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Csernkn Jezerniczky va

ANGOL ALAPFOKON
kommunikcikzpont nyelvvizsgkra kszlknek

2010

Kedves nyelvtanulk s nyelvvizsgra kszlk! Az alapfok nyelvvizsga egyltaln nem nehz, aki elsznta r magt, valsznleg tudja is venni az akadlyokat. Viszont nem mindig knny eltallni, hogy mi az a tudsmennyisg, amivel mr rdemes nekivgni a vizsgnak, illetve milyen kszsgek kellenek ahhoz, hogy valaki sikeres vizsgt tegyen. Egy valamit elrulok elre, tnyleg, csak az alapdolgok kellenek, de azok pontosan, s jl. A sikeres vizsgafelkszlsben szeretnk segteni ezzel a kiadvnnyal. Nos, kalandra fel, j felkszlst, s sikeres vizsgt kvnok! Sifok, 2010. jlius 14. Csernkn Jezerniczky va

Els fejezet Nyelvtani sszefoglal


1. ptsnk mondatokat
Alapfokon az a legfontosabb dolog, hogy megrtsk, amit mondanak neknk, s persze el tudjuk mondani azt, amit mi szeretnnk. Ehhez tudnunk kell mondatokat pteni. Az angol mondat mskpp ptkezik, mint a magyar. Kezdjk az alapoknl. Book knyv Ez egy fnv. Megszmolhat, mert darabra megy, s egyes szm, mert csak egy knyvrl beszlnk. Tennnk kell hozz egy hatrozatlan nvelt, mint minden egy s megszmolhat dologhoz: A book. A hatrozatlan nvel kt alak, mssalhangz eltt a, magnhangz eltt an A book, an orange Most mondjunk vele egy egyszer mondatot, mutassunk r: Ez egy knyv. This is a book. This ez (mutatnvms kzelre), that az (mutatnvms tvolra) Ha kzelebbrl megnzzk ezt a mondatot, ltjuk, hogy a this az alany, az is az lltmny, a book pedig a trgy. A magyar mondat mondatrszei klnbznek. Ahhoz, hogy az angol llt mondatunk rtelmes legyen, tartanunk kell ezt a sorrendet. Alany lltmny trgy hatrozk Jelzk nincsenek kln mondatrsznek, a jelzett sz (fnv ) mondatrszi rtkt veszik fel, velk egytt llnak. Az egyszer, egy szbl ll jelzk ltalban a fnv eltt llnak. Tegynk a book el klnbz jelzket: A good book An interesting book An old book A blue book An English book egy j knyv egy rdekes knyv egy rgi knyv egy kk knyv egy angol knyv

St, tegynk kt jelzt. Ennek is megvannak a maga szablyai, de szerencsre a magyar is hasonlan teszi a jelzket egyms utn, gy hagyatkozhatunk a nyelvrzknkre. A pontos szablyt rrnk megtanulni ksbb. A good English book An interesting English book An old English book A blue English book egy j angol knyv egy rdekes angol knyv egy rgi angol knyv egy kk angol knyv

Ha a jelzs kifejezst tesszk a mondatba, tulajdonkppen a book helyt foglalja majd el. This is a good English book. Ez a mondat is hrom tagbl ll: This az alany, is az lltmny, a good English book a trgy. Ha olyan jelzt hasznlunk, ami maga is egy mondat, a jelzett sz utn tesszk. Pldul: a knyv, amit tegnap vettem the book I bought yesterday Ez a kifejezs is egy doboz, a fnv a jelzjvel egytt. Ugyangy teszem a mondatba, mintha csak a book lenne, sajt maga, egyedl. This is the book I bought yesterday.

Mondanom sem kell, hogy ez a mondat is hrom tagbl ll. This az alany, is az lltmny, the book I bought yesterday a trgy. Hol hasznlhatjuk a fnevet, ha kell jelzivel egytt, a mondatban? Elszr is az alany helyn. Ez a mondatban az els hely. A knyv az asztalon van. The book is on the table. The book alany, is lltmny, on the table helyhatroz. Hasznljunk az alany helyn jelzs kifejezst. The English book is on the table. The old English book is on the table. The book I bought yesterday is on the table. The old English book I bought yesterday is on the table. Mindegyik mondat ugyangy hrom tagbl ll, alany-lltmny-helyhatroz, csak az alany fnevhez (book) jelzket tettnk. Az egyszer jelzket elre, a kifejezs rtk jelzket htra.

Valakinek a valamije, vagy valaminek a valamije? Nem mindegy!


Mg mindig jelzk, de a birtokos jelzk. This is my book. Ez az n knyvem. your a te/ti -d/tek his/her/its az -e our a mi -nk their az -k Ha megnevezzk a birtokost: This is Peters book. Ha kt tulajdonosa van: This is Ann and Peters book. Ha a kt tulajdonosnak kt knyve van: These are Anns and Peters books. Teht, ha valakinek a valamije, akkor hasznljuk az s birtokost. Vannak kivtelek, de azoknak a megtanulst is halasszuk ksbbre, most csak a szemlyekkel hasznljuk ezt a fajta birtokos jelzt. A msik tpus, a valaminek a valamije, of szerkezettel, s a magyarhoz kpest fordtva., azaz valamije a valaminek. The door of my room a szobm ajtaja The months of the year az v hnapjai the manager of the office az iroda vezetje Ezek is jelzs szerkezetek, ugyangy kerlnek a mondatba, mint az elbbiek. Pldul: The manager of the office is Mr Black. Az iroda vezetje Mr Black. Fordtva is j, csak akkor a jelzs szerkezet trgy. (Az angolban. Ne felejtsk el, hogy a magyar mondat mskpp pl) Mr Black is the manager of the office. Mr Black az iroda vezetje. A harmadik fnvhely az angol mondatban a hatrozkban van. Alany-lltmny-trgy-hatrozk (md-, hely-, idhatroz) We are talking about the manager of the office. Az iroda vezetjrl beszlnk. Ez a mondat is hrom tagbl ll: we alany, are talking lltmny, about the manager of the office hatroz A magyar mondat szrendje teljesen ms. Mondhatnnk, ppen szembe megy az angol mondatval. Ebbl kifolylag akkor sem jutunk semmire, ha az angol mondatot elejtl sz szerint prbljuk lefordtani, s akkor

5 sem, ha a magyar mondatszerkeszts szablyai szerint prbljuk felpteni a mondatot. A fordts helyett rtelmezznk! Keressk meg a szerkezeti elemeket, tbbre fogunk menni.

Krd szrend
Magyarul a krdst nekeljk, de angolul nekelhetnk, ahogy akarunk, krds csak akkor lesz belle, ha krd szrendet hasznlunk. Krd szrend: (krd rsz) segdige-alany-ige-trgy-hatrozk Nem keverem a szezont a fazonnal, azrt kerlnek a szfajok a mondatrszek kz, mert az lltmny sztvlik a kt alkotrszre, s az egyik (a segdige) az alany el megy, a msik (az ige) marad ott, ahol eddig is volt. A ltige (BE) egyszerre ige s segdige is. Lehet vele krdezni s tagadni. Egyszeren csak megcserljk az alannyal, s mris ksz a krdsnk. Is this a book? Ez egy knyv? (hogy a klasszikusoknl maradjunk.) s persze a jelzk ugyanott maradnak, ahol eddig voltak: Is this an old English book? Ezekben a krdsekben nem volt krdsz, mert csak igen-nem vlaszt vrunk rjuk. A vlaszban is kell a segdige. Yes, it is Igen No, it isnt. Nem A krdszavas krdsek szrendje is hasonl, csak az els helyre a krd rsz kerl. A krd rsz lehet egy krdsz, vagy egy fl mondat, aszerint, hogy mit is akarunk krdezni. Viszont legyen akrmilyen hossz, a krd rsz egy egysg, ami utn a segdignek kell kvetkeznie, s tovbb, a fentiek szerint. A leggyakoribb krdszavak a kvetkezk: Who? What? Where? When? Whose? Why? How? Ki? Kit? Mi? Mit? Hol? Hov? Mikor? Ki? Mirt? Hogyan?

A Who? s a What? Egyarnt krdezhet alanyra (Ki? Mi?) s trgyra (Kit? Mit?). Pedig ez nagyon fontos klnbsg. Az angol a szrenddel oldja meg ezt a problmt, azaz alanyra llt szrenddel krdez, trgyra krd szrenddel. Pl: Ki lakik ebben a hzban? Who lives in this house? Kit vrsz? Who are you waiting for? Ha a krds az, hogy Milyen? akkor sszetett krdszt hasznlunk: What + fnv Pl: What colour? Milyen szn? What size? Milyen mret? What music? Milyen zene? How + mellknv How old? Hny ves? (Milyen ids) How big? Milyen nagy? How far? Milyen messze?

6 Persze ezek utn is a segdige-alany- ige-stb a sorrend. Pl: What colour hair have you got? How old are you? Ha elljrsz kellene a krdsnkbe, a krd mondat vgre tesszk, az ighez. Pl: What are you talking about? Where are you from?

2. Szeressk az igeidket!
Igen m! De melyikeket? Az sszeset! Mert minden kzkelet elkpzels ellenre az angolban az sszes igeidt hasznlnunk kell. Na j, meg kell rtennk . A problma itt kezddik, az igeidknek jelentse van. Ha rendszerben fogjuk fel ket, egyszerbb lesz megtanulni, mintha egyesvel akarnnk nekiugrani, s a legfontosabb: NEM LEHET A MAGYAR IGEIDKBL KIINDULNI. Az angol igeidk hajszlpontosan fejezik ki azt, amit mondani akarnak velk, mg a magyarban nagyok a kategrik. Teljesen ms a szemllet, nem sszehasonlthat a kt rendszer. De a valsg, amirl mind a kt nyelven beszlnk, egy s oszthatatlan. A tnyleges idviszonyokbl kell kiindulnunk, nem a magyar nyelv rendszerbl. Ezek szerint a val vilgban magyarul is, angolul is, s a vilg sszes nyelvben hrom nagy kategria van: jelen, mlt, jv, vagy ha akarjuk Present, Past, Future Ezeken a kategrikon bell az angolban ngy fik tallhat: Simple ltalnos, ismtld Continuous ppen Perfect addig Perfect Continuous addig egyfolytban Ne hasznljuk az angol igeidk nevnek magyar fordtst, mert tvtra vezethet. Ez a jelentsk. Elszr meg kell llaptanunk, hogy ppen hol tartzkodunk (a jelenben, a mltban, a jvben) utna meg kell magunktl krdeznnk, hogy a ngy jelents kzl melyik illik a cselekvsnkre. Nzzk ket kln. Jelen, azaz Present. Present Simple minden ltalnos, vagy ismtld cselekvs a jelenben Alakja: az ige els alakja (egyes szm harmadik szemlyben s szemlyragot kap) llt mondatban nem hasznlunk hozz segdigt, krdezni, tagadni azonban segdige nlkl nem lehet, ezrt kell hozz a do,egyes szm harmadik szemlyben a does segdige, amelyek utn az ige csak els alakban llhat. Pl: Children go to school. Children dont go to work? Where do children go? Mary goes to school. Mary doesnt go to work. Where does Mary go?

Present Continuous amikor a cselekvs ppen most trtnik. (ez az ppen most egy kicsit kitgthat azrt) Alakja: a ltige (be) jelen idej alakjai, s a jelentst hordoz ige+ing Pl: I am reading.

7 You are reading. Mary is reading. Az am reading egy egysg, a ltige s a jelentst hordoz ige+ing csak egytt fejezik ki ezt az igeidt. Egyik a msik nlkl nem. Itt llt mondatban is megvan a segdige, teht ha krdezni akarunk, csak forgatnunk kell a szrendet. What are you reading? Tagadsnl is a ltige vesz fel a not tagadszcskt. Mary isnt reading. Jegyezzk meg, hogy nem minden ige llhat Continuous igeidben. A ltige maga azrt nem, mert mst jelent, az ltalnos jelents igk azrt nem, mert a jelentsk miatt csak a Simple igeid elfogadhat, s az egy pillanatig tart cselekvsek sem, mert megint mst jelentenek. Ha valami szokatlan nyelvtani megoldst hallunk vagy ltunk, ne trjnk napirendre felette, mert valsznleg nem abban a jelentsben hasznljk, amit mi gondolunk. Krdezznk vissza ,(What do you mean? Hogy rted ezt?) vagy olvassuk el mg egyszer a mondatot, hogy rtsk, mit is akarnak mondani. A szoksostl eltr nyelvtani szerkezet ltalban ers, s nem tl pozitv jelentst hordoz, ezrt neknk is figyelnnk kell, hogy azt mondjuk, amit mondani szeretnnk. Present Perfect az eddig trtnt cselekvsek, amelyek a jelen pontig tartottak/tartanak. Meghatrozatlan idben trtnt cselekvsek, vagy olyasmi, ami a jelen pillanatig r. Alakja: have/has segdige s a jelentst hordoz ige 3. alakja. Ez is egy egysg, egyik a msik nlkl nem jelenti az igeidt. Pl: Have you done your homework? Yes, I have just done it. No, I havent done it yet. Megcsinltad a hzidat? Igen, pp most csinltam meg. Nem, mg nem csinltam meg.

