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MT VI BIN I
V NG DNG N GIN TRONG S HC
S hc l mt trong nhng bi ton kh trong cc k thi hc sinh gii. Hc sinh t c tip cn vi
dng ton ny v thng lng tng trong qu trnh tm hng gii quyt.
V th, ti xin trnh by vi bn c mt vi vn s lc sau y.
1. nh l (Ferma - nh)
Gi s Z a , P l s nguyn t tho mn (a ; P) = 1
Khi
1
1

p
a
(modp)
Chng minh:
Xt cc s: a, 2a, , (P -1)a
Gi s tn ti
( ) { } ( ) J , 1 ;... 2 ; 1 , i p J i
Ja ia (modp)
( ) 0 a J i (modp)
0 J i (modp), v (a; P) = 1
P J i < 0
0 J i
J i (v l)
V th, khi chia cc s a, 2a, , (P -1)a cho P c cc d s i mt khc nhau v khc 0.
( ) ( ) ! 1 1 ... 2 . P a P a a (modp)
( ) ( ) ! 1 ! 1
1


P a P
P
(modp)
1
1

P
a
(modp), v:
( ) ( ) 1 ! 1 ; P P
2. B
Cho 1 , 0 , n i Z a
i
( ) 2 n
Gi s phng trnh: 0 ...
0 1
1
1
+ + + +

a x a x a x
n
n
n
(1)
c nghim hu t
0
x . Khi Z x
0
.
Li gii:
(1) c nghim
q
P
x
0
, ( ) ( ) 1 , , 0 , , > q p q Z q p
Z
q
p
q a q p a p a
q
p
a
q
p
a
q
p
a
q
p
n
n n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

+ + + +
+ + + +

0 . ...
0 ...
1
0
2
1
1
1
0 1
1
1
1
Gi s tri li rng 1 > q , th tn ti s nguyn t
a
Sao cho ( )
n
p a N k ka q /
*

a: nguyn t
1 ) , /( q p a
; v l; v a l s nguyn t.
V vy: Z p x q
Z q
q

<
0
1
1 0
(pcm).
1

q a
p a
/
/
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3. Ch :
0 ; , > b Z b a

b a
a
N
b
a
a
b a
0
0
*

4. ng dng:
V d 1. Cho Z a .
CMR
1
2
+ a
khng c c nguyn t dng 3 4 + k , ( ) N k
Gii:
3 4 + k P . S nguyn t ( ) N k
Gi s tri li rng:
0 1
2
+ a
(modp)
1
1 2

P
a P a P a
(modp) , (Ferma nh)
Mt khc:
1
2
a
(modp)
1
2 4

+ k
a
(modp)
1
1

P
a
(modp)
0 2 (modp) , mu thun 3 P (pcm)
V d 2. Cho
1 , > n Z n
tho mn:
n
n
1 3
CMR: n l s chn
Gii:
2
1

'

>

n
n
Z n
. Gi P l c nguyn t b nht ca n. Do
3 1 3 P P
n

( ) 1 3 1 3 ,
1

P
P (modp) (Ferma - nh)
Gi h l s nguyn dng b nht sao cho:
1 3
h
(modp)
Gi s: r kh n + ) 0 ( h r < ; Ta c
1 3 1 3 1 3
+ r r kh n
(modp)
0 1 3
r
(modp) ; do cch chn h nn r = 0
h n
; lp lun tng t
( ) h P 1
Nu h > 1 th h c c nguyn t q v
( ) q P 1 q p >
q l c nguyn t ca n, iu ny mu thun vi cch chn p, vy h = 1.
1 3 (modp) 0 2 (modp)
P s nguyn t 2 P
V p=2 l c ca n, nn n l s chn (pcm)
V d 3.
Gii phng trnh nghim nguyn
2
) )( ( 4 y a b b x x a +
(*)
Trong : Z b a , v b a >
Gii:
Gi s phng trnh
(*)
c nghim nguyn ) , ( y x , khi :
(*)
[ ][ ] ( ) 1 2 1 ) ( 4 1 ) ( 4
2
+ y b x x a
( ) 0 2 ) ( 4 1 ) ( 4 1 4 > + b a b x x a , do:
2
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1
,
0

