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ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8

n tp h Lp 7 ln 8
Chuyn 1 :
Cc php tnh trn tp hp s hu t.
I. Nhng kin thc cn nh
1. nh ngha: S hu t l s c th vit di dng
b
a
vi a, b

Z; b

0.
Tp hp s hu t c k hiu l Q.
2. Cc php ton trong Q.
a) Cng, tr s hu t:
Nu ) 0 , , , ( ; m Z m b a
m
b
y
m
a
x
Th
m
b a
m
b
m
a
y x
+
+ +
;
m
b a
m
b
m
a
y x y x

+ + ) ( ) (
b) Nhn, chia s hu t:
* Nu
d b
c a
d
c
b
a
y x th
d
c
y
b
a
x
.
.
. . ;
* Nu
c b
d a
c
d
b
a
y
x y x th y
d
c
y
b
a
x
.
.
.
1
. : ) 0 ( ;
Thng x : y cn gi l t s ca hai s x v y, k hiu
) : ( y x hay
y
x
Ch :
+) Php cng v php nhn trong Q cng c cc tnh cht c bn nh php cng v
php nhn trong Z
+) Vi x

Q th

'

<

0
0
x nu x
x nu x
x
B sung:
* Vi m > 0 th
m x m m x < < <

'

<
>
>
m x
m x
m x

'


0
0
0 . *
y
x
y x
0
0 *
<
>
z voi yz xz y x
z voi yz xz y x
II. Bi tp
Bi 1. Thc hin php tnh bng cch hp l
a)
14
17
9
4
7
5
18
17
125
11
+ +
1
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
b)
1
2
1
2
3
1
3
4
1
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
1 + + +
Bi lm.
a)
125
11
2
1
2
1
125
11
9
4
18
17
7
5
14
17
125
11
+

,
_

,
_

+
b)
1 1 1 1 4
4
1
4
3
3
1
3
2
2
1
2
1
4 ) 3 3 ( ) 2 2 ( ) 1 1 (

,
_

,
_

,
_

+ + + + + + +
Bi 2 Tnh:
A = 26 :
1
]
1


+
+

) 15 , 25 57 , 28 ( : 84 , 6
4 ) 81 , 33 06 , 34 (
) 2 , 1 8 , 0 ( 5 , 2
) 1 , 0 2 , 0 ( : 3
+
3
2
:
21
4
Bi lm

2
1
7
2
7
13
2
26
2
7
2
13
: 26
2
7
2
1
5
30
: 26
2
7
42 , 3 : 84 , 6
4 25 , 0
2 5 , 2
1 , 0 : 3
: 26
+ + +
1
]
1

+
+
1
]
1

A
*Bi tp lun
B i 1 : Thc hin php tnh :
1 1 6 12 2 3 5
) ; ) ; ) ; ) 0, 75
39 52 9 16 5 11 12

+ + + a b c d
;
5 1 5 1
e) 12 5
7 2 7 2

Bi 2 : Thc hin php tnh
a)
1 1
3 4
+
b)
2 7
5 21

+
c)
3 5
8 6

+
d)
15 1
12 4

e)
16 5
42 8

f )
1 5
1
9 12
_


,
g)
4
0,4 2
5
_
+

,
h)
7
4,75 1
12


i)
9 35
12 42
_


,
k)
1
0,75 2
3

m) ( )
1
1 2,25
4

n)
1 1
3 2
2 4

o)
2 1
21 28

p)
2 5
33 55

+
q)
3 4
2
26 69

+
r)
7 3 17
2 4 12

+

s)
1 5 1
2
12 8 3
_


,
t)
1 1
1,75 2
9 18
_


,
u)
5 3 1
6 8 10
_
+

,

v)
2 4 1
5 3 2
_ _
+ +

, ,
x)
3 6 3
12 15 10
_


,
Bi 3 . Thc hin php tnh:
a)
3
1,25. 3
8
_


,
b)
9 17
.
34 4

c)
20 4
.
41 5

d)
6 21
.
7 2


e)
1 11
2 .2
7 12
f)
4 1
. 3
21 9
_


,
g)
4 3
. 6
17 8
_ _


, ,
h) ( )
10
3,25 .2
13

i) ( )
9
3,8 2
28
_


,
k)
8 1
.1
15 4

m)
2 3
2 .
5 4

n)
1 1
1 . 2
17 8
_


,
Bi 4 . Thc hin php tnh:
2
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
a)
5 3
:
2 4

