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Chng 2

Tng quan Mng t bo l ranh gii phn chia gia bn trong t bo vi mi trng ngoi Mng t bo c tnh thm chn lc (selective permeability), cho php mt s cht i qua d dng hn cc cht khc

Cu trc v Chc nng ca Mng t bo


Bi ging PowerPoint

Sinh hc i cng A1
Bi Tn Anh

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Thnh phn ha hc ca mng Mng t bo c cu to t lipid v protein Loi lipid ph bin nht trong mng phospholipid, chng to thnh mt lp kp l

Mi phn t phospholipid c mt u a nc quay ra ngoi v mt ui k nc hng vo trong mng Cc phn t protein vi ri rc bn trong lp phospholipid kp
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Cc m hnh cu trc mng Nm 1935, Hugh Davson v James Danielli xut m hnh sandwich trong lp phospholipid kp nm gia hai lp protein hnh cu.
NC u a nc ui k nc

Nhng nghin cu sau cho thy m hnh ny c mt s im cha tha, nht l v tr cc protein mng, trong c cc vng k nc v vng a nc.

NC
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Cc m hnh cu trc mng Nm 1972, J. Singer v G. Nicolson xut m hnh th khm lng (fluid mosaic model) Theo m hnh ny th cc phn t protein phn b ri rc trong lp phospholipid kp, ch c cc vng a nc l ra ngoi.

Phospholipid kp

Vng k nc ca protein

Vng a nc ca protein

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Tnh lng (fluidity) ca mng Do cc phn t lipid qui nh. Trong mng t bo, cc phn t lipid c kh nng chuyn ng bn trong lp phospholipid kp. Phn ln cc lipid v mt s protein c th dch chuyn qua li. Mt s t phn t c th dch chuyn ln xung.

Dch chuyn qua li (107 ln/giy)

Ln xung ( 1 ln/thng)

(a) Chuyn ng ca phospholipids

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Th nghim chng minh tnh lng ca mng Khi nhit gim xung, mng t bo c th chuyn t trng thi lng (fluid) sang trang thi c (solid). Mc nhit mng t bo c th ha c ty thuc vo loi lipid. Mng c nhiu acid bo cha no thng lng hn nhiu so vi mng c nhiu acid bo no.

TH NGHIM

KT QU

Cc proteins mng

Sau 1 gi TB chut TB ngi TB lai

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Lng

Sn st

Cc cholesterol (lipid c bn cht steroid) c nh hng khc nhau n tnh lng ca mng nhng nhit khc nhau. nhit m (chng hn 370C), cholesterol cn tr s dch chuyn ca cc phospholipid.

ui hydrocarbon cha no (b) Tnh lng ca mng

ui hydrocarbon no

nhit lnh chng duy tr lng ca mng bng cch ngn cn khong cho cc phospholipid kt cht vi nhau.

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Cc protein mng v vai tr ca chng Mng t bo l mt bc tranh khm ca cc protein vi bn trong lp phospholipid. Cc protein ny xc nh hu ht cc chc nng chuyn bit ca mng.
Cholesterol (c) Cholesterol trong mng t bo ng vt

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Fig. 7-7
Cc si ca dch ngoi bo (ECM)

Cc protein ngoi vi (Peripheral proteins) bao ph b mt ca mng


Glycoprotein Carbohydrate Glycolipid

Cc protein hi nhp (Integral proteins) vi bn trong vng k nc ca lp phospholipid Nhng protein hi nhp xuyn qua mng c hai pha ca mng c gi l protein xuyn mng (Transmembrane protein)

Cholesterol Cc vi si Cc protein ngoi vi Protein hi nhp

Vng k nc ca mt protein hi nhp c mt hoc nhiu chui acid amin khng phn cc, thng xon .
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

u amin

PHA NGOI

Su chc nng chnh ca cc protein mng:


Vn chuyn Xc tc (enzyme) Dn truyn tn hiu Nhn dng t bo t bo Cu ni gia cc t bo
u carboxyl xon PHA TRONG

Gn vi khung xng t bo v vi dch ngoi bo (ECM)

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Phn t tn hiu Enzymes Th th

Glycoprotein

ATP (a) Vn chuyn (b) Xc tc

Dn truyn tn hiu (c) Truyn tn hiu

(d) Nhn dng t bo

(e) Cu ni t bo

(f) Gn vi khung xng t bo v vi dch ngoi bo (ECM)