>
b a
Z b a
b a
1 ) ( 4 x a c dng
( ) N m m +3 4

1 ) ( 4 x a c c nguyen t dng 3 4 + k ( ) N k
M ( ) 1 2
2
+ y
khng c c dng ny (v l); (Theo VD 1)
Vy, phng trnh
(*)
khng c nghim nguyn.
V d 4. Tm nghim nguyn ca h

'

+
+
) 2 ( 3 2
) 1 ( 16 4
2
2 3
yz z
y x
Gii:
Gi s h c nghim nguyn ) , , ( z y x , T (1) y chn
1
2y y , khi :
( ) 7
3 2
4
2
1
3
1
2
2
1
3
+ +

'

+
+
z y x
z y z
y x
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] 3 1 2 1
2 2
1
+ + + + x x z y
x chn khng xy ra.
x l ( ) 3 1
2
+ + x c c nguyn t dng 3 4 + k ( ) N k
m ( ) 1
2
1
+ + z y
khng c c dng ny (v l). (Theo v d 1)
Vy, h cho khng c nghim nguyn.
V d 5. Cho { } 1 \ , Z b a sao cho Z
a
b
b
a

+
+
+
+
+
1
1
1
1
3 3
CMR: ( ) ( ) 1 1
2010
+ b a
Gii:
Z n
a
b
b
a
Z m
a
b
b
a

,
_

+
+

,
_

+
+

+
+
+
+
+
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3 3
3 3
1
1
3
+
+

b
a
v
1
1
3
+
+
a
b
l cc nghim ca phng trnh
0
2
+ n mx x

(*)
Theo b , nu
(*)
c nghim hu t
0
x th Z x
0
( ) ( ) 1 1
1
1
3
3
+ +
+
+
b a Z
b
a

( )

+

1 1
1 1 1
3 6
6
335
6 2010
a a
a a a


( ) ( ) 1 1
2010
+ b a (pcm)
V d 6. Cho
y x,
l cc s nguyn, 1 x v 1 y
3
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Sao cho:
1
1
1
1
4 4
+

+
+

x
y
y
x
l s nguyn. Chng minh rng
1
44 4
y x chia ht cho 1 + x ( ) ) 2007 QG
Gii:
Lp lun tng t trn, ta c: Z
x
y

1
1
4
) 1 ( 1
4
+ x y
( ) ( ) 1 1 1 1
4 44 4 44 4
+ + x x y x y x
( do ( ), 1 1 ) 1 1
44 4 44
+ x y y y
v
) 1 1
4
+ x x
V d 7. Tm cc s
z y x , ,
nguyn dng sao cho
( ) ( ) 1 1 1 2 y x z xy (1)
Gii:
N z y x , , , 1 2 xy l s l ( ) ( ) 1 1 y x z l s l
y x,
l s chn, cn z l s l
Khng mt tnh tng qut, coi rng:
y x
t: 1 x a ; 1 y b ( b a, l v ) b a
PT (1) tr thnh:
( ) ( )
*
1 2 2
1 1 1 2 N
ab b a
zab b a + + + + (2)
Nu b a th
*
2
1 4
N
a
a

+

*
2
2
1
4
4
N
a a
a a
+
+

1
1
*
a N
a
( ) 1 b
Tm c ( ) ( ) 7 ; 2 ; 2 , , z y x
Nu 1 b a
* Xt:
20
19
20
1
4
2
5
2 1 2 2
0 5 4 + + + +
ab b a
a b
*
1 2 2
N
ab b a
+ +
Vy, 4 < b , b l nn { } 3 ; 1 b
* Xt
*
3
1 N
a
b (do: (2))
1 > a do : 3 a
Tm c ( ) ( ) 5 ; 4 ; 2 , , z y x
* Xt 3 b , t (2)
*
3
2
3
7
N
a
+ ; 7 3 > a a
Tm c: ( ) ( ) 3 , 8 , 4 ; ; z y x
Do vai tr
y x,
nh nhau nn pt (1) c 5 nghim
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } 3 ; 4 ; 8 ; 3 ; 8 ; 4 ; 5 ; 2 ; 4 ; 5 ; 4 ; 2 ; 7 ; 2 ; 2 ; ; z y x
4
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V d 8. Tm tt c cc b ba s nguyn ln hn 1 c tnh cht: Khi chia tch 2 s cho s th ba ta c
d l 1.
Gii:
Gi s tm c b ba s ( ) c b a , , tho mn iu kin bi ton, khng mt tnh tng qut, coi rng:
c b a 2 (1)
, ( ) c ab 1 , ( ) a bc 1 . ( ) b ca 1
( )
*
1 1 1 1
1 N
abc c b a
abc ca bc ab + + + +
Ta c:
) 1 ( 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2
3
*
+ +
+ + > + +
abc c b a
N
abc c b a c b a
* 1
1 1 1
3 + +
c b a
a (loi)
2 a , t ta suy ra:
2
1
2
1 1 1
+
bc c b