b)
1 4
4 : 2
5 5
_


,
c)
3
1,8:
4
_


,
d)
17 4
:
15 3
e)
12 34
:
21 43

f)
1 6
3 : 1
7 49
_ _


, ,
g)
2 3
2 : 3
3 4
_


,
h)
3 5
1 : 5
5 7
_


,
i)
( )
3
3,5 : 2
5
_


,
k)
1 4 1
1 . . 11
8 51 3
_


,
m)
1 6 7
3 . .
7 55 12
_


,
n)
18 5 3
. 1 : 6
39 8 4
_ _


, ,
o)
2 4 5
: 5 .2
15 5 12
_


,
p)
1 15 38
. .
6 19 45
_ _


, ,
q)
2 9 3 3
2 . . :
15 17 32 17
_ _


, ,
4. Thc hin php tnh: ( tnh nhanh nu c th )
a)
1 1 1 7
24 4 2 8
1 _

1
,
]
b)
5 7 1 2 1
7 5 2 7 10
1
_ _

1
, ,
]
c)
1 3 1 1 2 4 7
2 5 9 71 7 35 18
_ _ _ _
+ + +

, , , ,
d)
1 2 1 6 7 3
3 5 6
4 3 3 5 4 2
_ _ _
+ +

, , ,
e)
1 2 1 3 5 2 1
5 2 2 8
5 9 23 35 6 7 18
_ _ _
+ + +

, , ,
f)
1 3 3 1 2 1 1
3 4 5 64 9 36 15
_
+ +

,
g)
5 5 13 1 5 3 2
1 1
7 67 30 2 6 14 5
_ _ _
+ + + +

, , ,
h)
3 1 1 3 1 1
: : 1
5 15 6 5 3 15
_ _
+

, ,
i)
3 5 2 1 8 2
: 2 :
4 13 7 4 13 7
_ _
+ +

, ,
k)
1 13 5 2 1 5
: :
2 14 7 21 7 7
_ _
+

, ,
m)
2 8 1 2 5 1
12. :3 . .3
7 9 2 7 18 2
_
+

,
n)
3 3 3
13 4 8
5 4 5
_
+

,
p)
1 5 1
11 2 5
4 7 4
_
+

,

q)
5 5 5
8 3 3
11 8 11
_
+

,
u)
1 9 2
.13 0,25.6
4 11 11

v)
4 1 5 1
: 6 :
9 7 9 7
_ _
+

, ,
5.Thc hin php tnh
a)
2 1 3
4.
3 2 4
_
+

,
b)
1 5
.11 7
3 6
_
+

,
c)
5 3 13 3
. .
9 11 18 11
_ _
+

, ,
d)
2 3 16 3
. .
3 11 9 11
_ _
+

, ,
e)
1 2 7 2
. .
4 13 24 13
_ _ _


, , ,
f)
1 3 5 3
. .
27 7 9 7
_ _ _
+

, , ,
g)
1 3 2 4 4 2
: :
5 7 11 5 7 11
_ _
+ + +

, ,


*Nng cao
B i 1 : Rt gn biu thc:
a)
7 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 2
2
5 2 5 5 4
2 2
2 .9 6 3.6 3 5 .20 (5 5 ) 3 39
; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) (2, 5 0, 7) ; )
6 .8 13 25 .4 125
7 91
b c d e f
+ + +

+
1
3
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Bi 2 . Thc hin php tnh:
2
1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2
a. 1 .2 1 . b. . 4 .
2 3 3 2 9 145 3 145 145
7 1 1 1 2 1
c. 2 : 2 : 2 2 : 2
12 7 18 7 9 7
7 3 2 8 5 10 8
d. : 1 : 8 . 2
80 4 9 3 24 3 15
+ +
_
+

,
_ _ _
+

, , ,

Bi 3 . Thc hin php tnh:
a,
2005 2004 4 3 2
3
1
3
1
...
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
+ + + + + + B
b, A=1+5+5
2
+5
3
+5
4
++5
49
+5
50

c, A=(
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
1).( 1).( 1)...( 1)
2 3 4 100

d, A=2
100
-2
99
+2
98
-2
97
++2
2
-2
Chuyn 2:Cc bi ton tm x lp 7
A.L thuyt:
Dng 1: A(x) = m (m Q) hoc A(x) = B(x)
Cch gii:
4
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Quy tc : Mun tm x dng: A(x) = B(x)
-Ta thc hin cc php tnh tng v (nu c).
-Chuyn cc s hng cha x sang mt v,cc s hng khng cha
x( s hng bit ) chuyn sang v ngc li.
-Tip tc thc hin cc php tnh tng v (nu c).a ng
thc cui cng v mt trong cc dng sau:
1. x c mt gi tr kiu: ax = b ( a 0) x=
2. x khng c gi tr no kiu: ax = b ( a = 0)
3. x c v s gi tr kiu: ax = b ( a = 0, b = 0)
Sau y l cc v d minh ho:
Dng 2: |A(x)| = B ; ( B 0)
Cch gii:
Cng thc gii nh sau:
|A(x)| = B ; ( B 0)
Dng 3 :|A(x)| = B(x)
Cch gii:
Cng thc gii nh sau:
1. |A(x)| = B(x) ; (B(x) 0)
2. |A(x)| = B(x) ; (B(x) <0) x khng c gi tr no.
Dng 4: + |B(x)| =0
Cch gii:
Cng thc gii nh sau:
+ |B(x)| =0
Dng5: |A(x)| = |B(x)|
Cch gii:
|A(x)| = |B(x)|
Dng 6: |A(x)| t |B(x)| =t c (c 0 ; c Q)
Cch gii:
Ta tm x bit: A(x) = 0 (1) gii (1) tm c x
1
= m .
V tm x bit: B(x) = 0 (2) gii (2) tm c x
2
= n.
Ri chia khong ph du GTT ( du gi tr tuyt i)
TH
1
: Nu m > n x
1
> x
2
; ta c cc khong sau c xt theo
th t trc sau: x< x
2
; x
2
x < x
1
; x
1
x .
+ Vi x< x
2
ta ly 1 gi tr x = t (t khong x< x
2
;t nguyn cng
c) thay
vo tng biu thc di du GTT xem biu thc dng hay m
lm
cn c kh d GTT gii tip.
+Vi:x
2
x < x
1
hoc x
1
x ta cng lm nh trn.
5
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
TH
2
: Nu m < n x
1
< x
2
; ta c cc khong sau c xt theo
th t trc sau: x< x
1
; x
1
x < x
2
; x
2
x .
+ Vi x< x
1
ta ly 1 gi tr x = t (t khong x< x
1
;t nguyn cng
c) thay
vo tng biu thc di du GTT xem biu thc dng hay m
lm
cn c kh d GTT gii tip.
+Vi:x
1
x < x
2
hoc x
2
x ta cng lm nh trn
Ch :
1. Nu TH
1
xy ra th khng xt TH
2
v ngc li ;v khng th
cng mt lc xy ra 2 TH
2. Sau khi tm c gi tr x trong mi khong cn i chiu
vi khong ang xt xem x c thuc khong khng nu
x khng thuc th gi tr x b loi.
3. Nu c 3;4;5Biu thcc du GTT cha x th cn sp
xp cc x
1
;x
2
;x
3
;x
4
;x
5
;Theo th t ri chia khong nh trn
xt v gii.S khong bng s biu thc c du
GTT+1
Dng 7:(biu thc tm x c s m) Dng
n
= m hoc
A(x) = m
n

