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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

K THUT

THNG TIN QUANG 1


(Dng cho sinh vin h o to i hc t xa)


Lu hnh ni b





















H NI - 2009




















K THUT

THNG TIN QUANG 1





Bin son: TS. L QUC CNG
THS. VN VIT EM
THS. PHM QUC HP
Chng 1:Tng Quan v K Thut Thng Tin Quang
1



CHNG 1



TNG QUAN V K THUT THNG TIN QUANG



GII THIU

K thut thng tin quang ngy cng s dng rng ri trong vin thng, truyn s liu,
truyn hnh cp, Trong chng ny chng ta s tm hiu s ra i v pht trin ca thng tin
quang, cu trc tng qut ca h thng thng tin quang, cc u im v nhc im ca cp si
quang, v cc lnh vc ng dng cng ngh thng tin si quang.

LCH S PHT TRIN H THNG THNG TIN QUANG

Vic thng tin lin lc bng nh sng sm xut hin trong s pht trin loi ngi khi
con ngi trc lin lc vi nhau bng cch ra du (Hand signal). Lin lc bng cch ra du
cng l mt dng ca thng tin quang: bi v khng th ra du trong bng ti. Ban ngy, mt tri
l ngun nh sng cho h thng ny (h thng Hand signal). Thng tin c mang t ngi gi
n ngi nhn da vo s bc x mt tri. Mt l thit b thu thng ip ny, v b no x l
thng ip ny. Thng tin truyn theo kiu ny rt chm, khong cch lan truyn c gii hn, v
li rt ln.

Mt h thng quang sau , c th c ng truyn di hn, l tn hiu khi (Smoke
signal). Thng ip c gi i bng cch thay i dng khi pht ra t la. Mu khi ny mt
ln na c mang n pha thu bng nh sng mt tri. H thng ny i hi mt phng php
m ha phi c t ra, m ngi gi v ngi thu thng ip phi c hc n. iu ny c th
c th so snh vi h thng m xung (pulse codes) s dng trong h thng s (digital system) hin
i.

Tri qua mt thi gian di t khi con ngi s dng nh sng mt tri v la lm thng
tin lin lc n nay lch s ca thng tin quang qua nhng bc pht trin v hon thin c th
tm tt bng nhng mc chnh sau y:

Nm 1775: Paul Revere s dng nh sng bo hiu qun i Anh t Boston sp ko ti.

Nm 1790: Claude Chappe, k s ngi Php, xy dng mt h thng in bo quang
(optical telegraph). H thng ny gm mt chui cc thp vi cc n bo hiu trn . Thi
tin tc c truyn vi tn hiu ny vt chng ng 200 Km trong vng 15 pht.

Nm 1854: John Tyndall, nh vt l t nhin ngi Anh, thc hin thnh cng mt th
nghim ng ch nht l nh sng c th truyn qua mt mi trng in mi trong sut.

Nm 1870: cng John Tyndall chng minh c rng nh sng c th dn c theo mt
vi nc un cong da vo nguyn l phn x ton phn.

Nm 1880: Alexander Graham Bell, ngi M, pht minh ra mt h thng thng tin nh
sng, l h thng photophone. ng ta s dng nh sng mt tri t mt gng phng
mng iu ch ting ni mang ting ni i. my thu, nh sng mt tri c iu
ch p vo t bo quang dn, selen, n s bin i thng ip thnh dng in. B thu my
in thoi hon tt h thng ny. H thng photophone cha bao gi t c thnh cng trn
Chng 1:Tng Quan v K Thut Thng Tin Quang
2



thng mi, mc d n lm vic tt hn, do ngun nhiu qu ln lm gim cht lng
ng truyn.

Nm 1934: Norman R.French, k s ngi M, nhn c bng sng ch v h thng thng
tin quang. Phng tin truyn dn ca ng l thanh thy tinh.

Vo nhng nm 1950: Brian OBrien, Harry Hopkins v Nariorger Kapany pht trin si
quang c hai lp, bao gm lp li (Core) bn trong (nh sng lan truyn trong lp ny) v lp
bc (Cladding) bao xung quanh bn ngoi lp li, nhm nht nh sng li. Si ny sau
c cc nh khoa hc trn pht trin thnh Fibrescope un cong (mt loi knh soi bng si
quang), mt thit b c kh nng truyn mt hnh nh t u si n cui si. Tnh un cong
ca fiberscope cho php ta quan st mt vng m ta khng th xem mt cch bnh thng
c. n nay, h thng fiberscope vn cn c s dng rng ri, c bit trong ngnh y
dng soi bn trong c th con ngi.

Vo nm 1958: Charles H.Townes pht minh ra con Laser cho php tng cng v tp
trung ngun sng ghp vo si.
Nm 1960: Theodor H.Maiman a laser vo hot ng thnh cng, lm tng dung lng h
thng thng tin quang rt cao.

Nm 1966: Charles K.Kao v George Hockham thuc phng th nghim Standard
Telecommunication ca Anh thc hin nhiu th nghim chng minh rng nu thy tinh
c ch to trong sut hn bng cch gim tp cht trong thy tinh th s suy hao nh sng
s gim ti thiu. V h cho rng nu si quang c ch to tinh khit th nh sng
c th truyn i xa nhiu Km.

Nm 1967: suy hao si quang c bo co l 1000 dB/Km.
Nm 1970: hng Corning Glass Works ch to thnh cng si SI c suy hao < 20 dB/Km
bc sng = 633 nm.

Nm 1972: loi si GI c ch to vi suy hao 4 dB/Km.

Nm 1983: si SM (Single Mode) c sn xut M.

Nm 1988: Cng ty NEC thit lp mt mng ng di mi c tc 10 Gbit/s trn chiu di
80,1 Km dng si dch tn sc v Laser hi tp phn b.

Hin nay, si quang c suy hao 0,2 dB/Km bc sng 1550 nm, v c nhng loi si
c bit c suy hao thp hn gi tr ny rt nhiu.

GII THIU H THNG THNG TIN QUANG IN HNH

S khi c bn h thng thng tin quang
Chng 1:Tng Quan v K Thut Thng Tin Quang
3





in thoi in thoi


Fax

E/O


O/E


E/O


O/E
Fax


S liu S liu



Tivi Tivi


Hnh 1.1 Cu hnh ca mt h thng thng tin quang.



Hnh 1.1 biu th cu hnh c bn ca mt h thng thng tin quang. Ni chung, tn hiu
in t my in thoi, t cc thit b u cui, s liu hoc Fax c a n b E/O chuyn
thnh tn hiu quang, sau gi vo cp quang. Khi truyn qua si quang, cng sut tn hiu (nh
sng) b suy yu dn v dng sng b rng ra. Khi truyn ti u bn kia si quang, tn hiu ny
c a vo b O/E to li tn hiu in, khi phc li nguyn dng nh ban u m my in
thoi, s liu v Fax gi i.

Nh vy, cu trc c bn ca mt h thng thng tin quang c th c m t n gin
nh hnh 1.2, gm:

* B pht quang.

* B thu quang.

* Mi trng truyn dn l cp si quang.


Tn hiu in
ng vo

E/O
B pht
quang
Tn hiu quang





Cp si quang

O/E
B thu
quang

Tn hiu in
ng ra

Hnh 1.2 Cu trc c bn ca mt h thng thng tin quang.

Trn hnh 1.2 ch mi minh ha tuyn truyn dn quang lin lc theo mt hng. Hnh 1.3
minh ha tuyn truyn dn quang lin lc theo hai hng.










Hnh 1.3 Minh ha tuyn truyn dn quang theo hai hng.
Chng 1:Tng Quan v K Thut Thng Tin Quang
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Nh vy, thc hin truyn dn gia hai im cn c hai si quang.

Nu c ly thng tin qu di th trn tuyn c th c mt hoc nhiu trm lp (Repeater).
Cu trc n gin ca mt trm lp (cho mt hng truyn dn) c minh ha hnh 1.4.






Hnh 1.4 Cu trc n gin ca mt trm lp quang.

Khi E/O: b pht quang c nhim v nhn tn hiu in a n, bin tn hiu in thnh
tn hiu quang, v a tn hiu quang ny ln ng truyn (si quang). l chc nng
chnh ca khi E/O b pht quang. Thng ngi ta gi khi E/O l ngun quang. Hin nay
linh kin c s dng lm ngun quang l LED v LASER.

Khi O/E: khi tn hiu quang truyn n u thu, tn hiu quang ny s c thu nhn v bin
tr li thnh tn hiu in nh u pht. l chc nng ca khi O/E b thu quang. Cc
linh kin hin nay c s dng lm chc nng ny l PIN v APD, v chng thng c
gi l linh kin tch sng quang (photo-detector).

Trm lp: khi truyn trn si quang, cng sut tn hiu quang b suy yu dn (do si quang c
suy hao). Nu c ly thng tin qu di th tn hiu quang ny c th khng n c u thu
hoc n u thu vi cng sut cn rt thp u thu khng nhn bit c, lc ny ta phi s
dng trm lp (hay cn gi l trm tip vn). Chc nng chnh ca trm lp l thu nhn tn
hiu quang suy yu, ti to chng tr li thnh tn hiu in. Sau sa dng tn hiu in
ny, khuch i tn hiu sa dng, chuyn i tn hiu khuch i thnh tn hiu quang.
V cui cng a tn hiu quang ny ln ng truyn truyn tip n u thu. Nh vy,
tn hiu ng vo v ng ra ca trm lp u dng quang, v trong trm lp c c khi O/E
v E/O.
u nhc im ca h thng thng tin quang
a) u im

Suy hao thp. Suy hao thp cho php khong cch lan truyn di hn. Nu so snh vi cp
ng trong mt mng, khong cch ln nht i vi cp ng c khuyn co l 100 m, th
i vi cp quang khong cch l 2000 m.

Mt nhc im c bn ca cp ng l suy hao tng theo tn s ca tn hiu. iu ny c
ngha l tc d liu cao dn n tng suy hao cng sut v gim khong cch lan truyn
thc t. i vi cp quang th suy hao khng thay i theo tn s ca tn hu.

Di thng rng. Si quang c bng thng rng cho php thit lp h thng truyn dn s tc
cao. Hin nay, bng tn ca si quang c th ln n hng THz.

Trng lng nh. Trng lng ca cp quang nh hn so vi cp ng. Mt cp quang c 2
si quang nh hn 20% n 50% cp Category 5 c 4 i. Cp quang c trng lng nh hn
nn cho php lp t d dng hn

Kch thc nh. Cpsi quang c kch thc nh s d dng cho vic thit k mng cht hp
v khng gian lp t cp.

Khng b can nhiu sng in t v in cng nghip.
Chng 1:Tng Quan v K Thut Thng Tin Quang
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Tnh an ton. V si quang l mt cht in mi nn n khng dn in.

Bng 1.1. So snh gia cp quang v cp ng.


c tnh Cp ng Cp quang

Si a mode Si n mode
Di thng 100 MHz 1 GHz > 100 GHz
C ly truyn dn 100 m 2000 m 40.000 m
Xuyn knh C Khng
Trng lng Nng hn Nh hn

Kch thc Ln hn Nh hn


Tnh bo mt. Si quang rt kh trch tn hiu. V n khng bc x nng lng in t nn
khng th b trch ly trm thng tin bng cc phng tin in thng thng nh s dn
in b mt hay cm ng in t, v rt kh trch ly thng tin dng tn hiu quang.

Tnh linh hot. Cc h thng thng tin quang u kh dng cho hu ht cc dng thng tin s
liu, thoi v video.

b) Nhc im

Vn bin i in-Quang. Trc khi a mt tn hiu thng tin in vo si quang, tn
hiu in phi c bin i thnh sng nh sng.

Dn, d gy. Si quang s dng trong vin thng c ch to t thy tinh nn dn v d gy.
Hn na kch thc si nh nn vic hn ni gp nhiu kh khn. Mun hn ni cn c thit
b chuyn dng.

Vn sa cha. Cc quy trnh sa cha i hi phi c mt nhm k thut vin c k nng
tt cng cc thit b thch hp.

Vn an ton lao ng. Khi hn ni si quang cn cc mnh ct vo l kn trnh m
vo tay, v khng c phng tin no c th pht hin mnh thy tinh trong c th. Ngoi ra,
khng c nhn trc din u si quang hay cc khp ni h phng nga c nh sng
truyn trong si chiu trc tip vo mt. nh sng s dng trong h thng thng tin quang l
nh sng hng ngoi, mt ngi khng cm nhn c nn khng th iu tit khi c ngun
nng lng ny, v s gy nguy hi cho mt.


NG DNG V XU TH PHT TRIN

.ng dng trong Vin thng

Mng ng trc quc gia.

ng trung k.

ng cp th bin lin quc gia.

.ng dng trong dch v tng hp.

Truyn s liu.
Chng 1:Tng Quan v K Thut Thng Tin Quang
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Truyn hnh cp.

Di y minh ha mt vi ng dng s dng cp si quang.

Cp si quang hin nay c s dng cho rt nhiu ng dng khc nhau. Chng hn, nhiu cng
ty in thoi ang s dng cc tuyn cp quang truyn thng gia cc tng i, qua cc thnh
ph, qua cc nc khc nhau v qua nhng tuyn di trn bin (xem hnh 1.5). Hin nay mt s
nc c k hoch m rng cp quang n cc h gia nh cung cp cc dch v videophone
cht lng cao.





















Hnh 1.5 Kt ni cc tng i bng cp si quang.


Cc cng ty truyn hnh cp ang trin khai cc ng cp quang truyn ti nhng tn
hiu cht lng cao t trung tm n cc v tr trung chuyn phn b xung quanh cc thnh ph
(hnh 1.6). Si quang nng cao c cht lng ca cc tn hiu truyn hnh v lm tng s knh
kh dng. Trong tng lai cp quang c th ni trc tip n cc h gia nh cung cp nhiu dch
v mi cho ngi s dng. Nhng dch v da trn cp quang nh truyn hnh tng tc, giao
dch ngn hng ti gia, hay lm vic t mt h thng vn phng ti gia c a vo k hoch
s dng trong tng lai.
Chng 1:Tng Quan v K Thut Thng Tin Quang
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Trung tm
phn phi




Trung tm
truyn hnh




Trung tm
phn phi





Trung tm
phn phi


Cp quang Cp ng trc (hin ti),
tng lai c th l cp quang


Hnh 1.6 Mng truyn hnh cp quang.


Si quang l phng tin l tng cho truyn s liu tc cao. Tn hiu khng b mo
bi nhiu t mi trng xung quanh. Tnh cch in ca si quang to ra mt giao tip an ton
gia cc my tnh, cc thit b u cui, v cc trm lm vic. Rt nhiu trung tm my tnh ang
s dng cp si quang cung cp cc ng truyn s liu tc cao cc mng LAN.

TM TT

Vi c tnh suy hao thp, bng thng rng, kch thc nh, nh, khng b can nhiu
sng in t v in cng nghip lm cho si quang c s dng trong nhiu lnh vc nh lnh
vc vin thng: vin thng ng di, vin thng quc t s dng cp quang vt i dng,
mng trung k, mng ni ht thu bao; lnh vc cng nghip: ng truyn tn hiu iu khin t
ng trong h thng t ng, cng nghip dt; lnh vc y hc; lnh vc qun s. Si quang ch c
th truyn tn hiu di dng nh sng nn cc ngun tn hiu in c chuyn thnh nh sng
bng cch s dng LED hoc LASER. Qu trnh ny c x l v din ra u pht, v c
gi l b pht quang. Tn hiu quang ny c ghp vo si v truyn n b thu quang. Sau khi
n u thu, cc tn hiu ny c chuyn tr li thnh tn hiu in thng qua linh kin PIN hoc
APD. Mc d si quang c suy hao thp nhng tn hiu vn b suy yu, do i lc trn h
thng cng cn b lp quang, cn gi trm tip vn.

Vi tim nng v bng thng nn h thng truyn dn si quang v ang pht trin
trong h thng truyn dn s ng di, tc cao t hng trm Mega bit/s n hng Tera bit/s
nh s dng cng ngh ghp knh theo bc sng quang WDM.
Chng 1:Tng Quan v K Thut Thng Tin Quang
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CU HI N TP V BI TP

Trnh by cu trc tng qut ca mt h thng thngtin quang.