2
3
2
2
1 2

b b
b
c

>

) ( 5
5 , 3
2
3 ) 2 (
loai b
c b
b c
b
Tm c ) 5 ; 3 ; 2 ( ) ; ; ( c b a v cc hon v ca n
V d 9. Tm tt c cc cp s t nhin ) , ( b a sao cho
a b
b a

+
2
2
v
b a
a b

+
2
2
l cc s nguyn.
Gii:
Do vai tr ) , ( b a nh nhau nn coi rng: b a
*
) 0 (

a
b a
Z
a
a

+
1
1
{ } 3 ; 2
1
2

a
N a
Z
a
Tm c: { } ) 3 ; 3 ( ), 2 ; 2 ( ) , ( b a
*Xt b a < 0

) 1 (
1 b a + ,
2
b a <

a b
b a

+
2
2
*
N
a b b a +
2 2

b a b a b a + + + 1 0 ) 1 )( (
T
(1)
suy ra: Z
a a
a a
a b

+ +
+
1
) 1 (
1
2
2
) 2 (
5
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Z
a a
a


+
1
2 4
2
Z
a a
a

1
1 2
2
; ( ) 1 2 ; 1
2
a a
Xt: a = 0 b = 1 (tho mn)
a = 1 b = 2 ( tho mn)
Xt:
*
2
1
1 2
2 N
a a
a
a

+

1 1 2
2
+ a a a

0 2 3
2
a a
4 2 < a { } 3 ; 2 a , ) : ( N a do
* a = 3 (loi)
* a = 2 b = 3 (tho mn)
Th li, i n kt qu:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } 3 ; 2 , 2 ; 1 , 1 ; 0 , 3 ; 3 , 2 ; 2 ; b a v cc hon v ca n.
V d 10. Tm tt c cc b ba s nguyn ( ) c b a , , sao cho: c b a < < < 1 v s
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 1 c b a l c ca 1 abc .
Gii:
t : p c n b m a 1 , 1 , 1 ) 0 ( p n m < < <
*
1 1 1 1 1 1
N
np mp mn p n m
A + + + + +
(1)
Xt: 1 5 ; 4 3 < A p n m , nn
*
N A
{ } 2 ; 1 m
Xt:
( )
*
) 1 (
1 2 2
3 ; 2 1 N
np p n
B p n m + +
(2)
*
) 2 (
2
5
2 N
p
n
(khng xy ra)
7 4
3
7
3
2
3
*
+ p N
p
n
Th trc tip, ch c: p = 7 (tho mn)
Tm c ( ) ( ) 8 ; 4 ; 2 ; ; c b a
* 4 n 5 p 1
1 2 2
< + +
np p n
*
N B
Xt 2 m , ) 4 , 3 ( p n
) 1 (

*
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
N
np p n
C + + +
3 n
) 3 (

*
6
11
N
p

(khng xy ra)
14 5
4
7
8
7
5 4
*
) 3 (
+ p N
p
p n
Th trc tip, ch c 14 p tho mn
Tm c ) 15 ; 5 ; 3 ( ) ; ; ( c b a
6
*
, , N p n m
p xyz
n zx yz xy
m z y x

'

+ +
+ +
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*
*
) 3 (
10
17 8
5 N
p
n
+
(khng xy ra)
* 1
84
81
7 6 < C p n