B. Bi tp:
D NG 1 :
Bi 1. Tm x, bit:

,
_

,
_


13
11
28
15
42
5
13
11
x
;
a)
,
_

,
_


13
11
28
15
42
5
13
11
x

12
5
42
5
28
15
13
11
28
15
42
5
13
11

+
+ +
x
x
x
Bi 2 . Tm x, bit:
a.
,
_

+
3
1
5
2
3
1
x
b.
,
_


5
3
4
1
7
3
x
KQ: a) x =
5
2
; b) -
140
59
6
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
* Bi tp luyn
B i 1 : Tm x bit
3 2 5 2 2 13 3 5
; ) ; )
10 15 6 5 3 20 5 8
x b x c x

_ _
+ + +

, ,
B i 2 :Tm x bit

3 31 2 3 4 11 5
) : 1 ; ) 1 ; ) 0, 25
8 33 5 7 5 12 6
a x b x c x

+ +
* Nng cao
Tm x, bit
a) x+ (x+ 1) +( x+ 2)+ +(x+2003) = 2004
b)
1 3 3
2 3 .
3 2 2
x x
_ _
+

, ,
c)
3 2 2 5
: 1 5 2
2 3 3 3
x
_


,
d)
7 2 4 6
2 : 3 1 7
2 5 5 5
x
_
+

,
Dng 2
B i 1 : m x bit
a)|x1,7|=2,3;
b)
15 , 2 75 , 3
15
4
+ x

Gii

+
+

+
+ +
+
+
15
28
3
4
6 , 1
5
4
6 , 1
5
4
6 , 1
15
4
75 , 3 15 , 2
15
4
15 , 2 75 , 3
15
4
15 , 2 75 , 3
15
4
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
a) x 1,7 = 2,3
x- 1,7 = -2,3
x= 2,3 + 1,7
x = -2,3 + 1,7
x = 4
x = -0,6
7
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Bi 2 : Tm x
a)
3 1 1 7
0; ) 3 ; ) 5
4 3 2 3
x c x d x + +

b) 2 5 , 1 x e)
0
2
1
4
3
+ x
Bi 3 Tm x
1
a. x 5,6 b. x 0 c. x 3
5
3 1
d. x 2,1 d. x 3,5 5 e. x 0
4 2
1 5 1
f. 4x 13,5 2 g. 2 x
4 6 3
2 1 3 2 1
h. x i. 5 3x
5 2 4 3 6
1 1 1
k. 2,5 3x 5 1,5 m. x
5 5 5

+

+ +
+ +
* Bi tp nng cao:
Bi 1 :Tm x
a)
3 4 3 5 0 x y + +
b)
19 1890
2004 0
5 1975
x y z + + + + - =
c)
9 4 7
0
2 3 2
x y z + + + + +
d)
3 1
0
4 5
x y x y z + + - + + + =
e)
3 2 1
0
4 5 2
x y z + + - + +
Bi 3: Tm gi tr nh nht ca cc biu thc sau:
a)
3
4
A x = -
; b)
1,5 2 B x = + -
;c)
1
2 107
3
A x = - +
; M=5 -1
d)
1 1 1
2 3 4
B x x x = + + + + +
; e) D = + ; B = + ;
g) C= x
2
+ -5
h) A =3,7 + ; i) B = -14,2 ; k) C = + +17,5
n) M = +
* Dng 3
Bi 1 :Tm x
a) (x 2)
2
= 1 ; b) ( 2x 1)
3
= -27; c)
16
1
2
n


Bi 2 : Tnh x
2
nu bit: x 3; x 8
* Bi tp nng cao :
8
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Bi 1:Tm x bit
a)
3
=
b)
2
=
c)
x+2
=
x+6
v xZ
Bi 2 : Tm x, bit :
a)
2
x 4; (x 1) 1; x 1 5 + +
Bi 3 : Tm x, bit
a) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 3 0 x y +
b) 5
(x-2).(x+3)
=1
b) -(x-y)
2
=(yz-3)
2
Bi 3: Tm gi tr nh nht ca cc biu thc sau:
a; A =
2
; B =
2
+
2
C= x
2
+ -5
D NG 4: TNH CHT CA DY T S BNG NHAU.
B i 1 : Tm hai s x, y bit :
a)
3 5
x y

v x + y = 16 b) 7x = 3y v x y = 16.
c)
2 3 4
a b c

v a + 2b 3c = -20 d)
,
2 3 5 4
a b b c

v a b + c = 49.:
Bi 2 :
2 9
) ; )
27 36 4
x x
a b
x

*Nng cao
1, a .
1 60
15 1
x
x


b.
2 1 3 2 2 3 1
5 7 6
x y x y
x
+ +

2) Tm x bit :
1 2 3 4
2009 2008 2007 2006
x x x x
+ +

3, Tm cc s a
1
, a
2
, ...,a
9
bit:
9 1 2
a 9 a 1 a 2
9 8 1

v a
1
+ a
2
+ ...
+ a
9
= 90
9
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
( )
2 4
4,
1 7
2 3 3
5, 3 2 :1 2 :2
5 7 5
31 2 9
6,
23 4
3 2
7,
8 3
1,64
8,
8,51 3,11
3 2 3 1
9,
5 7 5 3
2 1
18
10,
1
5
2
x x
x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x x
x
+