M t chc nng cc thnh phn trn h thng thng tin quang.

Nu cc u im ca si quang.

Nu cc nhc im ca si quang.

Trnh by cc ng dng ca thng tin bng si quang.

CU HI TRC NGHIM

Cu trc c bn ca mt h thng thng tin quang bao gm:

a. My pht, my thu v mi trng truyn dn.

b. My pht quang, my thu quang v cp ng trc.

c. My pht quang, my thu quang v cp si quang.

d. C a, b, c u ng

Tn hiu truyn trn si quang l:

a. Dng in b. .in p.

c. nh sng d. .C a, b, c u ng.

Linh kin tch sng quang c nhim v:

a. Khuch i nh sng.

b. Bin i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in.

c. Bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang.

d. Sa dng tn hiu quang

Ngun quang c nhim v:

a. Bin i tn hiu in sang tn hiu quang.

b. Bin i tn hiu quang sang tn hiu in.

c. Khuch i nh sng.

d. Sa dng tn hiu quang

Mt tuyn truyn dn quang cn s dng t nht my si quang?

a. 1 si quang b. 4 si quang

c. 2 si quang d. 8 si quang

Si quang c u im g ?

a. D gy b. Suy hao thp

c. Bng thng hp d. D b nhiu

B E/O c chc nng g?

a. Chuyn i tn hiu in thnh nh sng

b. Chuyn i nh sng thnh tn hiu in

c. Khuch i nh sng
Chng 1:Tng Quan v K Thut Thng Tin Quang
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d. Chia tn hiu nh sng

B O/E c chc nng g?

a. Chuyn i tn hiu in thnh nh sng

b. Chuyn i nh sng thnh tn hiu in

c. Khuch i nh sng

d. Chia tn hiu nh sng




TAI LIU THAM KHO



[1] J. M. Senior. Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice. Second edition,
Prentice Hall, 1993.

[2] G. Keiser. Optical Fiber Communications . Third edition, McGraw-Hill, 2000.

[3] J. Gowar. Optical Communication Systems. Second edition, Prentice-Hall, 1993.

[4] G. P. Agrawal. Fiber-Optic Communication Systems. Second edition, John Wiley & Sons,
1997.

[5] Max Ming Kang Liu. Principles and Applications of Optical Communications, 2001.

[6] V Vn San. H thng Thng Tin Quang, tp 1. Nh xut bn Bu in, 7-2003.

[7] John G. Proakis. Digital Communications. Third edition, McGrawHill, 1995.

[8] Herbert Taub, Donald L. Schilling. Principles of Communications Systems. McGraw-Hill,
1986.
10
Chng 2: Si Quang


CHNG 2


SI QUANG



GII THIU

Si quang l mt mi trng thng tin c bit c th so snh vi cc mi trng khc
nh cp ng hoc khng gian t do. Mt si quang cung cp mt mi trng truyn dn suy hao
thp trn mt di tn s rng ln t nht l 2.5 THz, hay cao hn vi cc loi si quang c bit,
di thng ca n rng hn di thng ca cp ng hay bt c mi trng truyn dn no. Di
thng ny c th truyn hng trm triu cuc gi ng thi, hoc hng chc triu trang web trong
mt giy. c tnh suy hao thp cho php truyn tn hiu khong cch di vi tc cao trc
khi chng c khuch i. Vi hai c tnh suy hao thp v di thng cao nn h thng thng tin
si quang c s dng rng ri ngy nay.
Khi h thng truyn dn pht trin khong cch xa hn v tc bit cao hn, tn sc
tr thnh mt h s gii hn quan trng. Tan sac la hien tng cac thanh phan
khac nhau cua tn hieu di chuyen vi van toc khac nhau trong si quang. c
bit, tn sc mu l hin tng cc thnh phn tn s (hoc bc sng) ca tn hiu di chuyn vi
vn tc khc nhau. Ni chung, tn sc dn n vic xung b tri rng ra v v vy p ng xung
ca cc bit gn nhau giao thoa vi nhau. Trong h thng thng tin, iu ny dn n s chng
xung ca cc bit gn nhau. Hin tng ny c gi l giao thoa gia cc k t gn nhau
(InterSymbol Interference - ISI). Khi mt h thng pht trin ln mt s lng ln bc sng,
khong cch v tc bit cao hn, cc hiu ng phi tuyn trong si quang bt u xy ra. Nh
chng ta s thy, c s tng tc phc tp ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn vi tn sc mu.
Chng ta bt u chng ny bng cch tho lun cc nguyn l c bn ca s lan truyn
nh sng trong si quang, bt u t m hnh quang hnh hc n gin ti m hnh l thuyt sng
chung da vo phng trnh Maxwell. Sau chng ta phn cn li ca chng ny tm hiu
cc c s tn sc mu v cc hin tng phi tuyn trong si quang.
MT S VN C BN V NH SNG

Sng in t

nh sng nh l sng in t. Hnh 2.1 l hnh nh tnh ca mt sng in t.














Hnh 2.1 Sng in t: hnh tnh:

(a) Theo thi gian: T - chu k, f = 1/T - tn s (Hz);

(b) Theo khng gian: - bc sng (m).
11
Chng 2: Si Quang


2


Trong mi trng khng gian t do, nh sng l sng in t ngang (TEM ). Khi nim ngang
(transverse) c ngha l c hai vc t - in trng E v t trng H - vung gc vi phng
truyn, trc z trong hnh 2.1.
Tn s:

- K hiu: f .

- n v: Hz (Hertz), hay cps (cycle per second).

Bc sng:

- K hiu:

- n v: m (m, nm).

Gia tn s v bc sng c mi quan h sau:


=
c
f

hay
f =
c



(2.1)

Vi c l vn tc nh sng trong chn khng, c = 3.108 m/s.
Khong cch tn s (f) v khong cch bc sng ()

Ly o hm (2.1) theo tn s trung tm 0, ta thu c mi quan h gia khong cch
tn s v khong cch bc sng

f =
c

0

(2.2)

Ph sng in t:




DC VLF



LF MF VHF UHF+
SHF+
EHF
Vng hng
ngoi
Vng cc
tm


Tia X ...

Tia


f(Hz)



1300
nm


1,6

1,5

1,4

1,3

1,2

1,1

1,0

0,9

0,8

0,7

0,6

0,5

0,4


1550
nm
850
nm


nh sng dng trong thng tin quang
Vng nh sng
nhn thy c

Hnh 2.2 Ph sng in t
12
Chng 2: Si Quang


Bng 2.1 Cc bng sng v tuyn


























- Vng nh sng nhn thy c: chim di ph t 380 nm n 780nm.

- Vng hng ngoi: chia lm 3 phn:

Vng hng ngoi gn: 780 nm 1400 nm.

Vng hng ngoi gia: 1,4 m 6 m.

Vng hng ngoi xa: 6 m 1 mm.

- nh sng dng trong thng tin quang: 800 nm ( 1600 nm (nh vy nm trong
vng hng ngoi gn v mt phn vng hng ngoi gia).
- Ba bc sng nh sng thng dng dng trong cc h thng thng tin quang c
gi l 3 ca s quang:
Ca s 1: 1 = 850 nm.

Ca s 2: 2 = 1300 nm.

Ca s 3: 3 = 1550 nm.

Ca s 4: 4 = 1625 nm.

Quang hnh

Chit sut khc x (Refractive index)

nh sng c th xem nh l mt chm tia sng. Cc tia sng lan truyn trong cc mi
trng khc nhau vi vn tc khc nhau. C th xem cc mi trng khc nhau cn tr s lan
truyn canh sng bng cc lc khc nhau. iu ny c c trng bng chit sut khc x ca
mi trng.
Chit sut ca mt mi trng trong sut (n ) c xc nh bi t s gia vn tc nh
sng lan truyn trong chn khng vi vn tc ca nh snh lan truyn trong mi trng y.


n =
c
v

(2.3)
13
Chng 2: Si Quang

1

Vi:

n: chit sut ca mi trng, khng c n v.

v: vn tc nhsng trong mi trng, (m/s).

c: vn tc nh sng trong chn khng, (m/s).

Chit sut ca mt vi mi trng thng dng:

- Khng kh: n = 1,00029 H 1,0.

- Nc: n = 4/3 H1,33.

- Thy tinh: n = 1,48.

V v o c nn n c 1.

Phn x, khc x, phn x ton phn v nh lut Snell

nh sng truyn thng trong mi trng ng nht, b phn x v khc x ti bin ngn
cch hai mi trng ng nht khc nhau.
Nh vy, ba c im c bn ca nh sng l:

Truyn thng.

Phn x.

Khc x.

Tng qut, khi mt tia sng ti mt ngn cch gia hai mi trng, tia sng ny b tch ra
lm hai phn: mt phn di li mi trng u (hin tng phn x), mt phn truyn tip qua
mi trng hai. Tia truyn tip b lch hng truyn so vi tia ban u (hin tng khc x).
iu ny c minh ha hnh 2.3.




Tia ti
Tia phn x

'
1
n1 Mi trng 1

n2 Mi trng 2
2

Tia khc x

Hnh 2.3 Hin tng phn x v khc x nh sng

nh lut phn x nh sng: c pht biu tm tt nh sau:

Tia phn x nm trong mt phng ti.

Gc phn x bng gc ti (\1
'
= \1).

nh lut khc x nh sng:

Tia khc x nm trong mt phng ti.

Gc khc x v gc ti lin h nhau theo cng thc Snell:

n1sin\1 = n2sin\2
(2.4)

Phn x ton phn
14
Chng 2: Si Quang


Xt hai trng hp sau:
a) n1 < n2:










Hnh 2.4 nh sng i t mi trng chit sut nh sang mi trng chit sut ln.

T phng trnh (2.5) kt hp n1 < n2 suy ra \1 > \2 (xem hnh 2.4).

Nh vy, khi nh sng i t mi trng c chit sut nh sang mi trng c chit sut ln hn,
tia khc x lch v pha gn php tuyn hay lch xa mt ngn cch gia hai mi trng 1 v 2.
b) n1> n2:

Tia ti


1

Tia ti hn
(3) (3')
c

n1 Mi trng 1
n
1

n2 Mi trng 2 n2
2



2 = 90
0


Mi trng 1

Mi trng 2

Tia khc x
Tia khc x

(a) (b)

Hnh 2.5 Hin tng phn x ton phn.

(a): cn tia khc xa

(b): xut hin tia phn x (tia 3)

T phng trnh (2.4) kt hp n1 > n2 suy ra \1 < \2 (xem hnh 2.5 (a)).

Nh vy, khi nh sng i t mi trng c chit sut ln sang mi trng c chit sut
nh hn tia khc x lch v pha xa php tuyn hay lch gn v pha mt ngn cch gia hai mi
trng 1 v 2.
Cho nn khi tng gc ti \1 = \c < 90 th \2 = 90 (hnh 2.5 (b)).

V khi \1 > \c th tia ti b phn x hon ton v mi trng 1, v c gi l hin tng
phn x hon ton (total reflection).
\c c gi l gc gii hn (critical angle). T phng trnh (2.4) suy ra:


sin\
c

=
n
2

n
1


(2.5)

Lng t

Mi nguyn t ch c th chim mt s mc nng lng ri rt. iu ny c din t
bng s mc nng lng nh trn hnh 2.6.
15
Chng 2: Si Quang


E4
E3

Mi trng 1
E2

E1
Trng thi c bn
E0

Hnh 2.6 S mc nng lng

Nguyn t c khuynh hng tn ti mc nng lng thp nht.

kch thch nguyn t nhy ln mc nng lng cao hn, chng phi c cung cp
mt nng lng bn ngoi. Qu trnh ny gi l bm.
Khi nguyn t nhy ln mc nng lng cao hn, n hp th mt lng nng lng t
bn ngoi. Lng ny ng bng chnh lch v nng lng gia hai mc cao v
thp xy ra vic nhy ny.
Khi nguyn t ri t mc nng lng cao xung mt mc nng lng thp hn, n
bc x ra mt lng t nng lng in t gi l photon ( iu ny ch ng i vi
chuyn tip c bc x ).
Photon l ht c bn di chuyn vi vn tc nh sng c, v mang mt lng t nng
lng:


E
p
= hf


hay

E
p
=
1,24
(m)

(eV)


(2.6)



trong h l hng s Planck (6.6261x10
-34
J.s) v f l tn s ca photon.

nh sng l dng photon. Mu sc ca n c xc nh bi tn s photon, f , cng
l bc sng, , bi v f = c, trong c l vn tc ca nh sng trong chn khng.
Nng lng ca photon, EP, bng khe ( chnh lch) nng lng gia mc bc x
cao v mc nng nng lng thp, tn s photon (bc sng) c xc nh qua mc
nng lng ca vt cht c s dng.
Cc mc nng lng tn ti t nhin; v vy chng ta c th t cc mu nh sng
khc nhau bng cch s dng cc mc nng lng cng vt liu hoc dng cc vt
liu khc nhau.
Photon c hp th bi vt liu m cc khe nng lng ca chng ng bng nng
lng photon. lm cho mi trng trong sut, chng ta phi la chn hoc cc
photon khc, tc l nh sng mu sc khc, hoc mi trng khc.
M T QUANG HNH QU TRNH TRUYN NH SNG
TRONG SI QUANG
Cu to c bn si quang

ng dng hin tng phn x ton phn, si quang c ch to c bn gm c hai lp:

Lp trong cng c dng hnh tr trn, c ng knh d = 2a, lm bng thy tinh c
chit sut n1, c gi l li (core) si.
16
Chng 2: Si Quang

n
2
1
1

Lp th hai cng c dng hnh tr bao quanh li nn c gi l lp bc (cladding),
c ng knh D = 2b, lm bng thy tinh hoc plastic, c chit sut n2 < n1.
Cu trc tng qut ny c minh ha hnh 2.7.









Hnh 2.7 Cu trc c bn si quang, gm li (core) v lp bc (cladding)
nh sng truyn t u ny n u kia si quang bng cch phn x ton phn ti mt
ngn cch gia li-lp bc, v c nh hng trong li.



















Hnh 2.8 nh sng lan truyn trong si quang

Khu s NA (Numerical Aperture)

S phn x ton phn s xy ra trong li si quang ch i vi nhng tia sng c gc ti
u si quang nh hn \max. Khu s ca si quang c nh ngha:
NA = sin\max
(2.7)
i vi si SI ta tnh c:

NA= sin\
max
=
2
n
2
= n
1
2
(2.8)

Vi:

n1: chit sut li si quang;
n2: chit sut lp bc si quang;

n
2
n
2

=
1 2
2n
2

: chnh lch chit sut tng i.

C th tnh n gin hn nh sau [3]:

= (n1-n2)/n vi n= (n1+n2)/2.
17
Chng 2: Si Quang







































Hnh 2.6 Khu s si quang


V d 1: Mt si quang SI c: n1 = 1,50 n2 = 1,485. Tnh khu s ca si quang ny.
Gii :

p dng cng thc (2.8), ta c

NA = sin\max =

n
2
n
2
= 1,50
2
1,485
2


H 0,21
1 2

Suy ra \max H 12 .

T y suy ra gc tip nhn nh sng 2\max = 212 = 24 .

V d 2:

Mt si quang SI c:NA = 0,12 n2 = 1,450. Tnh chit sut lp bc ca si quang ny.
Gii :

p dng cng thc (2.8), ta c

NA = sin\max = n
2
n
2


= 0,12
1 2

Suy ra :

2 2


Ta tnh c n1 = 0,1455.
n
1
n
2
= 0,144
18
Chng 2: Si Quang

g
+
1
a

Khu s cho ta bit iu kin a nh sng vo si quang. y l thng s c bn nh
hng n hiu sut ghp nh sng t ngun quang vo si quang.
Phn loi si quang

S phn b chit sut trong si quang

Chit sut ca lp bc khng i v bng n2.
Chit sut ca li ni chung thay i theo bn knh ca si quang (tm nm trn trc ca
li). S bin thin chit sut theo bn knh c vit di dng tng qut sau [1]:


T

+
n
'
1
r


r o a
+
'
n(r ) =
+
'
s


]

(2.9)
+ n a o r o b
v
+ 2

Vi:

n1: chit sut ln nht li, tc ti r = 0. Hay n(0) = n1.
n2: chit sut lp bc.
r: khong cch tnh t trc si n im tnh chit sut.

a: bn knh li si quang.

b: bn knh lp bc si quang.

g: h s m. Gi tr ca g quyt nh dng phn b chit sut ca si quang, g c 1.

g = 1: dng tam gic
g = 2: dng parabol
g = : dng bc thang.

