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NI DUNG N TP THI VNG 1 ( 13h 30 th nm ngy 1 thng 2 nm 2012 ) A / Ho v c : HCVC KL PK-HTTH DD IU CH PB-NB XCT BL THP TCH CBPT 23 bi 18 bi 21 bi 14 bi 4 cu 7 cu 13 bi 8 cu 29 bi 9 cu 2 cu 2-27

1-18 1-21 1-14 19-22 23-29 30-43 44-51 1-30 52-60 61-62 B / Ho hu c l thuyt : HCHC Hirocacbon Bi tp v hirocacbon Dn xut Mt s dng bi tp Hirocacbon Dn xut hirocacbon Hirocacbon Dn xut hirocacbon Hc theo ti liu thy photo + SGK 38 bi ( 1- 38) 26 bi ( 1- 26 )

CC PHNG PHP GII BI TON HO HC


1. Phng php bo ton nguyn t a) Nguyn tc ca phng php : Trong cc phn ng ho hc , nguyn t ca cc nguyn t c bo ton . b) V d: kh hon ton 3,04 gam hn hp X gm FeO, Fe3O4, Fe2O3 cn 0,05 mol H2. Mt khc ho tan hon ton 3,04 gam hn hp X trong dung dch H2SO4 c thy gii phng kh SO2 l sn phm duy nht . Tnh th tch (ktc) kh SO2 thu c . Gii: Thc cht phn ng kh cc oxit st trn l: H2 + O H2O 0,05 mol 0,05mol t s mol hn hp X gm FeO, Fe3O4, Fe2O3 ln lt l x,y,z. Ta c nO = x + 4y + 3z = 0,05 mol (1) nFe = (3,04 0,05 x 16 )/56 = 0,04 mol x + 3y + 2z = 0,04 mol (2) Nhn hai v ca (2) vi 3 v nhn hai v ca (1) vi 2 ri ly (2) (1) ta c : x + y = 0,02 mol . Mt khc : 2FeO + 4H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 + SO2 + 4H2O x x/2 2Fe3O4 + 10H2SO4 3Fe2(SO4)3 + SO2 + 10H2O y y/2 Tng s mol SO2 = (x+y)/2 = 0,01 mol Vy th tch SO2 = 0,01 x 22,4 = 224 = 0,224 lit 2. Phng php bo ton khi lng a) nh lut bo ton khi lng : Trong mt phn ng ho hc , tng khi lng ca cc sn phm bng tng khi lng ca cc cht phn ng b) V d: Cho 12 gam hn hp Fe, Mg vo 200 ml dung dch H2SO4 1M v HCl 1M th phn ng va . Tnh th tch H2 (ktc) thot ra C cn dung dch thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan ? Gii : nH2SO4 = 0,2 mol ; nHCl = 0,2 mol PTHH ca cc phn ng xy ra: Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2 Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 Fe + H2SO4 FeSO4 + H2 Nhn xt : nH2 = nH2SO4 + nHCl = 0,3 (mol) VH2 = 0,3 x 22,4 = 6,72 lt p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng : mkim lloi + maxit = mmui + mhiro mmui = 12 + 0,2(98 + 36,5) 0,3 x2 = 38,3 (gam) 3) Phng php tng gim khi lng 1