+
+

Chuyn 3 : t l thc v dy t s bng nhau


I Tom tat ly thuyet:
2/ Bai tap:
Bi tp
Bai 1: Tm x trong cac t le thc sau:
a)
x 0,15
3,15 7,2
=
; b)
2,6 12
x 42
- -
= ; c)
11 6,32
10,5 x
=
; d)
41
x
10
9
7,3
4
=
;
e) 2,5:x = 4,7:12,1
Bai 2: Tm x trong t le thc:
10
+ T le thc la mot ang thc gia hai t so:
a c
b d
=
hoac a:b = c:d.
- a, d goi la Ngoai t. b, c goi la trung t.
+ Neu co ang thc ad = bc th ta co the lap c 4 t
le thc :
a c a b b d c d
; ; ;
b d c d a c a b
= = = =
+ Tnh chat:
a c e a c e a c e c a
b d f b d f b d f d b
+ + - - -
= = = = =
+ + - - -
=
+ Neu co
a b c
3 4 5
= = th ta noi a, b, c t le vi ba so 3; 4; 5.
+ Muon tm mot thanh phan cha biet cua t le thc, ta
lap tch theo ng cheo roi chia cho thanh phan con lai:
T t le thc
x a m.a
x
m b b
= =
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
a)
x 1 6
x 5 7
-
=
+
; b)
2
x 24
6 25
= ; c)
x 2 x 4
x 1 x 7
- +
=
- +
Bai 3 : Tm hai so x, y biet:
x y
7 13
= va x +y = 40.
Bai 4 : Chng minh rang t t le thc
a c
b d
= (Vi b,d 0) ta
suy ra c :
a a c
b b d
+
=
+
.
Bai 5 : Tm x, y biet :
a)
x 17
y 3
=
va x+y = -60 ; b)
x y
19 21
= va 2x-y = 34 ; c)
2 2
x y
9 16
= va
x
2
+ y
2
=100
Bai 6 : Ba voi nc cung chay vao mot cai ho co dung tch
15,8 m
3
t luc khong co nc cho ti khi ay ho. Biet rang
thi gian chay c 1m
3
nc cua voi th nhat la 3 phut,
voi th hai la 5 phut va voi th ba la 8 phut. Hoi moi voi
chay c bao nhieu nc ay ho.
HD : Goi x,y,z lan lt la so nc chay c cua moi
voi. Thi gian ma cac voi a chay vao ho la 3x, 5y, 8z. V
thi gian chay la nh nhau nen : 3x=5y=8z
Bai 7 : Ba hoc sinh A, B, C co so iem mi t le vi cac so
2 ; 3 ; 4. Biet rang tong so iem 10 cua A va C hn B la 6
iem 10. Hoi moi em co bao nhieu iem 10 ?
**Bi tp nng cao
Bi;1Tm cc s t nhin a v b tho mn
28
29
5 6
7 5

+
+
b a
b a
v (a, b)
= 1
Bi:2: Tm cc s t nhin a, b, c, d nh nht sao cho:
5
3

b
a
;
21
12

c
b
;
11
6

d
c
Bi;3:Chng minh rng nu
d
c
b
a

th
d c
d c
b a
b a
3 5
3 5
3 5
3 5

+
(gi thit
cc t s u c ngha).
Bi;5: Bit
c
bx ay
b
az cx
a
cy bz

Chng minh rng:


z
c
y
b
x
a

Bi:6:Cho t l thc
d
c
b
a

. Chng minh rng:


11
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8

2 2
2 2
d c
b a
cd
ab

v
2 2
2 2
2
d c
b a
d c
b a
+
+

,
_

+
+
Bi:7:Tm x, y, z bit:

3 2
y x

;
5 4
z y

v 16
2 2
y x
Bi; 8:Tm x, y, z bit
216
3
64
3
8
3 z y x

v 1 2 2
2 2 2
+ z y x
Bi;9: CMR: nu
d
c
b
a

th
bd b
bd b
ac a
ac a
5 7
5 7
5 7
5 7
2
2
2
2

+
(Gi s cc t s
u c ngha).
Bi:10: Cho
d
c
b
a

. Chng minh rng:


2
2
) (
) (
d c
b a
cd
ab
+
+

Bi:11:Bit
c
bx ay
b
az cx
a
cy bz

Chng minh rng:


z
c
y
b
x
a

Bi:12:Cho a, b, c, d khc 0 tho mn: b
2

= ac ; c
2
= bd.
Chng minh rng:
d
a
d c b
c b a

+ +
+ +
3 3 3
3 3 3
Bi;13: Cho a, b, c khc 0 tho mn:
a c
ca
c b
bc
b a
ab
+

+
Tnh gi tr ca biu thc:
2 2 2
c b a
ca bc ab
M
+ +
+ +

Bi:14: Tm t l ba ng cao ca tam gic bit rng nu


cng ln lt di tng cp hai cnh ca tam gic th t l
cc kt qu l 5 : 7 : 8.
Bi:15: Tm x, y, z bit rng: 4x = 3y ; 5y = 3z v 2x - 3y +
z =6
Bi:16: Cho t l thc:
d
c
b
a

. Chng minh rng ta c:


d c
d c
b a
b a
2003 2002
2003 2002
2003 2002
2003 2002

+
Bi:17: Tm x, y bit rng 10x = 6y v 28 2
2 2
y x
Bi:18:Cho bit
d
c
b
a

. Chng minh:
d c
d c
b a
b a
2005 2004
2005 2004
2005 2004
2005 2004
+

12
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Bi:19: Cho a, b, c l ba s khc 0 v a
2


= bc. Chng minh rng:
b
c
a b
c a

+
+
2 2
2 2
Chuyn 4:: BIU THC I S
I/ H thng l thuyt
1/ Nu quy tc cng hai s nguyn ( cng du ; khc du )
2/ Nu quy tc nhn du , chia du ( cng du , khc du )
3/ Nu quy tc chuyn v ; quy tc b du ngoc
4/ n thc l g ? Hai n thc ng dng? Nu quy tc cng hai n thc ng
dng ?
5/ Nu quy tc nhn hai n thc ?
6/ a thc l g ? Nu quy tc cng tr hai a thc ?
Cc dng ton : Nu cc bc lm tng dng ton sau
Dng 1: Tnh hay thu gn biu thc ; cng tr a thc mt bin
Dng 2: Tnh gi tr ca biu thc
Dng 3:Tm nghim ca a thc f (x )
Dng 4: Tm bc ca a thc , h s cao nht , h s t do ca a thc mt bin
Dng 5 : Kim tra xem x =a c l nghim ca a thc P (x ) hay khng ?
Dng 6: Chng minh a thc khng c nghim ?
II/ BAI TAP C BAN
Bi tp 1: Tnh gi tr ca biu thc sau ti x = 1; y = -1; z = 3
a) (x
2
y 2x 2z)xy b)
2
2
2x y
xyz
y 1
+
+
Bi 2: Thu gn cc n thc:
a)
2 2
1
xy .(3x yz )
3
_