Present Perfect Continuous az eddig egyfolytban trtn cselekvsek Alakja: have/has been segdige-kombinci s a jelentst hordoz ige+ing. Mondanom sem kell, hogy csak gy egytt jelentik az igeidt. Ha tbb segdige van, akkor az els segdige utn tesszk az alanyt krdsben, illetve minden mst, ami a segdige s az ige el bellhat. Pl: I have been waiting for you for 3 hours. We have been living in this house for ten years. Have you been waiting fom me for a long time? Hrom rja vrlak. Tz ve lakunk ebben a hzban. Rgta vrsz rm? (Mr nem kell tovbb, mert megrkeztem, de mg nem lptnk tovbb a szitucibl.)

Ezek voltak a jelen idk, s mieltt mg valaki megkrdezn, igen, mindet tudnunk kell, hasznlni is, nemcsak megrteni, s nem, nem rtik meg, ha mskpp mondjuk. Ugyanis a hibinkat a magyar nyelv logikja miatt kvetjk el, s hogyan rthetnk meg, ha nem tudjk, mit mirt mondunk gy, ahogy, s nem gy, ahogy kell. Szerintk ez teljesen sszer s logikus, s nincs mit nem rteni rajta. (mi is pontosan hasznljuk a szznl tbb fnvi esetet, mg csak meg sem lepdnk rajta.) Mlt, azaz Past A mlt idket csak akkor hasznlhatjuk, ha a cselekvsek lezrultak, s semmi kzk nincs a jelenhez. Past Simple ltalnos s ismtld cselekvsek a mltban Alakja: az ige msodik alakja. llt mondatban nem hasznlunk segdigt, krdsbe,

8 tagadsba viszont kell valami, ebben az esetben a did. Utna, persze, csak az ige els alakja llhat. Pl: When I was a child I went to school. Did you play football when you were a child? I didnt play football when I was a child. Gyerekkoromban iskolba jrtam. Fociztl gyerekkorodban? Nem fociztam gyerekkoromban.

Past Continuous ppen akkor a mlt adott pillanatban trtn cselekvsek Alakja: a ltige (be) mlt idej alakja (was, were) s a jelentst hordoz ige+ing Pl: What were you doing between five and six yesterday? Mit csinltl tegnap t s hat kztt? I was watching TV. Tvztem. Ha a mondatomban tbb ige van, akkor a kvetkezket kell figyelembe vennem: Ha a dolgok egyms utn a maguk rendjben kvetkeztek,minden ige Simple lesz. Pl: Yesterday I got up at six, got dressed, had breakfast and started to work. Ha a dolgok egyms mellett, egymstl fggetlenl , egyidben trtntek, minden ige Continuous lesz. Pl: While I was sitting in the garden, she was watching TV. Ha egy eredeti cselekvs kzben hirtelen trtnt valami ms, akkor az eredeti cselekvs Continuous lesz, az, amelyik kzben trtnt Simple. Pl: When I was sitting in the garden, the telephone rang. Past Perfect A mlt adott pillanatig megtrtnt cselekvsek Alakja: a had segdige s a jelentst hordoz ige harmadik alakja. Pl: Everything had been ready by 3. Hromra minden ksz volt. He had left before I arrived. Elment, mieltt n megrkeztem volna. Past Perfect Continuous a mlt adott pillanatig egyfolytban trtnt dolgok. Alakja: had been segdigk s a jelentst hordoz ige+ing Pl: After I had been waiting for you for 3 hours, I went home. Miutn hrom rt vrtam rd, hazamentem. A Past Perfect s a Past Perfect Continuous igeid mindig azt fejezi ki, hogy valami mlt idpont vagy esemny eltt trtnt valami ms. Az a valami ms, amit viszonytsknt, azaz idhatrozknt hasznlunk,Simple Past. Nem megrthetetlen, s fleg nem megtanulhatatlan, de elszr inkbb daraboljuk szt a mondatainkat gy, hogy a cselekvsek felsorolsszeren kvessk egymst, mert akkor csak Simple Past igeidt kell hasznlnunk, s addig, amg megszokjuk a tbbit, egyszerbb. Megrteni, viszont muszj. let-hall krdse, hogy pontosan rtsk, amit mondanak/rnak. A mlt idkhz zrsknt, ha egyszer elkezdtk ket hasznlni, vgig mlt idben kell maradnunk, amg arrl a bizonyos mltbeli dologrl beszlnk. A magyarral ellenttben az idskok kztti ugrndozs nem stlushiba, hanem rthetetlenn teszi a mondandnkat. Jv, azaz Future Mieltt belekezdennk a jv idk taglalsba, szgezzk le, hogy mskpp is ki lehet a jv tartalmat fejezni.

9 Szndk s kzeljv kifejezsre hasznljuk a going to szerkezetet. Ez tulajdonkppen jelen id, jv tartalommal. Pl: What are you going to do? Mit akarsz/fogsz/szndkozol csinlni? Ha mr tl vagyunk a szndkon, gyakorlatilag megszerveztk a programunkat, hasznljunk Present Continuous-t. Pl: Im playing tennis tomorrow. Holnap teniszezem. (Be van rva a naptramba, lefoglaltam a teniszplyt, van partnerem) Hasznljunk Simple Future-t, ha tvoli, vagy bizonytalan, az amirl beszltnk, esetleg ppen most dntttk el. Pl:I will travel to Africa one day. Majd egyszer elutazom Afrikba. I think, I will become a doctor. Azt hiszem, orvos leszek. OK, I will go with you. Rendben, megyek veled. (most dntttem el.) s mg egy fontos dolog, egy mondatban egy jv idt hasznljunk. A msik ige jelen idej. Ez azrt van, mert az idhatroz-szk mellett (pldul before, after,when, if stb) nem hasznlhatunk jv idt. Pl: When I get my cheque, I will buy some nice shoes. Majd, ha megkapom a pnzemet, veszek valamilyen szp cipt. Simple Future ltalnos, ismtld cselekvsek a jvben (s ami tvoli, bizonytalan, vagy hirtelen elhatrozs) Alakja: will segdige s az ige els alakja (tagad alak: wont) Pl: Will children go to school in the next century? Fognak a gyerekek iskolba jrni a jv szzadban? Future Continuous a jv adott pillanatban ppen Alakja: will be segdigk s a jelentst hordoz ige+ing (vele ll igeid Present) Pl: While I am doing the washing up, you will be cooking. Amg n mosogatok, te fzl. What will you be doing this time tomorrow? Mit fogsz csinlni holnap ilyenkor? Future Perfect a jv adott pillanatig (valamikorra mr valami ksz lesz) Alakja: will have segdigk s az ige harmadik alakja Pl: I will have known my friend for two years in April. prilisban lesz kt ve, hogy ismerem a bartomat. Future Perfect Continuous a jv adott pillanatig egyfolytban (valamikorra mr valami sokig tart) Pl: By the time you arrive, we will have been working for hours. Mire megjssz, mr rk ta dolgozunk. Gyakorlati tancsknt, ha kzeljvrl van sz, akkor a going to szerkezetet hasznljuk, ha a tvoli jvrl, akkor a will+ els alakot, azaz a Simple Future igeidt. A tbbit egyelre tegyk a megrt kategriba. Hasznlni majd akkor, ha mr jobban tudunk. Egybknt is, az n stratgim, hogy rtsnk meg mindent, de csak azt hasznljuk, amit tudunk, azaz a lehet legegyszerbb szerkezeteket, mg mindig bevlt, fleg az alapfok nyelvvizsgn. Csak azrt rtam le az sszes igeidt, hogy lssuk a maga szpsgben a rendszert. s persze, hogy megrtsk, ha ltjuk, esetleg akkor is, ha halljuk ket.

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3. Hasznljunk segdigket!
Elszr is a can segdigt. Azt jelenti, tud, kpes, -hat,-het. Csak akkor hasznlhatjuk a segdigt, ha jelen idre vonatkozik, vagy ha mellette idhatrozval jv idt akarunk kifejezni vele. Pl.: I can help you now. I can help you tomorrow. Tagad alakja a cant, ha kirjuk, cannot. A tbbi segdige tagad alakjait nem rjuk egybe, csak ezt az egyet. Gyakorlskppen vegyk sorra, hogy mit tudunk s mit nem. I can cook quite well. Elg jl tudok fzni. But I cant make good cakes. De nem tudok j stemnyeket kszteni. My daughter can play the violin. A lnyom tud hegedlni. But she cant play the guitar. De gitrozni nem tud. Miutn mindenkinek kitrgyaltuk a kpessgeit, soroljunk fel egy csom llatot, s rjuk le, mire is kpesek. Pl.: Birds can fly.- A madarak tudnak replni. Krdezni a mdbeli segdigkkel is ugyangy kell, mint a tbbivel. Pl.: Can cats swim? Tudnak a macskk szni? I think they can. Azt hiszem, tudnak. Ha mltbeli ltalnos dolgokrl akarunk beszlni, hasznljuk a can mlt idej alakjt: could Pl. I could swim when I was five. Tudtam szni mr tves koromban. I couldnt ride a bike until I was seven. Nem tudtam biciklizni, amg htves nem lettem. A can s a could segdige gyakran csak azrt kerl a mondatba, mert udvariasabbak akarunk lenni. Pl.: Can I have a sandwich? Kaphatok egy szendvicset? Could you help me a little? Tudnl egy kicsit segteni? Mindegyik krdsre j vlasz : Sure. Ja. De ha ennl udvariasabban szeretnnk vlaszolni: Certainly. Termszetesen. Ha vissza akarjuk a krst utastani, krltekintbben kell eljrnunk, mert ha azt mondjuk No. egy letre elkapartuk magunkat az illetnl. A szendvicses krst nehezebb visszautastani, mert meg kell magyarznunk, hogy mi az oka, pldul nincs itthon semmi. Im afraid we dont have any food at home. Attl tartok, nincs itthon kaja. A segtsgkrst elutasthatjuk azzal, hogy nincs idnk. Well, actually, Im rather busy at the moment. Maybe, tomorrow? Ht iz, elg elfoglalt vagyok most. Taln holnap? Mint minden nyelvben, angolul is nehz nemet mondani udvariasan. De ez nem azt jelenti, hogy mindenre igent kell mondanunk, hanem azt, hogy meg kell tanulnunk finoman de hatrozottan elutastani a teljesthetetlen krseket. Teht a can s a could segdigket hasznlhatjuk meghatrozott igeidkben, de mi van, ha valami msra lenne szksgnk, mondjuk idhatroz nlkli jv idre, Present Perfectre esetleg ms hasonlra. Ilyen esetekben a segdigt nem hasznlhatjuk, helyette a to be able to kpesnek lenni jelents ige ll. Meg tudod ezt majd csinlni? Will you be able to do it? tves korom ta tudok biciklizni. I have been able to ride a bike since I was 5. Amikor a segdigt nem tudjuk hasznlni, az ige teljesen tveszi a can jelentst. Abban a kt esetben, amikor az igt s a segdigt is hasznlhatjuk, az ige mst jelent.Jelen idben s idhatrozs jv idben kpesnek lenni, azaz ersebb jelentst hordoz, mint a segdige, mlt idben viszont azt jelenti sikerlt.