Vai tr ca cc Carbohydrate trn mng Cc t bo nhn din nhau bng cch gn vo cc phn t trn b mt mng, thng l cc carbohydrate Cc carbohydrate trn mng c th lin kt vi cc lipid to thnh glycolipid hoc vi cc protein to thnh glycoproteins Cc carbohydrate trn mt ngoi ca mng khc nhau gia cc loi, gia cc c th, thm ch gia cc t bo trong cng mt c th
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

S tng hp mng Mng c mt trong v mt ngoi khc nhau S phn b bt i xng ca cc proteins, lipids, v carbohydrates trong mng t bo c xc nh khi mng c to thnh t li ni cht v h Golgi

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

ER

S trao i cht qua mng S trao i cht gia t bo vi mi trng xung quanh c kim sot bi mng t bo Mng t bo c tnh thm chn lc

Glycoproteins xuyn mng Protein tit Glycolipid 2 H Golgi Ti chuyn ch

3 Mng t bo: 4 Protein tit Glycoprotein xuyn mng Mt trong Mt ngoi

Glycolipid mng
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Tnh thm ca lp phospholipid kp Cc phn t k nc (khng phn cc) nh cc hydrocarbons c th ha tan trong lp lipid kp v i qua mng nhanh chng Cc phn t phn cc nh ng kh i qua mng hn

Cc Protein chuyn ch Cc protein chuyn ch (Transport proteins) cho php cc cht a nc i qua mng Mt s protein chuyn ch c gi l cc protein knh (channel proteins) to thnh mt knh a nc cho php mt s phn t v ion i qua Mt loi protein knh c gi l aquaporins h tr s di chuyn ca nc qua mng

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

S khuch tn (Diffusion) Mt s proteins khc c gi l protein ti (carrier proteins), c th thay i hnh dng, chuyn v im gn cc cht t pha ny sang pha khc ca mng a cc cht ny i ngang qua mng Mi phn t protein chuyn ch c tnh c hiu i vi cc cht c chuyn ch S khuch tn l xu hng cc phn t phn b cch u nhau trong mt khong khng gian xc nh Mc d mi phn t di chuyn mt cch ngu nhin, s khuch tn ca mt tp hp phn t c biu hin bng s dch chuyn theo mt hng trng thi cn bng ng (dynamic equilibrium), s di chuyn ca cc phn t theo hng ny bng vi s di chuyn ca cc phn t theo hng ngc li
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Phn t phm mu Mng

NC

Khuch tn Khuch tn (a) Khuch tn ca 1 cht tan Khuch tn Cn bng Khuch tn (b) Khuch tn ca 2 cht tan

Khuch tn Khuch tn

Cn bng Cn bng

S thm thu (Osmosis) v s thm tch (Dialysis) Trong mi trng c nhit v p sut khng i, cc cht khuch tn theo chiu gradient nng , tc l di chuyn t ni c nng cao n ni c nng thp hn Tc khuch tn ty thuc vo bn cht ca cht khuch tn: cht kh cht lng cht rn S khuch tn ca mt cht qua mng sinh hc c gi l s vn chuyn th ng (passive transport) v chng khng cn t bo cung cp nng lng
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

S thm thu l s khuch tn ca nc qua mt mng thm chn lc Nc khuch tn qua mng t vng c nng cht tan thp (lng nc nhiu) n vng c nng cht tan cao hn (lng nc t) S thm tch l s khuch tn ca cc phn t cht tan qua mng thm chn lc. Cc cht tan khuch tn t ni c nng cao n ni c nng thp hn
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Nng dung dch ng thp hn

Nng dung dch ng cao hn

Nng dung dch ng bng nhau

p sut thm thu (Osmotic pressure) p sut thm thu ca mt dung dch biu hin lc ht nc ca dung dch .

H2O Mng thm chn lc

Dung dch c nng cng cao p sut thm thu cng ln v ngc li
Hai dung dch ng trng p sut thm thu bng nhau Dung dch nhc trng < Dung dch u trng p sut thm thu
Thm thu
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

<

p sut thm thu

Cn bng nc Tnh trng (Tonicity) l kh nng mt dung dch lm cho t bo ht nc hoc mt nc Dung dch ng trng (Isotonic solution): nng dung dch bn ngoi bng vi nng dch bo; lng nc i vo v i ra khi t bo bng nhau Dung dch u trng (Hypertonic solution): nng dung dch bn ngoi ln hn bn trong t bo; t bo mt nc Dung dch nhc trng (Hypotonic solution): nng dung dch bn ngoi nh hn bn trong t bo; t bo ht nc
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Dung dch nhc trng