,
b) -54y
2
. bx ( b l hng s) c)
2
2 2 3
1
2x y x(y z)
2
_


,
Bi 3: Cho hai a thc :
5 2 4 3
1
f (x) x 3x 7x 9x x
4
+

4 5 2 2
1
g(x) 5x x x 3x
4
+ +
a) Hy thu gn v sp xp hai a thc trn.
b) Tnh f(x) + g(x) v f(x) - g(x)
Bi 4: Cho a thc f(x) = -15x
3
+ 5x
4
4x
2
+8x
2
9x
3
x
4
+ 15 7x
3

a) Thu gn a thc trn.
b) Tnh f(1) ; f(-1)
n thc: Thu gn n thc, tm bc, h s.
A =
3 2 3 4
5 2
. .
4 5
x x y x y
_ _


, ,
; B= ( )
5 4 2 2 5
3 8
. .
4 9
x y xy x y
_ _


, ,
a thc : Bi tp p dng : Thu gn a thc, tm bc, h s cao nht.
2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3
15 7 8 12 11 12 A x y x x y x x y x y + +
13
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
5 4 2 3 5 4 2 3
1 3 1
3 2
3 4 2
B x y xy x y x y xy x y + + +
gi tr ca a thc ( biu thc):
Bi tp p dng :
Bi 1 : Tnh gi tr biu thc
a. A = 3x
3
y + 6x
2
y
2
+ 3xy
3
ti
1 1
;
2 3
x y
b. B = x
2
y
2
+ xy + x
3
+ y
3
ti x = 1; y = 3
Bi 2 : Cho a thc
P(x) = x
4
+ 2x
2
+ 1;
Q(x) = x
4
+ 4x
3
+ 2x
2
4x + 1;
Tnh : P(1); P(
1
2
); Q(2); Q(1);
C ng, tr a th c nhi u bi n:
Bi tp p dng:
Bi 1 : Cho a thc :
A = 4x
2
5xy + 3y
2
; B = 3x
2
+ 2xy - y
2
Tnh A + B; A B
Bi 2 : Tm a thc M,N bit :
a. M + (5x
2
2xy) = 6x
2
+ 9xy y
2
b. (3xy 4y
2
)- N= x
2
7xy + 8y
2
C ng tr a th c m t bi n :
Bi tp p dng :
Bi 1: Cho a thc
A(x) = 3x
4
3/4x
3
+ 2x
2
3
B(x) = 8x
4
+ 1/5x
3
9x + 2/5
Tnh : A(x) + B(x); A(x) - B(x); B(x) - A(x);
Bi 2: Cho cc a thc P(x) = x 2x
2
+ 3x
5
+ x
4
+ x
Q(x) = 3 2x 2x
2
+ x
4
3x
5
x
4
+ 4x
2
a) Thu gn v sp xp cc a thc trn theo ly tha gim ca bin.
b) Tnh P(x) + Q(x) v P(x) Q(x).
c) Chng minh rng x = 0 l nghim ca P(x) nhng khng l nghim ca Q(x)
nghi m c a a th c 1 bi n :
Bi tp p dng :
Bi 1 : Tm nghim ca a thc f(x) = x
4
+ 2x
3
2x
2
6x - x
4
+2x
2
-x
3
+8x-x
3
-2
Bi 2 : Tm nghim ca cc a thc sau.
f(x) = 3x 6; h(x) = 5x + 30 g(x)=(x-3)(16-4x)
Bi 3 : Cho a thc P(x) = mx 3. Xc nh m bit rng P(1) = 2
Bi 4 : Cho a thc Q(x) = -2x
2
+mx -7m+3. Xc nh m bit rng Q(x) c nghim l
-1.
* Bi tp luyn
BAI 1: Tnh gia tr cua bieu thc: A = 4x
2
- 3 x -2 tai x
= 2 ; x = -3 ; B = x
2
+2xy-3x
3
+2y
3
+3x-y
3
tai x = 2 ; y = -1
x
2
+2xy+y
2
tai x= 2; y = 3; C= 3x
2
-2x- 5 tai x= 5/3
14
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
BAI 2: Tnh: a)
y x y x y x A
2 2 2
2
5
5 , 0 4 +
b)
xy xy y x y x B 4 5 , 1 2
4
3
3 2 3 2
+ +

BAI 3: Trong cac n thc sau: a, b la cac hang so, x, y
la cac bien:
y x ax A
2
5
4
.
3
1

;
3 3
2 ) (
4
3
ay bx B
;
3 3
) (
4
1
. ) ( by xy ax C
; D=
)
15
4
.(
8
3
3 2
xy z xy
E =
4 2 2 6
.
5
12
. .
4
1
y x y x
a) Thu gon cac n thc tren
b) Xac nh he so cua moi n thc
c) Xac nh bac cua moi n thc oi vi tng
bien va bac cua moi a thc
BAI 4: Cho A = x
3
y B = x
2
y
2
C = xy
3
Chng minh rang: A.C + B
2
2x
4
y
4
= 0
BAI 5: Cho hai a thc: A = 15x
2
y 7xy
2
6y
3
B = 2x
3