a) Nguyn tc ca phng php : khi chuyn t cht A sang cht B , khi lng mol thay i . Do , khi lng cht ny so vi cht khc tng hay gim t l vi s mol cht tham gia (hay to thnh ) b) V d : Ho tan 20 gam hn hp hai mui sunfit ca hai kim loi ho tr II trong dung dch HCl thu c dung dch A v V lt SO2(ktc) bay ra . Khi c cn dung dch A thu c 17,75 gam cht rn . Xc nh gi tr ca V Gii: *Cch 1: Dng phng php bo ton khi lng ASO3 + 2HCl ACl2 + SO2 + H2O (1) BSO3 + 2HCl BCl2 + SO2 + H2O (2) Gii h (1) (2) nSO = nH O = nASO + nBSO = 1/2nHCl = xmol Theo nh lut bo ton khi lng : 20 + 36,5 .2x = 17,75 + 64x + 18x x = 0,25 mol VSO2 = 5,6 lt * Cch 2: Dng phng php tng gim khi lng C 1 mol SO2 sinh ra th s c 1 mol mui ASO3 hoc BSO3 phn ng v to ra 1 mol ACl2 hoc BCl2 , lm khi lng gim 80 71 = 9gam Vy nu khi lng mui gim 20 17,75 = 2,25 gam th s mol SO2 gii phng s l 2,25 /9 = 0,25 mol VSO2 = 5,6 lt 4. Phng php trung bnh a) Phng php khi lng mol trung bnh ca hn hp (M) Khi lng mol trung bnh (KLMTB) ca mt hn hp l khi lng ca 1 mol hn hp
2 2 3 3

( M ) = mhh/nhh = (M1.n1 + M2.n2 + ......Mi.ni)/ ( n1 + n2 + .... ni) Trong : mhh l tng s gam ca hn hp . nhh l tng s mol ca hn hp M1 , M2, .., Mi l khi lng mol ca cc cht trong hn hp . n1, n2,., ni l s mol tng ng ca cc cht Tnh cht: Mmin < ( M ) < Mmax i vi cht kh v th tch t l vi s mol nn (1) c vit li thnh :

(1)

( M ) = (M1.V1 + M2.V2 + ......Mi.Vi)/ ( V1 + V2 + ....Vi)

(2)

Gi x1, x2 ,..., xi l thnh phn phn trm s mol hoc th tch (nu hn hp kh) tng ng ca cc cht th t (1) v (2) ta d dng suy ra : (3)

( M ) = (M1.x1 + M2.x2 + ......Mi.xi)/ 100

Trong : x1 + x2 + xi = 100% - Ch dng cng thc trung bnh nu cc phn ng xy ra vi cng mt hiu sut . Nhn xt: Nu s mol (hoc th tch ) hai cht bng nhau th : ( M ) = (M1 + M2) / 2 v ngc li V d minh ho : 1/Ho tan hon ton 10,1 gam hn hp hai kim loi kim hai chu k lin tip trong bng tun hon vo nc thu c dung dch A . trung ho A cn 1,5 lt dung dch HCl + HNO3 c pH = 1 . Hai kim loi l g? 2

Gii : V cc phn ng xy ra hon ton nn ta c th thay th hai kim loi kim bng mt kim loi tng ng M ho tr 1 . __ __ 2M + 2H2O 2MOH + H2 (1) __ x x Dung dch A cha : x mol MOH Dung dch (HCl + HNO3) c pH = 1 [H+] = 0,1 M S mol H+ = 0,1 . 1,5 = 0,15 mol A + dd (HCl + HNO3) : OH- + H+ H2O (2) 0,5x 0,5x __ (2) 0,5x = 0,15__ x = 0,3 mol M = 33,67 gam/mol M1 = 23 (Na) < M = 33,67 < M2 = 39(K) 2/ Ho tan hon ton 22,6 gam hn hp mui cacbonnat ca hai kim loi kim th thuc hai chu k lin tip trong bng tun hon trong dung dch HCl d , thu c 5,6 lt CO2 (ktc) .Cho bit tn hai kim loi . Gii: __ t : MCO3 l cng thc chung ca hai mui cacbonat , ta c : __ __ MCO3 + 2HCl MCl2 + CO2 + H2O (1) __ 0,25 __ 0,25 (1) nMCO3 = 0,25 mol M + 60 = 22,6/0,25 = 90,4 g/mol __ M = 30,4 g/mol __ M1 = 24 (Mg) < M < M2 = 40 (Ca) b) Phng php s nguyn t cacbon trung bnh hoc nhm nguyn t trung bnh (bi ton hu c) Ch : Cc cng thc tnh tng t nh cng thc tnh khi lng mol trung bnh . V d : Cho hn hp A gm hai hircacbon X, Y mch h (Y nhiu hn X mt lin kt ). Ly 161,28 ml hn hp A ri cho li chm qua bnh ng dung dch brom d thy c 1,92 gam brom phn ng v khng c kh thot ra khi bnh . Mt khc t chy hon ton 322,56 ml hn hp A trn thu c 1,848 gam CO2 . Cc th tch kh o ktc . Cng thc phn t ca X, Y trong hn hp A l g? Gii: t cng thc chung ca X, Y l: CnH2n + 2 - 2k *A + Br2 CnH2n + 2 - 2k + k Br2 CnH2n + 2 - 2k Br2 k 0,0072 0,0072k _ _ _ S mol Br2 = 0,0072 k = 0,0012 k = 1,667 kX = 1 < k = 1,667 < kY = 2 Ta c h : nA = a + b = 0,0072 a = 0,0024 _ k = a + 2b = 1,667 b = 0,0048 0,0072 * 0,0144 mol A + O2 CnH2n + 2 - 2k + O2 n CO2 0,0144 nCO2 = 0,0144 n = 1,848 /44 = 0,042 3 0,0144n

