ch l 100 nn ta c
phng trnh: 2x + 4(36 - x) = 100

2x + 144 - 4x = 100

2x = 44

x = 22
tho mn iu kin ca n .
Vy s g l 22 v s ch l 14
Cch gii bi ton bng cch lp phng
trnh?
B1: Lp phng trnh
- Chn n s, t iu kin thch hp cho n
s
- Biu din cc i lng cha bit theo n v
cc i lng bit.
- Lp phng trnh biu th mi quan h gia
cc i lng
B2: Gii phng trnh
B3: Tr li, kim tra xem cc nghim ca
phng trnh , nghim no tho mn iu kin
ca n, nghim no khng ri kt lun
+ HS lm ?3
Trang 75
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Ghi BTVN
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 51GII BI TON BNG CCH LP
PHNG TRNH (tip)
I. Mc tiu bi ging :
- Kin thc: - HS hiu cch chn n s v t iu kin thch hp cho n
- Bit cch biu din mt i lng cha bit thng qua biu thc cha n. T hnh thnh cc bc
gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh.
- K nng: - Vn dng gai mt s bi ton bc nht
- Rn k nng trnh by, lp lun cht ch.
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II.phng tin thc hin:
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm, c trc bi
- Nm chc cc bc gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh
III.Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra:
Nu cc bc gii bi ton bng cch LPT ?
2- Bi mi:
* H1: Phn tch bi ton
1) V d:
- GV cho HS nu (gt) v (kl) ca bi ton
- Nu cc L bit v cha bit ca bi ton
- Biu din cc L cha bit trong BT vo bng sau:
HS tho ln nhm v in vo bng ph.
Vn tc
(km/h)
Thi gian
i (h)
Q i (km)
Xe my 35 x
35.x
t 45 x-
2
5
45 - (x-
2
5
)
- GV: Cho HS cc nhm nhn xt v hi: Ti sao phi
i 24 pht ra gi?
- GV: Lu HS trong khi gii bi ton bng cch lp
PT c nhng iu khng ghi trong gt nhng ta phi
suy lun mi c th biu din cc i lng cha bit
hoc thit lp c PT.
GV:Vi bng lp nh trn theo bi ra ta c PT no?
- GV trnh by li gii mu.
- HS gii phng trnh va tm c v tr li bi
ton.
- GV cho HS lm ?4 .
- GV t cu hi HS in vo bng nh sau:
V(km/h) S(km) t(h)
V d:
- Go x (km/h) l vn tc ca xe my
( x >
2
5
)
- Trong thi gian xe my i c qung
ng l 35x (km).
- V t xut pht sau xe my 24 pht =
2
5
gi nn t i trong thi gian l: x -
2
5
(h) v
i c qung ng l: 45 - (x-
2
5
) (km)
Ta c phng trnh:
35x + 45 . (x-
2
5
) = 90

80x = 108

x=
108 27
80 20

Ph hp K bi
Vy TG 2 xe gp nhau l
27
20
(h)
Hay 1h 21 pht k t lc xe my i.
- Gi s ( km ) l qung ng t H Ni n
im gp nhau ca 2 xe.
-Thi gian xe my i l:
35
S
-Qung ng t i l 90 - s
Trang 76
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Xe
my
35 S
35
S
t
45
90 - S 90
45
S
-Cn c vo u LPT? PT nh th no?
-HS ng ti ch trnh by li gii bi ton.
- HS nhn xt 2 cch chn n s
* H2: HS t gii bi tp
2) Cha bi 37/sgk
- GV: Cho HS c yu cu bi ri in cc s liu
vo bng .
- GV chia lp thnh 2 nhm, yu cu cc nhm lp
phng trnh.
Vn tc
(km/h)
TG i (h) Q i
(km)
Xe my
x
3
1
2
3
1
2
x
t x+20
2
1
2
(x + 20) 2
1
2
- GV: Cho HS in vo bng
Vn tc
(km/h)
TG i
(h)
Q i (km)
Xe my
2
7
x
3
1
2 x
t
2
5
x 2
1
2
x
* H3: Tng kt
3- Cng c: GV cht li phng php chn n
- t iu kin cho n , nhc li cc bc gii bi
ton bng cch lp phng trnh.
4- Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp 38, 39 /sgk
-Thi gian t i l
90
45
S
Ta c phng trnh:

90 2
35 45 5
S S

S = 47,25 km
Thi gian xe my i l: 47,25 : 35 = 1, 35 .
Hay 1 h 21 pht.
Bi 37/sgk
Gi x ( km/h) l vn tc ca xe my ( x > 0)
Thi gian ca xe my i ht qung ng
AB l:
1
9
2
- 6 = 3
1
2
(h)
Thi gian ca t i ht qung ng AB
l:
1
9
2
- 7 = 2
1
2
(h)
Vn tc ca t l: x + 20 ( km/h)
Qung ng ca xe my i l: 3
1
2
x ( km)
Qung ng ca t i l:
(x + 20) 2
1
2
(km)
Ta c phng trnh:
(x + 20) 2
1
2
= 3
1
2
x

x = 50 tho mn
Vy vn tc ca xe my l: 50 km/h
V qung ng AB l:
50. 3
1
2
= 175 km
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS tip tc rn luyn k nng gii bi ton bng cch gii phng trnh
- Bit cch biu din mt i lng cha bit thng qua biu thc cha n. T hnh thnh cc bc
gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh.
- K nng: - Vn dng gai mt s bi ton bc nht. Bit chn n s thch hp
- Rn k nng trnh by, lp lun cht ch.
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II.phng tin thc hin :
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm - Nm chc cc bc gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh
III.Tin trnh bi dy
Trang
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 52LUYN TP
77
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra:
Lng vo luyn tp
* H1: t vn
Hm nay ta tip tc phn tch cc bi ton v
a ra li gii hon chnh cho cc bi ton gii
bi ton bng cch lp PT .
2- Bi mi:
* H2: Cha bi tp
1) Cha bi 38/sgk
- GV: Yu cu HS phn tch bi ton trc khi
gii
+ Th no l im trung bnh ca t?
+ ngha ca tn s n = 10 ?
- Nhn xt bi lm ca bn?
- GV: Cht li li gii ngn gn nht
- HS cha nhanh vo v
2) Cha bi 39/sgk
HS tho lun nhm v in vo trng
S tin phi
tr cha c
VAT
Thu
VAT
Loi hng I
X
Loi hng II
- GV gii thch : Gi x (ng) l s tin Lan
phi tr khi mua loi hng I cha tnh VAT.th
s tin Lan phi tr cha tnh thu VAT l bao
nhiu?
- S tin Lan phi tr khi mua loi hng II l
bao nhiu?
- GV: Cho hs trao i nhm v i din trnh
by
3) Cha bi 40
- GV: Cho HS trao i nhm phn tch bi
ton v 1 HS ln bng
- Bi ton cho bit g?
- Chn n v t iu kin cho n?
- HS lp phng trnh.
- 1 HS gii phnh trnh tm x.
- HS tr li bi ton.
4) Cha bi 45
- GV: Cho HS lp bng mi quan h ca cc i
lng c nhiu cch gii khc nhau.
- c cc i lng no?
Vic chn n s no l ph hp
Bi 38/sgk
- Gi x l s bn t im 9 ( x

N
+
;
x < 10)
- S bn t im 5 l:10 -(1 +2+3+x)= 4- x
- Tng im ca 10 bn nhn c
4.1 + 5(4 - x) + 7.2 + 8.3 + 9.2
Ta c phng trnh:
4.1 3(4 ) 7.2 8.3 9.2
10
x + + + +
= 6,6

x = 1
Vy c 1 bn t im 9 v 3 bn t im 5
Bi 39/sgk
-Gi x (ng) l s tin Lan phi tr khi mua
loi hng I cha tnh VAT.
( 0 < x < 110000 )
Tng s tin l:
120000 - 10000 = 110000
S tin Lan phi tr khi mua loi hng II l:
110000 - x ()
- Tin thu VAT i vi loi I:10%.x
- Tin thu VAT i vi loi II : (110000, - x)
8%
Theo bi ta c phng trnh:
(110000 )8
10000
10 100
x x
+
x = 60000
Vy s tin mua loi hng I l: 60000
Vy s tin mua loi hng II l:
110000 - 60000 = 50000
Bi 40
Gi x l s tui ca Phng hin nay ( x

N
+
)
S tui hin ti ca m l: 3x
Mi ba nm na tui Phng l: x + 13
Mi ba nm na tui ca m l: 3x + 13
Theo bi ta c phng trnh:
3x + 13 = 2(x +13)

