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Author: Sagar Sonker

Table of Contents

ℵ Numbers ℵ H.C.F & L.C.M of Numbers ℵ Surds & Indices ℵ Percentage ℵ Profit & Loss ℵ Ratio & Proportion ℵ Partnership ℵ Chain Rule ℵ Time & Work ℵ Pipes & Cisterns ℵ Time And Distance ℵ Trains ℵ Boats & Streams ℵ Alligation or Mixture ℵ Simple Interest ℵ Compound Interest ℵ Logarithms ℵ Area ℵ Volume & Surface Area ℵ Stocks & Shares ℵ True Discount ℵ Banker’s Discount ℵ Copyright Notice

Page 1 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.sonker.com

1)d Sum of first ‘n’ terms.(a .rn)] / [1 . if the number formed by its last two digits is divisible by 4 4. A number is divisible by 11. if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8 5. arn-1 nth term. [(a + d)].b)2= 4ab 10. P. A number is divisible by 3. A Geometric Progression (G. or 8 2. A number is divisible by 2. if. [(a + 2d)].b)2 = 2(a2 + b2) 11. (12 + 22 + 32 + … … … + n2) 19. A number is divisible by 4.2ab + b2 9. Tn = a + (n . (a3 + b3) 13. (13 + 23 + 33 + … … … + n3) = [n(n + 1)] / 2 = [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] / 6 = [n2(n + 1)2] / 4 Page 2 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. (a2 – b2) 12. (a . (1 + 2 + 3 + … … … + n) 18. ar2. … … ….ab + b2) = (a . starting from the RHS. (a + b)2 8. if its unit’s place digit is 0.com . … … …. (a3 – b3) = (a + b)(a . An Arithmetic Progression (A. ar3.sonker. (a + b)2 .b)(a2 + ab + b2) 14.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Numbers 1. 4.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Difference ‘d’ is given by: [a]. Sn = n/2 (First Term + Last Term) 16.b) = (a + b)(a2 .b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = a2 . ar. [a + (n .r] 17.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Ratio ‘r’ is given by: a. P. A number is divisible by 8. (Sum of its digits at the odd place) – (Sum of its digits at even place) is equal to 0 or 11x 7. 2. (a + b)2 + (a .1)d] nth term. Tn = arn-1 Sum of first ‘n’ terms Sn = [a(1 . if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 6. Results on Division: Dividend = Quotient × Divisor + Remainder 15. A number is divisible by 9. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 3.

C.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker H. M. then its population after ‘N’ years is P (1 + R/100)N Page 3 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.C.sonker.com / 28. If ‘A’ is R% less than ‘B’. then the increase in consumption. C. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. 30.M of Numbers 20. 29. = a(m + n) = a(m . am / an 23. then the reduction in consumption. To express x% as a fraction. we have a / b = (a / b × 100) % 34. ( 31. To express a / b as a percent. am × an 22. then ‘B’ is more than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. .C. 27.F & L. a0 26. we have x% = x / 100 33. then ‘B’ is less than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity increases by R%. (ab)m 24. (a / b)m 25.R] } % 36. × Their L. Product of two numbers = Their H. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 . If ‘A’ is R% more than ‘B’.n) = a mb m = an / bn =1 = a1/n = (a1/n)n =a = = )m = = Percentage 32. Surds & Indices 21. F. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 + R] } % 35.

Page 4 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. (a . If a / b = c / d. while the second and third are known as means. If a / b = c / d. If a / b = c / d. 42. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. then its value ‘N’ years ago at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. c. which is called the componendo & dividendo. which is called the dividendo. Product of extremes = Product of means 43.d).p. The equality of two ratios is called a proportion. 51.b) = (c + d) / (c . 50.p.d) / d. : is a sub-duplicate ration of a : b 47. a1/3 : b1/3 is a sub-triplicate ratio of a : b 49.c. (c : d). a2 : b2 is a duplicate ratio of a : b 46.b) / b = (c . then its population ‘N’ years ago is P / [(1 + R/100)N] Profit & Loss 38. 52. which is called the componendo. a3 : b3 is a triplicate ratio of a : b 48.c. d are in proportion. b. 53. then. In a proportion. (a + b) / b = (c + d) / d. Mean proportion between a and b is 44. then.Loss%) × Cost Price] / 100 Ratio & Proportion 41.a is P / [(1 . the first and fourth terms are known as extremes.sonker. then. Variation: We say that x is directly proportional to y if x = ky for some constant k and we write. Selling Price = [(100 + Gain%) × Cost Price] / 100 = [(100 . we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a.R/100)N] 40. then its value after ‘N’ years at a depreciation of ‘R’ p.a is P (1 . If a : b = c : d. we say that x is inversely proportional to y if x = k / y for some constant k and we write x α 1 / y. x α y. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year.com .R/100)N 39.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 37. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. The compounded ratio of the ratios (a : b). (a + b) / (a . Also. (e : f) is (ace : bdf) 45.

