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Saltire Software PO Box 230755 Tigard, OR 97281 0755

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0750028

Contents

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Table of Contents

Getting Started

7 Welcome .................................................................................................... 7 .................................................................................................... 7 Need Help?

.............................................................................................................................. 8 Linked Text

**.................................................................................................... 8 The Display and How It's Organized
**

The.............................................................................................................................. 9 Status Bar

**.................................................................................................... 10 Customizing Your Display
**

.............................................................................................................................. 11 Arranging Toolboxes .............................................................................................................................. 12 Hiding / Showing Toolboxes .............................................................................................................................. 13 Saving the Configuration .............................................................................................................................. 14 Arranging Project Pages

**Adjusting .................................................................................................... 16 the Default Settings .................................................................................................... 18 File Handling
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.............................................................................................................................. 20 Wookbooks and Individual .gx Files

MathML .................................................................................................... 21 .................................................................................................... 21 Some Opening Examples

Tools

22

.............................................................................................................................. 22 Using the Drawing Tools .............................................................................................................................. 23 Adding a Point .............................................................................................................................. 24 Adding Line Segments .............................................................................................................................. 24 Drawing Lines .............................................................................................................................. 26 Drawing Vectors .............................................................................................................................. 26 Drawing Polygons .............................................................................................................................. 27 Drawing Circles .............................................................................................................................. 28 Drawing Ellipses .............................................................................................................................. 29 Drawing Parabolas .............................................................................................................................. 31 Drawing Hyperbolas .............................................................................................................................. 32 Drawing Arcs

Drawing .................................................................................................... 22

© 2010 Saltire Software

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Geometry Expressions Manual

.............................................................................................................................. 36 Drawing Regular Polygons .............................................................................................................................. 37 Drawing Curve Approximations .............................................................................................................................. 38 Adding Text to the Drawing .............................................................................................................................. 39 Using Pictures in the Drawing .............................................................................................................................. 41 Adding Expressions .............................................................................................................................. 42 Creating Functions .............................................................................................................................. 50 The Selection Arrow .............................................................................................................................. 52 Adjusting the Drawing

.................................................................................................... 52 Constraints

.............................................................................................................................. 52 Using Drawing Constraints .............................................................................................................................. 55 System Added Constraints .............................................................................................................................. 58 Constraint Conflicts .............................................................................................................................. 60 Distance / Length Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 61 Radius Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 61 Perpendicular Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 62 Angle Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 63 Direction Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 63 Slope Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 64 Coordinate Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 64 Constraining Vector Coeffecients .............................................................................................................................. 65 Tangent Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 65 Incident Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 66 Congruent Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 67 Parallel Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 67 Implicit Equation Constraint .............................................................................................................................. 68 Point Proportional Along a Curve Constraint

.................................................................................................... 72 Constructions

.............................................................................................................................. 72 Creating Constructions .............................................................................................................................. 74 Midpoints of Line Segments .............................................................................................................................. 74 Intersections .............................................................................................................................. 75 Perpendicular Bisector .............................................................................................................................. 76 Angle Bisector .............................................................................................................................. 76 Parallel Constructions

© 2010 Saltire Software

Contents

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.............................................................................................................................. 77 Perpendicular Constructions .............................................................................................................................. 77 Tangents .............................................................................................................................. 78 Polygon Construction .............................................................................................................................. 78 Reflection .............................................................................................................................. 79 Translation .............................................................................................................................. 79 Rotation .............................................................................................................................. 80 Dilation .............................................................................................................................. 81 Locus of Points / Envelope .............................................................................................................................. 83 Trace .............................................................................................................................. 85 Area Under the Arc

.................................................................................................... 86 Annotations

.............................................................................................................................. 86 Applying Annotations

.................................................................................................... 97 Calculations

.............................................................................................................................. 97 Calculating the Output .............................................................................................................................. 98 Distance / Length Calculation .............................................................................................................................. 99 Radius Calculation .............................................................................................................................. 100 Angle Calculation .............................................................................................................................. 102 Direction Calculation .............................................................................................................................. 102 Slope Calculation .............................................................................................................................. 103 Calculate Coordinates .............................................................................................................................. 103 Area Calculation .............................................................................................................................. 104 Perimeter Calculation .............................................................................................................................. 104 Calculate Coefficients .............................................................................................................................. 105 Calculating Parametric Equations .............................................................................................................................. 105 Calculating Implicit Equation

Output .................................................................................................... 106

.............................................................................................................................. 106 Viewing the Output

Symbols.................................................................................................... 110

.............................................................................................................................. 110 Using Symbols .............................................................................................................................. 111 Inserting Greek Letters .............................................................................................................................. 111 Multiplication & Division Editing Tools .............................................................................................................................. 112 Square Root Editing Tool .............................................................................................................................. 112 Subscript / Superscript Editor

© 2010 Saltire Software

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Geometry Expressions Manual

.............................................................................................................................. 113 Parentheses and Absolute Value Notation

**.................................................................................................... 113 Annotation Symbols
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.............................................................................................................................. 113 Using Annotation Symbols

**.................................................................................................... 115 System Variables and Animation
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.............................................................................................................................. 115 Investigating Variables .............................................................................................................................. 116 Variable List .............................................................................................................................. 116 Function List .............................................................................................................................. 117 Using the Lock Tool .............................................................................................................................. 119 Changing and Locking the Variable Value .............................................................................................................................. 119 Animation .............................................................................................................................. 121 Animation Console .............................................................................................................................. 121 Animation Modes .............................................................................................................................. 121 Animation Values and Duration .............................................................................................................................. 122 Animation and the Locus Tool

Menus and Icons

122

Menus .................................................................................................... 122

.............................................................................................................................. 122 File Menu .............................................................................................................................. 130 Edit Menu .............................................................................................................................. 134 View Menu .............................................................................................................................. 137 Toolbox Menus .............................................................................................................................. 139 Help Menu .............................................................................................................................. 139 Context Menus

Icons More About Geometry Expressions

146

Tool Bar.................................................................................................... 146 147

.................................................................................................... 147 What's New in Geometry Expressions? .................................................................................................... 148 Where is the Geometry Expressions Website?

Index

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© 2010 Saltire Software

Reference .several examples chosen to illustrate the power and features of the software. add symbolic constraints. In both the printed manual and the embedded Help system you can: · Use the table of contents to get details on using a tool. an icon or a © 2010 Saltire Software . and then automatically output symbolic measurements and expressions.step by step instructions. Examples .a copy of the embedded Help system.Getting Started 7 Getting Started Welcome Geometry Expressions is the world's first application that lets you visualize geometry and formulate symbolic expressions by constructing a sketch. The manual contains these sections: · · · · Solving Geometry Problems with Geometry Expressions . Geometry Expressions is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. Simply sketch your geometry. Geometry Expressions Tutorials . Your installation comes with Geometry Expressions Manual. in PDF format suitable for creating a hard copy.a detailed explanation of the basic concepts. 0750028 Need Help? There are many ways to get help with Geometry Expressions.

the cursor becomes the hand symbol. or hidden. The Display and How It's Organized Many of the menu items in the drop down menu bar at the top of the screen correspond to one of the icons or buttons across the top of the display window or in one of the toolboxes. These toolboxes can be displayed on the left or right panel. This text indicates a link to more information on the subject. Edit. Linked Text Some words in the program's Help system are highlighted and underlined. and down "Next Page" arrows . The construction and calculation tools are displayed along the side of the drawing window. · Use the index for help on a particular topic. View and Help commands. The Output window can be displayed below the drawing window to show large expressions. Click the text to jump to the related help page. · You can click on colored text to get more information."Previous page". When you place the cursor over this text. floating in a separate window. top or bottom panel. the name of the icon appears briefly below the cursor. Inside the Geometry Expressions Help system you can: · · Use the search tool to find all topics based on a key word. such as "constraints". Browse through help with the up .8 Geometry Expressions Manual menu. Tool Tips: When you move the cursor over any icon on the screen. This will step you through the help subtopics in a logical sequence. such as "parametric equations". © 2010 Saltire Software . Icons across the top of the screen comprise the standard Windows File.

Angle Mode . Current Mode .Getting Started 9 The status bar at the bottom of the window displays the following (from left to right): <Menu Help> <Current Mode> <Cursor Coordinates> <Angle Mode> The Status Bar The status bar at the bottom of the screen prompts the following information (from left to right): · · Menu Help . Tools requiring additional inputs after clicking the tool will display further prompts in this field. This default can also be changed in the Preferences dialog .Displays the current coordinates of the cursor in the diagram.summary of a selected menu item.Each icon in the drawing toolbox represents a mode.A drop down window for conveniently changing from Radians to Degrees and visa versa. · · © 2010 Saltire Software . Cursor Coordinates .Edit / Preferences / Math.

Arranging Toolboxes .10 Geometry Expressions Manual Customizing Your Display You can arrange the display as it suits you. and three (Anotate. Two slightly different locus examples are displayed for comparison. In the example below three toolboxes (Draw. Constrain (Input). Symbols.You may want to hide toolboxes which you rarely use. and Construct) are anchored.You can open multiple project files and arrange them in the drawing window using the page tabs. Saving your configuration . two (Calculate (Output) and Variables) are floating.Use the View / Tool Panel Configurations. and Annotation Symbols ) are hidden. Hide / Show Toolboxes . © 2010 Saltire Software .Anchored or floating toolboxes can be placed around the drawing window. Arranging projects .

Click the pushpin on the upper right corner of individual toolboxes to make it a "floating" box that you can drag anyplace on the screen.Getting Started 11 Arranging Toolboxes You can move the toolboxes around the periphery of the drawing window by clicking the title bar and dragging. Floating boxes have a colored title bar - © 2010 Saltire Software .

To display a hidden toolbox. © 2010 Saltire Software . those without a check are hidden. select View / Tool Panels.12 Geometry Expressions Manual To re-anchor the toolbox. drag the box until a blue shadow appears at the position where you want it. then release the mouse button. You may want to readjust the screen size for optimal viewing. Hiding / Showing Toolboxes Use the X on the upper right corner of individual toolboxes to hide them. The submenu lists the toolboxes and the Main Toolbar (the icon strip at the top of the window). Boxes shown are preceded by a check.

you can save this arrangement in case it gets messed up. You can give a name to an arrangement of the toolbars. Delete .if you no longer will use a certain configuration you can delete it from your list. or perhaps you need the tools arranged differently for different projects. Set . © 2010 Saltire Software . This is easy with the View / Tool Panel Configurations menu selection. Several configurations can be saved in a list and referred to as needed.Getting Started 13 Click a toolbox name to change its state. You will be prompted for a name to reference this configuration. simply select the configuration name from your list. Check out the configurations that come with the program.to save the current screen configuration. Saving the Configuration After configuring the screen to you preference.to change a configuration which you have saved. Add .

© 2010 Saltire Software .14 Geometry Expressions Manual Default . or bottom of the window. By default files are overlaid. top. Click a page tab to bring a file to the top.click the page tab and drag it to one side. Comparing drawings side by side . Arranging Project Pages You can open multiple project files for quick reference.reset tool panels back to the default configuration. A shadow of the drawing gives you an indication of how the drawings will be arranged before you release the mouse button.

Getting Started 15 Returning to overlaid configuration . then release the mouse button. The shadow will appear only on the title bar. © 2010 Saltire Software .drag one tab and position it over the other tab.

The default settings are grouped by type.16 Geometry Expressions Manual Adjusting the Default Settings Select Preferences from the Edit menu to modify the program's defaults. listed on the left side of the Preferences dialog. Click the icon to display the desired page. These settings are also available for editing a selected object or group of objects individually without changing the defaults. © 2010 Saltire Software . using the Selection Context Menu.

and the Pinned state for Text and Pictures. set font properties for text. the rotation angle and the transparency level of an inserted picture. color and size / style for other geometric elements.Getting Started 17 set the line color and style for each selection type. Pinned Text and Pictures will not move relative to the Page Boundaries as the result of a Scale operation. set font related properties for labels. © 2010 Saltire Software .

and the Page Boundary lines. Save your files regularly with the handy of the screen. Likewise. Click the icon to display the selection dialog choices . File Handling Geometry Expressions uses standard Windows file Open and Save operations. or drop-down menu of Changing a default for a type of drawing entity will apply to all entities of that type except ones whose properties have been individually set. mathematical calculation defaults. text. click the row. An icon will appear at the right end of the row (except the Point Size selection under the Font property -you can enter the point size directly).18 Geometry Expressions Manual set the properties for alphanumeric input and output. the coordinate Axes. pictures or expressions that were individually pinned or unpinned will not be affected by changes to the default Pinned settings. icon at the top © 2010 Saltire Software . by selecting it and then choosing Edit / Properties or right clicking All Properties from the Selection Context menu. set properties of the Major and Minor Grid. To see the possible values for each property.