3x + 13 = 2x + 26

x = 13 TMK
Vy tui ca Phng hin nay l: 13
Bi 45 Cch1:
Gi x ( x

Z
+
) l s thm len m x nghip phi
dt theo hp ng.
S thm len thc hin c: x + 24 ( tm) .
Theo hp ng mi ngy x nghip dt c
20
x
(tm) .
Nh ci tin k thut nn mi ngy x nghip
dt c:
24
18
x +
( tm)
Trang 78
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
+ C1: chn s thm l x
+ C2: Chn mi ngy lm l x
-HS in cc s liu vo bng v trnh by li
gii bi ton.
S thm S ngy NS
Theo H x 20
TH 18
3- Cng c:
- GV: Nhc li phng php gii bi ton bng
cch lp phng trnh.
4- HDVN:
Lm cc bi: 42, 43, 48/31, 32 (SGK)
Ta c phng trnh:
24
18
x +
=
120
100
-
20
x

x = 300 TMK
Vy: S thm len dt c theo hp ng l
300 tm.
Cch 2: Gi (x) l s tm thm len dt c
mi ngy x nghip dt c theo d nh ( x


Z
+
)
S thm len mi ngy x nghip dt c nh
tng nng sut l:
x +
20 120
100 100
x x
x +
20
1, 2
100
x x
S thm len dt c theo d nh 20(x) tm.
S thm len dt c nh tng nng sut:
12x.18 tm
Ta c PT : 1,2x.18 - 20x = 24

x = 15
S thm len dt c theo d nh: 20.15 = 300
tm
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 53LUYN TP( tip)
I. Mc tiu bi ging :
- Kin thc: - HS tip tc rn luyn k nng gii bi ton bng cch gii phng trnh
- Bit cch biu din mt i lng cha bit thng qua biu thc cha n. T hnh thnh cc bc
gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh.
- K nng: - Vn dng gii mt s bi ton bc nht. Bit chn n s thch hp
- Rn k nng trnh by, lp lun cht ch.
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II phng tin thc hin :
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm - Nm chc cc bc gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra:Lng vo luyn tp
* H1: t vn
Hm nay ta tip tc phn tch cc bi ton v a ra
li gii hon chnh cho cc bi ton gii bi ton
bng cch lp phng trnh.
3- Bi mi:
* H2: Cha bi tp
1) Cha bi 41/sgk
- HS c bi ton
- GV: bi ton bt ta tm ci g?
- S c hai ch s gm nhng s hng nh th no?
- Hng chc v hng n v c lin quan g?
- Chn n s l g? t iu kin cho n.
- Khi thm 1 vo gia gi tr s thay i nh th
Bi 41/sgk
Chn x l ch s hng chc ca s ban u
( x

N; 1
x
4 )
Th ch s hng n v l : 2x
S ban u l: 10x + 2x
- Nu thm 1 xen gia 2 ch s y th s ban
u l: 100x + 10 + 2x
Ta c phng trnh:
100x + 10 + 2x = 10x + 2x + 370

102x + 10 = 12x + 370

90x = 360

x = 4

s hngn v l: 4.2 = 8
Vy s l 48
Bi 43/sgk
Trang 79
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
no?
HS lm cch 2 : Gi s cn tm l ab
( 0 a,b 9 ; a

N).Ta c: 1 a b - ab = 370

100a + 10 + b - ( 10a +b) = 370

90a +10 = 370

90a = 360

a = 4

b = 8
2) Cha bi 43/sgk
- GV: cho HS phn tch u bi ton
- Thm vo bn phi mu 1 ch s bng t c ngha
nh th no? chn n s v t iu kin cho n?
- GV: Cho HS gii v nhn xt KQ tm c?
Vy khng c phn s no c cc tnh cht cho.
3) Cha bi 46/sgk
- GV: cho HS phn tch u bi ton
Nu gi x l qung ng AB th thi gian d nh
i ht qung ng AB l bao nhiu?
- Lm th no lp c phng trnh?
- HS lp bng v in vo bng.
- GV: Hng dn lp bng
Q (km) TG ( gi) VT (km/h)
Trn AB x D nh
48
x
Trn AC
48 1
48
Trn CB
x - 48
48
54
x
48+6 = 54
4) Cha bi tp 48
- GV yu cu hc sinh lp bng
S dn nm
trc
T l
tng
S dn nm
nay
A x 1,1% 101,1
100
x
B 4triu-x 1,2% 101, 2
100
(4tr-x)
- Hc sinh tho lun nhm
- Lp phng trnh

3- Cng c
- GV hng dn li hc sinh phng php lp bng

tm mi quan h gia cc i lng


4- Hng dn v nh
- Hc sinh lm cc bi tp 50,51,52/ SGK
Gi x l t ( x

Z
+
; x

4)
Mu s ca phn s l: x - 4
Nu vit thm vo bn phi ca mu s 1 ch
s ng bng t s, th mu s mi l: 10(x -
4) + x.Phn s mi:
10( 4)
x
x x +
Ta c phng trnh:
10( 4)
x
x x +
=
1
5
Kt qu: x =
20
3
khng tho mn iu kin
bi t ra x

Z
+
Vy khng c p/s no c cc t/c cho.
Bi 46/sgk Ta c 10' =
48
x
(h)
- Gi x (Km) l qung ng AB (x>0)
- Thi gian i ht qung ng AB theo d
nh l
48
x
(h)
- Qung ng t i trong 1h l 48(km)
- Qung ng cn li t phi i x- 48(km)
- Vn tc ca t i qung ng cn li :
48+6=54(km)
- Thi gian t i Q cn li
48
54
x
(h) TG
t i t A=>B: 1+
1
6
+
48
54
x
(h)
Gii PT ta c : x = 120 ( tho mn K)
Bi tp 48
- Gi x l s dn nm ngoi ca tnh A (x
nguyn dng, x < 4 triu )
- S dn nm ngoi ca tnh B l 4-x ( tr)
- Nm nay dn s ca tnh A l
101,1
100
x
Ca tnh B l:
101, 2
100
( 4.000.000 - x )
- Dn s tnh A nm nay nhiu hn tnh B
nm nay l 807.200 . Ta c phng trnh:
101,1
100
x -
101, 2
100
(4.000.000 - x) = 807.200
Gii phng trnh ta c x = 2.400.000
Vy s dn nm ngoi ca tnh A l :
2.400.000ngi.
S dn nm ngoi ca tnh B l :
4.000.000 - 2.400.000 = 1.600.000
Trang 80
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- n li ton b chng III
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 54N TP CHNG III
(c thc hnh trn my tnh cm tay)
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - Gip hc sinh nm chc l thuyt ca chng
- HS tip tc rn luyn k nng gii bi ton bng cch gii phng trnh
T hnh thnh cc bc gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh.
- K nng: - Vn dng gai mt s bi ton bc nht. Bit chn n s thch hp
- Rn k nng trnh by, lp lun cht ch.
- Rn t duy phn tch tng hp
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II.phng tin thc hin:
- GV: Bi son.bng ph
- HS: bng nhm- Nm chc cc bc gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh
III. tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
1- Kim tra:Lng vo luyn tp
* H1: t vn
Chng ta nghin cu ht chng 3. Hm nay
ta cng nhau n tp li ton b chng.
* H2: n tp l thuyt
I- L thuyt
- GV: Cho HS tr li cc cu hi sau:
+ Th no l hai PT tng ng?
+ Nu nhn 2 v ca mt phng trnh vi mt
biu thc cha n ta c kt lun g v phng
trnh mi nhn c?
+ Vi iu kin no th phng trnh
ax + b = 0 l phng trnh bc nht.
- nh du vo ng?
- Khi gii phng trnh cha n s mu ta cn
ch iu g?
- Nu cc bc gii bi ton bng cch lp PT
II- Bi tp
1) Cha bi 50/33
- Hc sinh lm bi tp ra phiu hc tp
- GV: Cho HS lm nhanh ra phiu hc tp v tr
li kt qu. (GV thu mt s bi)
-Hc sinh so vi kt qu ca mnh v sa li cho
ng
2) Cha bi 51
- GV : Gii cc phng trnh sau bng cch a
v phng trnh tch
- C ngha l ta bin i phng trnh v dng
HS tr li theo cu hi ca GV
+ Nghim ca phng trnh ny cng l nghim
ca phng trnh kia v ngc li.
+ C th phng trnh mi khng tng ng
+ iu kin a

0
-Hc sinh nh du cui cng
-iu kin xc nh phng trnh
Mu thc 0
Bi 50/33
a) S ={3 }
b) V nghim : S =

c)S ={2}
d)S ={-
5
6
}
Bi 51b) 4x
2
- 1=(2x+1)(3x-5)
(2x-1)(2x+1) - (2x+1)(3x-5) = 0
( 2x +1) ( 2x-1 -3x +5 ) =0
( 2x+1 ) ( -x +4) = 0=> S = { -
1
2
; -4 }
c) (x+1)
2
= 4(x
2
-2x+1)