Si chit sut bc SI (Step-
Index)

Si SI l si n gin nht. C dng phn b chit sut nh sau:

+ n r o a
n =
+
1


(2.10)
+ n a o r o b
v 2





n1

n2


b a 0 a b r

Hnh 2.7 Dng phn b chit trong li si SI.
nh sng i trong si SI nh hnh 2.8.
Chng 2: Si Quang
19


2

+


'











Hnh 2.8 Minh ha nh sng i trong si SI.

Si chit sut bin iGI (Graded-Index)

dng ny, chit sut ca li c dng phn b parabol (tng ng g = 2).

+
T
n
'
1
r

r a

+
1
'

a
o
n(r ) =
+ '
s

+
+
n

]
a o r o b
(2.11)
v
2



n1
n2



b a 0 a b r

Hnh 2.9 Dng phn b chit trong li si GI.

nh sng i trong si GI nh hnh 2.10.











Hnh 2.10 Minh ha nh sng i trong si SI.

Si a mode (Multi-Mode), si n mode (Single-Mode)

a) Khi nim mode

Mt mode sng l mt trng thi truyn n nh ca nh sng trong si quang. Khi truyn
trong si quang, nh sng i theo nhiu ng, trng thi truyn n nh ca cc ng
ny c gi l cc mode sng. C th hnh dung gn ng mt mode ng vi mt tia
sng. Chng ta dng t bc (order) ch cc mode. Quy tc nh sau: gc lan truyn ca
mode cng nh th bc ca mode cng thp. R rng mode lan truyn dc theo trc trung
tm ca si quang l mode bc 0 v mode vi gc lan truyn l gc ti hn l mode bc
cao nht i vi si quang ny. Mode bc 0 c gi l mode c bn.
b) Si a mode

Chng 2: Si Quang
20


c im ca si a mode l truyn ng thi nhiu mode sng.
Chng 2: Si Quang
21


2

S mode sng truyn c trong mt si quang ph thuc vo cc thng s ca si,
trong c tn s c chun ha V (Normalized Frequency). Tn s c chun ha
V c xc nh nh sau [1]:

2
V = .a.NA = k.a.NA (2.12)


Vi:

a: bn knh li siquang.

: bc sng lm vic.

k =
2


(2.13)

NA: khu s ca si quang.

Mt cch tng qut, s mode sng truyn c trong si quang c xc nh gn
ng nh sau:

N H
V

2
g
g + 2

(2.14)

Vi g l s m trong hm chit sut.

T suy ra:

S mode truyn c trong si SI:

V
2
N H (g ) (2.15)
2



S mode truyn c trong si GI:

V
2
N H (g 2) (2.16)
4

Si a mode c ng knh li v khu s ln. Gi tr in hnh:

ng knh li: d = 50 m.

ng knh lp bc: D = 125 m.

Gi l si a mode 50/125 m.

Chit sut li: n1 = 1,47 ( = 1300 nm).

Khu s: NA = 0.2 0.29

nh sng i trong si a mode:
Chng 2: Si Quang
22












(a) Si SI











(b) Si GI



c) Si n mode
Hnh 2.11 nh sng i trong si a mode.

Si n mode l si trong ch c mt mode sng c bn lan truyn.

Theo l thuyt [2], iu kin si lm vin ch n mode l tha s sng V ca
si ti bc sng lm vic V < Vc1 = 2,405.
Si n mode c ng knh li v khu s nh. Gi tr in hnh:

ng knh li: d = 9 |10 m.

ng knh lp bc: D = 125 m.

Chit sut li: n1 = 1,465 ( = 1300nm).

Khu s: NA = 0.13 | 0.18.

Anh sang i trong si n mode:











Hnh 2.12 nh sng i trong si n mode.

TRUYN SNG NH SNG TRONG SI QUANG

H phng trnh Maxwell

Si quang l mt ng dn sng hnh tr trong nh sng lan truyn trn c s ca l
thuyt mode. Cc mode l cc li gii ca cc phng trnh Maxwell cho cc iu kin bin c
th. Cc phng trnh Maxwell xc nh mi lin h gia hai thnh phn ca nh sng l trng
in E v trng t H. L thuyt lan truyn sng in t l phng php tt nht m t s lan
Chng 2: Si Quang
23



truyn ca xung nh sng lan truyn trong si quang. hiu c phng php ny, chng ta
cn gii phng trnh Maxwell cho ng dn sng hnh tr
L thuyt ca Maxwell da trn mt tp bn phng trnh, l cc phng trnh
Maxwell. Tp phng trnh ny, c vit di dng vi phn l [2]:

.D = )

(2.17)


.B = 0
(2.18)



E
=
B
t

(2.19)


H
= J +
D

t

(2.20)

Trong , ngha ca cc thut ng nh sau:

Ton t del c nh ngha:


= e
x
x


): Mt in tch khi [c/m
3
]

+ e
y



y
+ e
z
z

E: Cng in trng [V/m]

D: Vect cm ng in [c/m
2
].

H: Cng t trng [A/m].

J: Vect mt dng in mt [A/m
2
].

B: Vect cm ng t [H/m].

Ta c B= H vi l t thm

Vect cm ng in D c nh ngha vi h thc:

D = 0E + P (2.21)








c:
Vi:
0 l hng s in [F/m].
P l vect phn cc in

i vi mi trng tuyn tnh, ng hng hoc cng trng in khng qu ln ta

D = E (2.22)

Vi:
l thm in ca mi trng [F/m]. 0 chnh l thm in trong chn khng. Ta
c 0 = 8.854x10
-12
F/m
Chng 2: Si Quang
24



Tng t i vi mi trng tuyn tnh, ng hng hoc cng trng t khng qu
ln ta c :

B = H (2.23)

Vi : l thm t ca mi trng [H/m]. thm t trong chn khng c gi l
hng s t 0. 0 = 4x10
-7
H/m.
Theo nh lut Ohm, J lin h vi E bi h thc :
J = (E (2.24)
Vi ( l dn in ca mi trng, o bng [A/V.m].

Phng trnh (2.17) gi l nh lut Gauss i vi trng in. nh lut ny pht biu
nh sau: " Thng lng ca vect cm ng in gia qua mt kn mt kn bt k bng tng cc
in tch o phn b trong th tch bao bi mt kn ". Divergence (ton t del) ca trng in
bng mt in tch khi ca ngun.
Phng trnh (2.18) gi l nh lut Gauss i vi trng t. nh lut ny pht biu nh
sau: " Thng lng ca vect cm ng t gi qua mt kn mt kn ty lun lun bng khng ".
iu ny chng t: trng vect cm ng t B khng c ngun. Trong t nhin khng tnti cc
t tch l ngun ca trng t, ging nh cc in tch l ngun ca trng in.
Phng trnh (2.19) gi l nh lut cm ng in t Faraday. Phng trnh ny cho thy:
Sc in ng cm ng c gi tr bng v ngc du vi tc bin thin t thng gi qua din
tch gii hn bi vng dy. iu ny chng t: trng t bin i theo thi gian sinh ra trng
in xoy phn b trong khng gian. Chnh mi lin h ny dn ti qu trnh lan truyn trng
in t trong khng gian to nn sng in t.
Phng trnh (2.20) gi l nh lut lu s Ampere. nh lut ny khng nh: lu s ca
vect cng trng t theo ng kn ty bng tng i s cng cc dng in chy qua
din tch bao bi ng kn . iu ny chng t: s bin i ca trng in theo thi gian lm
xut hin trng t phn b trong khng gian, trng ny c tnh xoy. Chnh milin h gia
trng in bin i theo thi gian v trng t phn b trong khng gian dn ti qu trnh truyn
trng in t bin thin trong khng gian.
i vi mi trng c dn in khng nh si quang th cc phng trnh Maxwell
c vit li nh sau:

.D = 0
(2.25)

.B = 0
(2.26)



E
=
B
t

(2.27)


H
=
D
t

(2.28)
Chng 2: Si Quang
25


v
p
)
Thay th D v B t cc phng trnh (2.22) v (2.23) l ly curl cc phng trnh (2.27)
v (2.28) ta c:


(

E ) =

2
E
t
2


(2.29)



( H ) =



2
H
t
2


(2.30)

p dng nh l nh l divergence cho cc phng trnh (2.25) v (2.26) vi tnh ng
nht vect:

( Y ) =

( .Y )
2
(Y )

ta thu c cc phng trnh sng khng tn sc:


2
E

2
E =
(2.31)
t
2




( H ) =



2
H
t
2


(2.32)

Vi
2
l ton t Laplace. i vi h ta vung gc Cartersian v tr, cc phng
trnh sng ni trn cha cc cc thnh phn ca vect trng, mi thnh phn tha mn phng
trnh sng v hng:



2
. =
1
2
.


(2.33)
2
t
2


Vi . biu din thnh phn trng in E hoc trng t H v vp l vn tc pha (vn tc
lan truyn ca im song c pha c nh) trong mi trng in mi. Vn tc pha c tnh nh
sau:


v
p
=

(
1
)
1 / 2

=
(
r

1

0

r


1 / 2
0


(2.34)

Vi r, r l thm t v thm in t i ca mi trng trng in mi v 0, 0
l hng s t v hng s in ca khng gian t do.

Do vn tc nh sng trong chn khng s l:

c =
1

(
0

0
)


1 / 2


(2.35)
Chng 2: Si Quang
26


2

Trong trng hp ng dn sng phng, c biu din bng h ta vung gc
Cartersian (x,y,z) hay si quang hnh tr, c biu din bng h ta tr (r,|,z) , bin i
Laplace c dng:



2
.

2
.
=
x
2


2
.
+
y
2


2
.
+
z
2



(2.36)

hay



2
.

2
.
=
+
1 .
+
1

2
.
+
.


(2.37)
r
2
r r r
2
|
2
z
2


tng ng.

Li gii c bn cho phng trnh sng ny l sng sin, dng quan trng nht ca n l
sng phng ng dng:

. = .0 expj((t-k.r) (2.38)

Vi ( l tn s gc, t l thi gian, k l vect lan truyn cho bit hng lan truyn v tc
thay i pha theo khang cch, cn r l ta ca im quan st. Nu l bc sng quang
trong chn khng, th bin ca vect lan truyn hay hng s lan truyn pha trong chn khng k
(vi k = k+) s c cho bi :

k =
2



(2.39)

Cn phi lu rng trong trng hp ny k cn c xem nh l ch s sng ca khng
gian t do.
Phng trnh sng c trng cho s lan truyn ca sng in t (EM) trong
mi trng suy hao
Trong phn ny, chng ta s kho st s lan ca in t ngang (TEM) phng trong mi
trng c suy hao. Trc khi i vo kho st chi tit, ta nhc li khi nim v sng TEM phng
Sng TEM phng

Hnh 2.13 minh ha sng TEM
Chng 2: Si Quang
27
























Hnh 2.13 Sng in t ngang (TEM)

Thut ng phng c ngha l cc sng c phn cc trong cng mt mt phng.
Trn hnh 2.13 trng in E c phn cc trong mt phng x-z v vy E thay i
bin nhng khng thay i nh hng: n khng bao gi ri khi mt phng x-z.
Tng t trng t lun lun nm trong nm trong mt phng y-z. Chng ta ni E
c phn cc x v H c phn cc y.
Thut ng ngang c ngha l cc vect E v H u vung gc vi hng lan truyn;
tc l trc z trn hnh 2.13.
Nh vy, song TEM c dng nh sau [2]:

E = e
x
E
x
( z , t )


(2.40)
H = e
y
H
y
( z , t )

Theo [2] trong trng hp sng TEM lan truyn trong mi trng c suy hao, li gii
phng trnh Maxwell cho trng in trong c dng:

E
x
( z , t ) = E
x 0
e
( z
e

j ( ( t
z )

(2.41)

Vi E l bin ca trng in, ( l hng s suy hao, =(/v l hng s lan truyn pha,
v: vn tc lan truyn ca nh sang trong mi trng.
Ly phn thc ca (2.41), ta thu c:

E
x
( z , t ) = E
x 0
e
( z
co
s(
( t

z )

(
2
.
4
2
)
Chng 2: Si Quang
28



Tng t thnh phn t c biu din nh sau :

H
y
( z , t ) = H
y 0
e
( z
co
s(
( t

z )

(
2
.
4
3
)
Chng 2: Si Quang
29


Cc kt qu trn c th phn tch nh sau: trng EM lan truyn trong mi trng c
dng sng tt dn. Hnh 2.14 minh ha iu ny.






















Hnh 2.14 Sng in t ngang phng tt dn

Phng trnh sng c trng cho s lan truyn ca sng in t trong ng dn
sng ch nht
Chng ta xem xt s lan truyn ca trng EM trong mi trng khng b gii hn.
Trn thc t si quang tp trung v dn nh sng i trong li. hiu c si quang hot ng
nh th no, chng ta cn tm hiu cch thc ng dn sng dn sng EM nh th no. Do trong
phn ny chng ta s xem xt ngn gn v d c in v l thuyt ng dn sng, ng dn sng
hnh ch nht.
ng dn sng hnh ch nht c cc thnh ng lm t cc vt dn l tng ( dn in
(), bn trong c lm y bng cht in mi l tng ( dn in bng khng). Hnh 2.15
cho thy mt ng dn sng ch nht c chiu rng l a v chiu cao l b. dy ca thnh ng c
th b qua.


















Hnh 2.15 ng dn sng hnh ch nht

i vi ng dn sng hnh ch nht, phng trnh sng c dng [2]:
Chng 2: Si Quang
30


+


2
E + h
2
E = 0
(2.44)





Mode
Vi h =
2
+ k
2
. y = ( + j l hng s lan truyn trong mi trng khng b
gii hn ; cn k l ch s sng c nh ngha trong cng thc (2.36).


Tng qut, trng in t trong ng dn sng l tng ca hai trng c lp [2]:

Trng in ngang hay sng in ngang TE (cn gi l sng t): c thnh phn dc Ez
= 0, Hz 0.

Trng t ngang hay sng t ngang TM (cn gi l sng in): c thnh phn dc Ez
0, Hz = 0.

Li gii cho phng trnh (2.44) cho cc gi tr ri rt ca h c gi l gi tr c trng:


h
2
=
l


a

2
m
2




b



(2.45)

Vi l, m l cc s nguyn, a v b l chiu rng v chiu cao ca ng dn sng.

Li gii cho phng trnh (2.44) cho trng in ngang c dng:




H
x
( x, y) =

(l
h
2


/ b ) H
0
sin( lx / b ) cos( my / a )
H
y
( x, y) =
(m
h
2
/ a ) H
0
cos( lx / b ) sin( my / a )
H
z
( x, y) = H
0
cos( lx / b ) cos( my / a )
2
(2.46)
E
x
( x, y) =
( j( / h )( m
2
/ a ) H
0
cos( lx / b ) sin( my / a )
E
y
( x, y) =
E
z
( x, y) =
( j( / h

0
)( l
/ b ) H
0
sin( lx / b ) cos( my / a )

v tng t cho sng t ngang TM.