11 Nem vagyok kpes ezt megtenni. Im unable to do it. Azaz inkbb a kptelen vagyok szerkezetet hasznljuk tagadsnl, jelen idben. Though I didnt have a key I was able to open the door with my hairpin. Habr nem volt nlam kulcs, ki tudtam/sikerlt nyitni az ajtt a hajtmmel. Az rzkelst vagy megrtst jelent igkhez nagyon gyakran hasznljuk a can/could segdigket. I can see you. Ltlak. I cant understand what you are saying. Nem rtem, amit mondasz. I could smell something burning in the kitchen. Valami gett szagot reztem a konyhban. I cant find my socks anywhere.- Sehol nem tallom a zoknimat. Most pedig mondjunk olyan mondatokat, hogy kinek mit kell csinlnia. Nem azrt, mert muszj, hanem azrt, mert gy szoks, vagy mert a krlmnyek olyanok. Hasznljuk a have to ige jelen idej alakjait. Ne feledjk, ha ltalnossgokrl beszlnk nem hasznlunk nvelt s a megszmolhat fneveket, mint pldul a foglalkozsok neveit, tbbes szmba tesszk. Pl.: Bakers have to work at night. A pkek jjel dolgoznak. Businesssmen have to wear smart suits. Az zletemberek elegns ltnyt hordanak. (Az angol mondat sz szerint azt jelenti, hogy kell viselnik, de ez magyarul butn hangzik.) Farmers have to get up early. A fldmveseknek korn kell kelnik. (Nem azrt, mert kirugdalja ket valaki az gybl, hanem azrt, mert az llatokat korn szoks etetni.) Most pedig vegynk mg foglalkozsokat, mondjuk el mit szeretnnk csinlni, s mit nem, s egsztsk ki egy olyan indokkal, amiben a have to igt, vagy a can segdigt hasznljuk. Szeretnk I would like (to) Nem szeretnk I wouldnt like (to) I wouldnt like to be a soldier because they have to go to war. Nem szeretnk katona lenni, mert (nekik) hborba kell mennik. I would like to work as a cook, because they can taste all kinds of dishes. Szeretnk szakcsknt dolgozni, mert (k) megkstolhatnak mindenfle telt. Beszljnk a csaldunkrl s arrl, hogy mit kellett s mit nem kellett csinlnunk gyerekknt. A have to ige mlt idejt hasznljuk: had to. When I was a child I had to get up early every day, even at weekends and in school holidays. Not because I had to do a lot of work, only because my mother thought it necessary. Gyerekkoromban mindig korn kellett kelnem, mg htvgn s iskolai sznetben is. Nem azrt, mert sokat kellett dolgoznom, csak azrt, mert anyukm azt gondolta, gy szksges. When I went to school all schoolchildren had to wear dark blue schoolgowns to school. It was a kind of a uniform. Amikor iskolba jrtam, minden iskolsnak sttkk iskolakpenyt kellett viselnie. Ez egyfajta egyenruha volt. I had to help my grandmother in the kitchen. I didnt like it all the time. Segtenem kellett a nagymammnak a konyhban. Nem mindig tetszett. I either had to walk to school or ride my bike. Neither is very pleasant in the November rains. - Gyalog, vagy biciklivel kellett iskolba jrnom. Egyik sem kellemes a novemberi esben. I did my homework right when I came home from school. Not because I had to, but because I wanted to finish it as quickly as possible. Ahogy hazartem az iskolbl azonnal megcsinltam a hzi feladatomat. Nem azrt mert gy kellett, hanem mert olyan hamar be akartam fejezni, ahogy csak lehetett. We had to go to school on Saturdays, too, but we didnt have to stay long in the afternoon. Actually we couldnt, because the small kids went to school in the afternoon. Szombaton is kellett iskolba jrnunk, de nem kellett dlutn sokig bent maradnunk. Tulajdonkppen nem is lehetett, mert a kicsik dlutn jrtak iskolba.

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Krdsben did you have to? Pl.: Did you have to go to extra maths classes when you were a child? Kellett kln matekra jrnod gyerekkorodban? Yes, I did, I went three times a week. Igen heti hromszor jrtam. No, I didnt, but I had to go to extra German classes. Nem, de kln nmetre igen.

Osszunk j tancsokat, (s kevsb jkat is)


kellene should, nem lenne szabad shouldnt Segdigk, teht a jelentst hordoz ige els (infinitive) alakban ll utnuk. Ha j tancsokat akarok osztogatni hozzm kzel ll szemlynek, hasznlhatom ket btran. Idegeneknek, fleg ha nem krtk, ne osszunk tancsokat, felletes ismersknek pedig csak akkor, ha krtk, s jval krltekintbben, mint ahogy ezek a segdigk megengedik. Teht bartok kzt: We should work harder. Kemnyebben/Jobban kellene dolgoznunk. You shouldnt drink so much coffee. Nem lenne szabad annyi kvt innod. Mg gy is megkaphatjuk azt a vlaszt, hogy Its none of your .. business Semmi kzd hozz. A kipontozott helyre bekerlhet egy nem tl szp nyomatkost jelz. Ha finomabban akarunk tancsokat osztogatni tegyk a mondat el: Azt hiszem I think, we should work harder. I dont think you should drink so much coffee. Az angolban az Azt hiszem, nem kezdet mondatok tulajdonkppen Nem hiszem, hogy kezdetv vlnak, mint az elz pldnl. I dont think you Igazbl ezek a segdikk akkor vlnak nlklzhetetlenn, amikor mstl vlemnyt krnk. Pl.: Szerinted hov menjnk nyaralni? Where do you think we should go on holiday? Szerinted mikor induljunk holnap? What time do you think we should start tomorrow? Szerinted busszal menjnk, vagy vonattal? Do you think we should travel by coach or by train? A vlasz mindegyik krdsre gy kezddik : I think we should Ha vetnk mg egy pillantst a krdsekre, ltjuk, hogy a magyarban a krdsz, ha van, htrbb helyezkedik el, mint az angolban, ahol az els helyre kerl. Azutn jn a do you think szerinted, mit gondolsz, krd szrendben, s utna a tnyleges krds, de llt szrendben we should. Ez azrt van, mert az angolban csak a mondat az els igje llhat krd szrendben, a tbbi llt szrendben lnytelen llni. (Persze azrt kivtelek vannak, de azokrl majd ksbb.) Btrabban vagdalkozhatunk, ha megtrtnt esemnyeket kommentlunk, s ha a szenved alanyok nincsenek jelen, mert akkor nem tudnak megsrtdni, fleg azrt, mert nem halljk, mi is rluk s viselt dolgaikrl a vlemnynk. kellett volna should have + 3. alak nem lett volna szabad shouldnt have + 3. alak Peter really should have got up in time. Pternek igazn fel kellett volna idben kelnie. They really shouldnt have travelled to the Middle East. It is dangerous Egyltaln nem lett volna szabad a Kzel-Keletre utazniuk. Veszlyes.

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Htkznapi udvariassgok
Nagyon gyakran a krds forma csak udvariassg, vagy csak azrt hasznlunk segdigket mert udvariasabbak akarunk lenni. Fontos, hogy udvariasak legynk, de csak az egyszer formkat hasznljuk. Ez minden msra is igaz. Ha sokat olvasunk, s sok eredeti nyelv filmet s tvmsort nznk, megtanulunk nagyon sok udvariassgi formult s gorombasgot is. Mindegyikkel bnjunk csnjn, csak azokat hasznljuk, amelyikekrl pontosan tudjuk, hogy a szvegnkbe valk. Kezdjk az alapokkal. Felszltani valakit valamire a kvetkezkppen lehet: Come out of the kitchen. Gyere ki a konyhbl. Nem tesszk ki az alanyt, az igvel kezdjk a mondatot. Ha tiltani akarunk, Dont a mondatkezds.azaz: Ne gyere ki a konyhbl. Dont come out of the kitchen. Ez nem valami udvarias, st!!! Ha gy rezzk, a felszlt mondat felel meg a szndkainknak, s mgsem akarunk gorombk lenni, kezdjk azzal, hogy Lgy szves Please Ha jegyet akarunk venni, vagy a boltban a pultnl krnk valamit, csak nevezzk meg, mit szeretnnk, s a vgre tegyk oda, hogy please. A return ticket to Oxford, please. Egy retrjegyet krek Oxfordba. A ham and cheese sandwich, please. Egy sonks-sajtos szendvicset krek. (Ha kocsmban krek srt, a szerkezet ugyanilyen egyszer, csak pontosan tudnom kell, mit akarok A pint of lager, please. Egy kors vilgost. A half of stout, please. Egy pohr barnt.) Ha mg egy fokozattal udvariasabbak akarunk lenni, tegyk a vgre, hogy j?- will you? gy nz ki az alapmondatunk most. Lgyszi, gyere ki a konyhbl, j? Please, come out of the kitchen, will you? Ha megfordtjuk, mg udvariasabb vlik. Krem, jjjn ki a konyhbl.- Will you come out of the kitchen, please? A krds mindig udvariasabb, mint a felszlt mondat. Ha magamnak szeretnk valamit, bartok kztt, vagy teljesen htkznapi szituciban gy kezdem a mondatot, hogy Can I Pl. Hasznlhatom a tolladat? Can I use your pen, please? Bemegyek a boltba, az elad gy fogad: (How) Can I help you? Segthetek? (Miben lehetek a szolglatra?) Vlasz: Yes, please. I would like a - Igen, krem. Szeretnk egy s rszletezem, hogy mit is szeretnk. No, thank you. Im just looking. Ksznm, nem.Csak nzegetek. Ha az utcn megszltok valakit, hogy tbaigaztst krjek tle, kezdjem gy: Excuse me. Elnzst. Mire a megszltott: Yes? krdsknt teszi fel, azt jelzi vele, hogy meghallotta, hogy szltottam s vrja a folytatst. Could you tell me the way to the post office, please? Meg tudn mondani, krem, az utat a posthoz? Yes. (Certainly. Sure. Of course) Igen. (Termszetesen. Ja. Ht persze) vlaszolja a vrmrsklete szerint s elkezdi magyarzni mr direkt felszlt mdban, mert megtettk a kell udvariassgi tnclpseket. Go along this street, then take the first turning on the right - Menjen vgig ezen az utcn, aztn forduljon be az els utcn jobbra Amikor befejezte, s van is valami fogalmam arrl, hogy legalbb merre kell elindulni, akkor megksznm s elksznk. Thank you, good bye. is elkszn, (ha nem felejti el.) Good bye. Ezerszer elfordult mr, hogy idegen vrosban tbaigaztst krtek tlem, amire csak azt lehet mondani: Sorry, Im a stranger here. Bocs, nem vagyok idevalsi. Ne lepdjnk meg, ha erre azt mondjk: No problem. Its all right. Never mind. Nem baj. Rendben. R se rnts. Csak nyugtzzk, hogy nem kaptak informcit.

14 Ha fizikai segtsget krek valakitl, mondjuk brndcipelshez: Could you lend me a hand? / Could you help me with the suitcases? Could you mert igazn udvarias akarok lenni, hogy segtsenek is cipelni azokat a dgnehz cuccokat. s megksznni is igazn kell. - Thank you ever so much. Mire a vlasz: You are welcome. Szvesen. Not at all./ Dont mention it.- Szra sem rdemes. (ha flre akarjk sprni a hllkodst.) Arra, hogy Thank you. nagyon gyakran csak egy gynyr mosoly a vlasz, vagy I thank you. n ksznm, s ekkor a msik fl villant egy ragyog mosolyt. Ha meglknk valakit az utcn, vagy valami kellemetlensget tesznk a msiknak, mondjuk: Sorry. (Akkor is mondjuk, ha minket lktek meg.)Ha elkstnk valahonnan, gy szabadkozzunk : Im sorry, Im late. (The traffic is really bad this morning.) Bocs, hogy elkstem. (Ma reggel igazn nagy a forgalom.) Nincs olyan nap, hogy ne lenne nagy forgalom, teht ez egy j kifogs. ltalban, mint magyarul is, kell kifogs. Ha mr tizedszer kstem el, mondjam azt: Im terribly sorry, Im late again. s jhet a kifogs. Vlasz ltalban: Its alright. Rendben van. (ha undokok akarnak lenni azt mondjk: Oh no! Not again!- Na ne! Mr megint?) Ha knlok, vagy krek valamit, hasznlhatok krdsben some-t - nhny, egy kicsi jelentsben. Would you like some chocolate? Krsz egy kis csokit? Yes, please. Igen, krek. No, thank you. - Ksznm, nem krek. Kaphatok egy kis csokit? Can/Could I have some chocolate? Igen, persze.Vegyl. - Yes, certainly. Help yourself. Igen. - Yes, you may. ( engedlyt adnak) Nem. - Ezt nem illik mondani. Ha mgis nemet kell mondani egy ilyen htkznapi dologra, nagyon krltekinten kell eljrni. Pldul: Nem hiszem, hogy j tlet. Allergis vagy r. I dont think you should. You are allergic to it, you know. Persze, ha valami abszurd dolgot krnek tlnk, rmondhatjuk, hogy Egy frszt de ez nem tkrz j modort. May I borrow your pink panties? Klcsnkrhetnm a rzsaszn bugyidat? No way! Egy frszt! Ugyanez udvariasabban: I dont think you should. Nem kne. Ha viszont odaadom, akkor: Here you are. Tessk. Ha igazn udvariasak akarunk lenni, hasznljuk a do you mind szerkezetet. Sz szerint azt jelenti: nem zavar? Ezrt a nem vlasz jelenti a beleegyezst, s igen-t nem lehet egyszeren mondani. Do you mind if I sit here? Nem zavar, ha idelk? No, of course not. Egyltaln nem. (engedlyt adok, hogy lelhessen) Well, Id rather you didnt. - Inkbb ne. (The seat is occupied.- A hely foglalt. Kell valami kifogst mondani.) sszefoglalva: a krds mindig udvariasabb a felszltsnl. Htkznapi udvariassghoz a can, udvariasabb formkhoz a could alkalmas. May segdigvel engedlyt krnk, vagy kapunk. Ezek egyszer formk, de maradjunk csak meg nluk. Rcsodlkozhatunk, ha valamilyen kacifntos udvariassgi formt ltunk, vagy hallunk, de ne prbljuk meg utnozni, mint mindenben, itt is az egyszersg a clravezet. Ha meg akarunk lepdni, vagy gorombasgot akarunk mondani, akkor a legenyhbbek kzl vlasszunk. Pl. Oh, dear! - Te jszag vagy Oh, no! Na, ne! A dolgokra mondhatjuk, hogy stupid, de emberekre mr ne hasznljuk, s ezt a hatrt ne lpjk t. Az amerikai filmekben rondn beszlnek, de az amerikai trsadalomban nem. (Angliban sem.)