(x+1)
2
- [2(x-1)]
2
= 0. Vy S= {3;
1
3
}
d) 2x
3
+5x
2
-3x =0

x(2x
2
+5x-3)= 0
Trang 81
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
nh th no.
a) (2x + 1)(3x-2)= (5x-8)(2x+ 1)

(2x+1)(3x-2) -(5x-8)(2x+ 1)= 0

(2x+1)(6- 2x) = 0

S = {-
1
2
; 3}
-Hc sinh ln bng trnh by
-Hc sinh t gii v c kt qu
3) Cha bi 52
GV: Hy nhn dng tng phng trnh v nu
phng php gii ?
-HS: Phng trnh cha n s mu.
- Vi loi phng trnh ta cn c iu kin g?
- Tng t : Hc sinh ln bng trnh by nt phn
cn li.
b) x 0; x 2; S ={-1}; x=0 loi
c) S ={x} x
t 2(v s nghim );d)S ={-8;
5
2
}
4) Cha bi 53
- GV gi HS ln bng cha bi tp.
- HS i chiu kt qu v nhn xt
- GV hng dn HS gii cch khc
III) Cng c
Hng dn HS Cc cch gii c bit
IV) Hng dn v nh
-n tp tip .Lm cc bi 54,55,56 (SGK)

x(2x-1)(x+3) = 0 => S = { 0 ;
1
2
; -3 }
Bi 52 a)
1
2 3 x
-
3
(2 3) x x
=
5
x
- iu kin xc nh ca phng trnh:
- KX: x 0; x
3
2

(2 3)
x
x x
-
3
(2 3) x x
=
5(2 3)
(2 3)
x
x x


x-3=5(2x-3)

x-3-10x+15 = 0

9x =12

x =
12
9
=
4
3
tho mn,vy S ={
4
3
}
Bi 53:Gii phng trnh :
1
9
x +
+
2
8
x +
=
3
7
x +
+
4
6
x +

(
1
9
x +
+1)+(
2
8
x +
+1)=(
3
7
x +
+1)+(
4
6
x +
+1)

10
9
x +
+
10
8
x +
=
10
7
x +
+
10
6
x +

(x+10)(
1
9
+
1
8
-
1
7
-
1
6
) = 0

x = -10
S ={ -10 }
.
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 55 N TP CHNG III
(c thc hnh trn my tnh cm tay)
I. Mc tiu bi dy
- HS nm chc l thuyt ca chng
- Rn luyn k nng gii phng trnh , gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh.
-Rn luyn k nng trnh by
-Rn luyn t duy phn tch tng hp
II. Chun b :
- GV:Bi tp + tng hp
- HS: n k l thuyt chun b bi tp v nh
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu GV Hot ng cu HS
1- Kim tra Lng vo n tp
2-Bi mi
H1: GV cho HS ln bng lm cc bi tp
1) Tm 3 PT bc nht c 1 nghim l -3
2) Tm m bit phng trnh
2x + 5 = 2m +1 c 1 nghim l -1
-HS 1 ln bng
1) 2x+6 = 0 ; 3x +18 =0 ; x + 3 = 0
2) Do phng trnh 2x+5 = 2m +1 c nghim -1
nn : 2(-1) + 5 = 2m +1

m = 1
- HS nhn xt v ghi bi
Trang 82
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
1) Cha bi 52
Gii phng trnh
(2x + 3)
3 8
1
2 7
x
x
+ _
+

,
= (x + 5)
3 8
1
2 7
x
x
+ _
+

3 8
1
2 7
x
x
+ _
+

,
(2x + 3 - x - 5) = 0

3 8 2 7
( 2)
2 7
x x
x
x
+ + _

,
= 0

- 4x + 10 = 0

x =
5
2
x - 2 = 0

x = 2
2) Cha bi 54
Gi x (km) l k/cch gia hai bn A, B (x> 0)
- Cc nhm trnh by li gii ca bi ton n lp
phng trnh.
- 1 HS ln bng gii phng trnh v tr li bi
ton.
3) Cha bi 55
- GV gii thch cho HS th no l dung dch 20%
mui.
- HS lm bi tp.
4) Cha bi 56
- Khi dng ht 165 s in th phi tr bao nhiu
mc gi (qui nh).
- Tr 10% thu gi tr gia tng th s tin l bao
nhiu?
- HS trao i nhm v tr li theo hng dn ca
GV
- Gi tin ca 100 s u l bao nhiu ?
- Gi tin ca 50 s tip theo l bao nhiu ?
- Gi tin ca 15 s tip theo l bao nhiu ?
K c VAT s tin in nh Cng phi tr l:
95700 ta c phng trnh no?
- Mt HS ln bng gii phng trnh.
- HS tr li bi ton.
3- Cng c:
- GV: Nhc li cc dng bi c bn ca chng
4- Hng dn v nh
- Xem li bi cha
- n li l thuyt
- Gi sau kim tra 45 pht.
BT 54 :
VT TG Q
Xui dng
4
x 4 x
Ngc dng
5
x 5 x
- HS lm vic theo nhm
Gi x (km) l khong cch gia hai bn A, B (x
> 0)
Vn tc xui dng:
4
x
(km/h)
Vn tc ngc dng:
5
x
(km/h)
Theo bi ra ta c PT:
4
x
=
5
x
+4

x = 80
Cha bi 55
Go lng nc cn thm l x(g)( x > 0)
Ta c phng trnh:

20
100
( 200 + x ) = 50

x = 50
Vy lng nc cn thm l: 50 (g)
Cha bi 56
Gi x l s tin 1 s in mc th nht ( ng)
(x > 0). V nh Cng dng ht 165 s in nn
phi tr tin theo 3 mc:
- Gi tin ca 100 s u l 100x ()
- Gi tin ca 50 s tip theo l: 50(x + 150) ()
- Gi tin ca 15 s tip theo l:
15(x + 150 + 200) ()= 15(x + 350)
K c VAT s tin in nh Cng phi tr l:
95700 nn ta c phng trnh:
[100x + 50( x + 150) + 15( x + 350)].
110
100
=
95700

x = 450.
Vy gi tin mt s in nc ta mc th
nht l 450 ()
Trang 83
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 56KIM TRA VIT CHNG II
A. Mc tiu kim tra :
+) Kin thc : - HS nm chc khi nim v PT , PTT , PT bc nht mt n .
- Nm vng cc bc gii bi ton bng cch lp phng trnh .
+) K nng : - Vn dng c QT chuyn v v QT nhn , k nng bin i tng ng
a v PT dng PT bc nht .
-K nng tm KX ca PT v gii PT c n mu .
- K nng gii BT bng cch lp PT .
+) Thi : GD thc t gic , tch cc lm bi .
II) RA: (chung c khi)
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
CHNG IV:
Tit : 57 BT PHNG TRNH BC NHT MT N
LIN H GIA TH T V PHP CNG
I. Mc tiu bi ging :
- Kin thc: - HS hiu khi nim bt ng thc v tht ng " V tri, v phi, nghim ca bt ng
thc , tp hp nghim ca bt phng trnh. Hiu v bit cch s dng cc thut ng cn thit khc
din t bi gii bt phng trnh sau ny.
+ Hiu c tnh cht lin h gia th t i vi php cng dng BT
+ Bit chng minh BT nh so snh gi tr cc v BT hoc vn dng tnh cht lin h gia th
t v php cng
- K nng: trnh by bin i.
- Thi : T duy l gc
II. phng tin thc hin:
- GV: Bi son .
- HS: Nghin cu trc bi.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu GV Hot ng cu HS
1- Kim tra:
Khi so snh hai s thc a & b thng xy ra
nhng trng hp no ?
2- Bi mi:
* t vn : vi hai s thc a & b khi so snh
thng xy ra nhng trng hp : a = b a > b ; a
< b. Ta gi a > b ; hoc a < b l cc bt ng
thc.
* H1: Nhc li v th t trn tp hp s
1) Nhc li v th t trn tp hp s
- GV cho HS ghi li v th t trn tp hp s
- GV: hy biu din cc s: -2; -1; 3; 0; 2 ; trn
trc s v c kt lun g?
| | | | | | | |
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
- GV: cho HS lm bi tp ?1
+ Khi so snh hai s thc a & b thng xy ra
mt trong nhng trng hp sau:
a = b hoc a > b hoc a < b.
1) Nhc li v th t trn tp hp s
Khi so snh hai s thc a & b thng xy ra
mt trong nhng trng hp sau:
a = b hoc a > b hoc a < b.
?1
a) 1,53 < 1,8
b) - 2,37 > - 2,41
c)
12 2
18 3