Click the tab to view the file. This is a completely separate file from the . Each file is on separate page with the tabs across the top of the drawing window.gx files. The Open / Save (As) / Close Workbook file selections apply only to the workbook.gxw". You may create multiple data files and have them open in a session. with the file extension ".Getting Started 19 The data files generated from your drawings will have the extension ". and the File / Save commands will NOT save the workbook files. you can save the pages together as a Workbook.gx files. © 2010 Saltire Software . They only affect the individual . If you are preparing a multi-paged lesson. gx". Files can also be arranged for comparison viewing.

Lesson 1 Ellipse. If you open a workbook file while other individual files or another workbook file is open. if you forget. If you don't want to keep individual copies of all your workbook pages. since the workbook file is an entirely separate file (.gxw). After the first time.gxw). File / Save. Note: saving the workbook does NOT update any of the individual .gx).gx files that you have already created to make them part of your workbook. You can create pages from a combination of the above. you can always open the . · · · You can make a workbook by opening new tabs (File / New). But. to give the workbook pages custom names (instead of unnamed7. after. select Save Workbook (As) from the file menu. of an open workbook does NOT update the workbook file (. you can always save it from the workbook at any time. If you want to keep the individual . You can Open . However. prompting you to save them if you have made changes. When all of the pages are together on the page tab bar. but save a page (.gx file up to date with the workbook page. However.gx file. Only one workbook file can be open at a time. saving an individual page.gx file again from your open workbook file and resave the workbook.gx) at least once.20 Geometry Expressions Manual Wookbooks and Individual . you don't need to continue to save the . Likewise.gx Files Workbooks are a handy way of putting lessons together. © 2010 Saltire Software . if you forget to save the workbook. they will be closed. of course. gx files displayed in the workbook. you must use the regular File / Save for each page / file. you must save the individual page (for example.gx). then you just have to remember to use the Save Workbook file selection.

To Paste math into Geometry Expressions it must be Content MathML. To create Content MathML in Mathematica. "Formats" > {"ContentMathML"}] SetOptions[Export. · · Maple creates Content MathML by default. "NamespacePrefixes" > {}. try the Edit / Copy As command. ConversionOptions > {"NamespacePrefixes" > {}. ConversionOptions > {"NamespacePrefixes" > {}.Getting Started 21 MathML All mathematical expressions in Geometry Expressions are written in MathML. the algebra system will create a function from the pasted expression. so you can copy and paste directly to or from any other MathML program. Usually the standard Edit / Copy or Ctrl-C command should work. "Formats" > {"ContentMathML"}] SetOptions[XML`MathML`BoxesToMathML. execute the following commands: SetOptions[XML`MathML`ExpressionToMathML. If this doesn't give you the desired result. Select from the submenu of choices appropriate to your application. If you copy an expression that uses Intermediate Variables. "Formats" > {"ContentMathML"}}] Some Opening Examples Your installation comes with several examples. © 2010 Saltire Software . "NamespacePrefixes" > {}. see the Tutorial and Examples sections of your Geometry Expressions Manual. For step by step instructions through some example sets. "Formats" > {"ContentMathML"}}] SetOptions[ExportString.

22 Geometry Expressions Manual Tools Drawing Using the Drawing Tools The Draw toolbox contains the drawing modes and the Selection Arrow. The drawing modes can also be invoked from the Draw menu. right click the mouse. such as line color / style. You can change the attributes of individual drawing elements by selecting them. and choose All Properties from the context menu. © 2010 Saltire Software . fill color / style and transparency level. Point Line Segment Infinite Line Vector Polygon Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola Arc N-gon Curve Approximation Text Picture Expression Function Before you start your drawing. select Edit / Preferences / Geometry to set various attributes. Once selected. of the various drawing elements. a mode is active until you change to a different one. You can find the active mode by noting which button is pressed or looking at the mode area on the status bar. The selection mode is used for invoking all other commands.

You can continue making points until you choose the select arrow or another drawing tool. A click of the mouse will create the point incident to the highlighted geometry.Tools 23 Adding a Point To insert a point in your drawing. Move the crosshairs into position. © 2010 Saltire Software . follow these steps: 1. Click the mouse to place the point under the crosshair. 3. Point is a modal command. 2. Click the Point icon in the Drawing toolbox or select Point from the Draw menu. Each point is displayed with a letter label. You can change the label from the Select mode . When the crosshairs are positioned over some geometry an incidence symbol (bowtie) is displayed around the point and the geometry is highlighted.

To abort a line segment in the middle of the drawing operation. 3. Position the cursor in the drawing window. Drawing Lines © 2010 Saltire Software . You can change the label from the Select mode . Line Segment is a modal command. You can continue making segments until you choose the select arrow or another drawing tool. Each line segment is displayed with a letter label for each endpoint. Click on the Line Segment icon in the Draw toolbox or select Line Segment from the Draw menu.24 Geometry Expressions Manual Adding Line Segments To add line segments to your geometry follow these steps: 1. 2. Click the mouse to place each endpoint. hit the "esc" key.

Tools 25 Lines are similar to line segments except they have infinite length. Click the Infinite Line icon in the Draw toolbox or select Infinite Line from the Draw menu. 3. © 2010 Saltire Software . 1. 2. You can continue making lines until you choose the select arrow or another drawing tool. Active Axes The x and y axes have the properties of perpendicular infinite lines. Position the line cursor in the drawing window. Click the cursor to anchor the line at the cursor position. When the crosshairs are positioned over an axis. When the cursor is at the origin. The anchor point will be displayed on the line. Move the cursor in the drawing window to position the line and click the cursor when you get the line in the desired orientation. Points and End points of line segments can be placed directly on the axes without using the Constrain / Incident tool when the bow tie is displayed. both axes are highlighted . 4. Line is a modal command. the incidence symbol (bow tie) is displayed at the intersection and the axis is highlighted. Lines are infinite and do not have points associated with them unless you specifically place one on the line.

but vectors are constrained with coefficients of the form: Vector is a modal command. Each vector is displayed with a letter label for each endpoint.26 Geometry Expressions Manual Drawing Vectors To add vectors to your geometry follow these steps: 1. Position the cursor in the Draw toolbox or select Vector from in the drawing window. Click the mouse to place each endpoint. Drawing Polygons You can quickly create a multisided figure with these steps: © 2010 Saltire Software . 3. Click the Vector icon the Draw menu. You can continue making vectors until you choose the select arrow or another drawing tool. Drawing vectors is similar to drawing line segments. 2.

and select All Properties from the Selection Context menu (or Edit / Properties from the menu bar). right click. style and transparency. each vertex is automatically assigned a letter name. Geometry tab to set the default. See the Edit /Preferences menu. 2. To change the color / style /transparency level of selected polygons. When you create the last side of the polygon by clicking on the first vertex. right-click. · · Polygon is a modal command. Position the cursor in the Draw toolbox or select Polygon in the drawing window. Drawing Circles To add a circle to your diagram. in the Draw toolbox or select Circle from © 2010 Saltire Software . select it. style. the polygon will be filled with the default fill color. select the polygon(s). 3. and transparency level of your choice. · As you create the sides of the polygon. Polygons can be filled with the color.Tools 27 1. Click the Circle icon the Draw menu. and choose All Properties from the context menu. To change the appearance of the polygon (color or style). You can continue making polygons until you choose the select arrow or another drawing tool. You can change the label in Select · mode. Click the Polygon icon from the Draw menu. follow these steps: 1. Move the cursor and click once to place each vertex.

Geometry tab to set the default.28 Geometry Expressions Manual 2. Click the Ellipse icon from the Draw menu. Move the cursor in the drawing window to the position of the center of the circle and click once. Notice the circle is displayed with 2 points. See the Edit /Preferences menu. and select All Properties from the selection context menu (or Edit / Properties from the menu bar). follow these steps: 1. You can adjust the circle in Select mode. Move the cursor in the Draw toolbox or select Ellipse in the drawing window to the position of one © 2010 Saltire Software . Drawing Ellipses To create an ellipse in your diagram. Move the cursor to draw the circle in the desired size and click again. right-click. 2. 3. Circles can be filled with the color / transparency level of your choice. select the circle(s). Circle is a modal command. the center and a point on the perimeter. You can continue making circles until you choose the select arrow or another drawing tool. To change the color / transparency level of selected circles.

3. right-click. The ellipse will appear with three labeled points. follow these steps: 1. Move the cursor and click again to place the second focal point. Geometry tab. See the Edit /Preferences menu. Drawing Parabolas To create a parabola in your diagram. the two foci and a point on the ellipse. in the Draw toolbox or select Parabola 2. Click and drag the mouse along the major axis. select the ellipse(s). You can continue making ellipses until you choose the select arrow or another drawing tool. Conic properties group to set the default. To change the color / transparency level of selected ellipses. Then move the cursor to open the ellipse to the desired shape and click the mouse a third time. and select All Properties from the selection context menu (or Edit / Properties from the menu bar).Tools 29 focal point. Move the cursor in the drawing window to the position of the parabola's vertex. The Ellipse tool is a modal command. © 2010 Saltire Software . Click the Parabola icon from the Draw menu. Ellipses can be filled with the color / transparency level of your choice. Click to place the first focus point.

3.30 Geometry Expressions Manual Release the mouse at the focus. After sketching the general parabola. you can constrain it in the following ways: 1. from the 2. Rotation and Dilation tools. Constrain the vertex and focus points to some coordinate values. © 2010 Saltire Software . Click the parabola and select Implicit equation Constrain toolbox and type or paste the formula. You can also adjust the parabola with the Translation.

© 2010 Saltire Software . 3. Click to place the first focus. The hyperbola will appear with three labeled points. Move the cursor in the drawing window to the position of one focal point. the two foci and a point on the hyperbola. 2. follow these steps: 1. Then move the cursor to open the hyperbola to the desired shape and click the mouse a third time. The Hyperbola tool is a modal command.Tools 31 Drawing Hyperbolas To create a hyperbola in your diagram. Click the Hyperbola icon in the Draw toolbox or select Hyperbola from the Draw menu. You can continue making hyperbolas until you choose the select arrow or another drawing tool. Move the cursor and click again to place the second focal point.

or any function. Choose the Arc tool and move the cursor over the section of the existing curve where the arc will be defined. 2. parabola. ellipse. First draw the conic or function which will be the basis for the arc.32 Geometry Expressions Manual Drawing Arcs Arcs can be placed on any of the conics . © 2010 Saltire Software . Here are the steps: 1. Click and drag the cursor over the curve.circle. Points are automatically placed at the ends of the arc. hyperbola .

you have to connect curves with line segments.select Draw / Arc. Curvilinear Polygons The Arc drawing tool lets you make curvilinear polygons for which you can assign fill properties and find areas. · Make endpoints C and D -t point proportional along the curves. Since you can't construct point on two intersecting curves (except for circles). © 2010 Saltire Software . · Make endpoints A and B t point proportional along the curves. · Draw the two arcs . There are some limitations. · Set t=2 in the Variables toolbox and the lines will become the intersection points. If you want to connect two arcs. you have to first connect them with a line and move it to the intersection like this: To make a curvilinear polygon of the intersecting parabolas here are the steps: · Attach two lines. · Select the sides and arcs of the polygon in order and click Construct / Polygon. however.Tools 33 Endpoints are automatically inserted on the arc. from C to A and D to B.

34 Geometry Expressions Manual © 2010 Saltire Software .

Tools 35 It's easier with circles because you can place points on their intersections: © 2010 Saltire Software .

36 Geometry Expressions Manual Drawing Regular Polygons The N-gon tool lets you quickly draw any regular polygon. In the data entry box. The n-gon at first appears to be a pentagon. You can even work on problems where the number of sides is n. position the cursor to place the center of the n-gon and click to the desired size. 2. Here are the steps: 1. enter the number of sides you want or a variable to represent the number of sides and press Enter. © 2010 Saltire Software . or whatever variable you choose. Click the N-gon button in the Draw toolbox. Similar to drawing a circle. 3.