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Ha nem rtnk valamit


krdezzk meg mg egyszer. Mivel nem akarjuk nagy betkkel kirni a homlokunkra, hogy mekkora szamarak vagyunk, tegynk gy, mintha egy pillanatra elkalandozott volna a figyelmnk, s mondjuk: Bocs, hogy is mondtad? Sorry, what was it? Vagy ezt: Sorry, Im not with you. Could you say that again? Bocs, lemaradtam. Elmondand mg egyszer? Could you be more specific, please? Rszletezn, krem? H azt nem rtem, hogyan kerlnek ide a dolgok, akkor a kvetkezt: What do you mean? Hogy rted ezt? Azonnal mondjuk a beszlgettrsunknak, ha olyan nyelvtani szerkezetet hasznl, ami nem szablyos. Valami extra informcit hordoz az a mondat, s nem rt, ha pontosan rtjk azt, amit mondanak. Ha azrt nem rtnk egy szt sem, mert darljk ezerrel, krjnk lasstst: Could you speak a bit slower, please? Ha pedig motyognak: Could you speak up a little, please? Ne szabadkozzunk, ne magyarzkodjunk. Ltszik rajtunk, hogy nyelvtanulk vagyunk, ha tbbet gyakorolunk, majd jobban megy. Nagy dolog egyltaln, hogy idegen nyelven megszlaltunk.

4. Hasznljunk felszlt s feltteles mdot! Felszlt md


A felszlt md egyes s tbbes szm msodik szemlyben egyforma, azaz alany nlkl, igvel kezdjk a mondatot. Pl: Come out of the kitchen. Gyere ki a konyhbl! (Gyertek ki a konyhbl) Dont speak so loudly. Ne beszlj(etek) olyan hangosan! Ha hangslyozni akarjuk a tbbes szm msodik szemlyt, hozztehetjk: you all, you two, vagy a megszltottak nevt. Pl: Come here, children. Gyertek ide gyerekek! Az angol felszlt mondat vgn pont van. Felkiltjel csak a felkilt mondat vgn tallhat. Pl: What a lovely day! Micsoda szp nap!

Mi lenne, ha?
Jtszhatunk msknt is a gondolatokkal. Kpzeljk el, mi lesz, ha megnyerjk a fnyeremnyt, megkapjuk a diplomnkat, megszletik az els (msodik, tizenkettedik) gyermeknk, nyugdjba vonulunk, stb. Vegyk pldnak a kvetkez szitucit. Ha sok pnzem lesz, elutazom Egyiptomba. If I have a lot of money, I will travel to Egypt. Ha megnyerem a lott tst, veszek neked egy hzat. If I win the lottery, I will buy a house for you. Ha lnyunk lesz Klaudinak fogjuk nevezni. If we have a daughter, we will call her Claudia. A mondat szerkezete: If + jelen id will + 1. alak. Az if ha, helyett hasznlhatunk ms idhatrozszt is, pldul when amikor, as soon as mihelyt , after miutn, de az ige utnuk jelen idben ll, illetve a mondat msik felben a will helyett hasznlhatunk can

16 segdigt, ha egy lehetsgrl beszlnk, vagy Simple Present Tense igt, ha ltalnossgrl van sz, vagy felszlt mdot, ppen gy, mint a magyar mondatokban. Nzznk mindenre pldt! When I grow up I will work as a truck driver. Ha nagy leszek, kamionsofrknt fogok dolgozni. As soon as I arrive in New York I will call you. Mihelyt megrkezem New Yorkba, felhvlak. After I finish work, I will go to the pub with my friends. Miutn befejezem a munkt, elmegyek a kocsmba a haverjaimmal. If you are still hungry, you can eat my sandwich. Ha mg mindig hes vagy, megeheted az n szendvicsemet. If we are cold in winter, we put on an extra jumper. Ha fzunk tlen, felvesznk mg egy pulvert If it is dark in the room, turn on the lights. Ha stt van a szobban, kapcsold fel a villanyt. Rugaszkodjunk el a valsgtl s engedjk szrnyalni a fantzinkat. Mondjuk gy.: Ha megnyernm a lott tst, krbeutaznm a Fldet. If I won the lottery, I would travel round the world. Ha eljnne rtem a herceg fehr lovon, azonnal igent mondank. If a prince on a white horse came for me, I would immediately say yes. Ha egy hres modellt tallnk az gyamban, nem mondank nemet. If I found a famous model in my bed, I wouldnt say no. Ha n lennk a miniszterelnk, sok mindent megvltoztatnk. If I were the Prime Minister, I would change a lot of things. n a te helyedben rvid hajat hordank. If I were you I would wear my hair short. If + 2. alak would + 1. alak Az if utn ltalban were-t hasznlunk, mg akkor is, ha egyes szm els (I), vagy harmadik (he,she, it) szemlyrl van sz. A would helyett hasznlhatunk could segdigt, ha egy lehetsgrl beszlnk, s might segdigt , esetleg jelentsben. I could eat ten sandwiches. Meg tudnk enni tz szendvicset. If you were older, you might understand it. Ha idsebb lennl, taln megrtend. s vgl talljunk ki olyan helyzeteket, amikor mr ks a bnat Ha bedobtam volna a lottszelvnyemet, megnyertem volna a fnyeremnyt. If I had posted my lottery ticket, I would have won the jackpot. Ha te talltad volna meg a pnzt, leadtad volna a rendrsgen? Would you have given the money to the police if you had found it? (If you had found the money, would you have given it to the police?) A mondat kt fele szabadon felcserlhet, de mivel krds, tegyk elre a krd szrend igt. Ezekben a mondatokban az If utn had + 3. alak van, a mondat msik felben pedig would have + 3. alak. a would have helyett llhat could have, lehetsg,vagy might have, bizonytalansg kifejezsre. Mindkt esetben a jelentst hordoz ige harmadik alakban ll. Van olyan szituci, amelyiknek az egyik fele a mltbeli hibinkra, a msik fele pedig a jelenbeli kvetkezmnyekre utal, ilyenkor a kt tpust egy mondatba tehetjk. Pldul: Ha befejeztem volna az egyetemet, most sokkal tbb pnzt keresnk. If I had finished university I would earn much more now. Ha a Paula a Hufngel Pistihez ment volna felesgl, vele veszekedne minden nap. If Paula had married Steve Hufnagel, she would quarrel with him every day.

17 Tovbbi kvnsgok, hajok shajok kifejezsre, ha csak gy kvnunk valamit bele az res levegbe, I wish vagy if only brcsak. Brcsak valami lenne I wish/If only + 2 alak Brcsak valami lett volna .. I wish/If only + had+ 3. alak. Brcsak jobb id lenne! I wish the weather was nicer. Brcsak fiatalabb lennk! If only I was younger. Brcsak sose ismertelek volna! I wish I had never known you. Brcsak a Hufngel Pistihez mentem volna felesgl! If only I had married Steve Hufnagel.

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5. Krdezznk vissza!
Magyarul elg vltozatos a szerkezet, ugye, j, nem s mg lehet pr. Angolul viszont pontosan kell kvetnnk a mintt. A mondat els felben lltunk valamit, teht llt szrendet hasznlunk, majd a vgre tesznk egy rvid krdst, amelyben a segdigt ismteljk az eredetivel ellenkez mdon (azaz, ha llt volt, tagad, ha viszont tagad volt, llt formban) s az alanyt szemlyes nvmsknt. Pl: Mary can swim, cant she? Jane is your sister, isnt she? You like chocolate, dont you? He didnt go to university, did he? You dont have a car, do you? Peter isnt a friend of yours, is he? Ha csak megerstst vrok, akkor mindkt mondatfl ereszked hanglejts. Ha tnyleg nem tudom azt, amit krdezek, a visszakrdezs emelked. Nhny specilis eset: There is/there are kezdet mondatok visszakrdezsnl there-t hasznlunk. There is a church in Queen street, isnt there? Somebody, anybody, nobody visszakrdezsben they Somebody will help him, wont they? A lets visszakrdezse shall we?, a felszlt md will you? Lets buy some chocolate, shall we? Open the door, will you? Az Im visszakrdezse arent I? pl. Im very ill, arent I.

6. Tanuljunk szavakat!
Legtbb alapfokon ll tanulnak az a problmja, hogy nem elg b a szkincse. Pedig ez nagyon knnyen bvthet. Kt viszonylag knny s hatkony mdja a sztanulsnak a kvetkez: 1. Ksztsnk tmakr-tblzatot olyan tmkbl, amelyek minket rdekelnek. Vagy azokbl a htkznapi tmkbl, amelyek szerintnk a vizsgn vrhatak. Egyszerre, mondjuk tz tmt, s rjunk hozzjuk tz olyan szt, amelyet tudunk. Utna keressnk ki a sztrbl 10 olyan szt, amit eddig nem tudtunk. Ne hasznljunk akrmilyen sztrt. Nagyon sok rgi sztr kerlt forgalomba, amelyben elavult szavak is vannak. Sajnos, a bevsrlkzpontokban olcsn kaphat sztrok mind ilyenek. Hasznljunk online-sztrt, pldul a www.dicfor.com oldalon lvt, vagy tematikus, kpes sztrt.

19 Mondjuk csinljunk egy tblzatot gy: Family - Csald father - apa Neighbourhood - Krnyk village - falu town - vros city - nagyvros district - kerlet street - utca road - t square - tr park - park playground - jtsztr city- centre - vroskzpont suburb - kertvros inner city lerobbant belvros alley - siktor House - Hz detached house csaldi hz upstairs fels szint/ fent downstairs als szint / lent bedroom - hlszoba bathroom - frdszoba living-room - nappali kitchen - konyha pantry - kamra front door bejrati ajt hall - eltr cellar - pince attic - padls terraced house - sorhz lavatory/toilet - WC laundry - moskonyha

mother - anya brother - fivr sister - nvr son fia vkinek daughter lnya vkinek husband - frj wife - felesg parents - szlk grandparents - nagyszlk great- grandparents - ddszlk married with six children hzas s hat gyereke van in- laws a hzastrsam rokonai

stepfather nevelapa/mostohaapa avenue - sugrt cousin - unokates (fi is, lny is) junction - tkeresztezds

Everyday objects htkznapi trgyak mobile - mobiltelefon paper hanky - paprzsepi pen - toll pencil - ceruza scissors - oll notebook - notesz key - kulcs chewing gum - rggumi cigarette lighter - ngyjt wallet irattrca, pnztrca driving licence - jogostvny car - keys - kocsikulcs students D card - dikigazolvny fibre pen - filctoll lipstick - rzs

Food - lelmiszerek bread - kenyr roll - zsemle meat - hs pasta szraztszta, kiftt tszta fruit - gymlcs vegetables - zldsg chocolate - csokold milk - tej egg - tojs spice - fszer doughnut - fnk pastry - stemny

Jobs - foglalkozsok secretary- titkr/n waiter/waitress pincr/n labourer - munks employee - alkalmazott businessman - vllalkoz shop- assistant - elad nurse pol/n driver - sofr plumber - vzvezetkszerel engineer - mrnk street cleaner - utcasepr clerk - kistisztvisel

breakfast cereals - reggelizpehely politician - politikus biscuits/cookies keksz, aprsti soup - leves jailor - brtnr sales representative gynk

20 Olvassuk el ket a magyar jelentskkel egytt, lehetleg hangosan. Majd takarjuk le a magyar oldalt, olvassuk az angol szavakat, s mondjuk hozz a jelentst. Utna takarjuk le az angol oldalt, olvassuk magyarul, s mondjuk hozz az angolt. Persze, ha nem megy, lehet lesni, de csak vgszksg esetn. Szoktassuk hozz magunkat, hogy hrom olvassra meg kell jegyeznnk a szavakat. Az ember hajlamos mindennel elpiszmogni, ezrt szabjunk magunknak idkorltokat.Elszr tizent percet, aztn tzet, amikor mr jl begyakoroltuk a mdszert, ne adjunk magunknak t percnl tbbet tizent sz megtanulsra. De ez mg csak a kezdet. Utna tegyk le a szjegyzket, s gondolatban fussuk t, mi is volt ez a tizent dolog ehhez a tmhoz, magyarul s angolul. Majd hagyjuk pihenni pr rig s ksbb gondoljuk t mg egyszer mi is volt ez a tizent sz, majd msnap reggel is, s ha van olyan sz, amit nehezen tanultunk meg, akkor azt tbbszr is idzzk vissza. Ha valaki nem bzik magban, felrhatja a szavakat cdulkra, egyik oldalra magyarul, a msik oldalra angolul. Tegye a cdulkat a zsebbe, s amikor egy perc res ideje van, hzzon el egy cdult, nzze meg a szt egyik nyelven, mondja a msikon, ha megy, tegye t a msik zsebbe, ha nem, tegye vissza a tbbi sz kz, s hzza ki a kvetkezt. J jtk, s unalomznek sem utols, mgiscsak mank, ezt az egszet fejben jobb jtszani. 2. Olvassunk minl tbb angol nyelv szveget sztrozs s fordts nlkl. Mondjuk mest. A Micimack trtnetre mindenki emlkszik. Keressnk az interneten egy angol nyelv Micimackt. (Winnie The Pooh). Vagy a Harry Potter els ktett. Vagy egy Agatha Christie regnyt, vagy egy sci-fit Asimovtl. Az aclbarlangok (The caves of steel) egszen knny olvasmny. A lnyeg, hogy ne a nyelvtanulknak lebuttott vltozat legyen, az korbbi stdiumban volt hasznos. Illetve, hogy ne akarjuk fordtani, sem kisztrazni, hanem a trtnet menetbl talljuk ki, hogy mit is jelenthetnek a szavak. Ha nem rtjk egszen, olvassuk el mg egyszer, vagy ktszer, s talljuk ki, hogy mi micsoda lehet.