d)
3 13
5 20
<
Trang 84
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- GV: Trong trng hp s a khng nh hn s b
th ta thy s a & b c quan h nh th no?
- GV: Gii thiu k hiu: a b & a b
+ S a khng nh hn s b: a b
+ S a khng ln hn s b: a b
+ c l mt s khng m: c 0
* V d: x
2
0 x ; - x
2
0 x
y 3 ( s y khng ln hn 3)
* H2: GV a ra khi nim BT
2) Bt ng thc
- GV gii thiu khi nim BT.
* H thc c dng: a > b hay a < b; a b; a b
l bt ng thc.
a l v tri; b l v phi
- GV: Nu V d
* H3: Lin h gia th t v php cng
3) Lin h gia th t v php cng
- GV: Cho HS in du " >" hoc "<" thch hp
vo ch trng.
- 4.. 2 ; - 4 + 3 ..2 + 3 ; 5 ..3 ;
5 + 3 . 3 + 3 ; 4 . -1 ; 4 + 5 . - 1 + 5
- 1,4 . - 1,41; - 1,4 + 2 . - 1,41 + 2
GV: a ra cu hi
+ Nu a > 1 th a +2 1 + 2
+ Nu a <1 th a +2 . 1 + 2
GV: Cho HS nhn xt v kt lun
- HS pht biu tnh cht
So snh m khng cn tnh gi tr cu biu thc:
- 2004 + (- 777) v - 2005 + ( -777)
- HS lm ?4.
So snh: 2 v 3 ; 2 + 2 & 5
3- Cng c:
+ Lm bi tp 1
4- Hng dn v nh:
- Lm cc bi tp 2, 3/ SGK 6, 7, 8, 9 ( SBT)
- Nu s a khng ln hn s b th ta thy s a &
b c quan h l : a b
- Nu s a khng nh hn s b th ta thy s a
& b c quan h l : a > b hoc a = b. K hiu l:
a b
2) Bt ng thc
* H thc c dng: a > b hay a < b; a b; a b
l bt ng thc.
a l v tri; b l v phi
* V d:
7 + ( -3) > -5
3) Lin h gia th t v php cng
a>b

a+c>b+c
* Tnh cht: ( sgk)
Vi 3 s a , b, c ta c:
+ Nu a < b th a + c < b + c
+ Nu a >b th a + c >b + c
+ Nu a b th a + c b + c
+ Nu a b th a + c b + c
+) -2004 > -2005
=> - 2004 + (- 777) >- 2005 + ( -777)
+) 2 < 3 => 2 + 2 <3+2 => 2 + 2 < 5
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 58 LIN H GIA TH T V PHP NHN
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS pht hin v bit cch s dng lin h gia th t v php nhhn
+ Hiu c tnh cht lin h gia th t i vi php nhn
+ Bit chng minh BT nh so snh gi tr cc v BT hoc vn dng tnh cht lin h gia th
t v php nhn
+ Hiu c tnh cht bc cu ca tnh th t
- K nng: trnh by bin i.
- Thi : T duy l gc
II. phng tin thc hin :
Trang 85
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- GV: Bi son.
- HS: Nghin cu trc bi.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu GV Hot ng cu HS
1- Kim tra:
a- Nu tnh cht v lin h gia th t v
php cng? Vit dng tng qut?
b- in du > hoc < vo thch hp
+ T -2 < 3 ta c: -2. 3 3.2
+ T -2 < 3 ta c: -2.509 3. 509
+ T -2 < 3 ta c: -2.10
6
3. 10
6
- GV: T bi tp ca bn ta thy quan h
gia th t v php nhn nh th no? bi
mi s nghin cu
2- Bi mi :
* H1: Lin h gia th t v php nhn
1) Lin h gia th t v php nhn vi s
dng
Tnh cht:
- GV a hnh v minh ho kt qu:
-2< 3 th -2.2< 3.2
- GV cho HS lm ?1
GV: cht li v cho HS pht biu thnh li
HS lm bi ?2
2) Lin h gia th t v php nhn vi s
m :
- GV: Cho HS lm ra phiu hc tp
in du > hoc < vo trng
+ T -2 < 3 ta c: (-2) (-2) > 3 (-2)
+ T -2 < 3 ta c: (-2) (-5) > 3(-5)
D on:
+ T -2 < 3 ta c: - 2. c > 3.c ( c < 0)
- GV: Cho nhn xt v rt ra tnh cht
- HS pht biu: Khi nhn hai v ca bt
ng thc vi mt s m th bt ng thc
i chiu
- GV: Cho HS lm bi tp ?4 , ?5
* H2: Tnh cht bc cu
3) Tnh cht bc cu ca th t
Vi 3 s a, b, c nu a > b & b > 0 th ta c
kt lun g ?
+ Nu a < b & b < c th a < c
+ Nu a b & b c th a c
V d:
Cho a > b chng minh rng: a + 2 > b 1
- GV hng dn HS CM.
* H3: Tng kt
HS ln bng tr li phn a
Lm BT phn b
1) Lin h gia th t v php nhn vi s dng
a) -2 < 3
-2.5091 < 3.5091
b) -2< 3 => -2.c < 3.c ( c > 0 )
* Tnh cht:
Vi 3 s a, b, c,& c > 0 :
+ Nu a < b th ac < bc
+ Nu a > b th ac > bc
+ Nu a b th ac bc
+ Nu a b th ac bc
a) (- 15,2).3,5 < (- 15,08).3,5
b) 4,15. 2,2 > (-5,3).2,2
2) Lin h gia th t v php nhn vi s m
+ T -2 < 3 ta c: (-2) (-2) > 3 (-2)
+ T -2 < 3 ta c: (-2) (-5) > 3(-5)
D on:
+ T -2 < 3 ta c: - 2. c > 3.c ( c < 0)
* Tnh cht:
Vi 3 s a, b, c,& c < 0 :
+ Nu a < b th ac > bc
+ Nu a > b th ac < bc
+ Nu a b th ac bc
+ Nu a b th ac bc
?4
- Ta c: a < b th - 4a > - 4b
?5
nu a > b th:
a b
c c
>
( c > 0);
a b
c c
<
( c < 0)
3) Tnh cht bc cu ca th t
+ Nu a > b & b > c th a > c
+ Nu a < b & b < c th a < c
+ Nu a b & b c th a c
*V d:
Cho a > b chng minh rng: a + 2 > b 1
Gii
Cng 2 vo 2 v ca bt ng thc a> b ta c:
a+2> b+2
Cng b vo 2 v ca bt ng thc 2>-1 ta c:
b+2> b-1
Trang 86
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
3- Cng c:
+ HS lm ba tp 5.
GV yu cu HS gii thch r v sao?
4- Hng dn v nh
Lm cc bi tp: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
Theo tnh cht bc cu ta c:a + 2 > b 1
Bi tp 5
a) ng v: - 6 < - 5 v 5 > 0 nn (- 6). 5 < (- 5). 5
d) ng v: x
2
0 x nn - 3 x
2
0
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 59 LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu bi ging :
- Kin thc: - HS pht hin v bit cch s dng lin h gia th t v php nhhn
+ Hiu c tnh cht lin h gia th t i vi php nhn, php cng
+ Bit chng minh BT nh so snh gi tr cc v BT hoc vn dng tnh cht lin h gia th
t v php nhn, vn dng tnh cht lin h gia th t v php cng
+ Hiu c tnh cht bc cu ca tnh th t
- K nng: trnh by bin i.
- Thi : T duy l gc
II. Phng tin thc hin :.
- GV: Bi son.
- HS: bi tp v nh.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu gio vin Hot ng cu HS
* H1: Kim tra bi c
1-Kim tra bi c
- Nu 2 tnh cht v lin h gia th t v php
nhn? Vit dng tng qut?
* H2: T chc luyn tp
2-Luyn tp:
1) Cha bi 9/ sgk
2) Cha bi 10/ sgk
- GV: Cho HS ln bng cha bi
a) (-2).3 < - 4,5
b) T (-2).3 < - 4,5 ta c: (-2).3. 10 < - 4,5. 10
Do 10 > 0

(-2).30 < - 45
3) Cha bi 12/ sgk
- GV: Cho HS ln bng cha bi
4) Cha bi 11/ sgk
- GV: Cho HS ln bng trnh by
- GV: Cht li v sa sai cho HS
a) T a < b ta c:3a<3b do 3 > 0