2. Note: It is best to draw your curve independent of existing points on the curve. attached geometry may also get deleted.g. circle. Click Draw / Curve Approximation . Select any function. In the data entry box type the number of points you want on the arc.) Here are the steps: 1. This is a great tool for introducing problems using the Trapezoidal Method of integration. (Take a look at our Gx book. Calculus Explorations . ellipse or parabola and drag the cursor over the curve. Then connect other geometry to the approximation points. If you start or finish the arc with points lying on the curve (e. © 2010 Saltire Software .Tools 37 Drawing Curve Approximations The Curve Approximation tool will insert a specified number of points and edges evenly spaced on a selected section of a curve or conic. point C in the ellipse above) and later decide to delete the curve approximation. 3.

Position the text cursor at the upper left corner where you would like your window of text located. © 2010 Saltire Software . 4. or select Text from 2.38 Geometry Expressions Manual Here is the area of a function using the Trapezoidal Method: Adding Text to the Drawing To add titles or other annotation to the drawing follow these steps: 1. 3. Enter and format your text in the Edit Text dialog. From the Draw toolbox click the Text icon the Draw menu. Click and drag to form your text box.

Click the Picture icon from the Draw menu. Here's how: 1. The default text formatting for this dialog is set in Edit / Preferences / Text & Pictures.Tools 39 Enter mathematical statements using the Annotation / Expression tool. Using Pictures in the Drawing Liven up your examples with a picture or two. or use an image for reference points in your drawing. Inserting and Editing Text In the Edit Text dialog you can enter and format the text that will be displayed in your defined text window. in the Draw toolbox or select Picture 2. Click and drag the cursor to delimit the area where you want to © 2010 Saltire Software .

Find your image in the Select Image File dialog. so you can add a picture at any time.png. mode or choose Pictures are always inserted under your drawing objects. The inserted picture can be rotated and the transparency level can be set in the Display Properties dialog box.bmp. · · Right click on a highlighted picture and then select All Properties Or select Properties from Edit menu. and .jpg. Image formats include: . change to Select another Draw command. In Select mode you can move a picture. After entering your images. as with any drawing object.gif. . 3.tif 4. © 2010 Saltire Software .40 Geometry Expressions Manual place the picture. . .pcx. .

or select 2. Adding an expression to the diagram can help you work out relationships in the geometry. From the Draw toolbox click the Expression icon Expression from the Draw menu. Enter the expression using numbers. © 2010 Saltire Software .Tools 41 Adding Expressions You can type an algebraic expression in the drawing window and Geometry Expressions will solve it with whatever information it has available. Here are the steps: 1. variables. 3. Here is an example making use of the Expression tool to see the relationship between similar triangles. Use the Symbols toolbox to help you enter mathematics. Move the expression cursor to the position where you want it to appear in the drawing window and click to display the data entry box. and output expression names.

The expression to solve is the relationship of the two lengths: z0 / z1. Creating Functions 1. Click the Function icon from the Draw menu in the Draw toolbox or select Function 2. The system immediately evaluates the expression as => a/b. Click the drop-down list button to select the function type that you want to use in your drawing. and AC is perpendicular to BD.42 Geometry Expressions Manual Sides a and b are perpendicular. We obtained the Output of lengths AD and BD using the Show Name button. © 2010 Saltire Software .

You can define a domain of the function by enter values for Start and End.Tools 43 Cartesian Function When you select Cartesian from the Function Type dialog. the next line contains a general form of the function in terms of Y. If you want to draw function with indefinite domain. You can define this function in these ways: · Modify the formula directly: © 2010 Saltire Software . leave these fields blank.

In the drawing window. Modify the domain of the function after it's drawn by double clicking the curve. You can click and drag this handle around the drawing. This handle represents one of the variables in the equation. a click of the curve gives you the b handle.44 Geometry Expressions Manual · Modify the function interactively using "handles". This feature is a wonderful way to understand exactly how the equation represents the function. Click and drag it and a circle appears on the curve. In the first example. click the function to select it. the y-intercept. Click and drag another place on the function and another moveable handle appears if there is another variable in the equation. Notice the Variable toolbox displays the changing values as you move the handles. and lets you drag the function up and down. © 2010 Saltire Software . · · Modify the function after it's drawn by double clicking the function tag and changing it in the edit box. Click and drag another place on the curve and you get the a handle to change the shape of the curve.

You can define this function in these ways: · · Modify the edit line at the bottom of the Functions tab. f(k). Y=f(X). and f(v). In the general function in this example we have 5 possible handles: f(a). Click and drag it and a circle appears on the curve. f(u). Click and drag another place on the curve and another moveable handle appears if there is another function variable in the equation. This handle represents one of the variables in the equation. (Use your keyboard arrow keys to move through the whole function. f(b). In the drawing window. select Cartesian from the Function Type dialog.Tools 45 The Generic Function f(X) To use the generic form of a function.) Modify the function interactively using "handles". click the function to select it. You can click and drag a handle around the drawing to change the curve. © 2010 Saltire Software . enter f(X) in the edit window and click OK: Click the Functions tab of the Variables toolbox to see the values used in the function.

r and the polar angle. the next line contains the general form of the function in terms of the radial coordinate. You can define this function in these ways: · Modify the formula and the curve domain directly: © 2010 Saltire Software . T.46 Geometry Expressions Manual Polar Function When you select Polar from the Function Type dialog.

In the drawing window. the second click gives you the a handle. Notice the Variable toolbox displays the changing values as you move the handles. Click and drag another place on the function and another moveable handle appears if there is another variable in the equation. click the function to select it. Modify the domain of the function after it's drawn by double clicking the curve: © 2010 Saltire Software . click and drag another place on the curve and you get the b handle to change the shape of the curve. This feature is a wonderful way to understand exactly how the equation represents the function. Click and drag it and a circle appears on the curve. This handle represents one of the variables in the equation. · · Modify the function after it's drawn by double clicking the function tag.Tools 47 · Modify the function interactively using "handles". In the example above. You can click and drag this handle around the drawing.

the next line contains the general form of the function in terms of X and Y and a parameter.48 Geometry Expressions Manual Parametric Function When you select Parametric from the Function Type dialog. You can define this function in these ways: · Modify the formula and its domain directly: © 2010 Saltire Software . T.

In the drawing window. Notice the Variable toolbox displays the changing values as you move the handles. In the example above. X=T-asin(T). a click and drag gives you the b handle. This feature is a wonderful way to understand exactly how the equation represents the function. Y=b-cos(T). This handle represents one of the variables in the equation. and lets you drag the function up and down. You can click and drag this handle around the drawing. Click and drag it and a circle appears on the curve. Click and drag another place on the curve and you get the a handle to change the shape of the curve.Tools 49 · Modify the function interactively using "handles". · · Modify the function after it's drawn by double clicking the function tag. click the function to select it. Click and drag another place on the function and another moveable handle appears if there is another variable in the equation. Modify the domain of the function after it's drawn by double clicking the curve: © 2010 Saltire Software .

Construct. you must first select elements of the drawing in order to enter constraints and constructions and to output calculations. Many of the tools require you to select multiple objects. With the arrow. © 2010 Saltire Software . Selecting Multiple Objects Many of the Constrain. click the selection arrow to enable other functions or adjust your drawing. The Selection arrow is also available form the icon bar at the top of the screen.50 Geometry Expressions Manual The Selection Arrow When you are finished with the drawing functions. and Calculate tools require that you select more than one object.

© 2010 Saltire Software . If you click the wrong object while holding down the CTRL key. In this mode selection accumulates. If all of the objects you wish to select fall within a rectangular region. Clicking on an item a second time unselects that item. it's a good idea to switch to Smartboard Mode. on the tool bar or the Drawing Draw a rectangle around all of the objects by clicking and dragging. select Clear Selection under the Edit menu. turn on Smartboard mode selection. choose Smartboard mode. Clicking off of an item does not clear the selection. Clicking off an item does not clear the selection. Clicking on an item a second time unselects that item. Smartboard Mode If you are using Geometry Expressions on a Smartboard. click it again and it will become unselected.Tools 51 To select more than one object: · · Click the selection arrow on the tool bar. selection accumulates. If you are using Geometry Expressions on a Smartboard. When set to True. To clear an entire selection. you can use the selection box: · · Click on the selection arrow toolbox. Hold down the CTRL or SHIFT key as you click the objects you want to select. Under Preferences / Selection.

click it again. © 2010 Saltire Software . retyping the value or variable and then pressing the enter key. Geometry Expressions will automatically add any constraints you leave out. Hold down the ctrl key while moving the wheel and the operation becomes a Zoom. Zoom and Move / Pan functions have a mouse shortcut: · The scroll wheel on your mouse can be used to Scale the drawing up or down. to turn off the marks. coordinates and implicit equations in real or symbolic terms.52 Geometry Expressions Manual Adjusting the Drawing Click the Select arrow . rotate or delete selected object(s) in the drawing. Since annotations may look identical to constraints. is a modal command. Constraints Using Drawing Constraints After sketching the geometry of a problem. The icon is a toggle. any Draw tool). . to move. use the icon. either from the Drawing toolbox or the icon bar. annotation or label by double clicking it. It stays active · The Move geometry icon until you select or choose another mode (e. constrain it with measurements. The drawing responds automatically to the assigned input constraints.g. Right-click and drag the mouse anywhere in the drawing window to Move or Pan. You can change a constraint value. The Scale. to Distinguish Constraints / Annotations.

vector. or polygon side. A point and a line. Two or three of any line segment. or polygon side. vectors. This can happen by mistake. Two of any lines. vectors. segment. all the constraints in the toolbox are inactive. A line. vector. or polygon sides. especially when using the selection box tool.Tools 53 Initially. segments. A point A vector A circle or locus and a line. polygon side. A line. or polygon sides. or polygon side. circle or locus. line segments. or polygon side. vector. Be careful when selecting geometry objects. You must first select the parts for your drawing that will be constrained. vector. or polygon sides. A circle Two of any lines. if extra things are selected that are not related to the constraint (like other constraints) the constraints will remain inactive. lines. segment. Constraint choices are listed below along with the drawing elements that must be preselected. segments. Constraint Distance / Length Preselected Objects Two of any combination of points. segment. vectors. Radius Perpendicular Angle Direction Slope Coordinate Coefficients Tangent Incident Congruent © 2010 Saltire Software . segment. vector.

Distinguishing Constraints from Annotations Your drawing is defined by Constraints on geometry elements. © 2010 Saltire Software . or polygon side. To further distinguish these use the Distinguish Constraints / Annotations toggle button on the main icon bar. or locus Occasionally you may try to add too many constraints to the geometry. segment. A point and a line. polygon side. retype the value or variable and press the enter key. vector. segment. The system will help you correct this problem in the Resolve Constraint Conflict dialog. or polygon side. causing a conflict. double click it with the selection arrow. The original default settings (Preferences / Math) fix Constraint lines and text in blue and Annotation lines and text in black. vector. Changing a Constraint To change a constraint. Annotations are like labels and have no influence on the geometry measurements. line. vector.54 Geometry Expressions Manual Parallel Implicit Equation Point Proportional Along Curve Two or three of any line segment. A circle.

For example. you do not need to fully constrain your model. As with all toggles.Tools 55 When active. and a is placed next to is placed next to all annotations. So if you ask for the coordinates of any of the points. the button is highlighted all constraints and a . System Added Constraints In Geometry Expressions. Any parameters you have left unconstrained are filled in by the geometry engine. you can turn these marks off with another click of the button. they will be given © 2010 Saltire Software . the following drawing is constrained only modulo a rigid transformation (typical for many geometry problems).

check the default setting. Show System Variables. and for the direction of line AB. To display these variables. © 2010 Saltire Software .56 Geometry Expressions Manual in terms of system added variables: Clearly the system has added variables for the location of point A. found in the Edit / Preferences menu selection on the Math page (left panel) under Output.

you will see the system variables when you select the output: © 2010 Saltire Software .Tools 57 When the setting is True.

the Coordinate constraint was already determined by the other two sides and an angle constraint on the triangle. © 2010 Saltire Software . There are three ways of dealing with this problem: 1. Hit the Cancel button to leave the drawing as it was without the new constraint.58 Geometry Expressions Manual Constraint Conflicts If you enter a constraint for some geometry which is already constrained by another constrained object you will see a message like the one below. In this case.

the selected constraint.Tools 59 2. This is similar to the first choice. but also calculates the selected geometry’s value. After you click Ok. the angle q in this case. Click the first button. 3. Figure 1 Figure 2 © 2010 Saltire Software . is calculated and displayed (figure 3). If you choose "Relax other constraints so the coordinate is independent". When you select one of these constraints (in figure 2 below we clicked on q). In this case. it eliminates the new constraint. "Calculate the coordinates from other constraints" (the default choice). the highlight changes to gray. the coordinates of point C would be calculated and displayed. this will keep the new constraint you just entered and allow you to eliminate one of the red highlighted constraints (figure 1).

or polygon side Distance between two points or a point and any one of the line types listed above. and press enter. either real or symbolic. enter the constraint value. You can press enter without typing a value to accept the system's default value. your selection. © 2010 Saltire Software . When you make . You can click the constraint and drag it to adjust its placement on the drawing.60 Geometry Expressions Manual Figure 3 Distance / Length Constraint The Distance / Length constraint lets you specify the following dimensions: · · · Length of a line segment. To enter a constraint: 1. Click the icon. the Distance / Length icon will light up 2. Select the appropriate drawing object(s). vector.