Phn tch cng thc (2.43), chng ta s thy ngha ca cc s nguyn l v m. Chng l
s lng na chu k m sng EM thc hin qua ng dn sng. V d, sng in ngang TE10 (l = 1
v m = 0) c mt na chu k dc theo trc y v khng c na chu k nodc theo trc x nh c
minh ha trn hnh (2.16) v (2.17).
Chng 2: Si Quang
31



(b)


(c)





















Hnh 2.16 S thay i cc thnh phn trng ca mode TE10

y/a

1,0

ng in trng
ng t trng
0,5

x/b
1,0 0,5 0



y/a
(a)

1,0

0,5

0

0


x/b

1,0



0,5


0

0




2.17 Cc ng sc sng TE10 trong ng dn sng
Hnh

T cng thc (2.46) v cc hnh (2.16) v (2.17) c th rt ra hai kt lun quan trng sau:
Chng 2: Si Quang
32


+

+

Trng EM lan truyn dc theo ng dn sng c cc dng trng n nh. Cc dng
trng ny gi l mode. y l mt cch gii thch khc v mode m chng ta nh
ngha trong phn 2.2.3.4 nh sau: mt mode sng l mt trng thi truyn n nh ca
nh sng trong si quang.
Khng phi tt c cc sng iu ha u c th tn ti trong ng dn sng. iu kin
tn ti mt sng iu ha l mt na bc sng ca n phi ph hp vi bi s ln
chiu rng v chiu cao cang dn sng. iu kin ny c gi l iu kin cng
hng , n xc nh s lng sng c th lan truyn trong ng dn sng.
iu kin ngng

Chng ta iu bit rng ng dn sng hnh ch nht khng th truyn dng in xoay
chiu nhng li c th truynnh sng. Vy th s khc bit gia dng in xoay chiu v nh
sng l g ? C hai iu l bc x in t nhng chng khc nhau v tn s. R rng, mt ng dn
sng ch c th h tr bc x tn s cao. Nh vy c mt tn s m nh hn n th ng dn sng
s khng h tr c. Tn s ny gi l tn s ct.
T cng thc (2.45) cc nh ngha h
2
= (
2
+ k
2
) vi
= ( + j
k =
2
=

(

ta thu c:



l
=

2
m

2

(

2



(2.47)

a

b


R rng khi tn s ca trng EM thp, l s thc ( = () do trng EM tt dn.
Khi tn s trng EM cao, l thun o ( = j) v do trng EM tn ti trong dng lan
truyn sng iu ha khng suy hao.
T ghi nhn trn, chng ta c th xc nh tn s ct fc bng cch t trong cng
thc (2.47) bng khng. Ta thu c:

f ( Hz ) =
(
c
=
1

l


2
m
2





(2.48)
c
2 2
a

b


nh ngha bc sng ct, chng ta cn phn bit ba trng hp sau:

Trng hp 1: bc sng trong mi trng khng b gii hn = v/f vi v lv n tc
nh sng trong mi trng khng b gii hn. Trong mi trng chn khng = c/f.
Trng hp 2: bc sng trong ng dn sng g = 2/ vi l hng s lan
truyn (pha). Nu biu din theo , f v fc, ta thu c: g = / [ 1- (f / fc) ]
1/2
.
Trng hp 3: tn s ct (ti hn) c nh ngha nh sau:
Chng 2: Si Quang
33


+

c
+
b
s
r
]

=
v
=

2
f
c
l


a

2
m
2





(2.49)

Phng trnh sng c trng cho si quang
i vi ng dn sng hnh tr ng nht trong iu kin dn hng yu, phng trnh
sng v hng (2.37) c th vit li nh sau :


2
.
+
1 .
+
1

2
.

+ n
2
k
2



2
). = 0


(2.50)
r
2
r r r
2
|
2
1


Vi . l trng (E hoc H), n1 l chit sut ca li si quang, k l hng s lan truyn ca
nh sng trong chn khng, v r v | l cc ta tr. Cc hng s lan truyn ca cc
mode dn nm trong di :
n2k < < n1k (2.51)
Vi n2 l chit sut ca lp bc.
Li gii cho phng trnh sng trn c dng :

. = E ( r )
+ cos l |
v
sin l |
exp(

( t
z )


|


(2.52)

Vi . l thnh phn trng in ngang (chim u th).

a li gii . trong (2.52) vo phng trnh (2.50), ta thu c:


2
E
+
1 E
T
+ n
2
k
2



2

l
2

E = 0


(2.53)

r
2

r r
' 1 2

i vi si quang chit sut bc c chit sut li l c nh, phng trnh (2.53) l phng
trnh vi phn Bessel v cc li gii l cc hm hnh tr. Trng in do c biu din bng
[1]:

E ( r ) = GJ
1
(UR )
khi R < 1 ( core )

= GJ

1
(U )
K
1

K
1
(W )

khi

R > 1 ( clading )

(2.54)

Chng 2: Si Quang
34


Vi G l h s bin , J1 l hm Bessel, v R=r/a l ta bn knh c chun ha, a l
bn knh li si quang ; U v W l cc gi tr c trng cho li v lp bc v c nh ngha nh
sau [1]:
Chng 2: Si Quang
35


2
1 2

(
2 2
2
)
1 / 2
U = a
n
1
k

(2.55)

W = a (
2
n
2
k
2
)
1 / 2


(2.56)

Tng cc bnh phng ca U v W xc nh mt i lng rt quan trng [1] thng c
gi l tn s c chun ha V:

V = (U

2
+ W
2
)
1 / 2

= ka (n
2

n
2
)
1
/ 2

(
2
.
5
7
)

S dng cng thc (2.57) v (2.8) ta s thu c cng thc (2.12).

Hiu thm v mode

2.3.5.1. Mode t nhin (mode thc hay chnh xc)

Nh xem xt trong cc phn (2.3.4) v (2.3.5), trng EM lan truyn trong mt cu
trc dn nh sng khng phi lin tc m dng mt tp cc kiu trng ri rt gi l mode t
nhin.

Cc mode t nhin ny (cn c th gi l mode thc hay chnh xc) c th hon ton l
cc sng ngang (TE hay TM) hoc dc ( tc l, theo hng lan truyn) ( cc mode ghp HE v
EH). Lu chng ta thng dng hai ch s di. V d nh TElm l mode in ngang vi l l gi
tr bc mode v m l hng mode hay ch s mode xuyn tm. Mode in ngang, TE0m, c thnh
phn t dc, cn mode t ngang TM0m c thnh phn in dc. Cc mode lai, Hlm v Elm, c c
hai trng in v t dc. Do EH0m v HE0m khng tn ti v l khng th bng khng i vi
nhng mode ny. Hnh 2.18 l hnh cc ng sc ca cc mode bc thp.









HE11









TE01 TM01 HE21

Chng 2: Si Quang
36


Hnh 2.18 Cc ng sc ca bn mode t nhin bc thp ht trong si quang SI
2.3.5.2. Cc mode phn cc tuyn tnh (PL)
Si quang trn thc t c dn km. Do , cc mode t nhin trong si quang s kt
hp (suy thoi) thnh cc mode phn cc tuyn tnh (LP).

Hnh 2.19 v 2.20 m t trng hp ny [2]. Hnh 2.19 l mt v d v cch kt hp cc
mode t nhin thnh cc mode tuyn tinh.Hnh 2.20 cc th cng cc cc hnh mu su
Chng 2: Si Quang
37



mode LP. Kho st k cc hnh ny chng ta s hiu r ngha ca thut ng mode. Cc ch s
mode c ngha nh sau: l l mt na s im cng cc i ( hay cc tiu) xy ra khi ta g
thay i t 0 n 2 radian; m l s im cng cc i xy ra khi ta bnknh thay i t
khng n v cng. Xem li hnh 2.20. Lu rng i vi trng hp mt im cc i, th l = 0
bi v l phi l mt s nguyn v do khng th l 2.











































Hnh 2.19 V d vic kt hp cc mode HE21 + TE01 v HE21 + TM01 thnh cc mode LP11 ( vt
en ch phn bcng ; mi tn ch cc trng TE v TM): (a) Cu to ca hai mode LP11 t
hai mode t nhin v phn b trng TE v cng ca chng; (b) Bn hng trng TE v
TM v cc phn b cng tng ng ca LP11.
Chng 2: Si Quang
38

















































Hnh 2.20 th cng v hnh mu su mode LP
Chng 2: Si Quang
39
























































Hnh 2.20 (tip theo)


Cn ghi nh rng cc thnh phn dc ca cc mode LP l rt nh, do trong hu ht cc
trng hp cc mode LP c th xem nh l mode ngang [2].
Cu hi t ra l ti sao si quang ch h tr cc kiu trng ri rt m chng ta gi l cc
mode phn cc tuyn tnh (LP). Nguyn nhn vt l l s lan ca sng trong si quang phi tha
mn cc iu kin bin. Gi s sng tha mn cc yu cu ny khi ln u tin ng giao tip li
lp bc. tha mn cc yu cu cc ln sau, sng phi lp li chnh n khi li mt ln na
ng bin li lp bc. Ni mt cch khc, pha ca sng ((t - z), vi z l hng lan truyn,
Chng 2: Si Quang
40



phi bng 2k, vi k l mt s nguyn, ti cng mt khong cch trn hai ng zigzag. Cc sng
EM ta mn iu kin ny s c mt kiu n nh hay mode. Cc sng EM khng tha mn iu
kin ny s khng th xut hin. l l do ti sau si quang cc sng Em cc mode c cc
kiu n nh v khng h trc cc mode khc.
Cc tia mode- trc v
xin

Cc tia mode lan truyn trong si quang chia thnh hai loi: trc v xin. Cc tia trc
l nhng tia ct trc trung tm ca si quang ; cc tia xin lan truyn khng ct trc ny (xem
hnh 2.21).

































Hnh 2.21 Cc tia trc v xin

(a) Tia trc : dc (bn tri) v ngang (bn phi)

(b) Tia xin : dc (bn tri) v ngang (bn phi),


Sau ny chng ta ch xem xt tia trc. Chng c hai thnh phn: xuyn tm v trc. Chng
c to thnh t cc mode t nhin TE0m v TM0m. Cc tia xin c to thnh t cc mode c
thnh phn dc [2]. Do cc mode xin lcc mode t nhin lai EHlm v HElm.
Ba loi mode: dn, bc x v r
Nhng mode m chng ta m t n y l nhng mode dn. Thut ng dn cho thy cc
mode ny c dn bi si quang, c ngha l chng c phn x tan phn bn trong si quang.
Nh tho lun trong phn 2.2.2 khng phi tt c nh sng a vo si quang u c
phn x tan phn bn trong.
Phn tch l thuyt cho thy si quang hnh thnh cc mode khng quan tm n iu kin
Chng 2: Si Quang
41


phn x bn trong. Ni mt cch khc, nu trng EM bn trong si quang hnh thnh cc kiu n
Chng 2: Si Quang
42



nh, mt si quang s h tr mt loi bc x. Mt nhm mode s chu phi x tan phn bn
trong v cc mode ny s b gom vo trong li si quang. chnh l cc mode dn.
Mt nhm cc mode khc khng b phn x ton phn bn trong v s lan truyn bn
ngai li si quang. chnh l cc mode bc x. V mt l thuyt, cc li gii cho cc phng
trnh ng dn sng m t s lan truyn ca trng EM trong si quang bao gm c cc mode dn
v mode bc x. Cc mode bc x, ngc vi cc mode dnm khng c yu cu 2xk v do l
lin tc. V ngha vt l, cc mode bc x xut pht t ngun quang c a vo si quang ti
gc ti nh hn gc ti hn. Chng lan truyn mt phn trong li v mt phn truyn (khc x)
trong lp bc. Nhng mode lan truyn trong lp bc s gp giao tip lp bc-lp ph v s phn
x ngc li vo lp bc v c th truyn ngc li lp li, chng s ghp vi cc mode dn
bc cao hn. Kt qu l suy hao cng sut cng ln cho cc mode li.
Loi mode th ba gi l mode r. Nhng mode ny khng phi l mt phn ca cc li
gii ca h phng trnh Maxwll p dng cho ng dn sng. Nhng mode ny tha iu kin
2xk nhng khng phn x tan phn. Hu qu l, bin ca chng thay i khi chng lan
truyn dc theo si quang. Lai trng ny khng hnh thnh cc mode c kiu n nh. Chng ta
vn xem xt cc mode ny bi v mc d khng n nh theo khng gian nhng chng nh v
mt thi gian. Phn ln cc mode ny bin mt nhanh chng sau khi b kch thch, nhng mt vi
mode ny c th lan truyn trn mt khang cch xa.
Vn tc pha v vn tc nhm

Trong tt c sng in t, c nhng im c pha khng i; tc l ((t - z) = const. i
vi sng phng, nhng im pha khng i ny to nn mt b mt c gi l mt sng. i vi
sng nh sng n sc lan truyn dc theo ng dn sng theo phng z (trc ng dn sng),
nhng pha khng i ny di chuyn vi vn tc pha:

v =
dz
=
(
p
dt
(2.58)

Tuy nhin, thc t khng th to ra mt sng nh sng hon ton n sc v nng lng
nh sng tng qut l tng cc thnh phn c cc tn s khc nhau. Do tnh trng tn ti l mt
nhm cc sng c tn s gn ging nhau lan truyn sao cho dng cui cng c dng b sng. B
sng ny khng lan truyn vn tc pha ca cc sng thnh phn m lan truyn vn tc nhm:

v =
'(
g
'

(2.59)

Mt iu quan trng cn c nhn mnh l tn hiu thng tin v cng sut lan truyn
ti vn tc ch khng phi ti vn tc pha. Cng cn phi nh rng vn tc nhm l vn tc m
cng sut nh sng lan truyn dc theo si quang trong mt mode xc nh.
S tp trung cng sut v iu kin ngng

Nh xem xt trong phn 2.3.3, iu kin ngng xc nh mode cao nht m si quang
c th h tr. Thut ng h tr ng rng cng sut ca mode ny c tp trung trong li si
quang. Hnh 2.22 minh ha iu ny.
Chng 2: Si Quang
43


C

n
g

s
u

t

t
r
o
n
g

l

i




1,0
LP01 LP11 LP02 LP12 LP03 LP13 LP04



0,8



0,6



0,4


LP21 LP22 LP23

LP32



0,2



0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Tha s V
V = 2,405

Hnh 2.22 S tp trung cng sut nh l hm s ca tn s c chun ha V

Khng phi mode sng no cng truyn c trong si quang. Mi mode LPnm c mt tn
s ct tng ng, k hiu l Vcn. Ch khi tn s chun ha V ca si quang ln hn tn s ct Vcn
th mode th n mi truyn c trong si quang.
Mt vi tr s Vcn bc thp:
Vc1 = 2,405
Vc2 = 3,832
Vc3 = 5,138
Vc4 = 5,520
Vc5 = 6,380
Nhc li cng thc (2.9) :
V =
2
.a.NA

Nh vy V ph thuc vo bc sng. Do , ng vi V = Vcn s c = cn. cn c gi
l bc sng ct.
Bc sng c1 l mt thng s quang trng. l bc sng ngn nht si lm vic trong
vng n mode.




> c1.

Tht vy, si quang l n mode khi V < Vc1 = 2,405 hay
2
.a.NA<

2

c1

.a.NA. Suy ra:

Ni nh vy c ngha l si n mode c vng bc sng truyn dn n mode, song c
vng bc sng truyn dn a mode.
Chng 2: Si Quang
44




ode
V

c1


Vng a mode Vng n m

0
V Vc1



V d:
Hnh 2.23 Bc sng ct v tn s ct

Mt si n mode c cc thng s: d=2a=9 m, D=2b=125 m, =0,002, n1=1,46
Nu lm vic bc sng 1300nm th V =
2
.a.NA=
2
.a.n
2 H 2


Bc sng ct ca si ny l:
c
=


2
2,405


a.n
1


1

2 = 1,018m

iu ny c ngha: nu truyn nh sng c bc sng ln hn 1,018m th si quang lm
vic ch n mode. Ngc li, nu truyn nh sng c bc sng nh hn 1,018m th si
quang lm vic ch a mode mc d y l si n mode.
Thc t bc sng ct ph thuc vo chiu di, un cong ca si. Si cng di, bn
knh un cong cng nh th bc sng ct cng nh, v ngc li,
Cng thc xc nh bc sng ct khi bit dng phn b chit sut:


2

c
=
c

a.NA

(2.60)

i vi si SI, Vc = 2,405; i vi si GI, Vc = 3,518.
ng knh trng mode (MFD)

ng knh trng mode l mt thng s quang trng ca si n mode.i vi si
quang SI v GI, trng trong si quang n mode c xp x dng phn b Gaussian [1].
Hnh 2.24 cho thy s phn b nng lng trng si quang theo ta bn knh v theo
bc sng. Nng lng trng phn b theo hm m trn tit din ngang ca si quang.
ng knh trng mode l ti bin trng gim e ln (e=2,718).

ng knh trng mode ph thuc vo bc sng. Bc sng cng ln trng mode
cng tng. i vi si n mode SI, ng knh trng mode (p) thng ln hn ng knh li
ca si quang, v c tnh theo cng thc gn ng [1]:
Chng 2: Si Quang
45



P/Pmax
1

V1 > V2 > V3




0,5


1/e


V1 V2 V3



2 1 0 1 p1 2 p2 p3
r/a

Hnh 2.24 S phn b nng lng trng trong si quang

2 p H 2a
2,6

V



(2.61)

Hoc:


p
H 0,65 + 1,619.V
a
3
2
+ 2,879.V
6


(2.62)

V d:

Si n mode c: d = 9 m; c = 1,22 m.

