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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

Chng 7

H THNG THNG TIN QUANG


7.1. Cu to v nguyn l si quang:
Si quang cu to gm 1 rut li (core) chit sut n1 v v (Cladding) chit sut n2 tho mn n1 > n2, nh s phn x ton phn xut hin ti b mt phn cch ny.

Hnh 7.1. Si quang S khc bit gia n1 v n2 rt b (c o/oo ), tia sng i thng v tia phn x c di qung ng v thi gian truyn chnh lch khng nhiu

Hnh 7.2. S bin thin chit sut si quang

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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

Ngi ta c gng gim s chnh lch ny nh hn na, bng cch s dng si quang c chit sut bin thin lin tc ( dng parabol - chit sut gradient) Si quang c ng knh li rt b ( 2 8m). s chnh lch chiu di truyn thng v phn x khng ng k, ta gi l si n mode (Single mode) Si quang a mode (Multimode) c ng knh li c 25 100 m s chu mo dng sng nhiu hn , do thi gian truyn khc nhau ca nhiu nhm sng, nn hn ch tc truyn thng tin Vt liu lm si quang c 2 loi Plastic v glass Si quang c sp xp trong b c gi l cp quang v c s dng truyn tn hiu trong khong cch rt xa. Cp quang c cu to gm li : Trung tm phn chiu ca si quang ni nh sng i o : Vt cht quang bn ngoi bao bc li m phn x nh sng tr li vo li. lp bc u tin : Lp ph do bn ngoi bo v si khng b hng v m t jacket: Nhiu si quang c t trong b gi l cp quang. Nhng b ny c bo v bi lp ph bn ngoi c gi l jacket. PHN LOI SI QUANG si quang thch anh phn loi theo vt liu in mi si thu tinh a vt liu si quang bng nha si quang n mt si quang a mt si quang chit sut bc si quang chit sut bin i u

phn loi theo mt truyn lan phn loi theo chit sut khc x

Trong mng vin thng , si quang thu tinh thch anh c s dng nhiu bi v n c kh nng cho sn phm c suy hao thp v cc c tnh truyn dn n nh trong thi gian di. phn loi theo mt lan truyn: theo mt lan truyn c chia lm hai loi. mt l si quang n mt (c gi l loi SM ) loi si ny ch cho mt mt lan truyn. loi si th hai l loi a mt, cho nhiu mt lan truyn.

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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

phn loi theo phn b ch s khc x: si quang SI (stepped index )

Si quang GI (graded index )

Si quang SM (Single mode )

Hnh 7.3. ng i cu nh sng qua si quang Multimode stepped index (chit sut bc): Li ln (100 m ), cc tia to xung nh sng c th i theo nhiu ng khc nhau trong li: thng, zig-zagti im n s nhn cc chm tia ring l, v vy xung d b mo dng. Multimode graded index (chit sut lin tc): Li c ch s khc x gim dn t trong ra ngoi cladding. Cc tia gn trc truyn chm hn cc tia gn cladding. Cc tia theo ng cong thay v zig-zag. Cc chm tia ti im hi t, v vy xung t b mo dng. Single mode (n mode): Li nh (8 m hay nh hn), h s thay i khc x thay i t li ra cladding t hn multimode. Cc tia truyn theo phng song song trc. Xung nhn c hi t tt, t mo dng. c im : Pht: Mt it pht sng (LED) hoc laser truyn d liu xung nh sng vo cp quang. Nhn: s dng cm ng quang chuyn xung nh sng ngc thnh data. Cp quang ch truyn sng nh sng (khng truyn tn hiu in) nn nhanh, khng b nhiu v b nghe trm. suy gim thp hn cc loi cp ng nn c th ti cc tn hiu i xa hng ngn km. Ci t i hi phi c chuyn mn nht nh Cp quang v cc thit b i km rt t tin so vi cc loi cp ng . Cc thng s tiu chun . Cc ch s Si quang chit sut bin i Si quang n mt

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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

Bc sng s dng ng knh li ng knh v T l ng tm hoc s ng tm T l khng trn ca li T l khng trn ca v

0.85m

1.3 m

1.3 m

1.55 m

50 m +/- 6% 125 m +/- 2.4% 6% hoc t hn 6% hoc t hn 2% hoc t hn

------------------125 m +/- 2.4%` 0.5 - 3 m ----------2% hoc t hn

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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

7.2. Truyn s bng cp quang: Cc tn hiu in cn dng n cc . Cc b ng b clock ni thu l rt cn thit. Do bng thng si quang rt rng , nn tc thng tin ph thuc nhiu vo tc chuyn i in quang , t ph thuc vo knh truyn . Thng thng c 2 dng m ng truyn. M nh phn n gin nhng khng gi c ng b bit khi thng tin c dng chui bit ging nhau . khc phc , ngi ta ngu nhin ho (Scrambling) tn hiu ni pht tin . Ti ni thu , ngi ta gii ngu nhin (Descrambling) khi phc tn hiu tr li. M CMI ( Coded Mark Inversion) ph hp vi truyn tc cao trn si quang . M CMI c kh nng ng b rt cao , nhng c ph rng hn.