3a +1<3b+1
b) T a < b ta c:-2a > -2b do - 2< 0

-2a - 5 > -2b 5


5) Cha bi 13/ sgk (a,d)
- GV: Cho HS ln bng trnh by
- GV: Cht li v kt lun cho HS
6)Cha bi 16/( sbt)
- GV: Cho HS trao i nhm
Cho m < n chng t 3 - 5m > 1 - 5n
HS tr li
1) Cha bi 9/ sgk
+ Cu: a, d sai
+ Cu: b, c ng
2) Cha bi 10/ sgk
a) (-2).3 < - 4,5
b) T (-2).3 < - 4,5 ta c:
(-2).3. 10 < - 4,5. 10
Do 10 > 0

(-2).30 < - 45
3) Cha bi 12/ sgk
T -2 < -1 nn 4.( -2) < 4.( -1)
Do 4 > 0 nn 4.( -2) + 14 < 4.( -1) + 14
4) Cha bi 11/ sgk
a) T a < b ta c: 3a < 3b do 3 > 0

3a + 1 < 3b + 1
a) T a < b ta c:-2a > -2b do - 2< 0

-2a - 5 > -2b 5


5) Cha bi 13/ sgk (a,d)
a) T a + 5 < b + 5 ta c
a + 5 - 5 < b + 5 - 5

a < b
d) T - 2a + 3 - 2b + 3 ta c: - 2a + 3 - 3 -
2b + 3 - 3

-2a -2b Do - 2 < 0

a b
6)Cha bi 16/( sbt)
T m < n ta c: - 5m > - 5n
do 3 - 5m > 3 - 5n (*)
Trang 87
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
* Cc nhm trao i
T m < n ta c: - 5m >-5n do 3-5m >3-5n (*)
T 3 > 1 (**) t (*) v (**) ta c 3 - 5m > 1 - 5n
-GV: Cht li dng phng php bc cu
3- Cng c:
- GV: nhc li phng php chng minh .
- Lm bi 20a ( sbt)
4- Hng dn v nh
T 3 > 1 (**)
t (*) v (**)
ta c 3 - 5m > 1 - 5n
Do a < b nn mun so snh a( m - n) vi m - n ta
phi bit du ca m - n
* Hng dn: t m < n ta c m - n < 0
Do a < b v m - n < 0

a( m - n )>b(m - n)

Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 60 BT PHNG TRNH MT N
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS hiu khi nim bt phng trnh 1 n s
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc chuyn v v qui tc nhn
+ Bit biu din nghim ca bt phng trnh trn trc s
+ Bc u hiu bt phng trnh tng ng.
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii bt phng trnh 1 n
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Phng tin thc hin :.
- GV: Bi son.+ Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp v nh.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu gio vin Hot ng cu HS
* H1: Kim tra bi c
1- Kim tra bi c:
Lng vo bi mi
2-Bi mi
* H2: Gii thiu bt PT mt n
- GV: Cho HS c bi ton sgk v tr li.
Hy gi,i thch kt qu tm c
- GV: Nu gi x l s quyn v m bn
Nam c th mua c ta c h thc g?
- Hy ch ra v tri , v phi ca bt
phng trnh
- GV: Trong v d (a) ta thy khi thay x =
1, 2, 9
vo BPT th BPT vn ng ta ni x = 1, 2,
9 l nghim ca BPT.
- GV: Cho HS lm bi tp ? 1
( Bng ph )
GV: a ra tp nghim ca BPT, Tng
t nh tp nghim ca PT em c th nh
ngha tp nghim ca BPT
+ Tp hp cc nghim ca bt PT c gi
1) M u
V d: a) 2200x + 4000 25000
b) x
2
< 6x 5 ;c) x
2
- 1 > x + 5
L cc bt phng trnh 1 n
+ Trong BPT (a) V phi: 2500
V tri: 2200x + 4000
s quyn v m bn Nam c th mua c l: 1 hoc 2
hoc 9 quyn v v:
2200.1 + 4000 < 25000 ; 2200.2 + 4000 < 25000
2200.9 + 4000< 25000; 2200.10 + 4000 < 25000
a) V tri: x
-2

v phi: 6x + 5
b)Thay x = 3 ta c:
3
2
< 6.3 - 5 9 < 13
Thay x = 4 c: 4
2
< 64; 5
2
6.5 - 5
- HS pht biu
2) Tp nghim ca bt phng trnh
Hy vit tp nghim ca BPT:
x > 3 ; x < 3 ; x 3 ; x 3 v biu din tp nghim ca
mi bt phng trnh trn trc s
VD: Tp nghim ca BPT x > 3 l: {x/x > 3}
+ Tp nghim ca BPT x < 3 l: {x/x < 3}
+ Tp nghim ca BPT x 3 l: {x/x 3}
+ Tp nghim ca BPT x 3 l: {x/x 3}
Trang 88
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
l tp nghim ca BPT.
+ Gii BPT l tm tp nghim ca BPT .
-GV: Cho HS lm bi tp ?2
- HS ln bng lm bi
* H3: Bt phng trnh tng ng
- GV: Tm tp nghim ca 2 BPT sau:
x > 3 v 3 < x
- HS lm bi ?3 v ?4
- HS ln bng trnh by
- HS di lp cng lm.
HS biu din tp hp cc nghim trn trc
s
- GV: Theo em hai BPT nh th no gi l
2 BPT tng ng?
* H4: Cng c:
3- Cng c:
- GV: Cho HS lm cc bi tp:17,18.
- GV: cht li
+ BPT: v tri, v phi
+ Tp hp nghim ca BPT, BPT tng
ng
4- Hng dn v nh
Lm bi tp 15; 16 (sgk)
Bi 31; 32; 33 (sbt)
Biu din trn trc s:
////////////////////|//////////// (
0 3
| )///////////////////////
0 3
///////////////////////|//////////// [
0 3
| ]////////////////////
0 3
3) Bt phng trnh tng ng
?3: a) < 24 x < 12 ;
b) -3x < 27 x > -9
?4: Tm tp hp nghim ca tng bt phng trnh
x+ 3 < 7 c tp hp nghim { } / 4 x x <
x 2 < 2 c tp hp nghim { } / 4 x x <
* Hai BPT c cng tp hp nghim gi l 2 BPT tng
ng.
K hiu: "

"
BT 17 : a. x 6 b. x > 2
c. x 5 d. x < -1
BT 18 : Thi gian i ca t l :
50
x
( h )
t khi hnh lc 7h phi n B trc 9h nn ta c bt
PT :
50
x
< 2
Ngy son
Ngy dy
Tit : 61 BT PHNG TRNH BC NHT MT N
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS hiu khi nim bt phng trnh bc nht 1 n s
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc bin i bt phng trnh: chuyn v v qui tc nhn
+ Bit biu din nghim ca bt phng trnh trn trc s
+ Bc u hiu bt phng trnh tng ng.
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii bt phng trnh bc nht 1 n
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Phng tin thc hin :.
- GV: Bi son.+ Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp v nh.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu gio vin v HS Kin thc c bn
* H1: Kim tra bi c
HS1: Cha bi 18 ( sgk)
HS2: Cha bi 33 (sbt)
* H2: Gii thiu bt phng trnh bc nht 1
HS 1:
C1: 7 + (50 : x ) < 9
C2: ( 9 - 7 )x > 50
HS 2:
Trang
////////////////////( |
-2 0
89
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
n
- GV: C nhn xt g v dng ca cc BPT sau:
a) 2x - 3 < 0 ; b) 15x - 15 0
c)
1
+ 2 0
2
x
; d) 1,5 x - 3 > 0
e) 0,5 x - 1 < 0 ; f) 1,7 x < 0
- GV tm tt nhn xt ca HS v cho pht biu
nh ngha
- HS lm BT ?1
- BPT b, d c phi l BPT bc nht 1 n
khng ? v sao?
- Hy ly v d v BPT bc nht 1 n.
- HS pht biu nh ngha
- HS nhc li
- HS ly v d v BPT bc nht 1 n
* H3: Gii thiu 2 qui tc bin i bt
phng trnh
- GV: Khi gii 1 phng trnh bc nht ta
dng qui tc chuyn v v qui tc nhn bin
i thnh phng trnh tng ng. Vy khi
gii BPT cc qui tc bin i BPT tng
ng l g?
- HS pht biu qui tc chuyn v
GV: Gii cc BPT sau:
- HS thc hin trn bng
- Hy biu din tp nghim trn trc s
Gii thiu qui tc th 2 bin i bt phng
trnh
- GV: Cho HS thc hin VD 3, 4 v rt ra kt
lun
- HS ln trnh by v d
- HS nghe v tr li
- HS ln trnh by v d
- HS pht biu qui tc
- HS lm bi tp ?3 ( sgk)
- HS lm bi ? 4
*H4: Cng c
- GV: Cho HS lm bi tp 19, 20 ( sgk)
- Th no l BPT bc nht mt n ?
a) Cc s: - 2 ; -1; 0; 1; 2
b) : - 10; -9; 9; 10
c) : - 4; - 3; -2; -1; 0; 1; 2; 3; 4
d) : - 10; - 9; -8; -7; 7; 8; 9; 10
1) nh ngha: ( sgk)
a) 2x - 3 < 0 ; b) 15x - 15 0
c)
1
+ 2 0
2
x
; d) 1,5 x - 3 > 0
e) 0,5 x - 1 < 0 ; f) 1,7 x < 0
- Cc BPT u c dng:
ax + b > 0 ; ax + b < 0 ; ax + b 0 ; ax + b 0
BPT b khng l BPT bc nht 1 n v h s a = 0
BPT b khng l BPT bc nht 1 n v x c bc l 2.
HS cho VD v pht biu nh ngha.
2) Hai qui tc bin i bt phng trnh
a) Qui tc chuyn v
* V d1:
x - 5 < 18