Nu hot ng bc sng 1,3 m th 2p = 10,37 m.

Nu hot ng bc sng 1,55 m th 2p = 12,36 m.

Chit sut hiu dng

Nh chng ta bit chit sut ca mt mi trng l t s gia vn tc nh sng lan
truyn trong chn khng vi vn tc ca nh snh lan truyn trong mi trng y; tc l n = c/v.
Chit sut hiu dng l t s gia vn tc trong chn khng vi vn tc lan truyn hay vn tc dn
(vguide) [2].




n
eff
=
v

c

guide

(2.63)



Vi vguide = (/ theo nh ngha. Kt hp vi cng thc (2.39), suy ra


n
eff
=
c
=
( / k

(2.64)

Cn lu rng chit sut hiu dng l khc nhau i vi cc mode khc nhau [2].

CC C TNH TRUYN DN CA SI QUANG
Chng 2: Si Quang
46


P

C 3 yu t c bn ca si quang nh hng n kh nng ca cc h thng thng tin
quang, bao gm:
Suy hao

Tn sc

Hin tng phi tuyn xy ra trong si quang.

Tuy nhin, i vi cc h thng khc nhau th mc nh hng ca cc yu t ny cng
khc nhau. V d:
i vi cc h thng c ly ngn, dung lng thp th yu t ch yu cn quan tm l
suy hao.
i vi cc h thng tc cao, c ly tng i ln th yu t ch yu cn quan tm
l suy hao v tn sc.
i vi cc h thng c ly di v dung lng rt ln th ngoi 2 yu t trn cn phi
xem xt n c cc hiu ng phi tuyn.
Trong phn ny chng ta s tp trung kho st chi tit cc hin tng suy hao v tn sc.
Cc hin tng phi tuyn trong si quang s c tm hiu chi tit trong Bi ging H thng
thng tin quang 2; cn y ch trnh by mt cch tng quang.
2.4.1. Suy hao
2.4.1.1. Tng quan
Suy hao trn si quang ng mt vai tr rt quan trng trong vic thit k h thng, l
tham s xc nh khong cch gia pha pht v pha thu. nh hng ca n c th c tnh nh
sau: cng sut ng ra Pout cui si quang c chiu di L c lin h vi cng sut ng vo nh
sau :


vi ( l suy hao si quang.
P
out
= P
in
e
-L




Pin



Pin
[mW]





L [km]



Pout
[mW]


Pout


Hnh 2.25 Khi nim suy hao trong si quang

Thng suy hao c tnh theo n v l dB/Km, v vy suy hao (dB dB/Km c ngha l t
s Pout trn Pin i vi L = 1 Km tha mn

10 log

P
out
10
in

= (
dB


hoc

(
dB

= (10 log
10


e)( H 4.343(

Thng th suy hao si c gn gi tr dng do tng qut h s suy hao c xc
nh bng cng thc (2.65) nh sau:

((dB / km) =
10
log(
P
in
)

(2.65)
L P
out
Chng 2: Si Quang
47



Cc nguyn nhn chnh gy ra suy hao l: do hp th, do tn x tuyn tnh v do un cong
2.4.1.2. Suy hao do hp th
Bao gm hp th ca bn thn vt liu ch to si, cn gi l t hp th, v hp th do vt
liu ch to si khng tinh khit.
Hin tng t hp th

Cc nguyn t ca vt liu ch to si cng phn ng vi nh sng theo c tnh
chn lc bc sng. Tc l, vt liu c bn ch to si quang s cho nh sng qua
t do trong mt di bc sng xc nh vi suy hao rt nh hoc hu nh khng
suy hao. Cn mt s bc sng nht nh s c hin tng cng hng quang,
quang nng b hp th v chuyn ha thnh nhit nng.
Hnh v 2.26 biu th s suy hao do t hp th trong cc vng bc sng (cc
ng hp th cc tm v hp th hng ngoi).

Hin tng hp th do tp cht

Nu vt liu ch to thun ty tinh khit th nh sng truyn qua khng b suy hao.
Thc t, vt liu ch to hon ton khng tinh khit, m ln cc ion kim loi (Fe,
Cu, Cr, ...), v c bit l cc ion OH - ca nc (H2O).
S hp th ca cc tp cht kim loi.

Cc h thng thng tin quang hin nay ch yu lm vic ca s th 2 (2
= 1300 nm) v ca s 3 (3 = 1550 nm). Nhng hai ca s ny nh sng
li rt nhy cm vi s khng tinh khit ca vt liu. Mc hp th ph
thuc vo nng tp cht v bc sng lm vic. Chng hn, nu nng
tp cht khong vi phn triu (10
-6
) th ( khong vi dB/Km; mun (
< 1dB/Km th nng tp cht phi l 10
-8
| 10
-9.
V vi cng ngh ch
to si hin nay u ny khng cn lo ngi na.

S hp th ca ion OH-
S c mt ca ion OH
-
trong si quang gp phn to ra suy hao ng k.
c bit, hp th tng vt ba bc sng: 950 nm, 1240 nm, v 1380
nm. V d: nu nng ion OH
-
bng 10
-6
th ( H 40 dB/Km. V nng
cho php ca ion OH
-
trong ch to si l < 10
-9
(mt phn t).
Suy hao do tn x tuyn tnh

Tn x tuyn tnh trong si quang l do tnh khng ng u rt nh ca li si, c th
l nhng thay i nh trong vt liu, tnh khng ng u v cu trc hoc cc khim khuyt
trong qu trnh ch to si. Ngoi ra, do thu tinh c to ra t cc loi oxit nh: SiO2,
GeO2, P2O5 nn c th xy ra s thay i thnh phn gia chng. Hai yu t ny lm tng s
thay i chit sut, to ra tn x. Tn x tuyn tnh lm cho nng lng quang t mt mt lan
truyn c truyn tuyn tnh (t l thun vi cng sut mt) sang mt mt khc. Qu trnh
ny lm suy hao cng sut quang c truyn i v cng sut c truyn sang mt mt r
hay mt bc x (leaky or radiation mode) l nhng mt khng tip tc lan truyn trong li si
quang m bc x ra khi si. Tn x tuyn tnh s khng lm thay i tn s tn x. Tn x
tuyn tnh thng c phn thnh hai loi: tn x Rayleigh v tn x Mie.
Chng 2: Si Quang
48


8

Tn x Rayleigh: xy ra do s khng ng nht c kch thc nh hn bc sng
(khong 1/10) trong si quang lm cho tia sng b ta ra nhiu hng. H s tn x
Rayleigh c tn nh sau [1]:



3
8 2



Trong :

R
=
n
3
4

p
c
KT
F

(2.66)

R: h s tn x Rayleigh,

: bc sng quang c tnh bng mt (m),
n : chit sut mi trng,
p : h s quang n hi trung bnh,

c: nn ng nhit (n v l (m2/N) ti nhit TF ( n v l K) quy nh (fictive
temperature),
K: hng s Boltzman.

H s tn x Rayleigh lin h vi h s suy hao truyn dn (transmission loss factor)
nh sau:


L =exp(-RL) (2.67)
Vi L l di si quang (o bng mt).
H s suy hao truyn dn trn mt kilometre s l Lkm c tnh t cng th (2.3) vi
L=1000 (mt). Do h s suy hao do tn x Rayleigh s l:
((dB/km)=10log10(1/ L km) (2.68)
Suy hao do tn x Rayleigh c minh ha trn hnh 2.26 (ng tn x Rayleigh).

Tn x Mie: xy ra do s khng ng nht c kch thc nh tng ng vi bc
sng (ln 1/10) lan truyn trong si quang v ch yu l trong hng ti (hng lan
truyn). Tn x ny c th gim n mc khng ng k bng cc bin php gim tnh
khng ng nht nh: loi b tp cht trong qu trnh sn xut thy tinh, iu khin
cht ch qu trnh ko v bc si quang, tng lch chit sut tng i.
Chng 2: Si Quang
49























Hnh 2.26 Suy hao bn trong si quang

Hnh 2.26 cho thy c 3 di bc sng (ca s) c suy hao thp c th s dng cho thng
tin quang l 0.8m, 1.3m v 1.55m tng ng vi cc suy hao c bn l 2.5, 0.4 v 0.25 dB/km
(trong h thng thng tin quang c trng, mt tn hiu c th b suy hao khong 20-30 dB trc
khi cn c khuch i hoc ti to. Vi suy hao 0.25 dB/Km, tng ng c th truyn mt qua
mt on di khong 80-120 Km).
Suy hao do un cong

Suy hao ca si quang mt cch tng qut c phn lm hai loi: suy hao bn trong v
suy hao bn ngoi. Suy hao bn trong (gm suy hao hp th, suy hao do tn x m ta xt
trn) thuc v bn cht ca si quang do qu trnh ch to, cng ngh ch to m ra. Suy hao bn
ngoi khng thuc v bn cht ca si, l suy hao do un cong khi vn hnh, s dng si trn thc
t.

Suy hao un cong gm c hai loi:

Un cong vi m: l si b cong nh mt cch ngu nhin, trng hp ny thng xy
ra khi si c bc thnh cp.
Un cong v m: l un cong c bn knh un cong ln hn hoc tng ng ng
knh si.
Khi nh sng ti ch si quang b un cong, mt phn nh sng s ra ngoi lp bc. Si b
un cong t, ch mt phn nh nh sng lt ra ngoi. Si cng b un cong suy hao cng tng.

Do ngi ta qui nh bn knh un cong cho php [1]:

3n
2

R
c
=
1
4 (n
2
n
2
)
3 / 2

(2.69a)
1 2

T cng thc trn ta thy c th gim suy hao do un cong bng cch:

Thit k si quang c chnh lch chit sut ln;

Hat ng bc sng ngn hn c th


i vi si n mode , bn knh ung cong ti hn c th tnh nh sau [1]:
Chng 2: Si Quang
50



R =
20

3

2.748 0.996


(2.69b)
cs
(
2
2
)
3 / 2


n
1
n
2
c

Nguyn nhn gy ra un cong: ch to cp (xon rut cp), lp t cp. Khi qun cp cng
nh khi lp t cp, ch nn un cong si vi bn knh R < Rc. Gi tr khuyn co Rc = 30 mm |
50 mm.

Suy hao v di thng
Di thng c th c xc nh bng hoc f. Chng lin h vi nhau bi phng
trnh [3].

f H
c

2


(2.70)

Phng trnh ny c th rt ra t quan h f = c/ . Xt cc bc sng 1.3 v 1.5 m, y l
cc bc sng c bn ca h thng thng tin quang ngy nay, di thng hu ch c th c tnh
da trn suy hao dB trn km trong h s 2, c xp x 80 nm bc sng 1.3 m v 180 nm
bc sng 1.55 m. Trong tn s quang, di thng ny ln n khong 35000 GHz. y l mt
di thng rt ln, trong khi tc bit cn cho cc ng dng ngy nay khng vt qu vi chc
Mbps.

Di thng hiu dng ca si quang trong hu ht cc mng ng di ngy nay b gii hn
bi di thng b khuch i EDFA (Erbium Dope Fiber Amplifier). Da vo kh nng sn c ca
b khuch i, suy hao bc sng = 1.55 m c chia lm ba vng nh hnh 2.26. Vng
gia t 1530-1565nm l di C ni m h thng WDM hot ng s dng b khuch i EDFA
thng thng (Conventional). Di t 1565-1625 nm, cha cc bc sng di hn trong di C,
c gi l di L v c s dng trong cc h thng WDM dung lng cao ngy nay s dng b
khuch i GSEDA (Gain-Shifred Erbium-Doped Amplifier). Di di 1530 nm, gm nhng
bc sng ngn hn di C, c gi l di S. B khuch i quang si Raman (Fiber-Raman
Amplifier) c s dng khuch i di ny.
Tn sc
2.4.2.1. Tng quan
Trong mt si quang, nhng tn s nh sng khc nhau v nhng mt khc nhau cn
thi gian khc nhau truyn mt on t A n B. Hin tng ny gi l tn sc v gy ra
nhiu nh hng khc nhau. Ni chung, tn sc dn n s co gin xung trong truyn dn
quang, gy ra giao thoa gia cc k t, tng li bit my thu v dn n gim khong cch
truyn dn.










Hnh 2.27 Tn sc lm rng xung ng ra tng
tn sc tng cng ca si quang, k hiu l Dt, c xc nh:
Chng 2: Si Quang
46



(
2 2
)

D
t
= (
o
(
i

(2.71)

(i, (o: rng xung vo v xung ra, n v l giy [s].

Dt: n v l giy [s].

Thng ngi ta ch quan tm n tri rng xung trn mt Km, v c n v l
[ns/Km], hoc [ps/Km].
Ngoi ra c n v [ps/nm.Km] nh gi tn sc cht liu trn mi Km chiu di si
ng vi rng ph quang l 1ns.

C hai loi :

Tn sc mode: ch xy ra si a mode.

Tn sc sc th: xy ra tt c cc loi si quang. Tn sc sc th bao gm:

- Tn sc vt liu;

- Tn sc ng dn sng.

Tn sc mode phn cc.

Tn sc mode Nguyn
nhn:
Khi phng nh sng vo si a mode, nng lng nh sng phn thnh nhiu mode. Mi
mode lan truyn vi vn tc nhm khc nhau nn thi gian lan truyn ca chng trong si khc
nhau. Chnh s khc nhau v thi gian lan truyn ca cc mode gy ra tn sc mode.
Xc nh tn sc mode ca si a mode SI :

Trong si a mode SI, mi tia sng i vi cng mt vn tc:

v =
c
n
1


xc nh tn sc mode trong si a mode SI, ta xt chnh lch thi gian lan
truyn gia hai mode ngn nht v di nht trong si quang di L (Km). l tia 1 v tia 2 (xem
hnh v 2.28).