21

Msodik fejezet Szvegrts


Az rsbeli vizsgn az els feladat a szvegrts. El kell dntennk, hogy egy szveg utn az lltsok igazak, vagy hamisak. Jl s knnyen akkor tudjuk megoldani a feladatot, ha az lltsok fell kzeltnk hozz. Elszr is j alaposan elolvassuk az els lltst, felfogjuk, mit is krdeznek tlnk, aztn megkeressk a szvegben, hogy ezt mondtk-e, vagy valami mst. Ha megvan, bejelljk a megoldlapon, s folytatjuk a kvetkez lltssal. Vigyzzunk! Nem lehet automatikusan! Ha azok a szavak szerepelnek a szvegben, amelyeket az lltsokban tallunk, mg nem jelenti azt, hogy az llts igaz! Elszr rtelmeznnk kell az lltst, s gy megllaptani, hogy igaz-e, vagy hamis. Nem szabad elrvedezni a szvegen, s azon, hogy mennyi ismeretlen sz van benne. Van benne pp elg. Neknk azt az informcit kell megtallnunk, ami alapjn el tudjuk dnteni, hogy az lltsok igazak, vagy hamisak. Mindig trjnk vissza a kvetkez lltshoz, s ha a vgn maradt mg idnk, akkor olvasgathatjuk a szveget, s rvedezhetnk az ismeretlen szavak jelentsn. Ha javtani akarunk, csak akkor tegyk, ha meg is tudjuk magyarzni a hiba okt. (pldul elnztk az egyes vagy tbbes szmot) Ha csak gy elbizonytalanodtunk, akkor ne javtsunk, mert a jt fogjuk rosszra tjavtani. Prbljuk ki!

1. PlayPumps: A New Invention Turns Work Into Play


For kids in many rural parts of Africa, the colorful PlayPump is the first playground equipment theyve ever seen. When they give a push and jump onboard for their first ride, smiles of wonder break out on their faces. The fun of whirling in a circle is just part of the amazement. This incredible invention doesnt just change their playtime, it changes their lives. As the merry-go-round spins, it pumps clean water up from deep underground and stores it in a huge tank. People are welcome to come and help themselves to the water. In rural Africa, clean water is a luxury. Most people dont have plumbing in their homes. Instead, they often must walk long distances to wells and haul heavy containers of water back. Patricia Molope, 17, explains that before her South African village got a PlayPump, people would pay a taxi driver to take them to a far-off well. Sometimes the taxi drivers were busy, and we would have to go without bathing in order to save our water. It was too far to walk there. But now we have our own clean water in our village, and life is better. The exhausting chore of carrying water traditionally falls to women and girls. Hauling water for milesand hourseach day is such a big job, it sometimes prevents girls from being able to attend school. Thanks to the PlayPump, getting water is quick and easyand even boys join in. The pumps have become a center of social activity where kids and adults gather to visit while collecting water. Two sides of each tank carry educational messages that remind people about good health practices like battling germs through hand-washing. The other two sides carry advertisements, which help pay for the pump's upkeep. So far, more than 800 PlayPumps are operating in schools and communities in four African countries, providing water for almost two million people. The pumps are made by a South African company called Outdoor Fabrication and Steelworks. Another company, Roundabout Outdoor, trains local teams who maintain the pumps. Each system costs U.S. $14,000. Twelve-year-old Siyabulisiwe Khumalo lives in a South African community called Diepsloot. She says, I have seen many kinds of water pumps where I grew up in the farmlands, but never one that stores the water. When I grow up, I want to be an inventor so I can invent clever things like the PlayPump that will help my community.

22 1. African children have a lot of toys at their school playgrounds. 2. This new toy means more than just fun. 3. People can have free drinking water with the help of the new toy. 4. In Africa lots of people have indoor plumbing. 5. In some villages wells are too far away to walk. 6. Its usually girls and women who carry water home. 7. The new toy enables children to get water easily. 8. The water tanks carry educational messages on all sides. 9. The pumps are made and maintained by African companies and local people. 10. A water storing tank was a novelty for the children. 1. True False 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

23

2. Thanksgiving Traditions
Each year, Americans celebrate the Thanksgiving holiday on the fourth Thursday of November. Most families follow traditions begun on the first Thanksgiving, but many have their own traditions that they follow each year. Here are some of the common traditions associated with "Turkey Day." Travel One of the best things about Thanksgiving is spending time with family. Many people live far from family members and travel long distances by car, train, or plane to be with their loved ones. Thanksgiving is the busiest travel day of the year! The Feast Traditional foods are a large part of Thanksgiving celebrations. Many families include the entire family in the food preparation. Traditional foods include turkey, stuffing, gravy, sweet potatoes, cornbread, mashed potatoes, and cranberry sauce. Many people serve pie for dessert at the end of the meal. Popular pie flavors are pumpkin, pecan, sweet potato, and apple. Vegetarian Foods Some families choose to serve vegetarian Thanksgiving dinners instead of a stuffed turkey. Some people eat vegetarian turkey, which is made out of tofu. Others prefer to eat squash, salads, or other fruit and vegetable dishes. The Wishbone Some families include breaking the turkey's wishbone as part of their celebration. The wishbone is found attached to the breast meat in the turkey's chest. After the meat has been removed and the wishbone has had a chance to become dry and brittle, two people each take one end of the bone, make a wish, and pull. Whoever ends up with the larger part of the bone gets their wish! The Turkey Pardon Each year at Thanksgiving, the President of the United States receives a gift of a live turkey (along with an alternate in case something happens to the official turkey). At a White House ceremony, the president traditionally "pardons" the National Thanksgiving Turkey and the alternate turkeys, allowing them to live out the rest of their lives on a farm. Helping Others Many generous folks use Thanksgiving as an opportunity to help the less fortunate. Some people volunteer to serve food at homeless shelters on Thanksgiving Day and others donate to shelters or participate in canned food drives. TV Television also plays a part in Thanksgiving celebrations. Many families watch the New York City Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. The parade includes marching bands, floats, songs and performances from Broadway musicals, and giant helium-filled balloons! People may also enjoy televised football games. After the Meal After the feast families often do additional activities. Some like to take walks after eating such a large meal. Some people take naps. Others sit down together to play board or card games together. 1. Many families still celebrate Thanksgiving in a traditional way. 2. As many people live far away from their families they seldom meet. 3. There is a list of traditional thanksgiving dishes complete with desserts. 4. Vegetarian turkey? What a nonsense! 5. Whoever gets the larger part of the wishbone will be lucky for a year. 6. Sometimes two turkeys are prepared for the festival for the President. 7. The turkey for the President has come for the same farm for a long time. 8. Thanksgiving is a good time for charity. 9. There are a lot of special programmes on TV. 10. Usually the family gathering is over when the meal ends. 1. True False 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

24

3. The Sherpa People of Nepal


The tallest mountain in the world loomed in front of 16-year-old Temba Tsheri Sherpa. He had always dreamed of climbing Mount Everest. Now all Temba could think about was surviving the 29,035-foot (8,850-meter) climb to the top. Sherpa Superpowers One of the youngest people ever to summit Everest, Temba is a Sherpaa member of an ethnic group that lives mainly in the country of Nepal, in the Himalaya mountains. "Sherpas exhibit almost superhuman strength climbing at high altitudes," says Everest expert Brot Coburn. Living in mountain villages as high as 14,000 feet (4,267 meters), with no roads or cars, Sherpas hike everywhere and lug everything on their backseven TVs and refrigerators. Some kids even climb 1,500-foot (457-meter) slopes to get to school. That's equal to 150 stories! The Sky's the Limit But those feats are nothing compared with climbing Everest. Temba's expedition braved avalanches, subzero temperatures, and deadly crevassescracks in glaciers that can be 100 feet (30 meters) deep. Temba's courage comes partly from his religious beliefs. As followers of a religion called Tibetan Buddhism, the Sherpa believe in being peaceful, honoring all people, and accepting suffering without complaint. An Avalanche of Change Temba's trek continues his people's history of climbing feats. The tradition began nearly a hundred years ago when Sherpas started carrying supplies for visiting mountaineers. In 1953, the Sherpa won fame when Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and explorer Edmund Hillary became the first people to summit Everest. Today many Sherpas run trekking companies and lodges. Some fear the tourist boom will change Sherpa culture forever. Satellite phones, video games, and Western-style clothes are becoming popular. But Coburn says the culture remains strong. Sherpas still hike everywhere. And many farm and wear traditional clothes. On Top of the World Without his heritage, Temba might have given up. As he climbed past 26,000 feet (7925 meters), he had never felt so tired. But finally he took the last step and stood on Everestthe top of the world. "I felt like I had won the World Cup!" Temba says. He knew his success was a triumph for his people. 1. This 16-year-old boy would never climb mountains. 2. His people live in the highest mountains of the world. 3. Fortunately people can use trucks to carry heavy objects. 4. You have to be very brave to climb Mount Everest. 5. Tibetian Buddhists accept lifes hardships. 6.These people help tourists climb the mountains. 7. Slowly but surely the people will lose their traditions. 8. Tourists make Western lifestyle popular. 9. The boy dreams about winning a world competition. 10. He couldnt have got to the summit without his heritage. 1. True False 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

25

4. International Coastal Cleanup: Helping Ocean Animals Survive


Eleven-year-old Cammy Holmes tramped along the shores of Washington, D.C.'s Anacostia River with her big sister and a friend. Wearing gloves to protect their hands, they filled a garbage bag with everything from fishing line and dirty plastic bottles to old grocery bags. The girls, and about 150 others volunteered in the International Coastal Cleanup, an annual event that raises awareness of the importance of keeping the world's waterways and oceans clean. The cleanup was sponsored by an organization called the Ocean Conservancy that works to protect ocean animals and their homes. Unfortunately, a lot of trash never makes it into a trash can. It blows on the wind,and travels down streams and rivers to the sea. Trash isn't just uglyit can be dangerous for creatures that live in the water. Every year, plastic trash like old fishing gear, shopping bags, and food wrappers kills one million sea birds and 100,000 marine mammals and sea turtles. Sometimes these animals get tangled up in garbage and die. Sometimes they eat trash that chokes or poisons them. Sea turtles, for example, mistake plastic bags for the jellyfish they love to eat. At the Anacostia River, Cammy helped the volunteers pick up 2,380 pounds (1079.5 kilograms) of trash in just a few hours along three miles (4.83 kilometers) of shoreline. "When you hear about a coastal cleanup you think, gross, you have to pick up trash," says Cammy. "But then you get there and find out it is actually fun! I liked meeting all the other people and helping out the environment." This one-day event has an important message 365 days of the year: "We are all connected to the ocean. You can help keep the ocean clean by putting trash in the right place. Take the extra time to put your snack wrapper in the garbage can instead of throwing it on the ground, and recycle everything you can," says Sonia Besteiro of the Ocean Conservancy. 1.The girls picked up litter from the shore. 2. This campaign was organized in the USA to teach children about environmental protection. 3. Ocean Conservancy is a place where ocean animals can live undisturbed. 4. A lot of litter pollutes the worlds seas. 5. Litter in the ocean is dangerous for the animals. 6. Fortunately the animals can make a difference between food and plastic bags. 7. A lot of litter was cleared away from the shore. 8. Cammy thinks the work was very hard. 9. You have to think of the environment every day. 10. A single person cannot do anything to prevent pollution. 1. True False 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