You can press enter without typing a value to let the system insert a variable name. 2. . either real or symbolic. enter the constraint value.Tools 61 Radius Constraint To specify the radius of a circle: 1. Perpendicular Constraint Any two of lines. From select mode as well as the icon . and press enter. click the circle. The circle will be highlighted . segments. vectors or polygon sides can be constrained to be perpendicular with these steps: 1. Click the Radius icon. Click the Perpendicular icon The lines are redrawn and the perpendicular constraint is attached. 2. Select two from the line types listed above. You can click the constraint and drag it to adjust its placement on the drawing. © 2010 Saltire Software .

we wanted BDC. Just click the cursor over the constraint arrow and drag it to the other side. Select two from the line types listed above. vectors or polygon sides can be constrained with an angle value or variable name with these steps: 1. Which Side to Constrain? Sometimes when identifying angles.done! Note: The angular units are displayed in the lower right of the screen. If you enter a real value. 2. Enter the constraint. © 2010 Saltire Software . the lines will be adjusted to reflect the constraint. In the example below. the constraint falls on the wrong one. Math settings group. segments. Change the default Angle Mode in the Edit / Preferences / Math Properties menu. Click the Angle icon 3. . then release the mouse button . not BDA. real or symbolic.62 Geometry Expressions Manual Angle Constraint Any two of lines.

Enter the constraint. Click the Direction icon 3. 1. or polygon side. Enter the constraint. vector. line segment. Note: The angular units are displayed in the lower right of the screen. . If you enter a real value. line. © 2010 Saltire Software . or polygon side. real or symbolic. 1. . Select one of the line types listed above. 2. the line will be adjusted to reflect the constraint.Tools 63 Direction Constraint Constrain any of the line types. line segment. Slope Constraint Specify a slope for any of the line types. to a direction measured from the horizontal. line. 2. real or symbolic. Change the default (Degrees or Radians) in the Edit / Preferences menu. Click the Slope icon 3. Select one of the line types listed above. If you enter a real value. vector. the line will be adjusted to reflect the constraint.

Select a point. Enter the coefficients separated by a comma. Note: Don't forget the parentheses or an error message appears. © 2010 Saltire Software .64 Geometry Expressions Manual Coordinate Constraint You can give coordinates to any point in your drawing: 1. 2. Enter the constraint. double click and type over the highlighted value in the data entry box. 2. Constraining Vector Coeffecients You can specify coefficients for a vector with the following steps: 1. Select a vector. To change the coordinates shown. Click the Coordinate icon 3. even if the coordinate axes are not displayed. the line will be adjusted to reflect the constraint. real or symbolic. . . If you enter a real value. Click the coefficients icon 3.

vector. or the extension of the line. Select the point and the other geometry listed above. Click the Incident icon from the Constrain toolbox. segment. The point is moved to meet the line or curve. Select a line of the types listed above and the circle or locus. Incident Constraint Constrain a point to be incident to any other geometry. polygon side. line. or polygon side can be made tangent to a circle or locus with these steps: 1. vector. circle or locus with these steps: 1. The line and curve immediately become tangent.Tools 65 Tangent Constraint Any of the line types. or select Incident from the Constrain menu. line. line segment. 2. Click the Tangent icon from the Constrain tool box or select Tangent from the Constrain menu. Below is an example of the latter. © 2010 Saltire Software . point D is moved to lie on the extension of line segment AB. 2.

Click the Congruent icon from the Constrain toolbox. or polygon sides. incidence is indicated by a bowtie around the point: Congruent Constraint Constrain two or three of any of these geometry types: line segments. or select Congruent from the Constrain menu. vectors. Select two line segments.66 Geometry Expressions Manual If you select the point or the line. 2. You will see matching congruency lines on the selected segments and a © 2010 Saltire Software . to be congruent with these steps: 1.

Click the Parallel icon from the Constrain toolbox. 1. Implicit Equation Constraint © 2010 Saltire Software . or polygon side. or select Parallel from the Constrain menu.Tools 67 length will be adjusted. vector. Parallel Constraint Any two or three of the linear geometry types can be made parallel: line. segment. 2. The geometry will be adjusted and matching symbols appear on the selected lines. Select two or three from the types listed above.

For general Cartesian functions. Lines. 2. line segments. An input window will open next to the geometry you selected. it defines the point at parameter value t. an equation like . © 2010 Saltire Software . it defines the point at parameter value t. Click the Implicit Equation icon from the Constrain toolbox. For Polar functions. For general Parametric functions. b sin(t)). You will find these variables added to the variable list in the Variables toolbox. Point Proportional Along a Curve Constraint A point proportion t along a curve is defined variously for different types of curves as follows: · · · · · · · For a Line segment AB. For an Ellipse of the form X2/a2 + Y2/b2 =1 it defines the point (a cos(t). it defines the x value of the point on the function. For a Locus or envelope. polygon sides. for a line. Highlighted in the window is a generic equation for the selected object. You can edit the equation with different variable names or coefficients as you like. Select the geometry. vectors and circles and conics can all be constrained with implicit equations. it defines the point on the function which subtends angle t. or select Implicit Equation from the Constrain menu.68 Geometry Expressions Manual You can use symbolic variables to constrain geometry with an implicit equation. 1.XA1+YB1+C1 = 0 might appear. it defines the point (1-t)•A + t•B For a Circle it defines the point on the circle which subtends angle t at the center.

Click the Point Proportional icon from the Constrain toolbox. For example. Select a point and one of the curves mentioned above.x2). Enter the parameter or quantity (symbolic or real) in the data entry box. the curve is the locus of the point (x. at2) For a Hyperbola of the form X2/a2 . 3. The curve is the locus of F as t varies between 0 and 1. © 2010 Saltire Software .Tools 69 · · For a Parabola of the form Y=X2/4a it defines the point (2at.Y2/b2 =1 it defines the point (a/cos(t). D is defined proportion t along AB. 1. 2. or select Point Proportional from the Constrain menu. (b sin(t))/cos(t)). and E is defined proportion t along BC. in the following diagram. In the following example.

Where is Point proportional along curve for conics? The best way to understand the location of Point proportional along curve command for conics is to see how we construct it geometrically for each conic: Ellipse The ellipse with foci A and B is inscribed in circle.70 Geometry Expressions Manual Tangents are created at points with parameter values x0 and x1 on this curve. Draw the radius MN at angle t to the major axis and drop the segment NO perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse. center M. When the intersection of NO with the ellipse (point C) is constrained to be t proportional along © 2010 Saltire Software .

its coordinates are (a/cos(t).Tools 71 the ellipse. b sin(t)). Point F is the intersection of the perpendicular to BC through D with the parabola. When point C is constrained to be at parametric location t along the curve. it's coordinates will be (a cos(t). Parabola C lies on the parabola and BC is perpendicular to the axis AB of the parabola. H is the point of contact of this circle with the tangent from D. Hyperbola CD is the perpendicular projection of C onto the axis of the hyperbola. Point D is located proportion t along the segment. We can see that the angle DGH is the same as the parameter value. © 2010 Saltire Software . b sin(t)/cos(t)) on this hyperbola. It has the coordinates (2at. GF is the circle centered at the center of the hyperbola which goes through the intersections of the hyperbola with its axis. at2) when it is constrained to parametric location t on this parabola.

especially when using the selection box tool. First you must select the geometry elements which pertain to the construction. if extra things are selected that are not related to the construction. Be careful when selecting geometry objects.72 Geometry Expressions Manual Constructions Creating Constructions After sketching and constraining your drawing there are a whole set of constructions that can be applied to the geometry. and which elements must be preselected to activate the constructions. The following table lists the Constructions. the construction icons will remain inactive. When you select the geometry the appropriate constructions will be highlighted. their icons. This can happen by mistake. © 2010 Saltire Software .

A point and one of: a line. Conics are limited to intersecting only with lines. vector. Two of: a line. vector. vector. or polygon side. segment. Two of: a line. or polygon side. or polygon side. segment. a point on the curve Three or more connected line segments or points (vertices) to form a polygon One or more objects One or more objects One or more objects One or more objects A point or line that will vary with a parameter One or more objects that will vary with a parameter An arc of a Cartesian function Perpendicular Bisector Angle Bisector Parallel Perpendicular Tangent Polygon Reflection Translation Rotation Dilation Locus Trace Area Under Arc © 2010 Saltire Software . segment. vector.Tools 73 Construction Midpoint Intersection Preselected Objects A line segment. polygon side or conic. vector. or polygon side. or polygon side. A circle or curve. vector. segments and vectors. A point and one of: a line. A line segment. segment. and optionally.

Select two from the geometry types listed above. segment. A new point and label will appear at the intersection. © 2010 Saltire Software . Intersections You can construct a point of intersection between any of the line types in your geometry. line. or between two points by: 1. Select two from the line types listed above. If the lines are segments that do not intersect. Click the Midpoint tool Construct menu. a point will be created at the extension of the lines as with line segments AB and CD below. or select Midpoint from the 2. vector. . polygon side or circle.74 Geometry Expressions Manual Midpoints of Line Segments You can construct a midpoint on any line segment. A point will appear in the middle of the selected line. Click the Intersection tool Construct menu. You can also construct intersections of circles. Conics are limited to intersections only with lines. segments or vectors. 1. or select Intersection from the 2. vector. polygon side.

or polygon side with these steps: 1. © 2010 Saltire Software . An infinite line will appear at right angles to the selected line. the selected objects are moved to form the intersection. vector. Click the Perpendicular Bisector tool or select Perpendicular Bisector from the Construct menu. Select any of the line types listed above. In the example below. H. 2. the infinite line and circle become tangent at the newly created point.Tools 75 If the geometry will never intersect. segment. Perpendicular Bisector You can construct a perpendicular bisector on any line.

© 2010 Saltire Software . polygon side or vector with these steps: 1. and parallel to another line. Click the Parallel tool menu. Click the Angle Bisector tool the Construct menu. An infinite line will appear between the two selected lines. segment. Parallel Constructions You can construct a line. segment. through a point. or polygon side with these steps: 1.76 Geometry Expressions Manual Angle Bisector You can bisect the angle between any combination of line types. You can use the Calculate / Angle tool to get the value of the bisected angle. line. A line is constructed which is parallel to the selected line and passes through the selected point. Select a point and a line of one of the types listed above. or select Parallel from the Construct 2. vector. Select two of any of the line types listed above. or select Angle Bisector from 2.

2. or at the selected point. or select Perpendicular from 2. through a point. Tangents You can construct a line that is tangent to a circle or curve with these steps: 1. Select a point and a line of one of the types listed above. A line is constructed which is perpendicular to the selected line and passes through the selected point. segment. polygon side or vector with these steps: 1. or select Tangent from the Construct A line tangent to the selected curve will appear at the point where you selected the circle or curve. © 2010 Saltire Software .Tools 77 Perpendicular Constructions You can construct a line. Click the Tangent tool menu. Select the circle or curve. You can also select a point on the curve so that the tangent goes through the point on the curve. Click the Perpendicular tool the Construct menu. which is perpendicular to another line.

3. Click the Reflection tool in the Construct toolbox. The polygon will be filled and you can now select the entire polygon with a single click. A copy of your selected geometry will appear on the other side of the reflection line. or select an existing line as the reflection line. © 2010 Saltire Software . Click the Polygon tool in the Construct toolbox. or select Reflection from the Construct menu. (e. or select Polygon from the Construct menu. 1. 2. or your polygon was not shaded for some reason. Reflection You can reflect any subset of your diagram about a line with these steps: 1. the drawing of the sides was interrupted or out of order) you can make joined line segments into a polygon that can be selected with a single click using this construction. Select one or more geometry objects to reflect. 2. Select the line segments that make up the polygon. adjust the angle and click again. Either click the cursor to place the reflection line on the screen.78 Geometry Expressions Manual Polygon Construction If you created a polygon with the line segment tool.g.