12x
2
y +7xy
2
a) Tnh A + B va A - B
b) Tnh gia tr cua a thc A + B , A B vi x = 1, y =
3
Bai 6: Cho a thc A = x
2
-2y+xy+1; B = x
2
+ y- x
2
y
2
1
Tm a thc C sao cho : a. C = A + B b. C+A = B
BAI 7: Cho hai a thc: f(x) =
1
3
1
4 2
2 3 5
x x x x
g(x) =
4 3 2 6
2 3 x x x x x + +
a) Tnh f(x) + g(x) sau khi sap xep cac a thc theo luy
tha giam dan cua bien
b) Tnh f(x) - g(x)
BAI 8: Cho a thc f(x) = 2x
3
+ x
2
- 3x 1
g(x) = -x
3
+3x
2
+ 5x-1
h(x) = -3x
3
+ 2x
2
x 3
a) Tnh P(x) = f(x)- g(x); R(x) = P(x) + h(x)
b) Tm nghiem cua a thc R(x)
BAI 9: Cho a thc f(x) = x
3
-2 x
2
+7x 1
g(x) = x
3
-2x
2
- x -1
Tnh f(x) - g(x); f(x) + g(x);
BAI 10: Tnh gia tr cua bieu thc A = xy+x
2
y
2
+x
3
y
3
+
..+ x
10
y
10
tai x = -1; y = 1
BAI 11: Cho cac a thc A = -3x
2
+ 4x
2
5x +6
B = 3x
2
- 6x
2
+ 5x 4
a) Tnh C = A + B; D = A B; E = D C b) Tnh gia
tr cua cac a thc A, B, C, D, E tai x = 1
BAI 12: Tm nghiem cua cac a thc
a) -3x + 12
15
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
b)
3
1
2 x
c)
3
2
6 + x
d)
3
3
2
+ x
e) (x 3)(x + 2)
f) (x 1)(x
2
+ 1)
g) ( 5x+5)(3x-6)
h) x
2
+ x
g) x
2
1
i) x
2
+ 2x + 1
k) 2x
2
+ 3x 5
l) x
2
- 4x + 3
m) x
2
+ 6x + 5
n) 3x(12x - 4) - 9x(4x -3) = 30
p) 2x(x - 1) + x(5 - 2x) = 15
BAI 13: Chng to rang hai a thc sau khong co
nghiem
a) P(x) = x
2
+ 1
b) Q(x) = 2y
4
+ 5
c) H(x) = x
2
+2x+2
d) D(x) = (x-5)
2
+1
BAI 14: Cho a thc: f(x) = x
3
+ 2x
2
+ ax + 1
Tm a biet rang a thc f(x) co mot nghiem x = -2
Bai 15: Thu gon cac n thc sau :
a./
( )
2
3 2 2
1
3 .
3
x y z xy
_


,
b./ ( )
2
2 2
1
. 2
6
axy x yz
c./
2
3 2 4
1 1
.5
2 2
x y x y
_


,

d./
2 2 3
1
2 . ( 3 )
4
x y xy xy
Bai 16: Cho cac a thc sau :
P(x) = x
2
+ 5x
4
- 3x
3
+ x
2
+ 4x
4
+ 3x
3
- x+ 5
Q(x) = x- 5x
3
- x
2
- x
4
+ 4x
3
- x
2
+ 3x 1
a) Thu gon va sap xep cac a thc tren theo luy tha
giam cua bien.
b) Tnh P(x) +Q(x) va P(x) - Q(x)
Bi 17 : Cho cc a thc :
P(x) = 3x
5
+ 5x- 4x
4
- 2x
3
+ 6 + 4x
2
Q(x) = 2x
4
- x + 3x
2
- 2x
3
+
4
1
- x
5

a) Sp xp cc hng t ca a thc theo ly tha gim ca bin.
b) Tnh P(x) + Q(x) ; P(x) - Q(x)
c)Chng t rng x = -1 l nghim ca P(x) nhng khng phi l nghim ca Q(x)
16
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Bi 18 : Tm nghim ca a thc:
a) 4x -
2
1
; b) (x-1)(x+1) c) x
2
- 3x + 2.
Bi 19: Cho cc a thc :
A(x) = 5x - 2x
4
+ x
3
-5 + x
2
B(x) = - x
4
+ 4x
2
- 3x
3
+ 7 - 6x
C(x) = x + x
3
-2
a)Tnh A(x) + B(x) ; b) A(x) - B(x) + C(x)
c)Chng t rng x = 1 l nghim ca A(x) v C(x) nhng khng phi l nghim
ca B(x).
Bi 20: Thu gn cc a thc sau
a, x(4x
3
- 5xy + 2x) g, (x
2
- xy + y
2
)2x + 3y(x
2
- xy
+ y
2
)
b, - 2y(x
2
- xy + 1) h, 5x(4x
2
- 2x+1) 2x(10x
2
- 5x -
2)
c, (x - 2)(x + 2) i, 5x(x-4y) - 4y(y -5x)
d, x
2
(x + y) + 2x(x
2
+ y) e, x
2
(x + y) - y(x
2
- y
2
)

*BAI TAP NANG CAO
Cu 1: Tm nghim ca a thc sau:
a/ x
2
-4 b/ x
2
+ 9 c/ ( x- 3) ( 2x + 7 ) d/ |x| +x e/ |x| - x
Cu 2: Tm gi tr nh nht ca cc biu thc sau:
a/ (x 3,5)
2
+ 1 b/( 2x 3)
4
2
Cu 3 Tm gi tr ln nht ca biu thc sau:
a/ 2 - x
2
: b/ -( x - 3 )
2
+ 1
Cu 4: Cho P(x) = 100x
100
+99x
99
+ 98x
98
+ + 2x
2
+ x . Tnh P(1)
Cu 5: Cho P(x) = x
99
100x
98
+100x
97
100x
96
+ +100x 1
Tnh P(99)
17
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
HNH HC
L THUYT:
1/ Th no l hai ng thng song song? Pht biu nh l ca hai ng
thng song song
2/ Nu du hiu nhn bit hai ng thng song song?
3/ Pht biu nh l v tng ba gc trong mt tam gic , Tnh cht gc ngoi
ca tam gic
4/ Pht biu cc trng hp bng nhau ca hai tam gic , ca hai tam gic
vung?
5/ Pht biu nh l quan h gia ba cnh ca tam gic ? Cc bt ng thc
tam gic
6 Pht biu nh l quan h gia ng vung gc v ng xin, ng
xin v hnh chiu
7/ Pht biu nh l quan h gia gc v cnh i din trong mt tam gic
8/ Nu nh, ngha tnh cht cc ng ng quy ca tam gic
9/ Nu nh ngha, tnh cht , du hiu nhn bit tam gic cn, tam gic u,
tam gic vung
10/ Pht biu nh l pitago ( thun , o)
11/ Pht biu tnh cht tia phn gic ca mt gc.
12/ Pht biu tnh cht ng trung trc ca on thng
BI TP
BAI TAP C BAN
Bi 1 : Cho hnh v sau
bit