x < 18 + 5

x < 23
Vy tp nghim ca BPT l: {x/ x < 23 }
BT :
a) x + 3 18

x 15
b) x - 5 9

x 14
c) 3x < 2x - 5

x < - 5
d) - 2x - 3x - 5

x - 5
b) Qui tc nhn vi mt s
* V d 3:
Gii BPT sau:
0,5 x < 3

0, 5 x . 2 < 3.2 ( Nhn 2 v vi 2)

x < 6
Vy tp nghim ca BPT l: {x/x < 6}
* V d 4:
Gii BPT v biu din tp nghim trn trc s

1
4
x

< 3


1
4
x

. (- 4) > ( - 4). 3

x > - 12
//////////////////////( .
-12 0
* Qui tc: ( sgk)
?3
a) 2x < 24

x < 12
S = { } / 12 x x <
b) - 3x < 27

x > -9
S = { } / 9 x x >
?4a) x + 3 < 7 x - 2 < 2
Thm - 5 vo 2 v
Trang
////////////////////( |
-2 0
90
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Nhc li 2 qui tc
*H5 : Hng dn v nh
- Nm vng 2 QT bin i bt phng trnh.
- c mc 3, 4
- Lm cc bi tp 23; 24 ( sgk)
b) 2x < - 4 -3x > 6
Nhn c 2 v vi -
3
2
HS lm BT
HS tr li cu hi.

Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 62 BT PHNG TRNH BC NHT MT N(tip)
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS bit vn dng hai QT bin i v gii bt phng trnh bc nht 1 n s
+ Bit biu din nghim ca bt phng trnh trn trc s
+ Hiu bt phng trnh tng ng.
+ Bit a BPT v dng: ax + b > 0 ; ax + b < 0 ; ax + b 0 ; ax + b 0
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii bt phng trnh bc nht 1 n
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Phng tin thc hin :.
- GV: Bi son.+ Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp v nh.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu gio vin Hot ng cu HS
* H1: Kim tra bi c
1) in vo trng du > ; < ; ; thch
hp
a) x - 1 < 5

x 5 + 1
b) - x + 3 < - 2

3 -2 + x
c) - 2x < 3

x -
3
2
d) 2x
2
< 3

x -
3
2
e) x
3
- 4 < x

x
3
x + 4
2) Gii BPT: -
3
2
x > 3 v biu din tp hp
nghim trn trc s
* H2: Gii mt s bt phng trnh bc
nht mt n
- GV: Gii BPT 2x + 3 < 0 l g?
- GV: Cho HS lm bi tp ? 5
* Gii BPT : - 4x - 8 < 0
- HS biu din nghim trn trc s
+ C th trnh by gn hn bng cch no?
- HS a ra nhn xt
- HS nhc li ch
- GV: Cho HS ghi cc phng trnh v nu
hng gii
- HS ln bng HS di lp cng lm
- HS lm vic theo nhm
HS lm BT 1:
a. < ; b. < ; c. >
d. > ; e. <
BT 2: x < -2
)//////////////
.
///////////////////
-2 0
1) Gii bt phng trnh bc nht mt n:
a) 2x + 3 < 0

2x < - 3

x < -
3
2
- Tp hp nghim:
2
3
{x / x < -
3
2
} )//////////////
.
///////////////////
- Gii BPT 2x + 3 < 0 l: tm tp hp tt c cc gi tr
ca x khng nh 2x + 3 < 0 l ng
? 5 : Gii BPT :
- 4x - 8 < 0

- 4x < 8

x > - 2
+ Chuyn v
+ Nhn 2 v vi -
1
4
* Ch :
- Khng cn ghi cu gii thch
Trang
////////////////////( |
-2 0
91
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Cc nhm trng nu pp gii:
B1: Chuyn cc s hng cha n v mt v,
khng cha n v mt v
B2: p dng 2 qui tc chuyn v v nhn
B3: kt lun nghim
- HS ln bng trnh by
?6 Gii BPT
- 0,2x - 0,2 > 0,4x - 2
*H 3: Cng c
HS lm cc bi tp 26
*H 4: Hng dn v nh
- Lm cc bi tp cn li
- n li l thuyt
- Gi sau luyn tp
- C kt qu th coi nh gii xong, vit tp nghim ca
BPT l:..
2) Gii BPT a c v dng ax + b > 0 ;
ax + b < 0 ; ax + b 0 ; ax + b 0
* V d: Gii BPT
3x + 5 < 5x - 7

3x - 5 x < -7 - 5

- 2x < - 12

- 2x : (- 2) > - 12 : (-2)

x > 6
Vy tp nghim ca BPT l: {x/x > 6 }
?6 Gii BPT
- 0,2x - 0,2 > 0,4x - 2

- 0,2x - 0,4x > 0,2 - 2

- 0,6x > - 1,8

x < 3
HS lm BT 26 di s HD ca GV
Ba bt PT c tp hp nghim l {x/x 12}
HS ghi BTVN
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 63 LUYN TP
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS bit vn dng 2 QT bin i v gii bt phng trnh bc nht 1 n s
+ Bit biu din nghim ca bt phng trnh trn trc s
+ Hiu bt phng trnh tng ng.
+ Bit a BPT v dng: ax + b > 0 ; ax + b < 0 ; ax + b 0 ; ax + b 0
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii bt phng trnh bc nht 1 n
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Phng tin thc hin :
- GV: Bi son.+ Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp v nh.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu gio vin Hot ng cu HS
* H1: Kim tra bi c
Lng vo luyn tp
* H2: HS ln bng trnh by bi tp
- HS: { x
2
0}
-GV: Cht li cch tm tp tp hp nghim ca
BPT x
2
> 0
+ Mi gi tr ca n u l nghim ca BPT no?
- GV: Cho HS vit cu hi a, b thnh dng ca
BPT ri gii cc BPT
- HS ln bng trnh by
a) 2x - 5 0
b) - 3x - 7x + 5
- HS nhn xt
- Cc nhm HS tho lun
- Gii BPT v so snh kt qu
- GV: Yu cu HS chuyn thnh bi ton gii
1) Cha bi 28
a) Vi x = 2 ta c 2
2
= 4 > 0 l mt khng
nh ng vy 2 l nghim ca BPT x
2
> 0
b) Vi x = 0 th 0
2
> 0 l mt khng nh sai nn
0 khng phi l nghim ca BPT x
2
> 0
2) Cha bi 29
a) 2x - 5 0

2x 5

x
5
2
b) - 3x - 7x + 5

- 7x + 3x +5 0

- 4x - 5

x
5
4
3) Cha bi 30
Gi x ( x

Z
*
) l s t giy bc loi 5000
S t giy bc loi 2000 l:
15 - x ( t)
Ta c BPT:
Trang 92
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
BPT
( Chn x l s giy bc 5000)
- HS ln bng tr li
- Di lp HS nhn xt
H nhm
Gii cc BPT v biu din tp nghim trn trc
s
b)
8 11
13
4
x
<
c)
1
4
( x - 1) <
4
6
x
GV cho cc nhm kim tra cho , sau GV
nhn xt KQ cc nhm.
HS lm theo HD ca GV
*H3: Cng c:
- GV: Nhc li PP chung gii BPT
- Nhc li 2 qui tc
*H4: Hng dn v nh
- Lm bi tp cn li
- Xem trc bi : BPT cha du gi tr tuyt i
5000x + 2000(15 - x) 70000

x
40
3
Do ( x

Z
*
) nn x = 1, 2, 3 13
Vy s t giy bc loi 5000 l 1, 2, 3 hoc
13
4- Cha bi 31
Gii cc BPT v biu din tp nghim trn trc
s
b)
8 11
13
4
x
<
8-11x <13 . 4
-11x < 52 - 8 x > - 4
+ Biu din tp nghim
////////////(
.
-4 0
c)
1
4
( x - 1) <
4
6
x

12.
1
4
( x - 1) < 12.
4
6
x

3( x - 1) < 2 ( x - 4)