Lp bc n2



Tia 1



Tia 2



max
c


90
0
c




Li n1




L [km]


Hnh 2.28 Tn sc mode trong si a mode SI
Tia 1 (tia ngn nht) i trng vi trc ca si quang.
Chng 2: Si Quang
47


Tia 2 (tia di nht) l tia ng vi gc ti bng gc ti hn \c.
Chng 2: Si Quang
48


1
1
1

Tia 1:

di lan truyn: d1 = L

d
1





L




Ln
1

Thi gian lan truyn: T
1



Tia 2:

di lan truyn: d =
v
=
(c / n )
=
c



L
= T
min
2
cos\
d
2



L / cos\


Ln
1

Thi gian lan truyn: T
2
=
v
=
(c / n
1
)
=
c cos\
= T
max

p dng nh lut khc x ti im A, ta c: sin\
c



Ln
2


=
n
2
= cos\
n
1

Thay vo, suy ra
T
2
= T
max
=
1
cn
2


Do thi gian chnh lch gia hai tia ny l:


T
mod e( SI )


= T
max



T
min

Ln
2

=
cn
2


Ln
1

c

=
Ln
1

c


(n
1
n
2
)
n
2



(2.72)

chnh lch ny chnh l tn sc mode:


D
mod e( SI )

= T
mod e( SI )
H
Ln
1
(khi << 1) (2.73)
c

n
2
n
2
n n
vi
1 2
H

2n
2

1 2
(v << 1).
n
2


C th tnh tn sc mode theo khu s. Ta c: NA= n
1
2
(NA)
2

Suy ra: =


Do :

2n
1







D
mod e( SI )
= T
mod e( SI )
H






L(NA)
2

2cn
1







(2.74)

Hai biu thc gn ng (2.73) v (2.74) thng c s dng nh gi tri rng
xung cc i do tn sc mode gy ra trong si a mode SI c chiu di L Km.
tri rng xung cc i trn mi Km si c xc nh bi:


d
mod e( SI )

D
mod e( SI )
=
L

H
n
1

c


(2.75)


Hoc
Chng 2: Si Quang
49


2


d
mod e( SI )
H

(NA)
2

2cn
1


(2.76)



Mt i lng hu ch na c quan tm n trong tn sc mode l tri rng xung
hiu dng (mode(SI).
Quan h gia (mode(SI) v Tmode (SI) [1]:

o
2
=
1 T
mod e( SI )




(2.77)
mod e( SI )


3

2



Thay (2.74) vo (2.77) suy ra:


o
mod e( SI )
H

Ln
1

L(NA)
2

H


(2.78)
2 3.c
4 3.n
1
c

Phng trnh (2.78) cho php xc nh p ng xung hiu dng ca si a mode chit sut
nhy bc.
S khc nhau gia Tmode (SI) v (mode(SI) [1]:

Khi tnh Tmode (SI), gi tr Tmode (SI) l gi tr tri rng xung ln nht m tn
hiu ng ra khng chng lp ln nhau. Khi ny tc bit cc i c th t c
l:


B
T (max)
=
1
2T
mod e( SI )

(bps)

(2.79)

C mt cch nh gi khc v tc bit cc i ca mt knh quang. Ta xem
xung ng ra c dng phn b Gauss c rng hiu dng l (mode(SI). Cch phn
tch ny cho php tn ti mt lng chng lp xung no ca tn hiu ng ra
nhng vn m bo c t s SNR u thu. Khi ny tc bit cc i xp x:

0.2
B
T (max)
=
(


mod e( SI )
(2.80)




V d 1











Gii


Mt tuyn quang 6Km dng si a mode SI, li c chit sut n1 bng 1,5, chnh lch
chit sut tng i = 1%. Hy xc nh:
(a) Thi gian chnh lch gia mode nhanh nht v mode chm nht .

(b) tri rng xung hiu dng do tn sc mode trn tuyn.

(c) Tc bit cc i c th t c, gi s ch c tn sc mode.

(d) Tch di thng vi chiu di cu (c).
Chng 2: Si Quang
50


1
=
(a) p dng phng trnh (2.72), chnh lch thi gian gia mode nhanh nht v mode
chm nht l:

T
mode (SI)
H

Ln
1
=
c

6.10
3
[m] 1,5 0,01
3.10
8
[m / s]


= 300 [ns]

(b) tri rng xung hiu dng do tn sc mode:

o
mod e( SI )
H

Ln
1

6.10
3
1,5 0,01
=

= 86,7 ns
2 3.c 2 3 3.10
8

(c) Tc bit cc i c th nh gi theo hai cch:
Cch 1:

Tc bit cc i vi gi s khng c s chng lp xung ng ra:

B
T(max)
=


1

1
9

= 1,7.10
6


(bps) = 1,7 Mbps


Cch 2:
2T
mose( SI )
2 300.10

Tnh tc bit cc i bng cch s dng tri rng xung hiu dng:

B
T(max)
=


0.2
o
mod e( SI )
=
0,2
86,7.10
9


= 2,3.10
6


(bps) = 2,3 Mps
(e) S dng tc bit cc i cu (c), ta c:
BoptL = 2,3 6 = 13, 8 [MHz.Km]


i vi si a mode GI, tn sc mode gim n ti thiu. tri rng xung cc i:


D
mod e(GI )

= T
mod e(GI )
Ln
2

H
1
8c

(2.81)

tri rng xung hiu dng:


o
mod e(GI )
H




Ln
2





(2.82)
20 3.c

Lu : Cng thc trn thu c khi dng phn b chit sut ca li c dng ti u:

g
opt.

= 2
12
5


(2.83)

Nu si quang c =1% th g = 1,98: phn b chit sut gn vi dng parabol.


V d 2





Gii


Hy so snh tri rng xung hiu dng trn mi Km do tn sc mode ca si a
mode chit sut nhy bc trong v d 1 vi si a mode chit sut gim dn c phn b
chit sut ti u c cng chit sut li n1 v .


T v d 1, ta suy ra:
Chng 2: Si Quang
51




(mode (SI)[L = 1Km] =

o
mod e( SI )
L

86,7[ns]
= = 14,4[ns / Km]
6[km]
S dng cng thc (2.82), tri rng xung hiu dng trn 1Km ca si c chit sut
gim dn l:


(mode (GI)[L = 1Km] H
Ln
1

2


10
3
1,5
=

(0,01)
2



= 14,4[ ps / Km]
20 3c 20 3 3.10
8



T v d trn ta thy tn sc mode ca si GI c ci tin n 1000 ln. Tuy nhin thc
t ch c th t c khong 100 ln, do kh iu khin trn ton si c cng mt dng phn b.
Hnh 4.31 biu din c tuyn tri rng xung do tn sc mode theo g.




















Hnh 2.29 tri rng xung mode ca si a mode GI c =1% theo g.


Tn sc vt liu Nguyn
nhn
Nguyn nhn gy ra tn sc vt liu: do s chnh lch cc vn tc nhm ca cc thnh
phn ph khc nhau trong si. N xy ra khi vn tc pha ca mt sng phng lan truyn trong mi
trng in mi bin i khng tuyn tnh vi bc sng, v mt vt liu c gi l tn ti tn
sc cht liu khi o hm bc hai ca chit sut theo bc sng khc khng (d
2
n/d
2
0). tri
rng xung do tn sc vt liu c th thu c bng cch kho st thi gian tr nhm trong si
quang.
Vn tc pha v vn tc nhm
Trong tt c sng in t, c nhng im c pha khng i. i vi sng phng, nhng
im pha khng i ny to nn mt b mt c gi l mt sng. i vi sng nh sng n sc
lan truyn dc theo ng dn sng theo phng z (trc ng dn sng), nhng pha khng i ny di
chuyn vi vn tc pha:

v =
dz
=
(
p
dt
(2.84)
Chng 2: Si Quang
52



1
1 1


Tuy nhin, thc t khng th to ra mt sng nh sng hon ton n sc v nng lng
nh sng tng qut l tng cc thnh phn c cc tn s khc nhau. Do tnh trng tn ti l mt
nhm cc sng c tn s gn ging nhau lan truyn sao cho dng cui cng c dng b sng. B
sng ny khng lan truyn vn tc pha ca cc sng thnh phn m lan truyn vn tc nhm:

v =
'(
g
'


(2.85)

Nu lan truyn trong mt mi trng v hn c chit sut n1 th hng s lan truyn (c th
c vit nh sau:





T (2.84) suy ra:

2
= n
1

=
n
1
(
c

(2.86)

v =
(
=
c

p
n


(2.87)

Tng t, t (2.85) suy ra vn tc nhm:

v =
'(
=
d

d(


(2.88)
g
' d d

Th t (2.86) vo (2.88) v lu :
( =
2c

d(
=
(


Ta c:
d

d
2

( (

1 dn
1


n
1

v
g
=
d
n
1








=
2



d
2







Vi :

v
g
=
c
n
1


=
dn
1

d
c
N
g1


(2.89)





Ng1 gi l chit sut nhm.
Thi gian tr nhm (Group delay)

N
g1

= n
1



dn
1

d


(2.
90
)

Thi gian lan truyn (thi gian tr nhm) ca mt xung nh sng lan truyn dc theo mt
n v chiu di si quang:



(
g
=


1
v
g



=
'
=

'
(


N
g1
=

c

n
dn
1

1
d
c
Chng 2: Si Quang
53




(2.91 )

i vi ngun quang c rng ph hiu dng ( v c bc sng trung bnh , tri
rng xung hiu dng do tn sc c th xc nh bng khai trin Taylor theo :
Chng 2: Si Quang
54


1
1
g
2
2
1
2

T d(
g
d
2
(
(
g
= (

'
'
s
d
+ 2
d
2

+ ...

]

(2.92)

B qua cc thnh phn bc cao, suy ra:

d(
g

(
g
= (

d




(2.93)

Vi



T
n



dn
1

d(
g

d
'
1


T dn d
2
n dn d
2
n
=
'
d

=

'
1


1


=
1


(2.94)
d d
'
c
'
s


c
s
d
]

d
2

d
]

c d
2




Suy ra tri rng xung nh sng trn mt n v chiu di:

(
'



d n
1


g
=
c


d
2

(2.95)

Nu si quang di L[Km] th tri rng xung hiu dng hay tn sc cht liu trong si
quang l:


( = L(
=
L'



d n
1


(2.96)
m g
c
d
2


t:


M =
d(
g



d
2
n
=



(2.97)
d c d
2








V d 3

M c gi l h s tn sc cht liu, c n v: [ps/nm.Km].

Vy tn sc vt liu c th vit li nh sau:

(m = L.(.ZMZ (2.98)



d
2
n
Mt si thy tinh c tn sc cht liu c cho bi:

2 1
d
2

=0,025. Hy xc nh h

so tn sc vt liu M bc sng = 0,85 m, v tnh tri rng xung hiu dng trn mi Km
khi ngun quang LED pht ra bc sng 850 nm c rng ph hiu dng ( = 20nm.
Gii

H s tn sc vt liu:

d
2
n 1
=

2
d n
1
=


0,025


= 98,1


[ ps / nm.Km]
M =
C

d
2
C d
2


0,85.10
6

Chng 2: Si Quang
55



tri rng xung hiu dng:

(m = (LM = 20198,1 = 1,96 [ns/Km]
Chng 2: Si Quang
56




H s tn sc vt liu l mt i lng ph thuc vo vt liu ch to v bc sng nh
sng lan truyn trong si quang. Di y l th biu din gi tr ca M theo bc sng ca si
silica.



















Hnh 2.30 H s tn sc l mt i lng ph thuc vo vt liu ch to si v bc sng nh
sng.
ngha vt l ca M: tn sc vt liu cho bit mc ni rng xung ca mi nm b
rng ph ngun quang qua mi Km si.

Tn sc ng dn sng

i vi si n mt, khi ni n tn sc sc th, ngoi tn sc vt liu ta cn phi xt
n tn sc ng dn sng. Khi nh sng c ghp vo si quang truyn i, mt phn
chnh truyn trong phn li si, phn nh truyn trong phn lp v vi nhng vn tc khc
nhau do chit sut trong phn li v v ca si quang khc nhau, minh ha trn hnh 2.31. S
khc bit vn tc truyn nh sng gy nn tn sc ng dn sng. Tn sc ng dn sng Dwg()
cng l mt hm theo bc sng nh trn hnh 2.31 [2].




0 t
(a)



0 t
(b)



0 t
(c)

Hnh 2.30 Tn sc ng dn sng:

(a) Phn li ca xung; (b) Phn lp bc ca xung; (c) Xung tng cng
Chng 2: Si Quang
57

























Hnh 2.31 Tn sc sc th bao gm tn sc vt liu v tn sc ng dn sng trong si quang

Tn sc tng cng

2 2
D
t
=
D
mod e
+ D
chr
(2.99)


Dchr = Dmat + DWg=LZMmat+MwgZ (2.100)


C th thy r ngha vt l ca tn sc mu khi so snh s lan truyn anh sng qua mt lng
knh nh minh ha trn hnh 2.32 vi s lan truyn ca nh sng trong si quang nh trn hnh
2.33.



















Hnh 2.32 Khi nh sng trng truyn qua lng knh cc bc sng khc nhau s b ung cong vi
cc gc khc nhau to thnh hin tng cu vng. chnh l hin tng tn sc.
Chng 2: Si Quang
58



D LIU VO


B pht
Laser

D LIU RA

B thu
quang


rng
ph
=
L
Tn sc mu trong si
quang lm cho cc bc
sng lan truyn vi vn
tc khc nhau, v gy ra
tr lan truyn (

( = tri
rng xung



Laser ng vo
khng phi l n
sc m n gm
nhiu bc sng
hay nhiu mu



Hnh 2.33 nh sng lan truyn trong si quang s b tn sc nh trn hnh 2.32
2.4.2.5. Tn sc phn cc mode
Mc d ta gi si quang l n mt nhng trn thc t n lun truyn 2 mt sng c
gi chung cng mt tn. Cc mt ny l cc sng in t c phn cc tuyn tnh truyn trong
si quang trong nhng mt phng vung gc vi nhau. Nu chit sut ca si quang l khng nh
nhau trn phng truyn ca hai mt trn, hin tng tn sc phn cc mt xy ra. Minh ha trn
hnh 2.34. S khc nhau gia cc ch s chit sut gi l khc x kp hay lng chit si
(Birefringence).


















Hnh 2.34 Minh ho tn st phn cc mode


Trn thc t, hng s lan truyn ca mi phn cc thay i theo chiu di si quang cho
nn thi gian tr trn mi on si quang l ngu nhin v c xu hng kh ln nhau. Do tn
sc phn cc mt t l tuyn tnh vi cn bc 2 chiu di si quang [2]:

t
PMD
= D
PMD
L


(2.101)



2.4.2.6. Mi quan h gia tn sc v di thng
Chng 2: Si Quang
59



Mi quan h gia di thng vi tc bit

Hai m thng dng trong h thng thng tin l m tr v khng (RZ) v m khng tr v
khng. Gi B v BT ln lt l di thng v tc ca tn hiu. Ta c [2] :
i vi m NRZ:




i vi m RZ

B =
1
B
2
T

(2.102)



Mi quan h gia tn sc v di thng
B = BT (2.103)

Theo cng thc (2.79) v (2.80) ta c th tnh c tc bit cc i c th t c.Ty
theo loi m ng truyn theo cc cng thc (2.102) v (2.103) ta c th suy ra di thng B.
tri rng xung quyt nh kh nng mang thng tin ca si quang, m tri rng
xung t l tuyn tnh vi chiu di si quang, tc di thng t l nghch vi khong cch thng tin.
iu ny dn n m thng s hu ch hn i vi vic nh gi kh nng mang thng tin ca si
quang, l tch di thng vi chiu di, k hiu l BL hay BxL. n v o: [MHz.Km].
Ta c cng thc lin h gia B v BL:
B = BL.L
-
(2.104)
Vi: L l chiu di si quang; l hng s c gi tr 0,5 | 1, ph thuc vo chiu di
L.
Thng = 0,6 | 0,8.

V tn sc ph thuc bc sng nn di thng cng ph thuc bc sng.

2.4.3. Cc hiu ng phi tuyn

Hiu ng quang c gi l phi tuyn nu cc tham s ca n ph thuc vo cng
nh sng (cng sut). Cc hin tng phi tuyn c th b qua i vi cc h thng thng tin quang
hot ng mc cng sut va phi (vi mW) vi tc bit ln n 2.5 Gbps. Tuy nhin, tc
bit cao hn nh 10 Gbps v cao hn v/hay mc cng sut truyn dn ln, vic xt cc hiu
ng phi tuyn l rt quan trng. Trong cc h thng WDM, cc hiu ng phi tuyn c th tr nn
quan trng thm ch cng sut v tc bit va phi.

Cc hiu ng phi tuyn c th chia ra lm hai loi. Loi th nht pht sinh do tc ng qua
li gia cc sng nh sng vi cc phonon (rung ng phn t) trong mi trng silica- mt trong
nhiu loi hiu ng tn x m chng ta xem xt l tn x Rayleigh. Hai hiu ng chnh trong
loi ny l tn x do kch thch Brillouin (SBS) v tn x do kch thch Raman (SRS).

Loi th hai sinh ra do s ph thuc ca chit sut vo cng in trng hot ng, t
l vi bnh phng bin in trng. Cc hiu ng phi tuyn quan trng trong loi ny l hiu
ng t iu pha (SPM - Self-Phase Modulation), hiu ng iu ch xuyn pha (CPM - Cross-
Phase Modulation) v hiu ng trn bn bc sng (FWM - Four-Wave Mixing). Loi hiu ng
ny c gi l hiu ng Kerr.