Dung dch ng trng

Dung dch u trng

H2O

H2O

H2O

H2O

Tiu bo (a) T bo ng vt

Bnh thng

Teo bo

Khng bo co bp

50 m

Dung dch nhc trng H2O

Dung dch ng trng H2O H2O

Dung dch u trng H2O (a) Ht nc Khng bo co bp

Trng nc (b) T bo thc vt

Bnh thng

Co nguyn sinh

(b) Thi nc

Khuch tn c tr lc (Facilitated Diffusion) Trong s khuch tn c tr lc c s tham gia ca cc protein chuyn ch trong s vn chuyn th ng cc cht qua mng t bo Cc protein knh:
Aquaporins: tr gip cho s khuch tn ca nc Knh ion (knh c cng): ng hoc m khi p ng mt kch thch
Protein knh Cht tan DCH BO Mt protein knh

DCH NGOI BO

Cc protein ti

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Vn chuyn tch cc Khuch tn c tr lc vn l mt qu trnh vn chuyn th ng v cc cht di chuyn theo chiu nng v khng cn cung cp thm nng lng Tuy nhin mt s protein chuyn ch c th vn chuyn cc cht i ngc chiu gradient nng
Protein ti Cht tan

S vn chuyn tch cc (active transport) cn c cung cp nng lng, thng l ATP. S vn chuyn tch cc c tin hnh nh cc protein c hiu trong mng t bo
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

(b) Mt protein ti

DCH NGOI BO

[Na+] cao [K+] thp Na+ Na+ Na+

Na+ Na+ Na+

Na+

Vn chuyn tch cc cho php t bo duy tr s khc bit v gradient nng vi mi trng xung quanh Bm Na+ - K+ (sodium-potassium pump) l mt loi trong h thng vn chuyn tch cc

Na+

DCH BO

Na+

[Na+] thp [K+] cao

P ADP

ATP P

P P

6
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Vn chuyn th ng

Vn chuyn tch cc

Bm ion (Ion Pump) in th mng (Membrane potential) l s chnh lch in th gia hai pha trong v ngoi mng t bo Hiu in th ny c to ra do s khc bit trong phn b cc ion dng v m hai phia trong v ngoi mng

ATP Khuch tn Khuch tn c tr lc

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

C hai lc kt hp, c gi chung l khuynh ha in (electrochemical gradient), dn n s khuch tn ca cc ion qua mng t bo:
Lc ha hc (gradient nng ca cc ion) Lc tnh in (nh hng ca in th mng n s chuyn ng ca cc ion)

Mt bm sinh in (electrogenic pump) l mt protein chuyn ch to ra hiu in th qua mng Bm Na K l bm sinh in chnh ca t bo ng vt Bm sinh in chnh ca t bo thc vt, nm, v vi khun l bm proton (proton pump)

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

S ng vn chuyn (Cotransport)
ATP + + Bm proton H+ DCH BO + H+ + + H+ H+ DCH NGOI BO

H+ H+

S ng vn chuyn xy ra khi s vn chuyn tch cc mt cht gin tip dn n s vn chuyn ca mt cht khc Thc vt thng dng gradient ca ion hydrogen c to ra bi bm proton vn chuyn tch cc cc cht dinh dng vo trong t bo

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

ATP
Bm proton

+ +

Xut bo v nhp bo (exocytosis and endocytosis)


H+ H+ H+

H+ H+
Sucrose-H+ ng vn chuyn

Nc v cc phn t nh di chuyn qua mng t bo thng qua lp phospholipid hoc nh cc protein chuyn ch
H+

+ + H+

Khuch tn ca H+

Cc i phn t nh polysaccharide v protein, i qua mng nh cc ti chuyn ch Hnh thc chuyn ch ny cn dc cung cp nng lng

H+
Sucrose

+ +
Sucrose
Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Xut bo (Exocytosis) Trong s xut bo, cc ti chuyn ch di chuyn v pha mng, hp nht vi mng v phng thch cc cht bn trong ra ngoi Nhiu loi t bo tit dng hnh thc xut bo phng thch cc sn phm

Nhp bo (Endocytosis)
Trong s nhp bo, t bo thu nhn cc i phn t bng cch thanh lp cc ti chuyn ch t mng t bo. C ba kiu nhp bo: Thc bo (Phagocytosis) m bo (Pinocytosis) Nhp bo qua trung gian th th (Receptormediated endocytosis)

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

Bi Tn Anh B mn Sinh Hc Khoa Khoa Hc T Nhin

THC BO
DCH NGOI BO Gi tc Gi tc ca amoeba

DCH BO

1 m
Mng

M BO
0.5 m

Thc n Vi khun Ti chuyn ch Ti chuyn ch

NHP BO QUA TRUNG GIAN TH TH

Th th

Ligand

0.25 m

10