Hnh 7.4. Code Mark Inversion CMI 7.3. Tc ng truyn ca h thng quang- hin tng tn sc:

Hnh 7.5. Dng xung Thi gian ln l thi gian c tnh t 10% 90% bin

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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

Ni pht : LED c T = 5 15 ns, LD T = 0,1 2 ns Ni thu : PIN , APD T = 1 4 ns Thi gian ln ton h thng l:
2 2 2 2 T HeThong = 1,1. TPhat + TModal + TVat lieu + TThu

Tpht l thi gian ln ca diode pht TThu l thi gian ln ca diode thu TModal l do tn x mode dc theo si quang (n mode , a mode ) TVt liu l do s tn x bc sng ca vt liu si quang (Chit sut ca si quang ph thuc vo bc sng ) Gi t l rng xung iu ch , thng thng The thong = 0,35.t Tc bit ng truyn l Rmax ~ 1 / The thong Tn sc trong si quang Tn sc trong si quang gy ra s dn rng xung nh sng khi truyn. 7.3.1. Tn sc mode do Si truyn nhiu mode Mi mode truyn c vn tc nhm khc nhau (mi mode c hng s lan truyn khc nhau)

Hnh 7.6. Lch thi gian truyn gy ra tn sc mode

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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

7.3.2. Tn sc vt liu (bc sng) Nguyn nhn: nh sng truyn trong si quang khng n sc m c rng ph xc nh. Tc lan truyn ca cc thnh phn ph l khc nhau (do chit sut l hm ca bc sng) Cc thnh phn ph c thi gian truyn lch nhau gy ra tn sc vt liu

Hnh 7.7. Quan h gia tn sc vt liu vi bc sng 7.3.3. Di thng B trn ng truyn quang Di thng ng truyn quang B l di tn s ca tn hiu sao cho cng sut quang bin thin 3 dB ( hay cng sut in tng ng bin thin 6 dB ) Di thng ng truyn quang B ph thuc chiu di d si quang v loi si quang Nhn xt Di thng B si quang n mode theo qui lut 1/d , n rng hn nhiu so vi di thng ca si quang a mode Vi si quang a mode , di thng B ph thuc vo chiu di si quang d, do s tn x ca sng quang trong mi trng truyn. N theo qui lut 1/d nu d < d ti hn; theo qui lut 1 chia cho cn bc 2 ca d nu d > d ti hn Ch Tc bit max truyn trn si quang l D = 1,25B

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7.4. Cc b chuyn i in

quang

Cc b chuyn i in quang thng thng l LED, diode Laser (LD) Cc b chuyn i quang in thng thng l photodiode PIN , photodiode thc l APD ( Avalanche photodiode )

Hnh 7.8. H thng thng tin quang n gin

Hnh 7.9. c tnh ca Laser diode

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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

Hnh 7.10. c tnh ca photo diode

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7.5. Suy hao si quang Suy hao thun si quang ph thuc bc sng Suy hao thun si quang khong vi dB/Km Suy hao thun ca si quang cn ph thuc vo bc sng nh sng nh sng vng hng ngoi (0,7 1,6 m ) c suy hao nh hn nhiu so vi nh sng kh kin (0,4 0,7 m ) C 3 vng bc sng vng hng ngoi cho suy hao cc tiu Cc h si quang c s dng bc sng 0,85 m Vng bc sng 1,3 m Cho suy hao nh hn so vi 0,85 m Vng bc sng 1,55 m ang c nghin cu a vo thc t p ng tn s tn hiu trn si quang Vi cng s suy hao thun nh nhau, Tn hiu mang thng tin c tn s cng cao cng chu suy hao nhiu trn ng truyn si quang

Hnh 7.11. Suy hao thun si quang ph thuc bc sng Cc nguyn nhn khc gy suy hao : Suy hao do hp th Suy hao do tn x Suy hao do un cong

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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

7.6. ng dng ca si quang trong thng tin lin lc Si quang c cc u im sau: Bng thng rng ( Vi chc Mhz vi si a mode , Vi chc Ghz vi si n mode ) Tc truyn thng tin rt ln , ch b gii hn bi s tn sc S suy hao thun rt thp Khng chu nh hng ca nhiu in t , trnh c s ghp k sinh C th s dng trong mi trng in t phc tp t thay i c tnh theo nhit Cch in hon ton gia phn thu v pht (chng nhiu u gn) Nh v chu xon c kh C tim nng ln v kinh t v cng ngh Tn ti: Vic ni cc si quang i hi c kh chnh xc Vic ghp cc knh truyn quang hc cn kh khn

Hnh 7.12. Suy hao si quang so vi cp

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Chng 7: H thng thng tin quang

7.7. Cc thng s c bn ca si quang c tnh ca truyn s l: Tc bit nh phn cn truyn Chiu di ca ng truyn Xc sut sai mi bit chp nhn c c tnh ca mi trng truyn si quang l: suy hao thun trn ng truyn S tn x mode (modal dispersion) v tn x sc (chromatic dispersion) lm tng rng xung Cc thng s thc t khc: Suy hao do ghp ni khng cht gia 2 si quang , gia si quang v b chuyn i in quang, suy hao do vt nt trn si quang p ng thi gian ca b chuyn i in quang 7.8. Nguyn l thng tin si quang Ngi ta iu ch tn hiu da trn cng ca nh sng S suy hao trn ng truyn sng quang do hin tng hp th v tn x (absorption and diffusion) v ti cc b chuyn i in quang Cu trc ca h thng thng tin si quang gm: B iu ch nh PCM B chuyn i in quang (electro-optic) ti ni pht . N iu ch cng sng quang B chuyn i quang in (opto-electronic) ti ni thu. N gii iu ch hnh bao ca cng sng quang B gii iu ch in khi phc thng tin c truyn i

Hnh 7.13. Suy hao v ti to tn hiu trong H Thng Thng Tin quang

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Hnh 7.14. Mng Thng Tin quang

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