Trong cc hiu ng tn x phi tuyn, nng lng t mt sng nh sng c chuyn sang
mt sng nh sng khc c bc sng di hn (hoc nng lng thp hn). Nng lng mt i b
hp th bi cc dao ng phn t hoc cc phonon (loi phonon lin quan n s khc nhau gia
SBS v SRS). Sng th hai c gi l sng Stokes. Sng th nht c th gi l sng bm
Chng 2: Si Quang
60



(Pump) gy ra s khuch i sng Stokes. Khi sng bm truyn trong si quang, n b mt nng
lng v sng Stokes nhn thm nng lng. Trong trng hp SBS, sng bm l sng tn hiu
v sng Stokes l sng khng mong mun c to ra do qu trnh tn x. Trong trng hp SRS,
sng bm l sng c nng lng cao v sng Stokes l sng tn hiu c khuch i t sng
bm.

Ni chung, cc hiu ng tn x c c trng bi h s li g, c o bng m/w
(meters per watt) v rng ph f (i vi li tng ng) v cng sut ngng Pth ca nh
sng ti - mc cng sut m ti suy hao do tn x l 3 dB, tc l mt na cng sut trn ton
b di si quang. H s li l mt i lng ch cng ca hiu ng phi tuyn.

Trong trng hp t iu pha SPM, cc xung truyn b hin tng chirp (tn s xung
truyn i thay i theo thi gian). iu ny lm cho h s chirp (chirped factor) tr nn ng k
cc mc nng lng cao. S c mt ca hin tng chirp lm cho hiu ng gin xung do tn sc
mu tng ln. Do vy, chirp xy ra do SPM (SPM induced chirp) c th gy tng gin xung do
tn sc mu trong h thng. i vi cc h thng tc bit cao, chirp do SPM c th lm tng
mt cch ng k gin xung do tn sc mu thm ch cc mc cng sut va phi. nh
hng ca SPM khng ch ph thuc vo du tham s GVD (Group Velocity Dispersion) m cn
ph thuc vo chiu di ca h thng.

Trong h thng WDM a knh, chirp xy ra trong mt knh ph thuc vo s thay i
chit sut theo cng ca cc knh khc. Hiu ng ny c gi l hiu ng iu ch xuyn
pha (CPM - Cross-Phase Modulation). Khi xem xt hin tng chirp trong mt knh do s thay
i chit sut theo cng ca chnh knh , ta gi l hiu ng ny SPM.

Trong cc h thng WDM, mt hiu ng quan trng khc l hiu ng trn bn bc
sng. Nu h thng WDM bao gm cc tn s f1, f2, , fn, hiu ng trn bn bc sng sinh ra
cc tn hiu ti cc tn s nh l 2fi - fj, v fi + fj - fk. Cc tn hiu mi ny gy ra xuyn knh
(crosstalk) vi cc tn hiu c sn h thng. Xuyn knh ny nh hng c bit nghim trng khi
khong cch gia cc knh hp. Vic gim tn sc mu lm tng xuyn knh gy ra bi hiu ng
trn bn bc sng. V vy, h thng s dng si quang dch chuyn tn sc chu nh hng ca
hiu ng trn bn bc sng nhiu hn l h thng s dng si n mt. Tuy nhin hin tng
ny c th loi b nu duy tr mt t tn sc mu trong si quang [3].

Nhn chung cc nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn gim i khi s dng si quang c
din tch li hiu dng ln [3].

MT S LOI SI QUANG MI

Nhn chung khi xem xt cc yu t si quang lin quan n kh nng ca h thng
thng tin quang, cn phi cp ti ba yu t c bn nht l suy hao, tn sc, v hiu ng phi
tuyn xy ra trong si. Tuy nhin, i vi cc h thng khc nhau th mc nh hng ca
cc yu t ny cng khc nhau. V d:
i vi cc h thng c ly ngn, dung lng thp th yu t ch yu cn quan tm l
suy hao.
i vi cc h thng tc cao, c ly tng i ln th yu t ch yu cn quan tm
l suy hao v tn sc.
i vi cc h thng c ly di v dung lng rt ln th ngoi hai yu t trn cn phi
xem xt n c cc hiu ng phi tuyn.
Chng 2: Si Quang
61



Si quang ang c s dng rng ri hin nay trong cc h thng hin nay l si n
mode SMF-28, G.652. Cc c tnh truyn dn ca si quang ny c m t trong phn 2.4.
Cc ng cong m t tn sc v suy hao ca si n mode cho thy rng suy hao ca si t gi
tr nh nht vng bc sng 1500 nm nhng tn sc c gi tr thp nht (bng khng) li bc
sng 1300 nm. Nu c hai yu t suy hao v tn sc u t gi tr ti u th s c c tuyn
thng tin n knh c ly truyn dn rt xa v tc bit rt ln. t c iu ny, ngi ta
iu chnh cc tham s c bn ca si nhm dch chuyn tn sc ti thiu ti ca s c suy hao
nh nht (ca s 1550 nm). Tn sc trong si n mode ch yu l tn sc vt liu v tn sc ng
dn sng. Tn sc vt liu ca si tiu chun lm t SiO2 thng c gi tr bng 0 ps/km.nm ti
bc sng 1270 nm, nhng nu pha thm mt s tp cht nh GeO2 v P2O5 vo li si th gi tr
tn sc vt liu s dch chuyn v cc bc sng ln hn 1270 nm, nhng li lm tng suy hao
si. Nh vy, s rt kh thay i c tn sc vt liu c bn. Tuy nhin, li hon ton c th thay
i tn sc dn sng bng cch s i mt ct ch s chit sut phn bc n gin li si thnh
mt ct ch s chit sut phc tp hn cho ra c gi tr tn sc mong mun. Si quang dch
chuyn tn sc (DSF, G.653) c tn bng tng bng khng ti bc sng gn 1550 nm c ch
to theo nguyn l ni trn. Hnh 2.35 minh ho mt ct ch s chit sut ca si quang DSF-
G.653









Khong cch
t tm li

(a)
Khong cch
t tm li

(b)

Hnh 2.35 Cc mt cc ch s chit sut

(a) Si n mode thng thng (SMF-28, G.652)

(b) Si tn sc dch chuyn (DSF, G.653)

Si quang DSF-G.653 ch ph hp cho cc h thng n knh hot ng bc sng
1550 nm. Cc h thng ghp knh theo bc sng quang (WDM) bn cnh hai yu t suy hao v
tn sc, cn chu nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn. Cc loi si quang mi cng c
pht trin lm gim nh hng ca cc hiu ng ny. Di y chng ta s tp trung xem xt
cc c tnh ni bt ca cc loi si quang mi ny. Bn c nn tham kho thm phn Cc hiu
ng phi tuyn trong bi ging H thng thng tin quang 2 hiu r hn phn ny.
Si quang dch chuyn tn sc khc khng (NZ-DSF) G.655

Mc d si quang dch chuyn tn sc (DSF) gii quyt trit cc nh hng do tn
sc mu gy ra ca s bc sng 1550 nm. Tuy nhin, n li khng thch hp dng trong h
thng WDM do s thit thi nghim trng v cng sut do hiu ng trn bn bc sng v cc s
phi tuyn khc gy ra. S thit thi ny s c loi b nu c mt t tn sc mu hin din trong
si do s tng tc ca cc sng khc nhau khi lan truyn vi vn tc nhm khc nhau. iu ny
dn n s pht trin ca cc loi si dch chuyn tn sc khc khng (NZ - DSF). Cc loi si
ny c tn sc mu khong t 1 n 6 ps/nm.km hoc l -1 n -6 ps/nm.km ca s 1550 nm.
iu ny ct gim nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn trong khi vn gia nguyn cc u im
Chng 2: Si Quang
62


T

n

s

c

(
p
s
/
n
m
.
k
m
)

ca si DSF. Loi si mi ny ang c xy dng trong cc cng trnh cc tuyn di Bc
M.

Chng hn, si quang LS ca Corning c bc sng tn sc khng bc sng 1560 nm
v tn sc mu nh khong 0.092 ( - 1560) ps/nm.km ca s bc sng 1550 nm v si
TrueWave ca cng ngh Lucent Technologies.
Bi v tt c cc si NZ - DSF c ch to c gi tr tn sc khc khng rt nh di C
nhng vn c gi tr khng ngoi di C, nm trong di L hoc di S. Trong nhng trng hp ny,
mt phn ln ca di bng xung quanh bc sng tn sc s khng dng do hiu ng trn bn
bc sng. Si TeraLight ca Alcatel l mt loi si NZ - DSF c tn sc khng di bn di
bc sng 1440 nm v v vy c s dng c 3 di.
Tn sc mu ngoi vic phi c gi tr nh, cn phi c dc nh (i vi bc sng).
dc nh lm gim tri rng xung do tn sc mu tch ly gia cc knh khc nhau trong
mt h thng WDM. Nu tri rng nh, tc l tn sc mu tch ly trn cc knh khc nhau
gn nh l ng nht, c th b tn sc mu tch ly trn tt c cc knh bng mt b b tn sc
mu duy nht. Phng php ny s r hn khi s dng b b tn sc mu trn mi knh. dc
tn sc mu ca cc loi si TrueWave, TrueWave RS ( dc gim) v LEAF (s cp di
y) c minh ha hnh 2.36. Si TrueWave RS ca Lucent c ch to c gi tr dc tn
sc mu nh hn khong 0.05 ps/nm.km
2
so vi cc loi si NZ - DSF khc c dc trong
khong 0.07 | 0.4 ps/nm.km
2
.







10

8
6

4
2
0 Di C Di L

1530 1550 1570 1590 1610
Bc sng (nm)
LEAF
TrueWave
TrueWave RS


Hnh 2.36 nghin tn sc ca si TrueWave, si TrueWave RS v LEAF.


Si quang din tch hiu dng li ln

nh hng ca s phi tuyn c th gim c khi ch to loi si quang c din tch li
hiu dng ln. Nh thy rng cc si quang dch chuyn tn sc khc khng c gi tr tn sc
mu b trong khong 1550 nm ti thiu s nh hng ca tn sc mu, nhng khng may, cc
loi si ny li c din tch hiu dng li nh hn. Gn y, si NZ DSF c din tch hiu dng
li ln - trn 70 m
2
, c Corning (LEAF) v Lucent (TrueWave XL) pht trin. Din tch
ny ln hn nhiu so vi 50m
2
ca si NZ - DSF bnh thng v nh hn 85m
2
ca si SMF.
Do vy, cc loi si ny t c s tha hip tt hn gia tn sc mu v s phi tuyn hn l cc
si NZ - DSF bnh thng. Tuy nhin, khuyt im ca cc loi si ny l c dc tn sc mu
Chng 2: Si Quang
63


C

n
g


t
r

n
g


ln hn, khong 0.11 ps/nm.km
2
so vi 0.07 ps/nm.km
2
i vi loi si NZ - DSF khc v khong
0.05 ps/nm.km
2
i vi loi si gim dc. Din tch li hiu dng ln cng lm gim hiu qu
ca vic khuch i phn b Raman (xem phn khuch i quang trong bi ging H thng
thng tin quang 2).
Mt ct chit sut khc x tiu biu ca si LEAF c trnh by hnh 2.37. Vng li
gm ba phn. Phn st bn trong nht, chit sut thay i theo dng tam gic. Phn vnh khuyn
( gia) c chit sut bng vi chit sut lp v. Phn ngoi cng ca lp li tip theo c hnh
vnh khuyn c chit sut cao hn. Phn gia ca li l phn c chit sut thp hn, khng gy
tiu hao cng sut v v vy, cng sut c phn b trn din tch ln hn. iu ny lm gim
tn hao nng lng trong li v lm tng din tch hiu dng ca si. Hnh 2.38 m t phn b
nng lng trong li ca si DSF v LEAF.













Khong cch
t tm li

(a)

Hnh 2.37 (a) NZ-DSF bnh thng. (b) LEAF.
Khong cch
t tm li

(b)




















Hnh 2.38 S phn b cng sut trong li ca si DSF v LEAF. Cng sut trong si LEAF c
phn b vi din tch rng hn


Cc si quang tn sc m v dng

Mt s si quang c thit k c c tn sc mu dng v m trong di 1550 nm. Tn
sc mu ca si c tn sc mu dng v m trong di 1550 nm c trnh by trong hnh 2.39.
Si c tn sc mu dng c s dng cho cc h thng trn t lin, cn si tn sc mu m
c s dng cho cc h thng di bin. (i vi vic b tn sc mu th ngc li: si quang
Chng 2: Si Quang
64



c tn sc mu m c s dng trn t lin, si c tn sc mu dng dng cho cc h thng
ngm di bin). C tn sc mu m v dng u gy ra gin xung v gin xung ny ph
thuc vo ln tn sc mu m khng ph thuc vo du ca n (khi khng c mt ca s chirp
v cc s phi tuyn). V vy, ti sao li cn cc loi si quang c tn sc mu khc du nhau, tn
sc mu dng cho h thng t lin v tn sc mu m cho cc h thng di bin. hiu s
tn ng ny, chng ta cn hiu cc hin tng phi tuyn khc: tnh bt n iu ch (Modulation
Instability).
iu ny c th gii thch nh sau [3]: Khi b chirp dng sn sau ca xung b dch n
tn s f < f0 v sn trc ca xung b dch n tn s f > f0. iu ny c ngha l ph ca tn
hiu b gin ra trong qu trnh truyn dn. Khi tn sc mu l dng thnh phn tn s cao (f > f0)
s lan truyn chm hn thnh phn tn s thp (f < f0) nn xung b co li (nguyn l ca truyn
dn soliton). SPM lm cho cc xung chirp dng (xem bi ging H thng thng tin quang 2).
cc mc cng sut cao, s tc ng qua li gia hai hin tng ny - tn sc mu v chirp
do SPM- dn n gy (breakup) xung rng tng i (trong khong thi gian 100 ps, tng ng
xp x vi tc truyn dn 10 Gbps) thnh cc lung xung ngn (khong vi pico giy). Hin
tng ny gi l hin tng khng n nh iu ch v dn n tng ng k t l bit li. S
khng n nh iu ch ch xy ra trong si quang tn sc mu dng v v vy, c th trnh
bng cch s dng si c tn sc mu m. Cc nh hng ca n i vi si quang tn sc mu
dng c th c ti thiu khi dng cc mc cng sut thp hn.
Cc h thng WDM khng th hot ng quanh bc sng tn sc khng ca si quang
do nh hng nghim trng ca hiu ng trn bn bc sng. i vi si quang dch chuyn tn
sc dng, bc sng tn sc khng nm di di bc sng 1550 nm v khng nm trong di L.
Do , cc h thng s dng si quang tn sc mu dng c th nng cp c th s dng di
L (xem hnh 2.26). Tnh nng cp l mt c tnh quan trng ca h thng t lin. Do , si
quang tn sc mu dng th thch hp cho h thng t lin, v mc cng sut c iu khin
s bt n iu ch l khng ng k. Tuy nhin, i vi cc tuyn di bin, vic s dng cc
mc cng sut ln hn th rt quan trng do khong cch tuyn di. Nhng tuyn ny khng c
kh nng nng cp bng bt c phng php no, do n c th di y i dng, v vy s
dng di L i vi nhng si ny th khng c kh nng. Do vy, si quang tn sc mu m c
dng cho cc tuyn di bin.
V si tn sc mu m dng cho cc tuyn di bin, tn sc mu c th c b bng
cch dng si quang n mt chun (SMF) c tn sc mu dng, ngha l vic thay i tun t
cc on si quang SMF c tn sc mu dng v tn sc mu m c th gi cho tn sc mu
tng cng thp. iu ny thch hp s dng si quang b tn sc do chng c nhy hn i
vi cc hiu ng phi tuyn bi v din tch hiu dng li ca n thp.
Ch rng tt c cc si quang xem xt c dc tn sc mu dng, tc l tn sc
mu tng khi bc sng tng. iu ny ch yu l dc tn sc vt liu ca si quang silica l
dng v thng hn hn dc tn sc m ca tn sc ng dn sng (xem hnh 2.31). Si quang
c dc tn sc mu m th hu dng trong vic b dc tn sc mu.
Trong khi c kh nng ch to si quang tn sc mu m (trong di 1550 nm) vi dc
m, th khng c kh nng ch to si c tn sc mu dng vi dc m.
Hnh 2.39 tm tt tn sc mu trong di C v dc tn sc mu ca tt c cc loi tho lun.
Chng 2: Si Quang
65


T

n

s

c

(
p
s
/
n
m
.
k
m
)




















Hnh 2.39 Tn sc mu m v dng trong di 1550 nm.