3x - 3 < 2x - 8

3x - 2x < - 8 + 3

x < - 5
Vy nghim ca BPT l : x < - 5
+ Biu din tp nghim
)//////////.//////////////////
-5 0
5- Cha bi 33
Gi s im thi mn ton ca Chin l x im
Theo bi ra ta c bt PT:
( 2x + 2.8 + 7 + 10 ) : 6 8
2x + 33

482x

15 x

7,5
t loi gii , bn Chin phI c im thi
mn Ton t nht l 7,5 .
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 64PHNG TRNH C CHA DU GI TR
TUYT I
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: - HS hiu k nh ngha gi tr tuyt i t bit cch m du gi tr tuyt ca biu
thc c cha du gi tr tuyt i.
+ Bit gii bt phng trnh cha du gi tr tuyt i.
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc bin i bt phng trnh: chuyn v v qui tc nhn
+ Bit biu din nghim ca bt phng trnh trn trc s
+ Bc u hiu bt phng trnh tng ng.
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii bt phng trnh c cha du gi tr tuyt i.
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Phng tin thc hin :.
- GV: Bi son.+ Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp v nh.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Trang 93
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Hot ng cu gio vin Hot ng cu HS
* H1: Kim tra bi c
Nhc li nh ngha gi tr tuyt i?
- HS nhc li nh ngha
| a| = a nu a 0
| a| = - a nu a < 0
* H2: Nhc li v gi tr tuyt i
- GV: Cho HS nhc li nh ngha v gi
tr tuyt i
- HS tm:
| 5 | = 5 v 5 > 0
- GV: Cho HS lm bi tp ?1
Rt gn biu thc
a) C = | - 3x | + 7x - 4 khi x 0

b) D = 5 - 4x + | x - 6 | khi x < 6
- GV: Cht li phng php a ra khi
du gi tr tuyt i
* H3: Luyn tp
Gii phng trnh: | 3x | = x + 4
- GV: Cho hs lm bi tp ?2
?2. Gii cc phng trnh
a) | x + 5 | = 3x + 1 (1)
- HS ln bng trnh by
b) | - 5x | = 2x + 2
- HS cc nhm trao i
- HS tho lun nhm tm cch chuyn
phng trnh c cha du gi tr tuyt i
thnh phng trnh bc nht 1 n.
- Cc nhm np bi
- Cc nhm nhn xt cho
*H 4: Cng c:
HS tr li
1) Nhc li v gi tr tuyt i
| a| = a nu a 0
| a| = - a nu a < 0
V d:
| 5 | = 5 v 5 > 0
| - 2,7 | = - ( - 2,7) = 2,7 v - 2,7 < 0
* V d 1:
a) | x - 1 | = x - 1 Nu x - 1 0

x 1
| x - 1 | = -(x - 1) = 1 - x Nu x - 1 < 0

x < 1
b) A = | x - 3 | + x - 2 khi x 3 . A = x - 3 + x - 2
A = 2x - 5
c) B = 4x + 5 + | -2x | khi x > 0. Ta c x > 0
=> - 2x < 0 => |-2x | = -( - 2x) = 2x
Nn B = 4x + 5 + 2x = 6x + 5
?1 : Rt gn biu thc
a) C = | - 3x | + 7x - 4 khi x 0
C = - 3x + 7x - 4 = 4x - 4
b) D = 5 - 4x + | x - 6 | khi x < 6
= 5 - 4x + 6 - x = 11 - 5x
2) Gii mt s phng trnh cha du gi tr tuyt i
* V d 2: Gii phng trnh: | 3x | = x + 4
B1: Ta c: | 3x | = 3 x nu x 0
| 3x | = - 3 x nu x < 0
B2: + Nu x 0 ta c:
| 3x | = x + 4

3x = x + 4

2x = 4

x = 2 > 0 tha mn iu kin


+ Nu x < 0
| 3x | = x + 4

- 3x = x + 4

- 4x = 4

x = -1 < 0 tha mn iu kin


B3: Kt lun : S = { -1; 2 }
* V d 3: ( sgk)
?2: Gii cc phng trnh
a) | x + 5 | = 3x + 1 (1)
+ Nu x + 5 > 0

x > - 5
(1)

x + 5 = 3x + 1

2x = 4

x = 2 tha
mn
+ Nu x + 5 < 0

x < - 5
(1)

- (x + 5) = 3x + 1

- x - 5 - 3x = 1

- 4x = 6

x = -
3
2
( Loi khng tha mn)
S = { 2 }
b) | - 5x | = 2x + 2
+ Vi x 0
- 5x = 2x + 2

7x = 2

x =
7
2
Trang 94
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Nhc li phng php gii phng trnh
cha du gi tr tuyt i
- Lm cc bi tp 36, 37 (sgk)
*H5: Hng dn v nh
- Lm bi 35
- n li ton b chng
+ Vi x < 0 c :
5x = 2x + 2

3x = 2

x =
3
2
-HS nhc li phng php gii phng trnh cha du
gi tr tuyt i
- Lm BT 36,37.
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 65 N TP CHUONG IV
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: HS hiu k kin thc ca chng
+ Bit gii bt phng trnh cha du gi tr tuyt i.
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc bin i bt phng trnh: chuyn v v qui tc nhn
+ Bit biu din nghim ca bt phng trnh trn trc s
+ Bc u hiu bt phng trnh tng ng.
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii bt phng trnh c cha du gi tr tuyt i.
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Phng tin thc hin :.
- GV: Bi son.+ Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp v nh.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu gio vin Hot ng cu HS
* H1: Kim tra bi c
Nhc li nh ngha gi tr tuyt i?
* H2: n tp l thuyt
I.n tp v bt ng thc, bt PT.
GV nu cu hi KT
1.Th no l bt T ?
+Vit cng thc lin h gia th t v
php cng, gia th t v php nhn, tnh
cht bc cu ca th t.
2. Bt PT bc nht c dng nh th no?
Cho VD.
3. Hy ch ra mt nghim ca BPT .
4. Pht biu QT chuyn v bin i
BPT. QT ny da vo t/c no ca th t
trn tp hp s?
5. Pht biu QT nhn bin i BPT. QT
ny da vo t/c no ca th t trn tp hp
s?
II. n tp v PT gi tr tuyt i
* H3: Cha bi tp
- GV: Cho HS ln bng lm bi
- HS ln bng trnh by
c) T m > n
Gii bt phng trnha)
2
4
x
< 5
HS tr li
HS tr li: h thc c dng a< b hay a> b, a b, a b l
bt ng thc.
HS tr li:
HS tr li: ax + b < 0 ( hoc ax + b > 0,
ax + b 0, ax + b 0) trong a

0
HS cho VD v ch ra mt nghim ca bt PT .
HS tr li:
Cu 4: QT chuyn vQT ny da trn t/c lin h
gia TT v php cng trn tp hp s.
Cu 5: QT nhn QT ny da trn t/c lin h gia
TT v php nhn vi s dng hoc s m.
HS nh:
a
a
a

'

khi no ?
1) Cha bi 38
c) T m > n ( gt)

2m > 2n ( n > 0)

2m - 5 > 2n - 5
2) Cha bi 41
Gii bt phng trnh
a)
2
4
x
< 5

4.
2
4
x
< 5. 4

2 - x < 20

2 - 20 < x

x > - 18. Tp nghim {x/ x > - 18}


3) Cha bi 42
Trang 95
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
Gi HS lm bi
Gii bt phng trnh
c) ( x - 3)
2
< x
2
- 3
a) Tm x sao cho:
Gi tr ca biu thc 5 - 2x l s dng
- GV: yu cu HS chuyn bi ton thnh
bi ton :Gii bt phng trnh
- l mt s dng c ngha ta c bt
phng trnh no?
- GV: Cho HS tr li cu hi 2, 3, 4
sgk/52
- Nu qui tc chuyn v v bin i bt
phng trnh
Gii cc phng trnh
*H 3: Cng c:
Tr li cc cu hi t 1 - 5 / 52 sgk
*H 4: Hng dn v nh
- n li ton b chng
- Lm cc bi tp cn li
Gii bt phng trnh
( x - 3)
2
< x
2
- 3

x
2
- 6x + 9 < x
2
3

- 6x < - 12

x > 2 . Tp nghim {x/ x > 2}


4) Cha bi 43
Ta c: 5 - 2x > 0

x <
5
2
Vy S = {x / x <
5
2
}
5) Cha bi 45
Gii cc phng trnh
Khi x 0 th
| - 2x| = 4x + 18

-2x = 4x + 18

-6x = 18

x = -3 < 0 tha mn iu kin


* Khi x 0 th
| - 2x| = 4x + 18

-(-2x) = 4x + 18

-2x = 18

x = -9 < 0 khng tha mn iu kin.