26

5. Discovered: Oldest Writing in the New World


Anthropologists study people who are no longer living. Items those men, women, and children left behind when they diedeverything from clothing to jewelry and toolstell anthropologists a lot. And sometimes even their words survive. Experts believe that a discovery in Mexico is the oldest example of writing ever found in the Americas. The people who created it probably lived 3,000 years ago, long before Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World. Workers digging in a stone quarry happened to notice a stone block with marks carved onto its surface. They found the large piece of serpentine stone in Cascajal in Veracruz, Mexico, near the capital city of an ancient people called the Olmec. There are signs on the block that seem to show religious objects used by the Olmec, says Dr. Stephen Houston, an anthropologist with Brown University in Rhode Island. There is a pointy sign that looks very similar to something they used for blood-letting, and another that looks like a throne, he explains. Houston, an expert on the writing systems of ancient cultures, says the discovery is exciting because it makes clear that the Olmec were literate, that they could read and write. Its like hearing voices from the past," he says. But experts dont know exactly what the writing says. If you have ever tried to figure out a message written in code, you have a pretty good idea of the hard work ahead. Finding other examples of Olmec writing could help crack the code. Plenty of exciting finds await discovery, says Houston, maybe even by kids reading this article who decide to study past cultures when they grow up. We could have whole sets of ancient writing which will basically make ancient people speak to us directly, says Houston. There are many puzzles to be solved, and this is just one of them. 1. Anthropologists study people who lived long ago. 2. They have found the oldest written record in America. 3. The finding was an old book of the Maja Indians. 4. It is difficult to read the writing though they know what it is about. 5. There are pictures of things on the stone. 6. Scientists thought that people couldnt read or write in that old culture. 7. The writing is in code. 8. They havent found more of the writing so far. 9.Children reading this story might decide to become anthropologists themselves. 10. There are still a lot of things experts dont know about the past. 1. True False 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

27

Harmadik fejezet Szvegalkots


A msodik rsbeli feladat a levlrs. Igazbl azrt nehz, mert leszoktunk a levlrsrl magyarul is. Na, de ez nem mentsg, elfordulhat, hogy sajt kis kacsnkkal kell egy levelet lekrminteni, nem boszorknysg. Inkbb gyakorlat krdse. A levl klalakja is fontos, ht mg a szerkesztse! Barti levl lesz, egyszerbb a fejlce, szabad rvidteni, krdezni, vicceldni, azaz nem olyan ktttek a formk, mint a hivatalos levlben, de belezavarodnunk gy sem kell. Hrom tma kzl vlaszthatunk, vlasszuk azt, ami a szvnknek kedves, de mgsem kelt tl nagy rzelmeket. Valamennyire azonosulnunk kell a tmval, s bele kell lnnk magunkat a szituciba, de ne lpjk t azt a pontot, amikor az rzelmek elhvjk a magyar mondatszerkesztst, mert azonnal oda a levelnk. Tartsunk tvolsgot, ne merljnk bele a sajt lmnyek boncolgatsba, mert knnyen ingovnyra tvedhetnk. Haladjunk az irnytsi pontoknak megfelelen, hasznljuk a pontokat a bekezdseink ttelmondatnak. Fogalmazzunk rviden, pontosan. Ha szksges, daraboljuk fel a kacskarings sszetett mondatokat, mieltt mg vgleg beljk gabalyodnnk. Elszr ksztsk el aa fejlcet. Talljunk ki magunknak egy cmet, ami az orszg msik vgben van, hogy mg vletlenl se legyen beazonosthat a levelnk. Most a nyradonyi voda cmt hasznlom: 5 rpd Nyradony 4254 Hungary Egy sor kimarad, s al a dtum, nap, hnap, v sorrendben: 23.07.2010 Mivel tettem pontot a nap utn, a megszlts utn is kell vesszt tennem: Dear Samantha, s most kezdem a levelet, az els tma szerint. Megnzem, mi az els irnytsi pont, s lerom. Ive found your address on the Internet. Ive been looking for a penfriend for a long time, and Im happy to find you. Msodik irnytsi pont: I would like to correspond with you. My name is Anette, Im 19 and go to school. Im in class 12. It means Ill leave school next summer and I would like to go to college. Harmadik irnytsi pont: I like doing a lot of things. Im interested in reading, watching TV and playing computer games. But I also like sports, especially handball. I, myself, play in the school team. We arent very succesful, but I have a lot of friends in the team and playing against other schools is good fun. However, my real hobby is learning languages. Im doing English at school, and French with a private tutor and I would like to take up Spanish at college. Negyedik irnytsi szempont: I would like to discuss books and films with you, also, Im interested in your experience in language learning, but Im open to write about any topic you might like. tdik irnytsi szempont: Please, write to me soon,.Im looking forward to hearing from you. Elkszns: Yours, Anette

28 Szerintem, valamivel tbb is, mint 160 sz, br nem szmoltam meg. Minden irnytsi pont szerepel benne. A szerkezete is rendben van. A mondatok rvidek, egyszerek, de legalbb hiba nincs bennk. s mivel a sajt ktfmet hasznltam s nem a sztrt, olyan sz sincs benne, amit nem megfelelkppen hasznltam. Ilyen levelet brki tud rni, ha akar, csak gyakorolni kell. A cmet s az lnevet gyakoroljuk ki, hogy megakads nlkl tudjuk hasznlni a vizsgn. Kln piszkozatot nem lesz id rni. De ha nem vagyunk biztosak egy sz helyesrsban, rjuk le elszr a piszkozatpaprra, s ha nem tetszik, nzzk meg a sztrban, hogy tnyleg gy rjk-e, ahogy gondoljuk. Helyesrsrt pontot veszteni, amikor a sztr mellettnk van, nagy luxus. A ksz levlben ne legyen thzgls, javts, firka, mert rosszul veszi ki magt. Nem vonnak le rte pontot, de ha azt akarjuk, hogy szeressk a javtk az rsmvnket, rjunk szpen, ttekintheten, hagyjunk ki sort a bekezdsek kztt, s ne firkljunk t, hzogassunk vagy csillagozzunk ide-oda. Gyakoroljunk. Ha megrjuk az sszes gyakorllevelet, mr menni fog a tiszta s rendes levlrs. A helyes meg fleg. 1. Sorozat Az albbi feladatok kzl EGYET kell megoldania. Az irnytsi szempontok mindegyikrl rnia kell, de n dnti el, hogy a szempontokat milyen sorrendben foglalja rsba. A feladat megoldsa sorn azonban gyeljen arra, hogy fogalmazsa egysges egszet alkosson. A feladat megoldshoz nyomtatott sztr hasznlhat. Krjk, olvashatan rjon. A VIZSGA TITKOSSGA RDEKBEN NE HASZNLJA SAJT NEVT S CMT A FELADATBAN. Fogalmazsa vgs vltozatt a Vlaszlap 2-re rja. 1. Nemrgiben ltott egy hirdetst az Interneten, amelyben valaki klfldi levelezpartnert keresett. rjon a hirdetnek egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET, amelyben lerja, hol tallta a hirdetst; kzli vele, hogy szeretne levelezni s bemutatkozik; elmondja, mit szeret csinlni, esetleg mi a hobbija; lerja, milyen tmkrl szeretne levelezni; megkri a hirdett, hogy minl elbb vlaszoljon..

2. n nemrgiben fejezte be tanulmnyait. Angol levelezpartnere is a tanulmnyai vge fel jr. rjon neki egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET, amelyben lerja, milyen eredmnnyel fejezte be az iskolt; lerja, hogyan nnepeltk meg bartaival/csaldjval a nagy esemnyt; megrja, mik a tervei a jvre nzve; megkrdezi leveleztrst, hogy hogyan tervezi a jvjt; megkrdezi, hogy az orszgban hogyan nneplik meg az iskola vgt.

3. n ebben az vben mshogyan szeretn eltlteni szabadsgt, mint ltalban. rjon egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET angol bartjnak, amelyben lerja, hogy eddig hogyan szokta a szabadsgt tlteni; lerja, hogy mirt szeretne vltoztatni; rszletesen mesl legalbb hrom dologrl, amit szeretne csinlni az idn; javasolja leveleztrsnak, hogy jvre tltsk egytt a vakcit megkri levelezpartnert, hogy is rjon a szabadsgrl.

29 2. Sorozat Az albbi feladatok kzl EGYET kell megoldania. Az irnytsi szempontok mindegyikrl rnia kell, de n dnti el, hogy a szempontokat milyen sorrendben foglalja rsba. A feladat megoldsa sorn azonban gyeljen arra, hogy fogalmazsa egysges egszet alkosson. A feladat megoldshoz nyomtatott sztr hasznlhat. Krjk, olvashatan rjon. A VIZSGA TITKOSSGA RDEKBEN NE HASZNLJA SAJT NEVT S CMT A FELADATBAN. Fogalmazsa vgs vltozatt a Vlaszlap 2-re rja. 1. Nemrgiben megltogatta az unokatestvrt, akinek szletsnapja volt. rjon angol bartjnak egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET, amelyben dvzli s megkrdezi tle, hogy mi jsg van vele; kzli vele, hogy az unokatestvre szletsnapjn vett rszt. lerja, hogyan nnepeltk az unokatestvre szletsnapjt; lerja, milyen ajndkot vitt, s milyen ajndkokat kapott az nnepelt; megkrdezi levelezpartnert, hogy k hogyan nneplik a szletsnapokat a csaldban.

2. n nemrgiben kltztt j laksba. rjon angol bartjnak egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET, amelyben lerja, hov kltztt; megrja, milyen a laks, s milyen helyisgek vannak benne; megrja, mennyivel jobb az j laks, mint a rgi; lerja, milyen munkk vannak mg htra s mi volt a kltzsben a legnehezebb; megkri levelezpartnert, hogy egy darabig emailben tartsk a kapcsolatot, nehogy elkeveredjenek a levelek.

3. n elhatrozta, hogy hosszabb idre klfldre utazik. rjon egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET angol bartjnak, amelyben lerja, hov szeretne utazni s mirt; lerja, hogyan tervezte meg az utat s milyen kzlekedsi eszkzt vlasztott; lerja, mit szeretne csinlni klfldi utazsa alatt; meggri levelezpartnernek, hogy rszletesen beszmol az utazsrl;

30 3. Sorozat Az albbi feladatok kzl EGYET kell megoldania. Az irnytsi szempontok mindegyikrl rnia kell, de n dnti el, hogy a szempontokat milyen sorrendben foglalja rsba. A feladat megoldsa sorn azonban gyeljen arra, hogy fogalmazsa egysges egszet alkosson. A feladat megoldshoz nyomtatott sztr hasznlhat. Krjk, olvashatan rjon. A VIZSGA TITKOSSGA RDEKBEN NE HASZNLJA SAJT NEVT S CMT A FELADATBAN. Fogalmazsa vgs vltozatt a Vlaszlap 2-re rja. 1. Nemrgiben megltogatta az unokatestvrt, akinek szletsnapja volt. rjon angol bartjnak egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET, amelyben dvzli s megkrdezi tle, hogy mi jsg van vele; kzli vele, hogy az unokatestvre szletsnapjn vett rszt. lerja, hogyan nnepeltk az unokatestvre szletsnapjt; lerja, milyen ajndkot vitt, s milyen ajndkokat kapott az nnepelt; megkrdezi levelezpartnert, hogy k hogyan nneplik a szletsnapokat a csaldban.

2. n nemrgiben kltztt j laksba. rjon angol bartjnak egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET, amelyben lerja, hov kltztt; megrja, milyen a laks, s milyen helyisgek vannak benne; megrja, mennyivel jobb az j laks, mint a rgi; lerja, milyen munkk vannak mg htra s mi volt a kltzsben a legnehezebb; megkri levelezpartnert, hogy egy darabig emailben tartsk a kapcsolatot, nehogy elkeveredjenek a levelek.

3. n elhatrozta, hogy hosszabb idre klfldre utazik. rjon egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET angol bartjnak, amelyben lerja, hov szeretne utazni s mirt; lerja, hogyan tervezte meg az utat s milyen kzlekedsi eszkzt vlasztott; lerja, mit szeretne csinlni klfldi utazsa alatt; meggri levelezpartnernek, hogy rszletesen beszmol az utazsrl;

31 4. Sorozat Az albbi feladatok kzl EGYET kell megoldania. Az irnytsi szempontok mindegyikrl rnia kell, de n dnti el, hogy a szempontokat milyen sorrendben foglalja rsba. A feladat megoldsa sorn azonban gyeljen arra, hogy fogalmazsa egysges egszet alkosson. A feladat megoldshoz nyomtatott sztr hasznlhat. Krjk, olvashatan rjon. A VIZSGA TITKOSSGA RDEKBEN NE HASZNLJA SAJT NEVT S CMT A FELADATBAN. Fogalmazsa vgs vltozatt a Vlaszlap 2-re rja. 1. Mostanban nagyon nehezen lehet kzlekedni lakhelyn. rjon angol bartjnak egy 140160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET, amelyben beszmol a problmrl; lerja mennyi ideig tart bejutni a munkahelyre. lerja, n szerint mi okozza a problmt; lerja, mit tesz, hogy a cscsforgalmat elkerlje; megkrdezi levelezpartnert, hogy az lakhelyn milyen a kzlekedsi helyzet.

2. n szletsnapjra ajndkot kapott angol bartjtl. rjon neki egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET, amelyben megkszni az ajndkot; megrja, mennyire tetszett az ajndk, mindig is ilyet szeretett volna; megrja, hogy csaldtagjainak is tetszett; utaljon r, hogy a szletsnapi nnepsgen gondoltak r; Fejezze ki bizakodst, hogy hamarosan ltjk egymst..