A' becomes A". A' becomes A".Tools 79 Notice all points on the reflected geometry are written as "prime". If you translate this geometry again. Click the Translation tool in the Construct toolbox. The translated geometry appears. If you reflect the geometry again.e. A becomes A'. Select the geometry to be translated. Select the geometry to be rotated. Notice all points on the translated geometry are written as "prime". Rotation You can rotate any subset of your diagram about a point. i. A becomes A'. © 2010 Saltire Software . or select Translation from the Construct menu. Translation You can translate any subset of your diagram with a translation vector. Here are the steps: 1. Here are the steps: 1. 3. Click the cursor to draw the end point of your translation vector and move the cursor to establish the length and angle of the translation.e. 2. Click again to finish the vector. i. You can adjust the position of the translation by clicking and dragging the tip of the vector.

Here are the steps: 1. A becomes A'.80 Geometry Expressions Manual 2. In the data entry box presented. 2. Notice all points on the rotated geometry are written as "prime". Dilation You can dilate any subset of your diagram from a point. enter the angle of rotation. 3. A' becomes A". The rotation of the selected geometry appears. 4. 3. A' becomes A". Click the screen to place your rotation point. The dilated geometry appears. Notice all points on the dilated geometry are written as "prime". Click the Dilation tool in the Construct toolbox.e. 4.e. © 2010 Saltire Software . If you dilate this geometry again. or select Rotation from the Construct menu. In the data entry box presented. i. Click the cursor on your dilation point. enter the dilation factor. or select Dilation from the Construct menu. If you rotate this geometry again. Click the Rotation tool in the Construct toolbox. A becomes A'. i. Select the geometry to be dilated.

) 4. select a line. or vector to form an envelope. You need a parameter to drive the motion to create the locus. Click the arrow key to the right of the Parametric Variable window to select from a list of all variables in the drawing. Select the point on the drawing that will form the locus (point B in the example below).Tools 81 Locus of Points / Envelope You can construct a locus of points or envelope from a selected point or line. 3. When you click the Locus icon . the Edit Locus dialog pops up. 2. Cancel the trace and change the constraint to a variable by double-clicking it in the drawing window. line segment. by defining a range for some constraint in the drawing. Simply fill in the values for the appropriate variable and click the Ok button. Just follow these easy steps: 1. (If you entered the needed constraint in real terms. © 2010 Saltire Software .

To adjust the range of the locus. In the Edit Locus dialog. The following example shows an envelope of the line DE. double-click the locus to edit the dialog. we create the envelope from parameter t as it ranges from 0 to 1.e. We use the Point proportional along curve constraint and the parameter t to position the points D and E (D is (1-t) along line AC and E is t along line AB). © 2010 Saltire Software . a point in a triangle will not work as a locus unless the location of the other two points are fixed with coordinate constraints.82 Geometry Expressions Manual Note: The locus only works if the figure's position is fixed i.

Click the arrow key to the right of the Parametric Variable window to select from a list of all variables in the drawing. Select variable t and click the Play button. (If you entered the needed constraint in real terms. Here are the steps: 1. Trace You can Trace the movement of one or a group of drawing objects. Click the Trace tool 3. and the Edit Trace dialog pops up. You can create string art drawings and see how an envelope curve is formed. Cancel the trace and change your © 2010 Saltire Software . You need a parameter to drive the motion of the trace. Select the drawing objects to be traced. 2.Tools 83 You can replay the creation of the envelope with the Animation tools.

© 2010 Saltire Software .) 4. Simply fill in the values for the appropriate variable and click the OK button. double-click one of the traces to edit the dialog. To adjust the range or number of traces.84 Geometry Expressions Manual constraint to a variable by double-clicking it in the drawing window .

A filled area is created between the arc and the X axis. Integral Calculus The Area Under Arc function is a great way to show problems with the definite integral.Tools 85 Area Under the Arc The Area Under Arc function is found only in the Construct menu at the top of the main window. Here are the steps: 1. 2. Select the Draw / Function tool and enter f(x) in the Y= data entry box. Click OK. This is a great way to illustrate the definite integral. The necessary lines and points containing the area are automatically added. 2. © 2010 Saltire Software . Here are the steps for making the integral of the generic function f(x) over the interval a to b: 1. Use the Draw / Arc tool to trace over some portion of the function. Select Construct / Area Under Arc. Select an arc drawn over a function.

use the Constrain / Point proportional along curve tool to define the limits of the region. 4.be careful not to select the whole function. but you might want to give the viewer some additional information. These might be constraints that cause the geometry to be over constrained. The area between the arc and the X axis will be filled. 5. This feature can be very helpful for making up texts or worksheets. e.g. even though they are placed exactly like the Constrain tools. Select the new arc . select a and b from the Symbols toolbox. Just the section of arc should be highlighted. For each endpoint of the arc. Annotations Applying Annotations Annotations allow you to add constraint information to your drawing which isn't needed for it's construction. Annotate tools are similar to Text in that they have no influence on the geometry engine. Choose Area Under Arc from the Construct menu. 6. Select the area under the arc and click Calculate / Symbolic / Area. © 2010 Saltire Software .86 Geometry Expressions Manual 3.

vector. Point Vector A line. vector. segment. Two of any line. or a point and one of these line types (perpendicular distance). Here are the Annotate tools and the object(s) to preselect: Annotation Distance / Length Radius Perpendicular Angle Direction Slope Coordinates Coefficients Congruent Preselected Object(s) A line segment. segment. The Symbols and Annotation Symbols toolboxes are both available to the Annotate tools. Circle Two of any line. Congruent Angle Two of any lines. vector. to turn off the marks. segment. click it again. vector. or polygon side. segments. or polygon side. or polygon side. or polygon side. A line. vector. use the icon from icon bar at the top of the window to Distinguish Constraints / Annotations. A line. or polygon side. or polygon side. or polygon side. segment. segment. vector. vectors. [none] © 2010 Saltire Software .Tools 87 Since annotations may look identical to constraints. The icon is a toggle. or polygon sides Parallel Expression A line. or two points. vector. segment.

There are no format restrictions. Radius Annotation To annotate a circle's radius use these steps: 1. You can use Symbols and Annotation Symbols in the entry. the drawing objects will be highlighted and the Distance / Length icon will light up . Select the circle. Select the line segment. The Annotate / Radius icon and the circle will be highlighted. polygon side. 2. or pair of points as described above. Press enter when you're done. When you make your selection. There are no format restrictions. Enter the distance information. © 2010 Saltire Software will light up . Press enter when you're done.88 Geometry Expressions Manual Distance / Length Annotation Length annotations may be applied to any line. or vector. You can click the annotation and drag it to adjust its placement in the drawing. segment. Click the icon 3. You can use Symbols and Annotation Symbols in the entry. Use these steps: 1. Distance annotations are available between two points. polygon side or vector. Enter the radius information. or point and line. or the perpendicular distance between a point and a line. segment. Click the icon 3. 2.

The will light up when both lines are Annotate / Perpendicular icon highlighted. This annotation is very useful if you are displaying a 3-d object. Select two of any line. 2. segment. vector. Perpendicular Annotation The perpendicular annotation inserts the perpendicular mark between any two of these line types: line. Note: Placing this annotation between two lines does not change the relative position of the lines or prevent the lines from changing their relative position as it does with the Constrain tool of the same name. Click the icon. In this example we imported the Triangular Prism from the Solids folder in the Figure Gallery. © 2010 Saltire Software . Use these steps: 1. or polygon side. segment.Tools 89 You can click the annotation and drag it to adjust its placement in the drawing. polygon side or vector.

Which Side to Annotate? Sometimes when identifying angles. Click the icon 3.done! © 2010 Saltire Software . not BDA. Press enter when you're done. 2. Enter the angle information. Just click the cursor over the annotation arrow and drag it to the other side. then release the mouse button . Select two of any line. the annotation falls on the wrong one. In the example below. or polygon side. segment. we wanted BDC.90 Geometry Expressions Manual Angle Annotation To annotate an angle use these steps: 1. The will light up and the lines will be Annotate / Angle icon highlighted. There are no format restrictions. vector. You can use Symbols and Annotation Symbols in the entry.

There are no format restrictions. The will light up and the line will be Annotate / Slope icon highlighted. Slope Annotation To annotate a line's slope use these steps: 1. or polygon side. Press enter when you're done. Click the icon 3. Enter the slope information. Select a line. You can use Symbols and Annotation Symbols in the entry. Click the icon 3. You can click the annotation and drag it to adjust its placement in the © 2010 Saltire Software . segment. or polygon side. The will light up and the line will be Annotate / Direction icon highlighted. You can click the annotation and drag it to adjust its placement in the drawing. There are no format restrictions. Select a line. 2.Tools 91 Direction Annotation To annotate a line's direction use these steps: 1. vector. segment. Enter the direction information. You can use Symbols and Annotation Symbols in the entry. vector. 2. Press enter when you're done.

2. You can use Symbols and Annotation Symbols in the entry. will light Coefficients Annotation To annotate a vector's coefficients use these steps: 1. Select point. Click the icon 3. Click the icon 3. Enter the coordinate information. You can click the annotation and drag it to adjust its placement in the drawing. There are no format restrictions. Press enter when you're done. 2. The Annotate / Coefficients icon up and the vector will be highlighted. You can use Symbols and Annotation Symbols in the entry. Select vector. The Annotate / Coordinate icon up and the point will be highlighted. will light © 2010 Saltire Software .92 Geometry Expressions Manual drawing. Coordinate Annotation To annotate an point's coordinates use these steps: 1. Press enter when you're done. There are no format restrictions. Enter the vector's coefficients.

The will light up when both lines are Annotate / Congruent icon highlighted. segment. 2. Click the icon. Congruent Annotation Place a congruent mark on any of the linear drawing elements: lines. or polygon side. vector.Tools 93 You can click the annotation and drag it to adjust its placement in the drawing. or polygon sides. segments. Select any line. vectors. © 2010 Saltire Software . Use these steps: 1.

Click the icon. or polygon sides. segments. Right click to invoke the selection Context menu. Use these steps: 1. 3. Select the annotation. 2. The will light up when both lines Annotate / Congruent Angle icon are highlighted. 2. © 2010 Saltire Software . vectors. You can change the arc count with these steps: 1. Select two lines. vectors.94 Geometry Expressions Manual Note: Placing this annotation on lines does not change the relative lengths of the lines or keep them the same length as it does with the Constrain tool of the same name. segments. Congruent Angle Annotation Place a congruent mark between pairs of linear drawing elements: lines. Select Tic/Arc Count from the menu and click the desired number. or polygon sides.

© 2010 Saltire Software . vectors. Use these steps: 1. segments. The will light up when both lines Annotate / Perpendicular icon are highlighted. segment. Select _ any line. 2. vector. or polygon side.Tools 95 Parallel Annotation Place a parallel mark on any of the linear drawing elements: lines. Click the icon. or polygon sides.

Click the icon . Enter the expression. Expression Annotation The Annotate / Expression command is useful for placing a line of mathematics anywhere in your drawing. 1.96 Geometry Expressions Manual Note: Placing this annotation on lines does not change the relative position of the lines or prevent the lines from changing their relative position as it does with the Constrain tool of the same name. You can use Symbols and Annotation Symbols in the entry. You can click the annotation and drag it to adjust its placement in the drawing. There are no format restrictions. 3. © 2010 Saltire Software . 2. Move the cursor to the position where you want to place the expression and click. Press enter when you're done.

© 2010 Saltire Software . especially when using the selection rectangle. If you haven't supplied all of the necessary input constraints. add constraints. Some calculations may take longer than you expected. or just let it continue with the calculation. you can stop it and restart it with these buttons on the tool bar. If the calculation isn't immediate. The table below lists all the available calculations and geometry elements which must be preselected.Tools 97 Calculations Calculating the Output Geometry Expressions will make calculations in the geometry based on any constraints or constructions you have specified. if extra things are selected that are not related to the calculation (like other calculations) the calculations will remain inactive. the system inserts any missing variables automatically or. for real calculations. bases the value on the sketch. Calculations can be output in Real or Symbolic terms by choosing the appropriate tab. You may want to reconsider the problem. Be careful when selecting geometry objects. This can happen by mistake. The Stop calculations and Start calculations can also be found under Calculate (Output) menu and under the general context menu. Stop calculations Start calculations. or just from the sketch.

or a point and one of these line types (perpendicular distance). vector. vector. vector. or a constructed locus. A line. polygon side. vector. circle. or polygon side. segment. Radius Angle Direction Slope Coordinates Area Perimeter Coefficients Parametric Equation Implicit Equation Distance / Length Calculation © 2010 Saltire Software . segment. Circle Two of any line. Point Circle or polygon Circle or polygon Vector A line. polygon side. segment.98 Geometry Expressions Manual Calculation Distance / Length Preselected Object(s) A line segment. segment. or polygon side. or polygon side. or two points. or a constructed locus. A line. vector. circle. or polygon side. segment. A line. vector.