Vy tp nghim ca phng trnh
S = { - 3}
HS tr li cc cu hi
V nh n tp : 1. Th no l 2 PT tng ng ? Cho VD.
2. Th no l 2 BPT tng ng ? Cho VD.
3.Nu cc QT bin i PT, cc QT bin i BPT. So snh?
4. nh ngha PT bc nht mt n? S nghim ca PT bc nht mt n? Cho VD.
5. nh ngha BPT bc nht mt n? Cho VD.
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 66-67 KIM TRA CUI NM : 90

(c i s v hnh hc )
( KSCL Phng gio dc ra)

Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 68 N TP CUI NM
I. Mc tiu bi ging :
- Kin thc: HS hiu k kin thc ca c nm
+ Bit tng hp kin thc v gii bi tp tng hp
+ Bit gii bt phng trnh cha du gi tr tuyt i.
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc bin i bt phng trnh: chuyn v v qui tc nhn
+ Bit biu din nghim ca bt phng trnh trn trc s
+ Bc u hiu bt phng trnh tng ng.
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii bt phng trnh c cha du gi tr tuyt i.
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Phng tin thc hin :.
- GV: Bi son.+ Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp v nh.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu gio vin Hot ng cu HS
* H1: Kim tra bi c Lng vo n tp
HS tr li cc cu hi n tp.
Trang 96
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
* H2: n tp v PT, bt PT
GV nu ln lt cc cu hi n tp cho
VN, yu cu HS tr li XD bng sau:
Phng trnh
1. Hai PT tng ng: l 2 PT c cng
tp hp nghim
2. Hai QT bin i PT:
+QT chuyn v
+QT nhn vi mt s
3. nh ngha PT bc nht mt n.
PT dng ax + b = 0 vi a v b l 2 s
cho v a

0 c gi l PT bc nht mt
n.
* H3:Luyn tp
- GV: cho HS nhc li cc phng php
PTTTNT
- HS p dng cc phng php ln bng
cha bi p dng
- HS trnh by cc bi tp sau
a) a
2
- b
2
- 4a + 4 ;
b) x
2
+ 2x 3
c) 4x
2
y
2
- (x
2
+ y
2
)
2

d) 2a
3
- 54 b
3

- GV: mun hiu chia ht cho 8 ta bin
i v dng ntn?
Rt gn ri tnh gi tr ca biu thc
*H4: Cng c:
Nhc li cc dng bi chnh
* H5: Hng dn v nh
Lm tip bi tp n tp cui nm
Bt phng trnh
1. Hai BPT tng ng: l 2 BPT c cng tp hp
nghim
2. Hai QT bin i BPT:
+QT chuyn v
+QT nhn vi mt s : Lu khi nhn 2 v vi cng 1 s m
th BPT i chiu.
3. nh ngha BPT bc nht mt n.
BPT dng ax + b < 0( hoc ax + b > 0, ax + b 0, ax + b 0)
vi a v b l 2 s cho v a 0 c gi l BPT bc nht
mt n.
1) Phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
a) a
2
- b
2
- 4a + 4 = ( a - 2)
2
- b
2
= ( a - 2 + b )(a - b - 2)
b)x
2
+ 2x - 3 = x
2
+ 2x + 1 - 4= ( x + 1)
2
- 2
2
= ( x + 3)(x-1)
c)4x
2
y
2
- (x
2
+ y
2
)
2
= (2xy)
2
- ( x
2
+ y
2
)
2
= - ( x + y)
2
(x - y)
2
d)2a
3
- 54 b
3
= 2(a
3
-27 b
3
)= 2(a -3b)(a
2
+3ab + 9b
2
)
2) Chng minh hiu cc bnh phng ca 2 s l bt k chia
ht cho 8
Gi 2 s l bt k l: 2a + 1 v 2b + 1 ( a, b

z )
Ta c: (2a + 1)
2
- ( 2b + 1)
2
= 4a
2
+ 4a + 1 - 4b
2
- 4b - 1= 4a
2
+
4a - 4b
2
- 4b = 4a(a + 1) - 4b(b + 1)
M a(a + 1) l tch 2 s nguyn lin tip nn chia ht cho 2 .
Vy biu thc 4a(a + 1) M8 v 4b(b + 1) chia ht cho 8
3) Cha bi 4/ 130
2
2 2 2 4 2
2
2
3 6 3 24 12
1:
( 3) 9 ( 3) 81 9
2
9
x x x
x x x x x
x
x
_ _ + _
+


+ + , ,
,

Thay x =
1
3

ta c gi tr biu thc l:
1
40

HS xem li bi
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 69 N TP CUI NM
I. Mc tiu bi ging:
- Kin thc: HS hiu k kin thc ca c nm
+ Bit tng hp kin thc v gii bi tp tng hp
+ Bit gii bt phng trnh cha du gi tr tuyt i.
+ Hiu c v s dng qui tc bin i bt phng trnh: chuyn v v qui tc nhn
+ Bit biu din nghim ca bt phng trnh trn trc s
+ Bc u hiu bt phng trnh tng ng.
- K nng: p dng 2 qui tc gii bt phng trnh c cha du gi tr tuyt i.
Trang 97
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
- Thi : T duy l gc - Phng php trnh by
II. Phng tin thc hin :.
- GV: Bi son.+ Bng ph
- HS: Bi tp v nh.
III. Tin trnh bi dy
Hot ng cu gio vin Hot ng cu HS
* H1: Kim tra bi c
Lng vo n tp
* H 2: n tp v gii bi ton bng cch
lp PT
Cho HS cha BT 12/ SGK
Cho HS cha BT 13/ SGK
* H3: n tp dng BT rt gn biu thc
tng hp.
Tm cc gi tr nguyn ca x phn thc
M c gi tr nguyn
M =
2
10 7 5 3
x
2 3 2
x x
x

Mun tm cc gi tr nguyn ta thng bin


i a v dng nguyn v phn thc c t
l 1 khng cha bin
Gii phng trnh
a) | 2x - 3 | = 4

Gii phng trnh
HS ln bng trnh by
HS1 cha BT 12:
v ( km/h) t (h) s (km)
Lc i 25
25
x
x (x>0)
Lc v 30
30
x
x
PT:
25
x
-
30
x
=
1
3
. Gii ra ta c x= 50 ( tho mn K ) .
Vy qung ng AB di 50 km
HS2 cha BT 13:
SP/ngy S ngy S SP
D nh 50
50
x
x (x

Z)
Thc hin 65
255
65
x +
x + 255
PT:
50
x
-
255
65
x +
= 3. Gii ra ta c x= 1500( tho mn
K). Vy s SP phi SX theo k hoch l 1500.
1) Cha bi 6
M =
2
10 7 5 3
x
2 3 2
x x
x

M = 5x + 4 -
7
2 3 x

2x - 3 l (7) = { } 1; 7 t t
x
{ } 2;1; 2;5

2) Cha bi 7
Gii cc phng trnh
a)| 2x - 3 | = 4 Nu:

2x - 3 = 4 x =
7
2
Nu: 2x - 3 = - 4

x =
1
2

3) Cha bi
2 4 6 8
98 96 94 92
2 4 6 8
1 1 1 1
98 96 94 92
100 100 100 100
98 96 94 92
1 1 1 1
( 100) 0
98 96 94 92
x x x x
x x x x
x x x x
x
+ + + +
+ +
+ + + + _ _ _ _
+ + + + + +

, , , ,
+ + + +
+ +
_
+ +

,
Trang 98
Tr ng THCS Nguy n nh Chiu Nm hc 2011-2012
HS ln bng trnh by
a) (x + 1)(3x - 1) = 0

b) (3x - 16)(2x - 3) = 0
HS ln bng trnh by
HS ln bng trnh by
1
1
3
x
x

>

*H4: Cng c:
Nhc nh HS xem li bi
*H5:Hng dn v nh
n tp ton b k II v c nm.

x + 100 = 0

x = -100
4) Cha bi 10
a) V nghim
b) V s nghim
t
2
5) Cha bi 11
a) (x + 1)(3x - 1) = 0
S =
1
1;
3

' ;

b) (3x - 16)(2x - 3) = 0

S =
16 3
;
3 2

' ;

Do a < b nn mun
so snh a( m - n) vi m - n ta phi bit du ca m-n
* Hng dn: t m < n

m - n < 0
Do a < b v m - n < 0

a( m - n ) > b(m - n)
1
1
3
x
x

>


1
1 0
3
x
x

>


1 ( 3)
3
x x
x

> 0


2
3 x
> 0

x - 3 > 0

x > 3
Ngyson:25/82010
Ngy ging:
Tit : 70TR BI KIM TRA CUI NM
( phn i s )
I
Trang 99