*
N C
Th li, i n kt lun:
( ) ( ) ( ) { } 15 ; 5 ; 3 , 8 ; 4 ; 2 ; ; c b a
V d 11 Xc nh cc b s hu t dng ( ) z y x ; ; sao cho
, z y x + +

z y x
1 1 1
+ +
v
xyz
l cc s t nhin.
Gii:
T iu kin ca bi, ta c:
y x,
v z l cc nghim hu t ca phng trnh
0
2 3
+ p nt mt t
*
, , N z y x (Theo b )
Khng gim tng qut, coi rng: z y x 1
*
1 1 1
3 N
z y x
+ +
{ } 3 ; 2 ; 1
1 1 1
+ +
z y x
Xt:
1 3
1 1 1
+ + z y x
z y x
Xt:
+ +
x z y x
3
2
1 1 1


*
2
3
1
N x
x

1
1 1
1 +
z y
x
2
1
1
1

+ z y
y
z
Xt:
3 1
3
1
1 1 1
+ + x
x z y x
2
1 1 1
2
3 3
+

z y
x
z y x
2
4
2

+
y
z
( )
{ } 6 ; 4 ; 3
2
4 / 2

y
z y
y
3 6 z y (loi)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } 6 ; 3 ; 2 , 4 ; 4 ; 2 , 2 ; 2 ; 1 , 3 ; 3 ; 3 , 1 ; 1 ; 1 ; ; z y x
v cc hon v ca n.
7
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V d 12. Mt t gic li c 4 cnh l 4 s t nhin, sao cho tng 3 s bt k trong chng chia ht cho
s cn li. CMR t gic c 2 cnh bng nhau.
Gii: Gi di cc cnh ca t gic l
*
, , , N d c b a
Gi s tri li rng: d c b a < < < 1 theo iu kin ca bi.
Suy ra:
) 1 (
qd pc nb ma d c b a + + +
(Vi: ) , , , ,
*
m n p q N q p n m < < <
d c b a > + + d qd 2 > 6 , 5 , 4 , 3 m n p q
1
20
19 1 1 1 1
< + + +
q p n m

T (1), suy ra:
1
1 1 1 1
+ + +
q p n m
Vy, iu khng nh bi ton c chng minh.
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5. Mt s bi tp
Bi 1. Xc nh cc cp s t nhin ) ; ( y x sao cho:
y
x 1 +
v
x
y 1 +
l cc s t nhin.
Bi 2. Gii cc phng trnh nghim nguyn dng
a. 7
3 2
y x
b.
2
4 z y x xy
Bi 3. Cho Z a . CMR
1
2
+ + a a
khng c c nguyn t dng 2 3 + k
Bi 4. Tm cc s nguyn t p sao h sau c nghim nguyn dng

'

+
+
1 2
1 2
2 2
2
p y
p x
Bi 5. Tm nghim nguyn dng ca phng trnh
xyz z y x + +
Bi 6. Xc nh cc b ba s nguyn dng ( ) z y x ; ; sao cho
z y x
1 1 1
+ +
l s t nhin
Bi 7. Xc nh cc cp s nguyn dng ( ) y x; tho mn
1
3

+
xy
x x
l s t nhin.
Bi 8. V d 3: Cho p=4k+3 ) ( N k l s nguyn t. CMR
Z y x , tho mn: p y x
2 2
+ th p x v p y
Vy, iu khng nh bi ton c chng minh.
Bi 9. Tm tt c cc b s nguyn dng ( ) c b a z y x ; ; ; ; ; tho mn h Phng trnh:

'

+ +
+ +
abc z y x
xyz c b a
8
mu thun
Dng Chu Dinh Trng THPT Chuyn L Qu n
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Bi 10. Gi s
*
, N b a sao cho
( )
*
3
1 3
N
a
a
b

+ +
CMR
( )
a
a
b
3
1 3 + +
l mt s l.
Bi 11. Cho dy s ( ) ( )
*
, N n a
n
c xc nh bi:
90 , 38 ; 0
3 2 1
a a a v
3 , 30 19
2 1 1

+
n a a a
n n n
CMR
2011
a chia ht cho 2011.
Bi 12. Chng minh rng nu p l c nguyn t ca
1 2
2
+
n
( ) 2 n
Th 1 p chia ht cho
2
2
+ n
.
* TI LIU THAM KHO
- Tp ch ton hc & Tui tr
- Ti liu tp hun (Pht trin chuyn mn GV trng THPT Chuyn).
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