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I. t vn Trong chng trnh hnh hc lp 8 THCS phn tam gic ng dng c 20 tit trn tng s 71 tit hc.

. V vy loi ton ny chim v tr quan trng trong chng trnh cp hc. Tuy nhin vic vn dng kin thc y vo gii nhng bi ton c th hc sinh cn rt nhiu hn ch. Trong ging dy ti thy hc sinh c th t minh gii c cc bi ton bng vic s dng kin thc tam gic ng dng, cn gip hc sinh nh hng v tp trung khai thc kin thc nu trn bng mt s v d c th, ti ny mong mun c trao i kinh nghim m bn thn ti rt ra trong qu trnh ging dy phn mn hnh hc lp 8, vic khai thc v vn dng kin thc tam gic ng dng gii. Cc v d v cch gii bi vit ny ch l nhng v d c tnh minh ha cho vn nu cn c nhiu cch gii khc c th hay hn, xin dnh li cho cc bn c.
II. Ni dung:

Cc bi ton v tam gic ng dng tp trung 3 dng ton ch yu sau: 1- Cc bi ton v tnh ton. 2- Cc bi ta v chng minh. 3- Cc bi ton khc. Sau y l 11 v d th hin cc dng nu trn. Ngoi ra bn c cn c th t gii bi tp theo kin thc ny. 1. Cc bi ton v tnh ton: V d 1: Cho tam gic ABC c AB = 12cm; AC = 15cm; BC = 18 cm. Trn cnh AB, t on thng AM = 10cm; trn cnh AC t on thng AN = 8cm. Tnh di on thng MN Gii Xt ABC v ANM Ta c =
A
10cm 12cm 8cm 15cm

N C

Nn M Mt khc c A chung ca hai tam gic nn 18cm B ABC ANM (c-g-c)


S

Ta c hay MN = = 12 (cm) V d 2: Hnh thang ABCD (AB//CD) c AB = 4cm; CD = 16cm v BD = 8cm, gc ADB bng 40 O. Tnh s o gc C ca hnh thang. Gii: Xt ABD v BDC c AB//CD ABD = BCD (so le) = = = = Vy ABD 40O. V d 3: Tam gic vung ABC (A = 90O) c ng cao AH v trung tuyn AM. Tnh din tch tam gic AMH, bit rng BH = 4cm, CH = 9cm. Gii: Xt hai tam gic vung HBA v HAC Ta c BAH = ACH (Gc c cnh tng ng vung gc) Nn HBA HAC
S S

A 4cm B
8 40O

16c m

BDC (g.c.g) ABD = BCD = 40O hay C =

C 9

HA2 = HB.HC = 4.9 = 36 AH = 6(cm) Mt khc AM l trung tuyn ca ABC BM = = 6,5(cm) HM = 6,5 - 4 = 2,5 (cm)

Vy SAHM = AH. HM = . 6.2,5 = 6,5 (cm2) 2. Cc bi ton chng minh: V d 4: Cho hnh thang vung ABCD (A = D = 90 O ), AB = 6cm, CD = 12cm, AD = 17cm. Trn cnh AD t on thng AE = 8cm. Chng minh BEC = 90O. Gii: Xt hai tam gic vung ABE v DEC Ta c DE = AD - AE = 17-8=9(cm) T ta c (v ) Vy ABE Do : DEC (1) (2)
D
S S
1 7 6

AEB = DCE ABE = DEC

1 2

T (1) v (2) AEB + DEC = 90O nn BEC = 90O. V d 5: Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A, AC = 4cm; BC = 6cm. K tia Cx vung gc vi BC (tia Cx v im A khc pha so vi ng thng BC). Ly trn tia Cx im D sao cho BD = 9cm . Chng minh rng BD//AC. Gii: Xt hai tam gic vung ABC v CDB c (v ) Suy ra ABC CDB
4 A C B 6 9 D x

V do c cc gc tng ng bgn nhau CBD = ACB Vy BD// AC (v c hai gc so le trong bng nhau) V d 6: Trong lc gic li ABCDEF, cc gc nh A, C, E bng nhau v ABF = CBD, AFB = EFD. Chng minh

rng nu A' l im i xng ca A qua BF v khng nm trn ng thng CE th ACDE l hnh bnh hnh. Gii: EDF A'BF v c
B
A'

DEF = BA'F (= BAF) v EFD = A'FB (= AFB) Do (1) Ta li c: A'FE = EFB -A'FB = EFB - EFD = DFB T (1) v (2) suy ra A'EF
S S S

Chng minh tng t BCA' BDF Nn A'EF BCA' (tnh cht bc cu) Suy ra: vy A'C = DE (3) Tng t ta c A'E = CD (4) T (3) v (4) ta kt lun: ACDE l hnh bnh hnh. V d7: Chng minh rng trung im hai y ca mt hnh thang, giao im hai ng cho v giao im hai cnh bn ko di ca hnh thang thng hng. H Gii: Trong hnh v bn ta phi chng minh bn im H,E,G,F thng hng Ni EG, FG ta c ADG CBG (g.g)
S