3. Krnyezetben mindenki a divattal van elfoglalva. rjon egy 140-160 szt tartalmaz LEVELET angol
bartjnak, amelyben lerja, mit gondol az ltzkdsrl; lerja, szeretne-e, s tud-e lpst tartani a divattal; lerja, n szerint mirt vlt ez fontoss ppen most; rszletezi s indokolja, hogy n fontosnak tartja a divatot vagy sem.;

32

Negyedik fejezet Kzvetts


A msodik legproblmsabb feladat a szbeli egyik feladata, a kzvetts. ltalban azrt, mert a vizsgzk le akarjk fordtani a mondatokat magyarra, lehetleg az elejktl sz szerint, s gy, mintha egymshoz semmi kzk sem lenne. Ez biztos recept a buksra. A trtnetet el kell olvasni, majd magyarul elmeslni a tartalmt. Nagyon sokat segt, ha a felkszlsi id alatt lerjuk vzlatosan, mit is fogunk mondani, mert a szveg nem lesz elttnk, amikor visszalnk a vizsgztatk el. Elolvassuk, rtelmezzk, lerjuk, elmesljk. Kerek egsz magyar szvegnek kell lennie, mintha magunk mondannk el egy tmrl a vlemnynket. Prbljuk ki, krlbell kt percbe bele kell frnnk, s a tz perc felkszlsi idt sem lphetjk tl. 1. April 1 What is April Fools Day and what are its origins? It is commonly believed that in medieval France, New Year was celebrated on April 1st. Then in 1562, Pope Gregory introduced a new calendar for the Christian world, changing New Year to January 1st. With no modern communications, news travelled slowly and new ideas were often questioned. Many people did not hear of the change, others chose to ignore it, while some merely forgot. These people were called fools. Invitations to non-existent New Year parties were sent and other practical jokes were played. This jesting evolved over time into a tradition of playing pranks on the 1st of April. The custom eventually spread to England and Scotland, and it was later transported across the Atlantic to the American colonies of the English and the French. April Fools Day has now developed into an international festival of fun, with different nationalities celebrating the day in a special way. Today, Americans and the British play small tricks on friends and strangers alike on April 1st. A common trick is to point to a friends shoe and say Your shoelace is untied. When they look down, they are laughed at. Schoolchildren might tell a friend that school has been cancelled. A bag of flour might be balanced on the top of a door so that when the victim opens the door, the flour empties over their head. Sometimes the media gets involved. Once, a British short film was 32how non April Fools Day about spaghetti farmers and how they harvest their crop from spaghetti trees! Most April Fool jokes are in good fun and not meant to harm anyone. The best trick is the one where everyone laughs, especially the person upon whom the joke has been played. 2. England Most of the things English people miss about England have some connection with food and drink and yet not only are we not renowned for our food, we are actually criticised for it. It also has to be said that there is so much more to England. We have some amazing landscapes. Our country villages are quiet and cosy while our major cities are bursting with life and excitement. Its not fair to talk about the vibrancy of London without mentioning the multicultural melting pot of Birmingham, where as a student I ate some of the best curries ever (food again!), or the enriching, evolving face of Manchester. Go to cities like Oxford and you will be taken aback at the intricate and impressive architecture. Go to towns like StratfordUpon-Avon and not only will you step inside the wonderful world of Shakespeare, you will also feel enveloped by poetry as you feed the majestic, white swans and take a stroll along the canals. Whatever your interests England has something for you. If you like beautiful, historic buildings you can visit the largest ruined castle in England; Kenilworth Castle or go and take in the breathtaking splendour of Blenheim Palace, although it is said to be haunted by the ghost of one of the Roundheads, the soldiers who supported Parliament during the 1640s English civil war. In fact England is shrouded in legend and myths. The actual Patron Saint of England, St. George, whose saints day we celebrate on April 23, is himself a man of mystery. Other mythical characters connected to England include the legendary Robin Hood who stole from the rich to feed the poor, and King Arthur with his honourable Knights of the Roundtable. England is a well-visited country. My students thought the people to be welcoming and I hope that from a foreign visitors perspective this is actually the case.

33 3. Michael Jackson's Mother Requests Permanent Guardianship of Jackson Children As fans mourn the death of pop star Michael Jackson, the singer's family is sorting out the details of his estate. Jackson's mother is asking to administer his estate on behalf of his three children. The singer's mother, Katherine Jackson, filed court papers on Monday, asking to be named the permanent guardian of Jackson's three children and the administrator of his estate. The court granted her temporary custody of the children - two boys and a girl who range from 7 to 12 years old and set dates in July and August to take up the other questions. Two of Jackson's children were born to his exwife, Debbie Rowe; the third was born to a surrogate mother. Michael Jackson's father, Joe, said the children should stay at the family's Los Angeles compound. "Of course, this is where they belong," said Joe Jackson. "We're the parents and we've got other kids their size. They love those kids, and we love those kids too. We're going to take care of them and give them the education they're supposed to have." Joe Jackson says the family is not ready to release details of the singer's funeral plans. A family friend, political activist the Reverend Al Sharpton, says they want to ensure that the pop star is properly honored. "It is the determination of the family to be careful and deliberate on how they plan his celebration of life because we're talking about a historic figure that really changed pop culture around the world," said Al Sharpton. Authorities are trying to determine what happened in the singer's last hours, as he suffered cardiac arrest in his rented home on Thursday. Investigators have questioned the physician who was with him, Conrad Murray, and are looking into the role prescription drugs might have played in Jackson's death. The doctor's lawyer told investigators that Murray did not give Jackson any medication that could have caused his death. The Los Angeles County's coroner's office has conducted an autopsy and says there were no indications of trauma or foul play. The coroner's office says results from its toxicology tests could take up to six weeks. Meanwhile, the Jackson family has hired a private pathologist to conduct a second autopsy. 4. Folklife Festival Opens in Washington With the Mexican group "Son de Madera," the Smithsonian Institution opened its 43rd annual Folklife Festival in Washington, D.C. This year, the festival focuses on three subjects: oral traditions in African-American culture, Latin American music, and the culture of Wales. The opening ceremony offered a taste of each. An example of the power of words in African-American culture is performer Charlotte Blake-Alston, a singer and story teller. BLAKE-ALSTON: "So come and listen to me I wanna rap awhile; I wanna talk about a brother." Traditional music groups from Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Paraguay, the United States and Venezuela join this year's festival. Venezuela's Maestros del Joropo peformed and was followed by the influential Colombian rhythms of "Las Estrellas del Vallenato." The people, culture and music of Wales is also featured in this year's Smithsonian Folklife Festival. Smithsonian Institution spokesperson, Amy Kehs, says more than 200 performers will share their talents for free. We have dancing, music, there is cooking, there is storytelling, crafts for children, we have a clog making here from Whales, we have a stage this year talking about the oral traditions of the barber shop and beauty salon," she adds. Washingtonian Tony Brown is a repeat visitor to the Folklife Festival.

34 "I come every year, I volunteer when I can and I just love everything about it," said Mr. Brown. In celebrating folk culture, food also plays an important role and this year's festival, like many others, highlights typical dishes of the regions. There is also dancing for all to celebrate cultural diversity. 5. Most people in Britain believe that its a good idea to save money and try to avoid being in debt. This is an important part of the culture, or at least it was in the past. One of the main motivations for the co-operative movement was to help poor people stop using credit from shop-keepers. Working class people put their money into friendly societies which helped when a member was ill, or one of their family died. They also set up building societies. Building societies at first only existed for the time it took to build houses for the members. They were an example of the philosophy of self-help. People would join together and save their money until they had enough to build a row of houses, or an estate. Often the streets were named after famous radicals of the period liberal campaigners for democracy and against alcohol. In the 1970s, Margaret Thatcher became a popular politician by saying that borrowing money was bad for governments too. It was an idea that lots of people liked exactly because their parents had told them that debt was immoral and that you should never spend more than you earn. The world has changed plenty since then. Margaret Thatcher is now one of the most unpopular British politicians of all time. Some building societies still exist, but many of the biggest have become banks that is to say they dont have members. They are run in the same way as other big businesses and they just have customers. People in Britain seem to be quite relaxed about using the banks services credit cards, overdrafts, loans of different kinds. In August 2004 the amount of debt in British families reached one trillion pounds. Thats 1,000,000,000,000 or 17,000 for every man, woman and child. This is not all bad of course. A lot of people work in banks. London is the world centre for a lot of different sorts of financial activity. If we compare it with Frankfurt where the European Central bank is, then the same number of people work in financial services in London as the whole population of Frankfurt. As for me, well, I have a credit card. But I only use it in emergencies: for example when I run out of money and feel like an icecream.

35

tdik fejezet Szbeli prbafeladatok


Els gyakorlfeladatsor: . 1. szveghez tartoz feladat: How mice went global

A kvetkezkben az egerekrl hall. A hallottak alapjn dntse el a kvetkez lltsokrl, hogy igazak (true) vagy hamisak (false). Pldul: true false

0. Viking mice can be found in Britain


1. There are some mice in New Zealand whose ancestors come from Norway

2. The study of mice will help the study of human migration 3. Mice have been taken everywhere. 4. 5. As mice are short living animals their ancestors cannot be identified. The Genographic Projects tries to tell us where our ancestors come from .

2.

szveghez tartoz feladat: Churchill

A kvetkezkben egy kanadai vrosrl fog hallani. Krjk, a hallottak alapjn egsztse ki a kvetkez lltsokat egy informcival. Pldul: 0. The story is about Churchill.

___________________________________________________________________________
1. Churchill is just a small town in the _____________part of Canada 2. Yes, people come to this remote, ___________ place to see Polar Bears. 3. Now, the Polar Bear may seem a cute and ____________ animal, but in fact it's extremely dangerous 4. . .the bears return to the bay to hunt their favourite food - the ____________. 5. In fact, if the temperature goes above ______________it suffers from the heat. 6. However, this number is decreasing as their ___________ changes. 7. 60% of bear cubs die in the first year - many are killed by ___________.

36

3. szveghez tartoz feladat: Making paper A kvetkez szvegben a paprksztsrl fog hallani. Krjk, karikzza be a helyes megoldst jelz bett az albbiak szerint:

0. In Egypt, paper was made from. a) wood b) papyrus c) old clothes. 1. Modern paper making a. began in China. b. started in Egypt. c. hasnt started until the 19th century. 2. Today paper a. is made only by big machines. b. can still be made by hand. c. is made in a very different way. 3. You have to a. boil the raw material with some chemicals. b. heat the pulp until it dries out. c. start with a lot of water. 4. The mold is a. for lifting the paper. b. strong enough to be touched. c. made of wire. 5. You can a. press clothes with an electic iron. b. find information on paper making on the internet. c. buy small machines at enterprisework.org. Krdsek 1. Where do you come from? 2. Have you always lived there? 3. Could you describe your place? 4. Where would you like to live? 5. What are the services like in your town? 6. What would you like to have that is missing from your town? 7. How about public transport? 8. How could you develop the town? 9. Do you think it is better to live in the city or in the country? 10. Have you got a dream house? Describe it. Szituci Klfldi ismersvel beszlgetnek, s a csaldra tereldik a sz. Mondja el, hogy a nagyobbik fia nemsokra befejezi az ltalnos iskolt, s azon tanakodik az egsz csald, hogy hov kldjk tovbbtanulni.Kollgja krdsre mondja el, hogy tbbfle lehetsg van, mg az is felmerlt, hogy a nagymamhoz kltzik, s abba a jnev kzpiskolba fog jrni, ahova n is jrt annak idejn. A fi maga sem tudja, mit szeretne, a bartai msms iskolba akarnak menni, gy nem fog fennmaradni a trsasg. Kisebbik gyermeknek mg sok ideje van gondolkodni, hiszen mg csak negyedikes.

37 Kzvetts: Self-rule introduced in Greenland The Arctic island of Greenland is assuming self-rule, in the latest step towards independence from Denmark. The move follows a referendum on greater autonomy in November. It will see Greenland take a greater share of revenues from its natural resources. The local government is taking control of the police and the courts. Greenlandic - or Kalaallisut - becomes the official language. Denmark has the final say in defence and foreign-policy matters. Copenhagen has ruled Greenland for three centuries. It granted the territory limited sovereignty in 1979. But the new self-rule system takes the Arctic island and its 57,000 inhabitants closer to independence. Greenlanders - most of whom are native Inuit - will be treated as a separate people under international law. Much of the oil, gas, gold and diamonds the island holds has been inaccessible because of the Arctic ice covering most of the land mass. But US experts believe it will become easier to exploit the island's mineral wealth as global warming melts the ice sheets. Independence advocates hope the expected increase in revenues from minerals will help fund a final breakaway from Copenhagen. But analysts say any push for independence is likely to be put on the backburner by Greenland's new leftist government. Newly elected Prime Minister Kuupik Kleist has vowed to concentrate on tackling big social problems, such as alcoholism, domestic violence and a high suicide rate. Greenland currently relies heavily on subsidies from the Danish government - which provide 30% of its GDP KEY 1. 1.F, 2.T, 3. T, 4. F, 5.T 2. 1. ARCTIC, 2. FROZEN, 3. LOVABLE, 4. SEAL, 5. 10C, 6.HABITAT, 7. MALE BEARS 3. 1. A, 2.B, 3.A, 4.C, 5.B 2. gyakorlfeladat 1.szveghez tartoz feladat: Race against time A kvetkezkben a haiti fldrengsrl hall egy szveget.. A hallottak alapjn dntse el a kvetkez lltsokrl, hogy igazak (true) vagy hamisak (false). Pldul: true false

1. It is difficult to get aid to Port-au-Prince.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. American soldiers are arrivinh in the country. All people want to help the Haitians. The UN Secretary-General is going to visit Haiti.. USAID has a new leader. Mr Obama said long-term help is as important as aid.