If a pipe can fill a tank in ‘x’ hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in ‘y’ hours (where y > x).v)] hrs 65. u > v) in the same direction. If A can do a piece of work in n days.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Partnership 54. If a number of partners have invested in a business and it has a profit. Time taken to cover a distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car. 57. Time & Work 59.sonker. then average speed during his whole journey is [2xy / (x + y)] kmph Trains 64. Time taken to cross each other is [(x + y) / (u + v)] hrs 66. Ratio of times taken by A & B to finish a work = 1 : 3 Pipes & Cisterns 62. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. 60. If A is thrice as good a workman as B. then the time taken y the over-taker train to cross the slower train is [(x + y) / (u . Page 5 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. the net part of the tank filled in 1 hour is (1/x – 1/y) Time And Distance 63. Lengths of trains are ‘x’ km and ‘y’ km. The time (number of days) required to complete a job is inversely proportional to the number of hours per day allocated to the job. then A can finish the work in n days. then on opening both the pipes. If two trains start at the same time from two points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b hours in reaching B and A respectively. 58.com . then A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. Suppose a man covers a distance at ‘x’ kmph and an equal distance at ‘y’ kmph. then Share Of Partner = (Total_Profit × Part_Share / Total_Share) Chain Rule 55. If A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. The cost of articles is directly proportional to the number of articles. 61. 56. The work done is directly proportional to the number of men working at it. moving at ‘u’ kmph and ‘v’ kmph (where.

Boats & Streams 69.I. Rate of stream = ½ (a . = ( 100 × S. Rule of Alligation: If two ingredients are mixed. then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr. x kmph = (x × 5/18) m/sec. 73. d. 70.c) Simple Interest 76. then: : ). If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr. ) / ( P × T ). then: Speed in still water = ½ (a + b) km/hr.m) : (m . 68.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Then. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is v hm/hr.com . Mean Price: The cost price of a quantity of the mixture is called the mean price. ) / ( P × R ). A’s speed : B’s speed = ( 67. = ( 100 × S.: (Cheaper quantity) : (Dearer quantity) = (d .v) km/hr. 72.b) km/hr. Then. Alligation: It is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price. ) / ( R × T ). . b.I. Speed upstream = (u .I. Alligation or Mixture 71. y metres/sec = (y × 18/5) km/hr. S. We represent the above formula as under: 75. P R T = ( P × R × T ) / 100 = ( 100 × S. Let Principle = P. 74.I. a. c. Page 6 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.sonker. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years.

loga (x/y) c. and 3rd year respectively.e. Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms j. Properties of Logarithms: a. logx x = loga x + loga y = loga x . namely characteristic and mantissa. Page 7 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. The integral part is known as characteristic and the decimal part is known as mantissa. say R1%. say 3⅞ years. 82. Amount = P (1 + R/100)3 × (1 + ⅞R/100) 79.e. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. loga x h. then we write m = loga x and say that the value of log x to the base a is m. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P (1 + R/4/100)4N 78. When base is not mentioned.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Compound Interest 77. Log of 1 to any base is 0) = p loga x = 1 / logx a = logb x / logb a = log x / log a (Change of base rule) d. I. 2nd. Present worth of Rs.com . Then. but the time is in fraction. other than 1 and am = x. Amount = P (1 + R1/100) (1 + R2/100) (1 + R3/100) 80. Log of any number to its own base is 1) = 0 (i. Let Principle = P. loga 1 e. x due n years hence is given by: Present Worth = x / (1 + R/100)n Logarithms 81. R3% for 1st. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. loga (xy) b. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P (1 + R/2/100)2N III. The logarithm of a number contains two parts.sonker. Then.loga y = 1 (i. R2%. Then. When Rates are different for different years. it is taken as 10 i. Amount = P (1 + R/100)N II. loga (xp) f. When interest is compounded Annually. loga x g. When interest is compounded Annually.

Triangle: a.sonker.56 23. In this case. Area of square = (side)2 b.34 0. e.0234 0. and a. Square: a. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 87. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative. Case 1: When the number is greater than 1. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) 84. IV.456 2. c are the sides of the triangle c. where s = ½ (a + b + c). Area of an equilateral triangle = / 4 × (side)2 d.00234 III. In this case. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 2 e. Rectangle: a. Area 83. we look through the log table. II. Area of a triangle = ½ × base × height b. Area of a rectangle = (length × breadth) b. Antilog: If log x = y. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (length + breadth) × height 86. Case 2: When the number is less than 1. b. then antilog y = x. Parallelogram/Rhombus/Trapezium: a.234 0. Characteristic 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 For mantissa. Area of a triangle = . Area of a square = ½ (diagonal)2 85.com .g. the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of decimal point in the given number.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker I. Number 234. Area of a parallelogram = Base × Height Page 8 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.