Hay (1) B Ta li c EAG = FCG (so le trong) (2) T (1) v (2) AEG
S

Nn AGE = CGF . Vy E, G, F thng hng (3) Ni EH, FH. Chng minh tng t trn ta c AEH
S

BFH AHE = BHF Vy H, E, F thng hng (4) T (3) v (4) ta kt lun H, E, G, F thng hng. 4

(2) BDF (c.g.c)

E G

CFG (c.g.c)

V d 8: Tam gic ABC c ba ng cao AD, BE, CF ng quy ti H. Chng minh rng: AH. DH = BH . EH = CH . FH. Gii: Ta c tam gic AFH v tam gic CDH l hai tam gic vung c AHF = CHD v hai gc i nh Nn AFH CDH (g.g) (1) CEH
S

A E F H B D C

AH. DH = CH.FH BH. EH = CH.FH

Chng minh tng t ta c BFH (2)

T (1) v (2) suy ra AH.DH = BH.EH = CH .FH V d 9: Ly im M trn ng cho AC ca t gic ABCD c B=D = 90O, k MN BC (NBC) v MPAD (PAD). Chng minh Gii: V AB BC (gt) MNBC (gt) Nn MN//AB CNM CBA (1) ACD
D
S

Ta c MP//CD nn AMP (2)

Cng v vi v ca (1) v (2) ta c: Vy 3. Cc bi ton khc:

B N A M C

V d 10: Dng tam gic ABC bit B = 60O; C = 40O v ng cao AH =h. Gii: Cch dng: - Dng AB'C' c B' =60O C' = 40O - V ng cao AH' - Trn tia AH' ly im H sao cho AH = h - Dng ng thng d i qua H v song song vi B'C ct AB' v AC' ln lt B,C ABC l tam gic cn dng Chng minh: Theo cch dng c AB//B'C' ABC AB'C' B = B' = 60O ; C =C' = 40O AH' B'C' AHBC v AH = H Phn cn li ngi c t gii tip V d 11: Cho tam gac ABC c A = 60O, AB = 6cm, AC = 9cm. Dng tam gic ng dng vi tam gic ABC theo t s ng dng K= Gii: Cch dng: - Dng xA'y = A = 60O Trn A'x v A'y theo th t ly cc im B',C' sao cho (ly A'B' = AB = 2(cm)) (hay A'C' = AC = 3(cm)) Theo cch dng ta c 6
x y B'
S S

A h H H'

d B '

B
60
O

C
40
O

C'

A'
60
O

C'

Tam gic A'B'C' l tam gic phi chng minh (1)

(2) A' = A Suy ra: v A' = A vy A'B'C' (Trng hp th ba) 4. Bi tp p dng: Bi 1: Gi s AC l ng cho ln c hnh bnh hnh ABCD. T C, v ng vung gc CE vi ng thng AB, ng vung gc CF vi ng thng AD (E,F thuc phn ko di ca cc cnh AB v AD). Chng minh rng AB.AE+AD.AF = AC2. Bi 2: Cho tam gic u ABC. Mt ng thng song song vi AC ct cc cnh AB, BC M v P. Gi D l tm ca PMB, E l trung im ca AP. Tnh cc gc ca DEC. Bi 3: Cho hnh by cnh u A1 A1... A7. Chng minh rng: Bi 4: Hnh thang ABCD (BC//AD) c BC = 6cm; AD = 11cm v AB=4cm. Tnh di ng cao ca hnh thang bit BAD + CDA = 90O. Bi 5: Cho cc hnh bnh hnh ABCD, AMPN 9MAB v NAD, P trong hnh bnh hnh ABCD). Gi Q l giao im ca DM v BN. Chng minh im Q,P,C thng hng.
III. Kt lun:

ABC
S

Vic xc nh c v vn dng ng tam gic ng dng khng phi l d dng trong mi bi ton. Trong qu trnh ging dy cc nm hc va qua ti thc nghim ni dung ca ti ny v thy c tc dng tnh tch cc ca n. T ch hc sinh cn rt lng tng xc nh c li gii th n y cc em kh ch ng trong vn

ny. Nht l nhng bi ton hnh hc c ni dung chng minh, tr thnh quen thuc vi cc em, lm cho khng kh lp hc tr nn si ng, hc sinh t tin hn trong qu trnh gii bi. Vi tc dng nht nh ca n, ti "S dng tam gic ng dng gii mt s bi ton hnh hc lp 8" vn cn tip tc c vn dng trong nhng nm hc tip theo. Tuy vy, do cn nhiu mt hn ch ca ti nn chc chn ti khng khi c nhng thiu st v hn hp. Rt mong ngi c gp , xy dng./. Nga Hng, ngy 20 thng 3 nm 2005
Ngi vit

Mai Th Hi Yn

phng gio dc huyn nga sn


Trng THCS nga hng

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S dng kin thc v tam gic ng dng gii mt s bi ton hnh hc 8 THCS ********

H v tn: n v: Sn

Mai Th Hi Yn
Trng THCS Nga Hng-Nga

Nm hc : 2004 - 2005
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