0 0 0
A 140 ,B 70 ,C 150 .
Chng minh rng Ax // Cy
Bi 2 : Vi hnh v sau.
Bit

+ +
0
A B C 360
.
Chng minh rng Ax // Cy
Bi 3 : Tnh s o x ca gc O hnh sau :
18
y
x
C
B
A
b
a
140
0
35
0
x
I
B
C
E
D
A
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Bai 4 : Cho tam giac nhon ABC, Ke AH vuong goc BC. Tnh
chu vi cua tam giac ABC biet
AC = 20cm, AH = 12cm, BH = 5cm
Bai 5 : Tnh o dai cac canh goc vuong cua tam giac
vuong can co canh huyen bang:
a) 2cm
b) 2 cm
Bai 6 : Cho hnh ve sau trong o
AE BC
.
Tnh AB biet AE = 4m, AC = 5m, BC = 9m.
Bai 6 : Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A . Trn tia i ca tia AC ly im D sao
cho AC =AD . Trntia i ca tia BA ly im M bt k . Chng minh rng :
a/ BA l tia phn gic ca gc CBD. b/ MBD = MBC
Bai 7:Cho tam gic ABC c
> B

, ng cao AH
a/ Chng minh AH <
2
1
( AB + AC )
b/ Hai ng trung tuyn BM , CN ct nhau ti G Trn tia i ca tia MB
ly im E sao cho ME =MG . Trn tia i ca tia NC ly im F sao cho NF =
NG . Chng minh : EF= BC
c/ng thng AG ct BC ti K Chng minh > B K A

C K A

Bai 8: Cho tam giac ABC co AB = AC. Lay iem D tren


canh AB, iem tren canh AC sao cho
AD = AE.
a) Chng minh rang BE = CD.
b) Goi O la giao iem cua BE va CD. Chng minh rang
BOD COD.
Bai 9 : Cho tam giac ABC, D la trung iem cua AB. ng
thang qua D va song song vi BC cat AC E, ng
thang qua E va song song vi AB cat BC F. Chng minh
rang :
a) AD = EF.
b)
ADE EFC.
c) AE = EC.
Bai 10 : Cho gc x0y , M l im nm trn tia phn gic0z ca gc x0y. Trn
cc tia 0x v 0y ln lt ly hai im A v B sao cho OA = OB. Chng minh rng:
a/ MA =MB
19
9
5
4
B
C
A
E
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
b/ ng thng cha tia phn gic Oz l ng trung trc ca on thng
AB
c/ Gi I l giao im ca AB v 0z . Tnh OI bit AB = 6cm OA = 5cm.
Bai 11 : Cho gc nhn x0y. Trn hai cnh 0x v 0y ln lt ly hai im A v
B sao cho OA = OB . Tia phn gic ca gc x0y ct AB ti I.
a/ Chng minh OI AB.
b/ Gi D l hnh chiu ca im A trn 0y. C l giao im ca AD vi OI
.Chng minh:BC 0x
c/Gi s y x0

= 60
0
, OA = OB = 6cm . Tnh di on thng OC
Bai 1 2 : Cho tam gic ABC cn ti A, ng cao AH . Bit AB = 5cm BC
=6cm
a/ Tnh di cc on thng BH , AH.
b/ Gi G l trng tm ca tam gic ABC . Chng minh rng ba im A, G,
H thng hng
c/ Chng minh : G B A

G C A

Bai 1 3 : Cho tam gic ABC cn ti A . Gi G l trng tm , I l im nm trong


tam gic v cch u ba cnh ca tam gic . Chng minh :
a/ Ba im A ,G ,I thng hng
b/ BG < BI < BA
c/ G B I

G C I

d/ Xc nh v tr ca im M sao cho tng cc di BM + MC c gi tr


nh nht
Bai 1 4 : Cho im M nm trong tam gic ABC . Chng minh rng tng MA
+MB +MC ln hn na chu vi nhng nh hn chu vi ca tam gic ABC
Lu : n c phn cng hnh hc hc k I
BAI 15: Cho hai oan thang AB & AC cat nhau tai trung
iem cua moi oan. ch/m rang:
a) AOC= BOD
b) AD=BC & AD//BC
BAI 16: Cho goc xOy. Goi Oz la tia phan giac cua no.
Tren tia Ox lay iem A, tren Oy lay iem B sao cho OA
=OB. M la mot iem bat ky tren Oz (M O).
Chng minh: tia OM la phan giac cua AMB va ng
thang OM la trung trc cua oan AB
BAI 17: Cho goc xOy. Tren tia phan giac Oz cua goc xOy
lay ien M (M O). Qua M ve MH Ox (H Ox) va MK Oy
(K Oy). Chng minh: MH = MK
BAI 18: Cho ABC vuong tai A.ng phan giac BE. Ke
EH BC ( H BC) Goi K la giao iem cua AB va HE. Chng
minh :
a) ABE = HBE
b) BE la ng trung trc cua oan thang AH.
c) EK = EC
20
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
d) AE < EC
Bi tp nng cao
BAI 19: Cho tam giac can ABC (AB = AC). Cac tia phan
giac cua goc B, C Cat AB va AC tai E, F
a) Chng minh: BE = CF
b) Goi T la giao iem cua BE va CF. Chng minh AI la
phan giac cua goc A
BAI20: Cho tam giac ABC can tai A. Tren tia oi cua tia
BC lay iem M, tren tia oi cua tia CB lay iem, N sao cho
BM = CN
a) Chng minh rang tam giac AMN la tam giac
can
Ke BH AM (H AM). Ke CK AN (K AN). Chng minh
rang BH = CK
Chng minh rang AH = AK
Goi O la giao iem cua BH va CK. Tam giac OBC la tam
giac g? V sao?
e) Khi BAC = 60
0
va BM = CN = BC, hay tnh so o cac
goc cua AMN va xac nh dang cua OBC.
BAI 21: Cho tam giac ABC co cac canh AB = 20 cm, AC =
15 cm, BC = 25 cm, AH la ng cao
a) Chng minh tam giac ABC vuong
b) Tnh o dai oan thang BH, CH, biet AH = 12 cm
BAI 22: Cho tam giac ABC can tai A. Co ng cao AD.
T D ke DE AB, DF AC. Tren tia oi cua tia DE lay iem
M sao cho DE = DM.
Chng minh :
a) BE = CF
b) AD la ng trung trc cua oan thang EF
c) Tam giac EFM la tam giac vuong
d) BE // CM
Bai 23: Cho ABC vuong tai A. Tren canh BC ta lay iem
E sao cho BE = BA. Tia phan giac cua goc B cat AC D.
a) So sanh o dai DA va DE
b) Tnh so o BED
Bai 24: ABC vuong tai A. trung tuyen AM. Tren tia oi
cua tia MA lay iem D sao cho MD = MA.
a) Chng minh : AMC = BMD
b) C/ m Goc ABD = 90
0
c) Chng minh : AM =
1
2
BC
21
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Bai 25: ABC vuong tai C co A = 60
0
. Tia phan giac
cua goc BAC cat BC E. Ke EK vuong goc vi AB ( ( D