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Length calculations may be obtained for any line segment, polygon side or vector. Distance calculations are available between two points, or the perpendicular distance between a point and a line, segment, polygon side, or vector. Use these steps: 1. Select the line segment, or point and line, or pair of points as described above. 2. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. 3. Click the Distance / Length tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Distance / Length from the Calculate menu. Geometry Expressions displays the length, using any relevant parameters you may have specified.

Radius Calculation

Geometry Expressions will calculate the radius of any circle. Use these steps to find the radius: 1. Select a circle.

2. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. 3. Click the Radius tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Radius from the Calculate menu. The equation with real or symbolic terms appears in the diagram.

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Angle Calculation

Geometry Expressions will calculate any angle between lines in the geometry. Use these steps to find the angle: 1. Select side. two line types - any line, segment, vector, or polygon

2. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. 3. Click the Angle tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Angle from the Calculate menu. The equation with real or symbolic terms appears in the diagram. You can obtain the angle's supplement by dragging the angle symbol.

Supplementary Angles

If it's unclear whether a calculation is requested for the angle or its supplement, you can drag the angle symbol to the correct position. Here are some examples of playing around with supplementary angles (inputs, outputs and angle annotations all have this feature):

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© 2010 Saltire Software

Select a line type. segments. The direction measurement appears in real or symbolic terms. © 2010 Saltire Software . or vectors with these steps: 1. polygon sides.102 Geometry Expressions Manual Direction Calculation Geometry Expressions will calculate the direction of lines. 3. 2. polygon sides. The equation for the slope with real or symbolic terms appears in the diagram. segments. Click the Slope tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Slope from the Calculate menu. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. 3. or vectors with these steps: 1. Select a line type. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. Slope Calculation Geometry Expressions will calculate the slope of lines. 2. Click the Direction tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Direction from the Calculate menu.

use the Polygon Construction tool.Tools 103 Calculate Coordinates You can calculate the coordinates of any point in your diagram with these steps: 1. Area Calculation You can obtain the area of any polygon or circle in your diagram. The real or symbolic coordinates appear by the point. The area is displayed in real or symbolic terms. 2. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. 3. 2. 3. Note: If your polygon is not filled it is just a group of line segments. then proceed with these steps: 1. © 2010 Saltire Software . Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. To convert them to a polygon. Select a circle or polygon. Click the Area tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Area from the Calculate menu. Select a point. Click the Coordinates tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Coordinates from the Calculate menu.

Select a vector. Click the Coefficients tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Coefficients from the Calculate menu. 2. Calculate Coefficients Use this tool to calculate the coefficients of a vector in the diagram with these steps: 1. Select a circle or polygon. 3. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. © 2010 Saltire Software . then proceed with these steps: 1. 3. The real or symbolic coefficients appear by the vector. The perimeter is displayed in real or symbolic terms. To convert them to a polygon. Note: If your polygon is not filled it is just a group of line segments. Click the Perimeter tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Perimeter from the Calculate menu. 2. use the Polygon Construction tool.104 Geometry Expressions Manual Perimeter Calculation You can obtain the perimeter of any polygon or circle in your diagram. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa.

Select any geometry object described above. Calculating Implicit Equation Calculates the implicit equation for the selected circle or a line. The real or symbolic equations for x and y appear by the geometry. Use these steps: 1. Select any geometry object described above. You can also calculate parametric equations for a circle or line. © 2010 Saltire Software . 2. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. based on the parameter defining the curve. 1. Click the Implicit Equation tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Implicit Equation from the Calculate menu. Click the tab to switch from Real to Symbolic output or vice versa. Geometry Expressions will also attempt to calculate the equation of a locus or envelope curve.Tools 105 Calculating Parametric Equations Computes parametric equations for a locus or envelope. 3. Click the Parametric Equation tool in the Calculate toolbox or select Parametric Equation from the Calculate menu. 3. 2.

select Edit / Properties © 2010 Saltire Software . Output Viewing the Output The Output settings apply to Symbolic Calculations.106 Geometry Expressions Manual The real or symbolic equation appears by the geometry. then invoke the dialog in one of two ways: · right click the mouse and select All Properties from the Selection context menu · from the menu bar. Math tab . The general default Output settings are found in the Edit / Preferences menu selection. Select the output(s). Individual outputs can be adjusted in the Display Properties dialog.

click the drop-down arrow 5.applies to equations containing absolute values. Geometry Expressions eliminates the absolute value from expressions and determines from the diagram whether the value is positive or negative. to select Assumptions With the Use Assumptions selection. Try it with these steps: 1. select one or more output calculations 2. Click the Output selection. right click the mouse and select All Properties from the Selection context menu 3.can sometimes simplify the output. click anywhere on the Use Assumptions line in the Output box 4.True or False.Tools 107 The Output selections specify how the calculations are made and how the output is displayed. select False or True © 2010 Saltire Software . Use Assumptions . Use Intermediate Variables . and then the drop-down arrow the desired state . The "Show" check boxes control where the output is displayed.

Intermediate Variables Substituting intermediate variables can sometimes simplify expressions calculated by the program. Note: Intermediate variables are not always used in calculations. Try this option to see how it affects your output: 1. select False or True If Use Intermediate Variables is False.108 Geometry Expressions Manual Obviously. in which case this box will have no effect. click the drop-down arrow 5. the Show Intermediate Variables is inactive. © 2010 Saltire Software . click anywhere on the Use Intermediate Variables line in the Output box 4. right click the mouse and select All Properties from the Selection context menu 3. select one or more output calculations 2. this tool only has an effect when the expression selected contains an absolute value.

right click the mouse and select All Properties from the Selection context menu 3.if the system uses intermediate variables. . click the drop-down arrow 5. select False or True Show Intermediate Variables .Tools 109 Show Output Check Boxes After you generate an output expression: 1. click the output 2. their definitions are displayed in the output window. . This name is zn where n is the sequential number of the output . rows 4. You can change the output name by double clicking the output and © 2010 Saltire Software . Show Name .is a term assigned by the system to the output. click one of the Output / Show.

Symbols Using Symbols © 2010 Saltire Software . Show On Diagram becomes False). Show in Output Window .puts the output expression on the diagram when True. If this value is True.the output expression is moved to the output window when True (Show in Output Window becomes True. Show On Diagram .110 Geometry Expressions Manual entering a new name in the box. then Show Name becomes True.puts the output expression in the Output Window when True. Too Big for Diagram .

The Division button makes expressions easier to enter and read. and click the letters to be inserted into the data entry box. and then click Division. Greek Upper (upper case letters) or Greek Lower ( lower case letters) in the Symbols toolbox. click the appropriate tab. The bottom row of buttons in the toolbox lets you insert commonly used math operations. enter the numerator of the expression. For quick entering of p. The cursor is then positioned in the denominator. · From the data entry box. type pi. highlight it. Multiplication & Division Editing Tools The Multiplication button inserts a multiplication symbol into the expression. © 2010 Saltire Software . Click the tab to choose from lower case or upper case Greek letters. Inserting Greek Letters To insert Greek letters into any variable name or expression.Tools 111 The Symbols toolbox lets you easily insert Greek letters into your expressions and constraints.

click the Square Root button. then highlight the 0 and type the terms. Square Root Editing Tool You can enter square roots in one of two ways: · · · From the data entry box. and click the Square Root button. Note: Make sure the cursor is positioned at the left side of the gray © 2010 Saltire Software . be sure to place the cursor in the appropriate place before typing the expression. or · From the data entry box. Use the sqrt() function in the data entry box. highlight the terms and click the Subscript Superscript button. click the Sub/Superscript button and type the values into the grey boxes.112 Geometry Expressions Manual · If you click the Division button first. From the data entry box. Subscript / Superscript Editor You can enter superscripts or subscripts for variables in one of these ways: · From the data entry box. enter the expression you want sub/ superscripted. enter the expression you want inside the square root. highlight the terms.

A[1] = A1 Parentheses and Absolute Value Notation You can add parentheses or an absolute value sign to a term in one of two ways: · From the data input box. © 2010 Saltire Software . Simply click the symbol you need as you type. · From the data entry box.Tools 113 box before typing the sub/superscript. Use the symbols from the data entry window of the Annotate tools. These symbols are not used in Geometry Expressions' algebra engine. · Another way to make a subscript is to use square brackets . or Absolute Annotation Symbols Using Annotation Symbols Annotation Symbols are available for use with any of the Annotate tools. but may be useful in creating worksheets and tests. click the Parentheses Value button and enter the terms. highlight it. then click the Parentheses or Absolute Value button. type the term(s).

press enter. © 2010 Saltire Software .114 Geometry Expressions Manual When you are finished with the annotation.

© 2010 Saltire Software .Tools 115 System Variables and Animation Investigating Variables The Variables toolbox reports all the variables you have used in the diagram and lets you manipulate their values.

116 Geometry Expressions Manual Variable List This list contains the names of all variables used in your diagram. · Function List When using the Function command to draw a function of the form Y=f (X)+g(X). the Functions tab in the Variables toolbox lists the functions f and g and their values. lock status . Use the edit line at the bottom of the box to modify the functions. the system shows: · the current value . For every variable name. © 2010 Saltire Software . or just taken from the way you sketched the geometry. the unlocked (-) variable is free to change as the geometry moves or changes.these values can be ones that you have explicitly specified.if the variable is locked (+) its value will not change if you move the geometry or add additional constraints.

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**Using the Lock Tool
**

By default, when you drag points in a Geometry Expressions model, it will adjust the numerical sample values used in the various parameters of the model to accommodate the drag, as best it can. For example, in the model of a 4 bar linkage below, dragging point B will cause lengths a and b and angle q to be adjusted appropriately.

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However, you may want the drag to act as if the members AB and BC were rigid, and only angle theta adjustable. To do this you can lock the parameters:

The value of a, for example, can still be set from the Variables panel, but it will not change when the model is dragged.

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Changing and Locking the Variable Value

To make a change to the variable list, first click anyplace in the row of the variable you want to change. That row will be highlighted. To change the value: highlight the value in the edit window and type the new value. To change the lock status: just click the button to unlock a locked variable to lock an open variable

Animation

Your geometry comes to life with the Animation tools. You simply need to select the parameter that drives the animation, give it a range, then Play. In the diagram below we select q for the crank of this linkage.

© 2010 Saltire Software

works like a video player.120 Geometry Expressions Manual Click the headings below for details on the animation buttons and windows: · · · Animation console . © 2010 Saltire Software . This type of animation can be conveniently modeled in Geometry Expressions using the point proportional along a curve constraint along with parameter based animation. Animation values and duration .indicates how the range for the animation is stepped through.where you specify the speed and the range for the driving parameter. Animation modes . Users of numeric interactive geometry systems may be familiar with the concept of animation based on points animated along line segments or curves.

Runs the animation continuously forward and then backward through the specified range. · · · Click and drag the slider along the bar to manually animate the drawing. The Duration box in the center lets you specify how long the animation takes to play one time through. In the two data entry windows at the bottom right and left of the toolbox. Animation Values and Duration These animation buttons help you adjust the range and speed of the animation. The modes are: Runs the animation one time through the specified range. Pause. Runs the animation one time forward and then backward through the specified range.Tools 121 Animation Console The Animation console works like a standard video console with the Play. specify the range of the animation. Values are between 1 and 60 seconds. Animation Modes The animation modes can be changed with the up/down arrow buttons. Runs the animation continuously from the beginning to the end of the range. © 2010 Saltire Software . and Stop buttons as well as advance to the Beginning and End buttons.

Menus and Icons Menus File Menu The File menu contains the standard Windows file handling operations with options for copying and exporting to other programs.122 Geometry Expressions Manual Animation and the Locus Tool Both the construction of the locus and envelope curves. we can create a locus over values of the variable t (other variables will be kept constant). Several of the options are also available from the icon bar. and the animation of the diagram in Geometry Expressions can be defined in terms of any variable. For example in the model below. © 2010 Saltire Software .