2. szveghez tartoz feladat: The Bafta goes to 'The Hurt Locker'."

38

A kvetkezkben a Bafta dj odatlsrl fog hallani. Krjk, a hallottak alapjn egsztse ki a kvetkez lltsokat egy informcival. Pldul: 0. The Hurt Locker is film about war.

___________________________________________________________________________
1. Avatar and The Hurt Locker both had _____________nominations. 2. The director of the film is the first__________ to be named Best Director.. 3. The director was very____________ to get the award. 4. An Education is a __________ film. 5. It was nominated for eight awards, but it got_______ . 6. Carey Mulligan, the Best Actress didnt_________ to win. 7. Christoph Waltz, the Best Supporting Actor played a Nazi ______ in Inglourious Basterds. 3. szveghez tartoz feladat: Machu Picchu A kvetkez szvegben a perui turizmusrl fog hallani. Krjk, karikzza be a helyes megoldst jelz bett az albbiak szerint:

0. Macchu Picchu is. a) closed b) open c) destroyed 1. Normally Macchu Picchu a. is not visited by many people. b. is not open in winter. c. is very popular among tourists. 2. Last month a. the weather was terrible. b. foreign tourists could only go there by train. c. only the local people were allowed to visit the place. 3. Domestic tourists a. can visit Macchu Picchu half price. b. are offered huge discounts to see other places. c. can visit all Inca sites on foot. 4. The Peruvian government thinks a. international tourists should get discounts, too. b. they should support domestic tourism. c. people should know their own history. 5. The fortress a. has been heavily ruined in the bad weather. b. might remain closed for a long time. c. might open in April.

39 Krdsek: 1.How much free time do you have a day? 2.Would you like to have more? 3.How do you spend your free time? 4.Why do people choose hobbies for themselves? 5. Have you got a hobby? 6. What hobbies are for men/women only, and what hobbies are unisex? 7. Do you think children should learn free time management at school? 8. Do you like indoor or outdoor activities? 9. Do you think sports are good free time activities? 10. Do you like reading? Szituci: Tancstalan klfldi ll a parkolra eltt. Ajnlja fel a segtsgt, magyarzza el a parkolra mkdst, s ajnlja fel, hogy segt pnzt vltani, ha az illetnek nem lenne aprpnze. Mondja el neki azt is, hogy a msik utcban ingyenes a parkols, ha van hely, legkzelebb oda lljon. Kzvetts: Physics of running To complete a recent study, a team of scientists left Boston and went halfway around the world, to the middle of Kenya. They wanted to find out more about barefoot running. Sure, people can run barefoot anywhere. But the Rift Valley Province in Kenya has produced some of the most famous long-distance runners in history, and many of these athletes grew up not wearing shoes. With a video camera in hand, scientist Daniel Lieberman and his colleagues visited some of these runners to figure out what a difference shoes make. It was a big difference, and not necessarily for the better. In particular, when a bare foot hits the ground, the blow is softer and the running motion smoother. This research suggests that running barefoot may have advantages over running with shoes on, though more studies are needed to determine whether or not barefoot running reduces the chance of injuries. Also, the team didnt investigate whether theres a difference for sprinting. One shouldnt be scared of barefoot or minimal shoe running or think it odd, Lieberman told Science News. From an evolutionary perspective, its normal and, if done properly, it is very fun and comfortable. We evolved to run barefoot. Lieberman is an evolutionary biologist at Harvard University. An evolutionary biologist is a scientist who studies the way living creatures have changed over long periods of time. With his research, Lieberman wants to know why and how the human body works the way it does. Previous studies have shown that when a person runs barefoot, she lands on the fronts or middles of the feet. Then the heel goes down. During this process, the weight of the body is at first on the front of the feet, then moves to the heel. Lieberman and his colleagues saw this motion firsthand in Kenya the runners landed on the fronts of their feet. When a person wears shoes, however, he tends to run so that his heels hit the ground first. The impact of the heel hitting the ground may be much more forceful than the impact of the front of the foot hitting the ground.KEY 1. 1.T, 2. F, 3. T, 4. T, 5. T 2. 1.eight, 2. woman, 3. surprised, 4. British, 5. one, 6. expect, 7.colonel 3. 1.c, 2.a, 3.b, 4.a, 5.c

40 3. gyakorlfeladat 1. szveghez tartoz feladat: Olympic closing ceremony A kvetkezkben a tli olimpia zrnnepsgrl hall egy szveget.. A hallottak alapjn dntse el a kvetkez lltsokrl, hogy igazak (true) vagy hamisak (false). Pldul: true false

2. There were some mistakes at the opening ceremony.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Olympic cauldron was lit again. There was a parade of the Mounted Police. Canadian organisers did a very good job Canadas ice-hockey team won the gold medal. Canadian officials travelled to Russia to hand over the Olympic flag. .

2. szveghez tartoz feladat: A boy controls air traffic A kvetkezkben egy replsirnytsi botrnyrl fog hallani. Krjk, a hallottak alapjn egsztse ki a kvetkez lltsokat egy informcival. Pldul:

0. KJF airport is one of the largest airports in the USA. ___________________________________________________________________________


1. A little boy talked to the pilots from the _____________________ 2. His ________________ worked there as a certified controller. 3. The pilots he talked to were ________________ . 4. The controller and his _______________ lost their jobs. 5. People dont think it was a bad incident, but the Aviation Administration thinks it is ___________.

41

3. szveghez tartoz feladat: Dont work too long A kvetkez szvegben a tlrzs tilalmrl fog hallani. Krjk, karikzza be a helyes megoldst jelz bett az albbiak szerint:

0. In Korean offices lights will be turned off at seven o clock. a) once a month b) every Friday c) every day 1. The government wants people a. to spend more time with their family. b. to have more children. c. to be happier. 2. Korea has a. lower birth rate than Japan. b. a lot of young families. c. a lot of single people. 3. This is a problem, because a. there arent enough jobs in Korea. b. life is difficult in Korea. c. society is ageing fast in Korea . 4. At the Ministry of Health a. people, who have more than one child get extra bonuses. b. they have an exact plan for the future. c. there is a matchmaking department to help single people. 5. Critics think a. you cannot force love. b. wider-scale actions are necessary. c. people are selfish and dont want families.

Krdsek: 1. Where do you live? 2. What is your home like? 3. Do you like modern homes or old ones? 4. Do you have a dream house? 5. would you move away if you had a lot of money? 6. Do you think its a good idea to move to a big city to work? 7. Do you like magazines of interior design? 8. What would you change in your home ? 9. Do you think young people should stay with their parents or move away? 10. If you had the chance, would you buy or build a home? Szituci: Klfldn nyaral, s szeretne valamilyen ajndkot vsrolni a testvrnek. Krje az elad segtsgt. Valami a helyre jellemz aprsgot szeretne, knyvet, esetleg valamilyen dsztrgyat. Vgl vlasszon, s vegye meg a kivlasztott trgyat.

42 Kzvetts:

Student Article - Watch out for dodgy landlords Although most landlords are honest and will be as helpful as they can or have to be, its simple common sense to be wary, as there are some unscrupulous characters out there. I'm in my final year now and have been very lucky with landlords myself but many of my friends have not been so fortunate. One group of friends even had to take their landlord to court to retrieve their deposits and even after this lengthy and vexing process they only received half. Other stories include being left with a broken washing machine for 2 weeks while the dodgy landlord was on holiday and showing people round your room without notice while sleeping in it. The moral to this story is know your rights and make sure your landlord knows them as well, then they are much less likely to mess you about. Some other tips: * Always check equipment such as fridges and washing machines work before you sign the contract. * Make sure you speak to the previous tennants when the landlords not breathing over their shoulders. If they have concerns then stay away. * Check to see if there is someone you can call to fix things e.t.c if he is away to avoid you being left in the lurch for 2 weeks while they are on holiday. * Check the contract thoroughly, this is the insurance for your deposit. * Make sure you see all the rooms, don't accept it when the dodgy landlord says 'sorry , this ones locked but it's just like the other ones'. Tell him you can come back another time to see it. This happenned to us and when we came back to look at it, the room was almost half the size as the other ones. * Most importantly, don't be stupid and make sure you ask a lot of questions. KEY 1. T, 2.F, 3.T, 4.T,5. F 1. control tower, 2. father, 3. amused, 4. supervisor, 5. unacceptable 1.b, 2.a, 3.c, 4.a, 5.b

43 Negyedik gyakorlfeladat 1. szveghez tartoz feladat: Goa tourism

A kvetkezkben Goa turizmusrl hall egy szveget.. A hallottak alapjn dntse el a kvetkez lltsokrl, hogy igazak (true) vagy hamisak (false). Pldul: true false

3. The beach is full of foreigners


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Goa is very popular among the tourists. It is also the safest resort in India. . The number of foreign visitors is growing. There will be more policemen on the beaches. The tourism Protection Organisation will be strong.

1.

szveghez tartoz feladat: Michael Jackson record

A kvetkezkben Michael Jackson lemezkiadjrl fog hallani. Krjk, a hallottak alapjn egsztse ki a kvetkez lltsokat egy informcival. Pldul: 0. Michael Jacksons record company is Sony.

___________________________________________________________________________
1. The deal is for __________ years.. 2. There will be an album with ____________ songs. 3. Some old hits will be _________ for a younger audience. 4. Pop-stars ___________ earn money after their death. 5. The money will help pay off his ____________

44

3. szveghez tartoz feladat: Beckham A kvetkez szvegben David Beckhamrl fog hallani. Krjk, karikzza be a helyes megoldst jelz bett az albbiak szerint:

0. Beckham in the World Cup this year. a) cant play b) will play c) can play 1. He injured a. his left knee. b. his right leg. c. his left heel. . 2. His doctor says a. he is going to get well soon.. b. it might take long for him to heal.. c. he might not play any more.. 3. Beckham might be running a. in three months. b. in six weeks.. c. on the World Cup.. 4. He will be operated on in a. London. b. Italy. c. Finland. 5. He has been a popular footballer a. for the last few years.. b. for twenty years. c. for ten years.

Krdsek: 1. What do you do? 2. How long have you been working in your job? 3. What is the ideal job like for you? 4. What are the fashionable jobs these days? 5. How easy or difficult is it to find a job these days? 6. How can you get informed about vacancies? 7. What are the best ways of finding a new job? 8. Would you work as a self-employed person? 9. Would you move to another city/country to work? 10. Why is it important to know languages in a job?

45 Szituci: Tancstalan klfldi ll a vasti pnztrnl. Ajnlja fel a segtsgt, krdezze meg, hov akar utazni, segtsen jegyet vltani, mondja el, hogy hol tudja megnzni, melyik vgnyrl indul a vonat. Vgl kvnjon j utat, s bcszzon el. Kzvetts: Gardening in Small Spaces If youre itching to get your hands in the dirt, dont let a lack of space keep you from gardening. There are lots of ways to cultivate a garden in very little space. If you have any green space at all consider turning a small corner of it into garden. Even a single square foot can be enough room to plant flowers or start a herb garden. If all you have is a balcony or a windowsill then its time to think container gardening. All sorts of plants can be grown in containers. Think about what youd like to grow. Do you want flowers for color? Vegetables for the table or herbs to cook with? If youre working with a windowsill, herbs are a great choice. They thrive in small spaces and are very hard to kill. Ornamental grasses can also add a lovely touch of green to any room. Find the light Take note of where the sun is on your deck or windowsill and what time of day it is there. Plants all differ on the amount of sun they require. Too much sun and your plant will wither, not enough sun and it will rot. Dont worry about the type of light you have there are plants that thrive in almost any lighting conditions. When you get the greenhouse, light requirement will be clearly marked on each plants label. (Most growers use a color system yellow for full sun, orange for part sun and purple for shade.) If youre unsure, as a salesperson. No amount of water or loving care can make-up for putting a plant in the wrong light. When choosing your plants, remember: if theyre all going in the same container, they all need to have the same light requirements. Sometimes you can cheat this if you have a smaller shade plant protected by a larger full sun plant, but if youre just starting out, keep them all the same. Trust me, youll be much happier with the results.

KEY
1. 1. T, 2. F, 3. F, 4.T, 5. T 2. 1. seven, 2. new, 3. re-mixed, 4.often, debts 3. 1. c, 2.b, 3.a, 4.c, 5.b