n = 3 do nX nY nn n = m = 3 Vy cng thc phn t ca X , Y ln lt l : C3H6 , C3H4 5. Phng php ghp n s a) Nguyn tc: Dng th thut ton hc l ghp n s gii cc bi ton c n s ln hn s phng trnh ton hc lp c m yu cu bi ra khng cn gii chi tit , y cc n . b) V d : Cho hn hp X gm Al, Fe, Mg tc dng vi dung dch HCl d thu c 11,2 lt kh (ktc) v 53,0 gam mui . Tm khi lng hn hp X . Bi tp ny ngoi phng php bo ton khi lng , tng gim khi lng , cn c th gii theo phng php ghp n s . Gii: Gi x, y, z ln lt l s mol ca Mg, Al, Fe . Phng trnh ho hc ca cc phn ng : Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 x x x 2Al + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2 y y 1,5y Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 z z z Ta c h phng trnh : x + 3/2y + z = 0,5 (1) 95x + 133,5 y + 127z = 53 (2) Vi 3 n, c 2 phng trnh . Tm khi lng 3 kim loi tc l tng : 24x + 27y + 56z . Tch (2) ta c : 24x + 27y + 56z + 71(x+1,5 y + z) = 53 Tng ng 24x + 27y + 56z = 53 0,5 .71 = 17,5 gam 6. Phng php t chn lng cht Trong mt s bi ton chng ta c th gp mt s trng hp sau : - C mt s bi ton tng nh thiu d kin gy b tc cho vic tnh ton - C mt s bi ton ngi ta cho cc d kin di dng tng qut nh : a gam , V lt, n mol hoc cho t l th tch hoc t l s mol cc cht nh vy kt qu gii bi ton khng ph thuc vo lng cht cho . Trong cc trng hp trn tt nht ta t chn mt gi tr nh th no cho vic gii bi ton tr thnh n gin nht . Cch 1 : chn 1 mol nguyn t , phn t hoc 1 mol hn hp cc cht phn ng . Cch 2 : chn ng t l lng cht trong bi cho . Cch 3 : Chn cho thng s mt gi tr ph hp chuyn thng s phc tp v s n gin tnh ton V d : 1/ Cho m gam hn hp A gm Mg, Zn vo dung dch FeCl2 d . Khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c m gam cht rn . Tm % khi lng Mg trong A . Gii : PTHH : Mg + FeCl2 MgCl2 + Fe Zn + FeCl2 ZnCl2 + Fe Chn hn hp c 1 mol Zn v n mol Mg . C 1 mol Zn phn ng , khi lng cht rn gim i 65 56 = 9 gam C 1 mol Mg phn ng khi lng cht rn tng thm 56 24 = 32 gam . n mol Mg phn ng khi lng cht rn tng thm 32 n gam . V khi lng cht rn thu c bng khi lng hn hp u tc l khi lng tng thm bng khi lng gim i nn ta c phng trnh 32 n = 9 , suy ra n = 0,28125 mol . mMg = 0,28125 . 24 = 6,75 gam , suy ra %Mg = 6,75 x 100/ (6,75 + 65) = 9,41% 2/ Ly mt lng dung dch H2SO4 cho tc dng vi hn hp ca Na v Mg c d th lng H2 sinh ra bng 5% khi lng dung dch ban u . Xc nh nng % ca dung dch H2SO4 Gii: 2Na + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2 (1) 4

Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2 (2) 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 (3) Gi s ly 100 gam dung dch H2SO4 trong c cha x gam H2SO4 v 100 x gam H2O th lng H2 gii phng ra l 5 gam Theo (1) , (2) 98 gam H2SO4 to 2gam H2 x gam H2SO4 to a gam H2 a = 2x/98 = x/49 Theo ( 3) 36gam H2O to 2 gam H2 (100 x) gam H2O to b gam H2 b = 2(100 x) / 36 = (100 x) / 18 Ta c a + b = x/49 + (100 x)/18 = 5 ; gii ra x = 15,8 gam . C% = 15,8% 7. Phng php bin lun a) Nguyn tc : khi tm cng thc phn t hoc xc nh tn nguyn t thng phi xc nh chnh xc khi lng mol , nhng nhng trng hp M cha c gi tr chnh xc i hi phi bin lun . Bin lun theo ho tr , theo lng cht , theo gii hn , theo phng trnh v nh hoc theo kt qu bi ton , theo kh nng phn ng . b) V d : c chuyn 8. Phng php s dng cho a) Nguyn tc : Da vo mi quan h v khi lng hoc v th tch ca hai dd ca cng mt loi cht tan em trn ln vo nhau . Khi s dng phng php s ng cho ta cn ch : + Cht rn coi nh dd c nng 100% + Dung mi coi nh dd c nng 0% + Khi lng ring ca nc l : d = 1 gam / ml . b) Cc v d : c l thuyt phn bi tp nng dd 1/ Mt hn hp gm SO2 , SO3 c t khi i vi metan l 9 . Tnh thnh phn phn trm v th tch ca SO2 trong hn hp . Gii : p dng s ng cho : VSO3 M1 = 80 _ 64 144 M = 9.16 = 144 VSO2 M2 = 64 80 144 VSO3 // VSO2 = 80 / 64 = 5/4 VSO2 = 4 / 4 + 5 x 100% = 44,44% 2/ Hn hp gm hirocacbon X v oxi c t l s mol tng ng l 1: 10 . t chy hon ton hn hp trn thu c hn hp kh Y . Cho Y qua dd H2SO4 c , thu c hn hp kh Z c t khi i vi hiro bng 19 . Xc nh cng thc phn t ca X . Gii : t hn hp gm hirocacbon X gm CxHy ( 1 mol ) v O2 ( 10 mol ) CxHy + ( x + y/4 ) O2 xCO2 + y/2 H2O 1mol ( x + y/4 ) mol x mol y/2 mol Hn hp kh Z gm x mol CO2 v 10 ( x + y/4 ) mol O2 d . _ MZ = 19.2 = 38. ( nCO2 ) 44 6 38 nCO2 / nH2O = 1/1 ( nO2 ) 32 6 Vy : x = 10 x - y/4 8x = 40 y x = 4 , y = 8 Cng thc phn t l C4H8 9 Phng php xc nh lng mui khi cho axit nhiu nc ( H2S , H3PO4 , ....) hoc oxit axit tng ng ( SO3 , P2O5 , SO2 , CO2 ,....) tc dng vi dd kim . 5

bit mui to thnh l mui g : mui axit , mui trung ho , hay hn hp hai mui , ngi ta thng cn c vo d kin bi cho dd kim d hoc axit d .........hoc tnh t l mol kim v axit ; t l mol kim v oxit .