units c. a. Circle/Arc/Sector. Cylinder: Let radius of base = r & height (or length) = h. 92. units =( × a) units Diagonal = (l × b × h) cu units = 2 (lb + bh + hl) sq. = ½ × (sum of parallel sides) × (distance between them) d. 90. a. where R is the radius of the circle: a. Then. Area of a circle = πR2 b. Cube: Let each edge of a cube be of length a. Then. units . Surface Area c. Cuboid: Let length = l. Page 9 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Area of a rhombus c. Volume b.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker b. Curved Surface Area = (2πrh) sq. Diagonal = a3 cu units = 6a2 sq. Area of trapezium 88. Surface Area c. Volume b. Volume = (πr2h) cu. = ½ × (Product of diagonals) The halves of diagonals and a side of a rhombus form a right angled triangle with side as the hypotenuse. Area of a sector 91. breadth = b & height = h units Then. Then.sonker.com Total Surface Area = 2πr(r + h) sq. units b. a. units = units d. Cone: Let radius of base = r & height = h. Length of an arc = Ө/360 × 2πR = ½ (arc × R) = Ө/360 × πR2 Volume & Surface Area 89. Circumference of a circle = 2πR c.

if S. 95. below par (or at discount). 800. Volume b. units c. 98. Rs. we mean a stock whose face value is Rs. b. units 93.com . Present Worth (P. 100. Then.W. True Discount (T. Volume c. at par.P.D.) = Rs. 97.P. True Discount 100. 100 stock is said to be: a. The selling price of a Rs. if S.100) = (Sum due) – (P. Hemi-sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. 99. units Curved Surface Area = (πrl) sq. brokerage is added to the cost price. Brokerage: The broker’s charge is called brokerage. Slant height. 156 due 4 years hence. = units = (⅓ πr2h) cu. 156 in 4 years. units b. Then. (156 . is Rs. l b.) = Rs. So. 96. 800. 100. units = (4πr2) sq. Clearly. units Stocks & Shares 95. units = (4/3 πr3) cu. Curved Surface Area = (2πr2) sq. Surface Area 94. a.W. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs. the payment of Rs. 100 at 14% will amount to Rs. By ‘a Rs. 100. Total Surface Area = πr(r + l) sq. 100 exactly. a. Volume = (2/3 πr3) cu. c. if S. annual interest is 9% of the face value and the market price of a Rs. When stock is purchased. is less than Rs.P. 100 stock is Rs. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker a. units d. 9% stock at 95’. Total Surface Area = (3πr2) sq. We say that: Sum due = Rs. Sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. is more than Rs. Suppose a man has to pay Rs. above par (or at premium). 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. 156 due 4 years hence. When the stock is sold.) Page 10 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.sonker.

) – (T. = (P. distribute this document.)2 / P.D. a.) 103.G.W.) = S. Page 11 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.) – (T. × T.com/sagar/Copyright.I.G. Be sure to read the copyright information and terms of use of the documents at http://www.] – [T.) = (B.) = S. c. Banker’s Gain (B. T.D.) × R × T / 100 = ([Amount] × R × T) / (100 + [R × T]) = ([S. 106. When the date of the bill is not given. b. Banker’s Discount (B.D.D.W. 112.com. 102.D.) / (R × T) = (P.D. on T. × 100) / (Rate × Time) 110. distribute this document for free. print.sonker.]) d. Copyright Notice: Feel free to share. B.) for the unexpired time 107.D. = S.I. and true discount is reckoned on the amount 104.sonker.sonker.) + (T. then P. grace days are not to be added 108.D. e. T.D. 113. – T.D.D. = = (Amount × Rate × Time) / 100 = (Amount × Rate × Time) / (100 + [Rate × Time]) = (B. T. = Amount / (1 + R/100)T Banker’s Discount 105.D.W. B. Let rate = R% per annum & time = T years.D. 111.G. print.D. copy.I.I.] × [T.D.htm before you share.D. Then.D.I. on bill for unexpired time = (B. 109. copy. (S. Amount 114.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 101. When the sum is put at compound interest.W.D.]) / ([S. P. T.D. = (T.D. Interest is reckoned on R.I.D.) is the S.W. on T.) – (T.D. Sum = (100 × Amount) / (100 + [R × T]) = (100 × T. T.D.W.I.) / (B. on the face value for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted and the legally due date.com .D. B.) = (B. Amount = Interest on P. Make sure to preserve this copyright notice alongwith the header and footer with the copyright note of www.W.

sonker. Page 12 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.sonker.com/sagar.com or submit your feedback at www. Do you have any more information to add to this document? Write to me at sagar@sonker.sonker.com the full authority to take a legal action.com .114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Illegal reproduction of this document without the prior permission of the author and/or removal of this copyright notice and/or the header/footer gives www.

Handy notes of formulas for the quantitative aptitude

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