Browse through the files and select one to explore. Useful for making a backup. . A shortcut containing common geometry figures that you may need for creating worksheets or other documents. If any other files are open. . . Import one of the many interesting theorems and problems already constructed. If you have made changes to pages. Close Function Creates a new project. Save Save As .gxw). you will be asked if you want to save them individually (.gx files). if multiple files are open. the file on top. Brings up the Save File As dialog box to enter a new or different path / file name. . Brings up the Open Workbook dialog box. the Save File As dialog box lets you specify where to save the project file. Brings up the Select a File dialog box so you can open a project. Saves the file. Open Workbook Save Workbook Save Workbook as Close Workbook Import Figure from Figure Gallery Import GX File from Geometry Atlas © 2010 Saltire Software . so you can open them all at once. Closes the current workbook. Closes the current file or. If you have not yet saved the current work to a file.Menus and Icons 123 Menu Option New Open. they will be closed when you select the workbook. Saves all tabbed pages as a single workspace (. Saves all tabbed pages as a single workbook (.gxw) and lets you specify a new or different path / file name for the workbook.

. after prompting for save. Double click a folder or sub-folder (or click and press Select in the lower right corner) to view of the problems in a category.html). Select File / Import Figure from Figure Gallery 2. Selecting one opens it. Figure Gallery database file is copied to your computer when you install Geometry Expressions.emf) ( Windows version only) or an image file. graphs and transformation examples which you can use and tailor to your needs without starting from scratch. Recent files Exit Click to display a list of the most recently used files. You can also use the search window to find files. . . Browse through the folders to see the many objects. an Encapsulated PostScript (.124 Geometry Expressions Manual Export Export the file as Windows Metafile (. Exits the program. . Displays the page setup dialog box for choosing a printer and print options. Here are the steps to import a figure: 1. Print Preview Displays the standard system Print dialog. Print.eps) or HTML file (. Importing Files from the Figure Gallery Are there figures which you need to use frequently? The Figure Gallery makes your tasks easier. Page Setup. © 2010 Saltire Software . Displays the printout by pages.

or try dragging the geometry to suit your needs. © 2010 Saltire Software . Use the Toggle Hidden function from the general context menu to modify constraints in the drawing. Navigating the Figure Gallery The Figure Gallery is arranged in the usual tree structure containing folders and sub-folders.Menus and Icons 125 3. Click the Import button (it replaces the Select button in the lower right corner) to bring the drawing into your drawing window. Don't forget to Save. Double click a problem (or click and press Select) to see an enlarged view 4.

126 Geometry Expressions Manual Back . 2. waiting for you to discover their mysteries. Here are the steps: 1. Select File / Import GX File from Geometry Atlas.takes you to the top level. Use the Search window to find a specific file or types of files. Enter the search word(s) and click Go. organized in the usual tree structure by geometry element. Text at the top center of the dialog tells you which level is displayed.takes you up one level. Importing Files from the Geometry Atlas The Geometry Atlas is a huge collection of interesting theorems and problems which are already constructed. You just need to have internet access. Click Home to return to the top level. © 2010 Saltire Software . Home . Browse through the atlas. Make sure your computer is on-line.

Enter the search word(s) and click Go. Browsing the Atlas takes you up one level. Text at the top center of the dialog tells you which level is displayed. Use the Search window to find a specific file or types of files. takes you to the top level. 4. © 2010 Saltire Software . 5. Double click a folder or sub-folder (or select the folder and press the Select button) to view the problems or sub-folder. Click the Import button to bring the drawing into your drawing window. Click Home to return to the top level.Menus and Icons 127 3. Double click a problem (or select the problem and press Select) to see an enlarged view.

HTML File. thus you will get a warning message if you try to export to either of these formats and you have such an item in the document. For all file types enter the Filename or click the folder icon to select the appropriate folder and file. You can export the drawing as a Windows Enhanced Metafile. choose File / Export. Then select the region of the drawing with the displayed cursor © 2010 Saltire Software . 2. or in one of several standard image formats. Please note that neither EMF. Image files and HTML files have an extra step at this point. Here are the steps for the export: 1.128 Geometry Expressions Manual Exporting a Drawing To export your drawing to another program. nor EPS support semi-transparency or transparent images of any kind. Encapsulated Postscript.

Menus and Icons 129 (click-and-drag opposite corners of the region). the HTML Export dialog appears. Fill in the Html Export Settings with optional Title. Header and Footer text. Exporting Image Files When exporting image files. Click the down arrow and select the appropriate setting. The Outputs can be renamed to something less obscure than letters with subscripts. You can also display your output expressions in many popular CAS input formats including Content and Presentation MathML. Next. click the down arrow in the Save as type line to select your desired image format. set the resolution in the File DPI box. © 2010 Saltire Software . You can give them actual labels using real words. Exporting HTML Files When you select File / Export / HTML.

When Available After any action has been taken. After using Undo Redo © 2010 Saltire Software .130 Geometry Expressions Manual Edit Menu The Edit menu contains the standard Windows editing operations as well as ways of dealing with constraint conflicts and all of the program settings. Several of the options are also available from the icon bar. Reinstates actions starting with the last one that was undone. Menu Option Undo Function Reverses actions starting with the last one.

Displays a submenu of choices for copying mathematics into other programs. but saves it so it can be pasted somewhere else. Cut An object is selected Copy Copy As An expression or formula is selected Always Copy Drawing Always Copy Region Paste Object(s) cut or copied One or more objects selected Delete © 2010 Saltire Software . Does not delete the object. Copies everything in the drawing window as an Enhanced Metafile (.Menus and Icons 131 Select When checked. but saves is so it can be pasted somewhere else. emf) Copies a section of the drawing window inside a rectangle made by dragging the cursor. Puts whatever has been cut or copied into the current drawing Deletes whatever is selected. without saving it. Always Always An object is selected Select All Clear Selection Selects everything in the drawing window. Unselects any objects that are selected. Deletes an object. the select mode is active. Select mode is always active except when using a Drawing tool or moving or panning the drawing.

locus or trace is selected One or more objects of the same type are selected Always Parameters. Lets you edit the display properties of the selected object(s) Sets the default appearance and properties for the project's drawing. Tries to convert a selected output [ 2q] to an input constraint if there is no conflict with other constraints Converts the selected constraint into a measurement (output) Converts a symbolic calculation to a real one Converts a real calculation to a symbolic one Displays the Edit Text dialog to edit a block of text Lets you edit the parameters of functions. loci and traces. . © 2010 Saltire Software . . Preferences . An input constraint is selected A symbolic output is selected A real output is selected A block of text is selected A function. Inputs the math to Mathematica when the algebra system is running in another window. Properties. . . . . . .132 Geometry Expressions Manual Arrange For placing selected objects on top of (bring forward) or underneath (send backward) other objects for easier selection and viewing. text and mathematics One or more objects selected Send to Mathematica Windows version only An output expression or formula is selected An output expression is selected Convert to Constraint Convert to Measurement Convert to Real Convert to Symbolic Details.

Select Edit / Copy As to display the submenu of choices for copying expressions or functions from Geometry Expressions to another program.Menus and Icons 133 NOTE: For the Mac version. The 2 general types of MathML are available. Copying Mathematics To copy expressions or functions into an Algebra system or another program: · · Select the math from the Diagram or the Output window. Content and Presentation MathML. Preferences are found under the Geometry Expressions menu. as well as formats meeting the specific quirks of several popular Computer Algebra programs. © 2010 Saltire Software .

One or more elements are hidden. (The text gets larger on the screen. Always available (most useful when there is something in the drawing window). (The text gets smaller on the screen. the selected math is copied to the Windows clipboard. Always (if the drawing window isn't empty) Always available (most useful when there is something in the drawing window). View Menu The table below lists the complete summary of View functions. When you make the submenu selection. Show all Displays any entities that were hidden Lets you toggle hidden / visible for any object in the drawing Makes the drawing details larger without affecting the size on the printed page.) Toggle Hidden Zoom In Zoom Out Zoom To Selection © 2010 Saltire Software .) Lets you make a selection and adjusts it to fit the drawing window. (The text gets larger on the screen.134 Geometry Expressions Manual There is also a general purpose String input which converts the selected math into a text string containing no special characters: is copied as > (((a)^(2)+(b)^(2)+(cos(θ)*b*a*(2))))^(1/2) . Menu Option Hide Function Hides a selection When Available One or more elements are selected. ready to be pasted into the appropriate application (Ctrl+V).) Makes the drawing details smaller without affecting the size on the printed page. Always available (most useful when there is something in the drawing window).

) Lets you select a portion of the geometry and adjusts it to fit the drawing window (The text size on the screen doesn't change. Always Zoom To Page Pan View Scale Geometry Up Always Scale Geometry Down Scale Geometry To Selection Always Always Scale Geometry To Fit Scale Geometry To Page Always © 2010 Saltire Software .) Always available (most useful when there is something in the drawing window). (The text size on the screen doesn't change. (The text size changes with the geometry.Menus and Icons 135 Zoom To Fit The entire diagram is displayed in the drawing window.) The whole page is displayed in the drawing window.) Allows you to move the contents of the drawing window without changing its position on the page.) Shrinks only the geometry. Always available (most useful when there is something in the drawing window). Enlarges only the geometry. (The text size doesn't change relative to the page.) Adjusts all geometry to fit inside the specified page boundaries. (The text size changes with the geometry. Always available either Pan View or Move Geometry will be in effect (checked).) Adjusts all geometry to fit in the drawing window. (The text size on the screen doesn't change. (The text size on the screen doesn't change.

136 Geometry Expressions Manual Move Geometry When checked. or Russian. the page boundaries are displayed. Spanish. Polish. Make sure Page Boundaries is checked (below) to see the results. They have the properties of Infinite Lines. Always Axes Always Always Always Grid Page Boundaries Tool Panels Tool Panel Configurations Output Always Language Always Checked menu options are toggles: · · · Checked indicates the option / mode is active or displayed. the output window is displayed. Always. the grid is displayed. French. click and drag to move the drawing contents with respect to the page boundaries. Gives you options for arranging the toolboxes to your preference. Lists all the toolboxes. When checked. the toolboxes are displayed on the screen. Except Pan View and Move Geometry where one or the other is checked. When checked. When checked. When checked. German. © 2010 Saltire Software . When checked. Choose one and restart the program. The current version of Geometry Expressions can be displayed in English. Unchecked indicates the option / mode is inactive or hidden. the axes are displayed.

has the effect · has the effect Toolbox Menus The menus with the same name as the toolboxes at the side of the screen just give another way of accessing the same functions. Some menu items have icon shortcuts found on the icon bar at the top of the screen. Zooming and Scaling The View menu has Zoom operations pertaining to the screen view. The text (constraints. This is handy if you need to change the size of the text on the screen: · A Scale down followed by a Zoom in [ctrl] of enlarging the text. Scaling adjusts the size of the geometry relative to the page. · The Scale functions used from the icon bar at the top of the screen can be changed to Zoom functions by holding the ctrl key while clicking the icon. and Scale operations pertaining to the page view. output and annotation) changes size with the rest of the drawing. · Zooming makes the drawing details smaller without affecting the size on the printed page. but the text doesn't change size in the drawing window. A Zoom out [ctrl] followed by a Scale up of shrinking the text on the screen. Check View / Page Boundaries to see this work.Menus and Icons 137 Click the selection to change its state. Menu Option Draw Selection Point Vector Ellipse Line Segment Polygon Parabola Infinite Line Circle Hyperbola © 2010 Saltire Software .

138 Geometry Expressions Manual Arc Text Function Annotate Angle Coordinate Direction Constrain Distance / Length Angle Coordinate Incident Equation Construct Midpoint Angle Bisector Tangent to Curve Translation Locus Calculate Distance / Length Direction Area Parametric Equation Stop Calculations N-gon Picture Curve Approximation Expression Distance / Length Radius Slope Radius Direction Coefficients Congruent Proportional Intersection Parallel Polygon Rotation Trace Radius Slope Perimeter Implicit Equation Start Calculations Coefficients Expression Perpendicular Slope Tangent Parallel Perpendicular Bisector Perpendicular Reflection Dilation Area Under Arc Angle Coordinates Coefficients © 2010 Saltire Software .

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Help Menu

The Help menu lets you access this help system, check for updates, change the program's language, and gives you information about the program's license and version. The menu selections are always available. Menu Option Dynamic Help Contents. . . Index. . . Search. . . License. . . Check for Updates. . . Function Invokes the Help system Look in the Table of Contents; add new or refer to saved bookmarks. Look in the Help index. There is also a facility to Search index headings. Search the Help topics for keywords. Displays information about your license. Prompts you to save your work, checks for new versions of Geometry Expressions, then restarts the program. Contains the current version of the program, the copyright notice, and the link to Geometry Expressions' website.