AB ), Ke BD vuong goc tai AE ( D

AE ). Chng minh
a) AC = AK va AE vuong goc CK
b) KA =KB
c) EB > AC
d) Ba ng thang AC, BD, KE cung i qua mot iem.

BAI 26: Cho tam giac ABC co B= 60
0
. ve phan giac BD.
T A ke ng thang vuong goc vi BD, cat BD tai H
va cat BC tai E.
a) Tnh so o goc BAH. Chng minh Tam giac ABE la tam
giac eu
b) Chng minh: DBA = DBE
c) T A ke ng thang song song vi BD cat ng
thang BC tai F. Chng minh : ABF la tam giac can
BAI 27: Cho tam giac DEF can tai D vi ng trung
tuyen DI.
a) Chng minh DEI = DFI
b) Cac goc DIE va goc DIF la nhng goc g?
c) Biet DE = DF = 13 cm, EF = 10 cm hay tnh o dai
ng trung tuyen DI
Bai 28: Cho ABC can tai A ( A< 90
0
). Ba ng cao AH,
BD, CE.
a) Chng minh:ABD = ACE
b) Chng minh : HDC can tai H
c) Ke HM vuong goc vi AC ( M thuoc AC). Chng minh :
DM = MC
d) Goi I la trung iem cua HD. Chng minh : AH vuong
goc vi MI
BAI 29: Cho ABC vuong tai A. biet AC = 5 cm, trung tuyen
AM = 3,5 cm
a) Tnh cac canh AB va BC cua tam giac ABC
b) Tnh cac ng trung tuyen BN va CP cua ABC
BAI 30 : Cho Cho ABC co ( AB < AC), phan giac AD.
Tren canh AC lay iem E sao cho AE = AB.
a) Chng minh : BD = DE
b) Goi F la giao iem cua cac ng thang AB va DE.
Chng minh DF = DC
c) Chng minh AFC can
d) Chng minh : AD vuong goc FC.
22
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Bai 31 Cho ABC can tai A, ng cao AH. Goi E la hnh
chieu cua H xuong AB, F la hnh chieu cua H xuong AC.
Chng minh
a) AEH = AFH
b) AH la ng trung trc cua EF
c) Tren tia oi cua tia EH lay iem M sao cho EH = EM.
Tren tai oi cua tia FH lay iem N sao cho FH = FN.
Chng minh AMN can
Bi 32 : Cho tam gic ABC c


0
A 90
, trn cnh BC ly im E
sao cho BE = BA. Tia phn gic ca gc B ct AC D.
So snh cc di DA v DE.
Tnh s o gc BED.
Gi I l giao im ca AE v BD.
Chng minh rng BD l ng trung trc ca AE
Bi 33 : Cho tam gic ABC c

B 2C
. Tia phn gic ca gc B ct AC D.
Trn tia i ca tia BD ly im E sao cho BE = AC.
Trn tia i ca tia CB ly dim K sao cho CK = AB.
a) Chng minh :

EBA ACK
b) Chng minh rng EK = AK.
B i 34 : Cho tam gic ABC c ba gc nhn. V on thng AD
vung gc vi AB v bng AB ( D khc pha C i vi AB),
v on thng AE vung gc vi AC v bng AC
( E khc pha B i vi AC). Chng minh rng
a) DC = BE
b) DC BE.
Bi 35: Cho tam gic ABC. Gi K, D ln lt l trung im
ca cc cnh AB, BC. Trn tia i ca tia DA ly im M
sao cho DM = DA. Trn tia i ca tia KM ly im N sao
cho KN = KM. Chng minh
a) ADC MDB
b) AKN BKM
c) A l trung im ca on thng NC
Bai 36 : Cho tam giac ABC vuong tai A co AB = AC.
Qua A ke ng thang xy ( B, C nam cung pha oi vi xy).
Ke BD va CE vuong goc vi xy. Chng minh rang:
a)
BAD ACD
b) DE = BD + CE.
Bai 37 : Cho tam giac ABC, D la trung iem cua AB,
E la trung iem cua AC, ve iem F sao cho E la
trung iem cua DF. Chng minh rang:
a) DB = CF
b)
BDC FCD
c) DE // BC va
1
DE BC
2

23
A
K
B C
E
D
A
B
C
E
D
N M
K
A
B
C
D
F E
A
B
C
D
y
x
I
O
A
B C
D
E
A
B
C
D
y
x
ng Vn Tn THCS D Hng Knh - n Tp Ton 7 ln 8
Bi 38 : Cho gc xOy khc gc bt. Trn tia Ox ln lt ly hai
im B v C, trn tia Oy ln lt ly hai imA v D sao
cho OA = AB, OD = OC. Gi I l giao im ca AC v BD.
Chng minh
a) OBD OAC
b) AI = IB
c) OI l tia phn gic ca gc xOy
Bi 39 : Cho tam gic ABC. v pha ngoi cc tam gic ABC
cc tam gic vung ti A l ABD, ACE c AB = AD, AC = AE.
K AH BC, DM AH, EN AH. Chng minh rng:
a) DM = AH
b) EN = AH. C nhn xt g v DM v EN
c) Gi O l giao im ca AN v DE.
Chng minh rng O l trung im ca DE
24
D
E
O
H
N
M
C
B
A