About. . .

NOTE: For the Mac version, About... is listed under Geometry Expressions menu.

Context Menus

Context Menus pop up when you right-click with the cursor positioned anywhere in the drawing window. · · The general context menu - appears when you right click and nothing is selected. The selection context menu - appears when one or more elements in the drawing window are selected. Some menu entries my be inactive, depending on which elements are selected.

© 2010 Saltire Software

140

Geometry Expressions Manual

**The General Context Menu
**

Right-click anywhere in the drawing window to display a context menu. If nothing in the window is selected, the menu choices are the following: Menu Option Close Save Save As. . . Function Closes the current file Updates a file that already exists Saves a file for the first time and prompt for the filename and path Selects everything in the drawing window Copies everything in the drawing window as an Enhanced Metafile (.emf) Copies a section of the drawing window inside a rectangle made by dragging the cursor. Puts whatever has been cut or copied into the current document Displays any entities that were hidden Lets you toggle hidden / visible for any object in the drawing Stop current calculations Restart any stopped calculations When Available Always The file has been saved Always

Select All Copy Drawing

Always Always

Copy Region

Always

Paste

Object(s) cut or copied One or more element (s) are hidden Always

Show All

Toggle Hidden Stop Calculations Start Calculations

A calculation isn't finished A calculation is stopped by users

© 2010 Saltire Software

Menus and Icons

141

**Toggling - Hide / Show Elements
**

From the general context menu select Toggle Hidden. The magic wand cursor appears, and any hidden objects appear faintly in the drawing window.

Click faint items to display them. Click any displayed items to hide them. When you are finished toggling, click the select arrow

.

**Selection Context Menu
**

Select one or more drawing elements and right-click anywhere in the drawing window to display a context menu. Selection context menus contain some subset of the following list. Menu Option Cut Function When Available

Deletes an object, but saves it One or more so it can be pasted objects selected somewhere else Does not delete the object, but saves is so it can be pasted somewhere else One or more objects selected

Copy

© 2010 Saltire Software

locus. Arrange Constrain (Input) Construct Geometry selected Geometry selected Geometry selected One or more points selected © 2010 Saltire Software Calculate (Output) Point Properties . without saving it. For placing selected objects on top of (bring forward) or underneath (send backward) other objects for easier selection and viewing Displays a submenu identical to the one in the same dropdown menu on the Menu Bar Displays a submenu identical to the one in the same dropdown menu on the Menu Bar Displays a submenu identical to the one in the same dropdown menu on the Menu Bar Lets you quickly change point color and point size One or more objects selected One or more objects selected A function.142 Geometry Expressions Manual Copy As Displays a submenu of choices for copying mathematics into other programs Inputs the math to Mathematica when the algebra system is running in another window An expression or formula is selected An output expression or formula is selected Send to Mathematica Paste Puts whatever has been cut or Object(s) cut or copied into the current copied document Deletes whatever is selected. Makes the selected objects invisible Lets you edit the domain of a polar or parametric function or the parameters of a locus or trace.. or trace is selected One or more objects selected Delete Hide Edit Parameters..

filled circle. picture or trace selected Text. expression. picture. or measurement selected One or more outputs selected Line Properties Fill Properties Pinned Text Properties Show Symbol Lets you quickly turn symbol on and off Output Properties Lets you quickly turn output's name. and transparency level of the selected object(s) Lets you quickly pin or unpin the selected object(s) Lets you quickly change text color. or expression selected Text. and picture selected Polygon.Menus and Icons 143 Arrow Head Lets you quickly turn off or change arrow head style of the selected segment(s) Lets you quickly change line color. assumption or intermediate variables on and off Lets you quickly turn angle symbol's arrowheads on and off Lets you quickly change angle style from arcs to tics and vice versa Show Arrowheads Congruence Style One or more angle symbol selected One or more angle (or congruent angle) annotation selected © 2010 Saltire Software . N-gon. and line thickness of the selected object(s) Lets you quickly change color. style. constraint. annotation. label. filled ellipse. or measurement selected A constraint. text size. and text style One or more segments selected Any of the objects except point. text. line style.

Select one or both axes 2. Axis. [Convert to Calculation (Output)] [Convert to Constraint (Input)] [Convert to Real] One or several similar objects are selected A constraint is selected An output expression is selected A symbolic output expression is selected A real output value is selected [Convert to Symbolic] Changes a real output value to a symbolic output expression Axes Display Properties The Axes Display can be set in the default settings. To invoke the Selection Context menu: 1. Page tab.144 Geometry Expressions Manual Tic / Arc Count Lets you quickly change the number of tic/arc count to display One or more angle (or congruent angle) annotation selected One or both axes selected Axes Properties Lets you quickly turn the labels on the axes on/off or change the number of subdivision or unit to display Lets you edit the display properties of the selected object(s) Deletes the selected constraint and calculates the equivalent output Changes the calculation to an input constraint Changes a symbolic output to a real output value All Properties. Right click the mouse © 2010 Saltire Software . . . Edit / Preferences under the Grid. or you can change them for an individual drawing from the Selection Context menu.

but with trig functions you may find the Degrees or Radians units more appropriate.Menus and Icons 145 The All Properties selection brings up all the Display Properties dialog for the axes.is useful when the axis labels lie under some part of your diagram making it hard to read. You can configure the X and Y axes in many ways. Show Labels . There are the usual attributes of lines and text. You can turn these off on one or both axes with the attribute set to False. don't forget to set your Angle Mode to Radians on the status bar.can be set to the usual decimal. © 2010 Saltire Software . If you use the Degrees or Radians units. Units .

© 2010 Saltire Software . and Help easily accessible. .See The Selection Arrow for more information. Edit. and View menus.146 Geometry Expressions Manual Icons Tool Bar The icons across the top of the screen make some of the routine tasks in the File.

See Output Calculations for more information. New properties for geometry include arrow heads on line segments and alternate units for axes (very useful for trig functions). This is made possible by the addition of the Arc drawing tool.Icons 147 . And there are N-gons regular polygons you can draw instantly with any number of sides. We are pleased to announce that you may now change the Output names from zn to any name you choose! © 2010 Saltire Software .See View Menu for more information. . Invokes this Help facility More About Geometry Expressions What's New in Geometry Expressions? Time for Calculus! Now you can Construct the Area under a curve and calculate a definite integral or use the Curve approximations tool to show the Trapezoidal Method of summing the area. The new features continue with the addition of three new annotation tools. You can now put congruence tics and parallel marks on edges and congruent angle marks on pairs of lines without affecting the constraints of the drawing. .very handy for those busy diagrams where an axis label lies right where you want an output to go. .See Edit Menu for more information.See File Menu for more information. You can also turn off labels on an axis .

© 2010 Saltire Software .148 Geometry Expressions Manual Where is the Geometry Expressions Website? Information on upgrades.GeometryExpressions.com. additional technical support and loads of great examples can be found on the Geometry Expressions website at: www.

jpg 128 ..emf 128 .gxw 18 .tiff 128 .bmp 128 .gx 18 .Index 149 Index -. constraint 58 congruence 66 angle annotation 94 annotation 93 constraints 52 angle 62 changing 54 conflicts 58 .xmp 128 distinguish from constraints expression 96 length 88 parallel 95 perpendicular 89 radius 88 slope 91 text 38 Arcs 32 area calculation 103 assumptions 107 axes 24 units 144 54 -33-D drawing 89 -Bbisector angle 76 perpendicular 75 -Aabsolute value notation 113 adjusting drawing 52 text size 137 angle annotation 90 bisector 76 calculate 100 constraint 62 mode 9 supplement 100 animation 119 console 121 duration 121 modes 121 parameter based 122 values 121 with Locus tool 122 annotation 86 angle 90 coefficients 92 congruent 93 congruent angle 94 coordinate 92 direction 91 distance 88 © 2010 Saltire Software -Ccalculations 97 angle 100 area 103 coordinates 103 direction 102 distance / length 98 implicit equations 105 parametric equations 105 perimeter 104 radius 99 slope 102 vector coefficients 104 check boxes 109 circles 27 coefficients annotation 92 constraint 64 conflicts.png 128 .

150 Geometry Expressions Manual text font 39 degrees 9 dilation 80 direction annotation 91 calculate 102 constraint 63 Display 8 configuration 13 customizing 10 properties 106 Settings 16 distance annotation 88 calculation 98 constraint 60 Distinguish Constraints / Annotations division editing tool 111 drawing adjusting 52 arcs 32 circles 27 constraints 52 curve approximations 37 ellipses 28 expressions 41 hyperbola 31 line segments 24 lines 24 parabolas 29 points 23 polygons 26 Preferences and Properties 22 regular polygons 36 text 38 tools 22 vectors 26 constraints 52 congruent line segments 66 coordinate 64 direction 63 distance 60 distinguish from annotations 54 equation 67 incident 65 length 60 parallel line segments 67 perpendicular 61 point proportional along curve 68 radius 61 slope 63 system added 55 tangents 65 vector coefficients 64 constructions 72 angle bisector 76 dilation 80 intersection 74 locus of points 81 midpoints 74 parallel 76 perpendicular bisector 75 perpendicular lines 77 reflection 78 rotation 79 tangent 77 trace 83 translation 79 Context Menus 139 Convert to Input / Output 141 Symbolic / Real 141 coordinates annotation 92 calculation 103 constraint 64 Copy As mathematics 133 MathML input 133 String input 133 curve approximations 37 54 -EEdit Menu 130 Copy As 133 Preferences 16 Settings 16 Ellipse 28 envelope 81 Equations constraint 67 © 2010 Saltire Software -DDefaults 16 .

141 Draw 22 Edit 130 File 122 Help 139 View 134 Metafile 128 midpoints 74 move the drawing 52 multiple drawings 18 -GGeometry Atlas 126 Greek letters 111 -Hhelp 7 using the Help system Help Menu 139 Hide. toggle 141 HTML files 129 Hyperbola 31 7 -IIcon Bar 146 image export 128 © 2010 Saltire Software -NNew features 147 . 140. 46. 48 parametric 48 polar 46 -MMathML 133 Menus Annotate 86 Calculate (Output) 97 Constrain (Input) 52 Construct 72 Context 139. 65 Input constraints 52 intermediate veriables 108 intersections 74 -Llength annotation 88 calculation 98 constraint 60 line infinite 24 intersections 74 parallel construction 76 segments 24 linked text 8 locking variables 119 using the lock 117 locus of points 81 curves and animation 122 -FFigure Gallery controls 125 Import 124 File Handling 18 workbooks & individual files 20 File Menu 122 Export 128 Import from the Figure Gallery 124 import from the Geometry Atlas 126 functions 42 cartesian 43 domain 46. 48 f(X) 45 handles 43.Index 151 Equations implicit 67 implicit: calculating 105 examples 21 exporting drawings 128 as HTML 129 Expression annotation 96 Draw tool 41 Import files from the Figure Gallery 124 from the Germetry Atlas 126 incidence 23.

77 text 38 Edit Text dialog 39 size 137 Toolbox Menus 137 toolboxes arranging 11 configuration 13 floating / anchored 11 hiding / showing 12 Trace 83 translation 79 -Rradians 9 radius annotation 88 calculate 99 -Vvariables 115 list 116 © 2010 Saltire Software . 137 screen layout 8 selecting geometry 50 multiple objects 50 Settings 16 show output 109 slope annotation 91 calculate 102 constraint 63 square root editing tool 112 status bar 9 subscript / superscript 112 Supplemetary Angles 100 symbols 110 division 111 Greek letters 111 parentheses & absolute value square root 112 subscript / superscript 112 -Ppage tabs 18 arranging 14 Parabola 29 parallel 67 annotation 95 construction 76 parametric equations output 105 Parametric Variable 81.152 N-gons Geometry Expressions Manual 36 constraint 61 Reflection 78 rotation 79 -Ooutput assumptions 107 calculations 97 check boxes 109 name 109 properties 106 window 134 -SScale 52. 83 parentheses for math notation perimeter calculation 104 perpendicular annotation 89 bisector 75 constraint 61 construction 77 Pictures 39 points 23 constrained along a curve polygons construction 78 drawing 26 regular 36 Preferences 16 Properties Axes 144 113 113 -T68 tangents 65.

Index 153 variables 115 locking 119 value 119 vectors calculate coefficients 104 constraints: coefficients 64 drawing 26 View Menu 134 -WWelcome 7 Workbook files 20 workspace 18 -ZZoom 52. 137 © 2010 Saltire Software .

Instruction manual for Geometry Expression software

Instruction manual for Geometry Expression software

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