CP SI QUANG

Sn xut si quang

Yu cu i vi si quang

m bo nhng tnh nng truyn dn nh sng tt v c tui th cao, si quang cn p
ng nhng yu cu ngt ngho sau:

V c: bn vng, khng b t, gy vi tc ng ca lc ko, lc ct ngang, v lc
un cong. Khng b dn n qu ln do tc ng ca lc ko thng xuyn. Tc lo
ho chm.
V c tnh truyn dn nh sng:

- Vt liu phi rt tinh khit, khng c tp cht.

- Cu to lp bc v li u n, khng c ch khuyt tt, khng c ch khng
ng nht.

trnh lm tn x nh sng, sinh thm suy hao ph v mo xung.

Ch to si quang

Theo vt liu ch to, si quang c th phn loi thnh:

Si Silica (SiO2) (Silica fiber).
Si hp cht thy tinh (Multi-component glass fiber).

Si c lp bc bng plastic (Plastic - clad fiber).

Si ton bng plastic (All - plastic fiber). Hu
ht si dng trong vin thng l si Silica. Qu
trnh ch to si bao gm hai giai on chnh:
To mu tin ch (Preform): Mu tin ch l mt thanh thy tinh c chit sut li n1,
lp bc n2 iu chnh c trong qu trnh ch to bng cch thay i thnh phn v
nng cht ph gia. Hay ni cch khc, mu tin ch c hnh dng si quang trong
tng lai.Nh vy cht lng mu tin ch quyt nh suy hao v tn sc ca si
quang.
Chng 2: Si Quang
66



Ko si (Drawing): Trong qu trnh ko si, nhit t nng phi, tc ko quyt
nh thng s hnh hc v sc bn c hc.

1. CH TO MU TIN CH

C hai phng php c s dng to mu tin ch [4]:

Phng php nu chy thy tinh. Trong phng php ny c chia lm hai phng
php:
- Phng php ng, v

- Phng php ni nu i.

Phng php ng hi ha cht. Trong phng php ny gm c ba phng php:

- ng hi ha cht bn trong IVD (Inside Vapour Deposition). Trong phng php
ny c hai k thut: MCVD (Modified Chemical Vapour Deposition) v PCVD
(Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition).
- ng hi ha cht bn ngoi OVD (Outside Vapour Deposition).

- ng hi ha cht dc theo trc VAD (Vapour Axial Deposition).

PHNG NU CHY THY TINH
Phng php ng
L mt trong nhng k thut u tin s dng cch y 20 nm. Mt li thy tinh
c tinh khit cao c lng vo ng thy tinh khc c chit sut thp hn. vn ch
yu l to ra c khe h nh nht gia li v lp bc.






Hnh 2.39 Phng ong c s dung e tao mau tien che.

Nhng nhc im ca phng php sn xut ny:

Kh m bo c tinh khit cao v khng trnh c nhng h hi nh.

Ch dng sn xut si a mode SI.

Suy hao ca si quang ch to theo phng php ny cao: 500 | 1000 dB/Km.

Phng php ni nu i
Chng 2: Si Quang
67



Thy tinh li si Thy tinh v si
Nu ring








Nu chung


Ko si


Cht ph
bo v
Ph lp bo v


Cun si



Hnh 2.40 Phng php ni nu i

Dng phng php ny ch to ra si ch khng ch to phi. u im u
tin ca phng php ny l n trnh c cc ch khuyt tt trn lp phn cch v - rut
si m phng php thanh ng gp phi.
Trn hnh gii thiu tng qut phng php ny. Thy tinh lm lp bc v li
c nu ring thnh cc cht lng ri a vo ni hai lp ring r. u ra ni i ny c
van hai lp ko si ra. Nh thm thy tinh lin tc nn trong qu trnh nu v ko
lin tc c th t c si rt di. Si nng c ko qua b ph cht bo v trc khi
c cun thnh cun. Dng phng php ny c th ch to si SI v si GI.
ch to c si n mode c ng knh b th phng php ny cha thc
hin c.
PHNG PHP NG HI HA CHT
Chng 2: Si Quang
68



Phng php ng hi ho cht bn trong MVCD
























Hnh 2.41 S qu trnh ng hi bn trong MVCD
Vt liu ban u:
Mt ng thy tinh c tinh khit cao.

Cc cht lng: SiCl4, GeCl4.
Cc cht kh: O2, POCl3, BCl3.
ng thy tinh c t nng bng ngun cng hng n 1400
o
C, di chuyn dc
theo trc ng thy tinh. Trong lc c t nng, ng thy tinh quay theo trc ca n.
Cc nguyn liu, dng hi, c a vo ng. nhit ny s xy ra cc phn
ng ha hc bn trong ng. Sau phn ng cc vt liu cu thnh lp bc v li bm vo
thnh ng theo tng lp.
Cc phn ng oxy ha:

SiCl4 + 2H2O = SiO2 + 4HCl
(gas) (gas) (rn) (gas)
SiCl4 + O2 = SiO2 + 2Cl2
(gas) (gas) (rn) (gas)
GeCl4 + O2 = GeO2 + 2Cl2
(gas) (gas) (rn) (gas)
Sau khi kt thc qu trnh ngng t, ng c t nng n 2000
o
C co li thnh
mt thanh c, l mu tin ch.
Chng 2: Si Quang
69




(a) Phi sau qu trnh ng hi (b) Mu tin ch sau khi phi c un 2000 C
Hnh 2.42 Sn phm sau qu trnh ng hi.
Mun thay i chit sut, ngi ta s dng thm nhng cht ph gia nh: GeO2,
P2O5, B, F, trong GeO2 v P2O5 lm tng chit sut, B v F lm gim chit sut.
K thut ny c s dng rng ri v cho php to si c suy hao thp nht; gim
c nng OH-; thay i vt liu v gas d dng. V d:

Si SM Silica c ( = 0,2 dB/Km ( = 1550 nm).

Si Germanium PhosphoSilicate GI c suy hao:
2,8 dB/Km ( = 820 nm)
( = 0,45 dB/Km ( = 1300 nm)

0,35 dB/Km ( = 1550 nm)


K thut MCVD cn to c si c di thng rt cao.

V d: si a mode GI c BxL = 4,3 GHz ( = 1250 nm);
BL = 4,7 GHz ( = 1290 nm).
Phng php ng hi ho cht bn trong PVCD
























Hnh 2.43 Phng php to phi PVCD

Cng l phng php ng hi ha cht bn trong. Cc nguyn liu th hi do
mt h thng cung cp vo mt ng thy tinh t trong l nung 1150
o
C. Qu trnh phn
ng xy ra nh mt vng plasma sinh ra nh mt b cng hng cc ngn. B ny c th
dch chuyn dc theo ng. Bm gi p lc trong ng to Plasma v ht kh tha ra.
ng bao chit sut rt chnh xc nh to ra c hng nghn lp rt mng trn thnh
ng. Sau ng ny c nung chy 2000
o
C to thnh phi c.
Chng 2: Si Quang
70



Phng php ng hi ho cht bn ngoi (OVD)













SiCl4
BCl3


POCl3


GeCl4
O
2



Hnh 2.44 S qu trnh ng hi bn ngoi (OVD)


Phng php ny c hng Corning Glass (M) pht trin. Vt liu ban u:

Mt thanh thy tinh tinh khit.

Cc cht lng: SiCl4, TiCl4 (GeCl4).
Cc cht kh: O2, POCl3, BCl3.
Cc ho cht ny c phun ln b mt ca thanh thy tinh, ng thi thanh thy
tinh quay xung quanh trc ca n.
Sau khi ph cc lp yu cu, rt thanh thy tinh ra, cn li phi xp, rng.
Sau nung phi ny n 2000
o
C c mt phi trong sut, c c dng si quang tng
lai.
Phng php ng hi theo trc (VAD)

y l mt phng php rt tt c pht trin Nht v lun c ci tin.

Cc vt liu to li v lp bc c bc hi v ngng t vo u ca mt thanh
thy tinh xoay trn lin tc. Khi di chuyn thanh dc theo trc s to c phi. Sau
ko phi ny qua l nung to kch thc hnh hc u cho phi si. u im ca
phng php ny l c tc ng hi ln v hiu sut s dng nguyn liu cao ti 60-
80%. Theo phng php ny ngi ta ch c cc loi si c rng bng truyn dn
rt ln.
2. KO SI

K thut ko si t ng kim tra ng knh

Nguyn l ko si c minh ha nh hnh 2.45 [4]
Chng 2: Si Quang
71



Mch
iu khin










L nung nhit
cao (2.000
0
C)

Kim tra ng
knh si quang

Bc lp ph
Nhum mu
L sy


My cun





o lc cng


Hnh 2.45 S nguyn l ko si t ng

Mt u mu tin ch c gn chc vi mt h thng a phi ln xung. u
cn li a vo l nung nhit cao (khong 2000
O
C). nhit ny, u phi nhng
ra nh mt ong, v si c ko ra u ny. Si ln lt i qua cc b phn sau:
B kim tra ng knh si: b ny nhm iu chnh ng knh si c
chnh xc.
B bc lp ph: khi si cn nng phi bc lun lp ph trnh bi bm vo
si, hi m (OH
-
) v cc tc ng gy ra vi un cong.
B nhum mu: nhm mc ch chia si v hn ni si sau ny.

L sy: nhm lm kh si.

My cun si.

My o sc cng.

V cui cng c qun vo cun cp.

Si c ko ra t l nung c ng knh ngoi ng yu cu. c kch thc
hnh hc u v ng bao chit sut n nh th nhit phi, tc a phi xung v
tc ko phi ph hp v n nh.
u im ca phng php ko si t ng kim tra ng knh:

Ko c c ba dng si (a mode SI, a mode GI, SM).

Kch thc hnh hc v ng bao chit sut kh chnh xc.

Si ko c c cht lng cao.

Cc bin php bo v si quang
Chng 2: Si Quang
72



bo v si quang, trnh nhiu tc ng do iu kin ngoi, si quang cn c bc
thm vi lp na:
Lp ph, hay cn gi l lp v th nht (Primary Coating).

Lp v th hai (Secondary Coating).

Hnh 2.46 minh ha cu trc si quang khi em lm si.

Lp v
900 m



Lp ph
250 m




Lp bc
125 m





Li
10/50 m








Hnh 2.46 Cu trc si quang khi em lm cp.

Lp ph (Primary Coating)

c bc ngay trong qu trnh ko si nhm bo v si quang:

Chng li s xm nhp ca hi nc.

Trnh s try st gy nn nhng vt nt.

Gim nh hng vi un cong.

Vt liu dng lm lp ph c th l epoxyarylate, polyurethanes, ethylen -vinyl - acetate,
...


Lp ph cn c chc nng loi b nhng tia sng khc x ra ngoi lp bc. Mun vy
chit sut ca lp ph phi ln hn chit sut lp bc, nu khng s xy ra s phn x ton phn
trn mt tip gip gia lp bc v lp ph.
Chng 2: Si Quang
73



Hnh 2.47 Mt ct ngang ca si quang sau khi bc lp ph.

ng nht, b dy v ng tm ca lp ph c nh hng n cht lng ca si
quang. Thng thng ng knh lp ph l 250 m (i vi si c D = 125m).
Lp ph c th c nhum mu hoc c nhng vng nh du. Lp ny c tut b khi
hn ni hoc ghp nh sng.
Lp v (Secondary Coating, Buffer Coating, Jacket)

Lp v c tc dng tng cng sc chu ng ca si quang trc tc dng c hc v s
thay i nhit . Hin nay lp v c cc dng sau: m lng (Loose buffer), m kht (Tight
buffer), dng bng dp (Ribbon). Mi dng c u nhc im ring v c s dng trong nhng
iu kin khc nhau.
Dng ng m lng:

- Si quang ( bc lp ph) c t trong ng m c ng knh trong ln hn
kch thc si quang.
- ng m lng gm hai lp:

* Lp trong: c h s ma st nh.

* Lp ngoi: che ch si quang trc nh hng ca lc c hc.

v c ch to t cc vt liu polyester v polyamide.

- Vi ng m cha 1 si quang, ng knh: 1,2 | 2 mm, b dy: 0,15 | 0,5 mm.
Nu ng m cha nhiu si (2 |12 si) th ng knh: 2,4 | 3 mm.

- Vi dng ng m lng, si quang di chuyn t do trong ng m.

- Cht nhi phi c cc tnh nng sau:

* Ngn m.

* C tnh nht, khng tc dng ha hc vi cc thnh phn khc ca cp.

* Khng ng c hoc nng chy nhit lm vic.

* D ty sch khi cn hn ni.

* Kh chy.

- ng m lng cng c nhum mu.

- Dng ng m lng c dng trong cc ng truyn dn cht lng cao trong
iu kin mi trng thay i nhiu.






Si quang

Lp cht nhi


Lp v




(a) (b)
Chng 2: Si Quang
74



Hnh 2.48 Minh ha cu trc m lng

(a) ng m mt si quang; (b) ng m nhiu si quang

Dng m kht:

- n gin, lp v m st lp ph.

- Phng php ny lm gim ng knh ca lp v, nn gim c kch thc v
trng lng cp.
- Nhc im: si quang b nh hng trc tip khi cp b ko cng. gim nh
hng ny, ngng ta dng thm mt lp m mm gia lp ph v lp v. Hnh
thc ny gi l m tng hp.
- Dng m khch v m tng hp c dng trong cp t trong nh, dng lm
dy nhy u ni cc trm u cui, ....
- ng knh: 0,50 | 1 mm.

















Hnh 2.49 (a) Cu trc m kht, v (b) m tng hp.


Dng bng dp:

- Cu trc bng dp cng l mt dng m kht nhng v bc nhiu si quang thay
v mt si. S si trong mt bng c th l 4, 8, 12 si.
- Nhc im: si quang b nh hng trc tip khi b ko cng.

- c s dng trong cp c nhiu si.










Hnh 2.50 Cu trc bng dp.


Cu trc cp si quang
c im, yu cu ca cp quang.
Cp quang cn phi p ng nhng yu cu sau:
Chng 2: Si Quang
75



Khng b nh hng nhiu in t.

Khng thm nc, lt nc.

Chng c cc nh hng: va chm, lc ko, lc nn, lc un cong, ...

n nh khi nhit thay i.

t b lo ho.

Trng lng nh, kch thc b.

Phn loi cp quang.

C th phn loi cp quang theo cc hng sau:theo cu trc, theo mc ch s dng, theo
iu kin lp t.

Phn loi theo cu trc:
- Cp c cu trc c in: cc si hoc nhm si c phn b i xng theo
hng xoay trn ng tm. Loi cu trc ny hin nay rt ph bin.
- Cp c li trc c rnh: Cc si hoc nhm si c t trn rnh c sn trn mt
li ca cp.
- Cp c cu trc bng dp: nhiu si quang c ghp trn mt bng, v nhiu
bng xp chng ln nhau.
- Cp c cu trc c bit: do nhu cu trong cp c th c cc dy kim loi cp
ngun t xa, cnh bo, lm ng nghip v; hoc cp i trong nh, ch cn hai
si quang l ,












(a) (b) (c)











(d)

Hnh 2.51 V d v cc cu trc cp quang

(a) Cp c cu trc c in.

(b) Cp li trc c rnh.

(c) Cp c cu trc bng dp.

(d) Cp hai si dng trong nh.
Chng 2: Si Quang
76



Trong thc t, khi cn cp nhiu si quang, c th ch to cp gm nhiu nhm,
mi nhm l mt cp nh ca cc loi cp trn.
S lng si trong cp c th t 2 si n hng nghn si, ty theo lnh vc s
dng. V d: trn mng ni ht th cp thu bao v cp trung k gia cc im chuyn
mch th cn rt nhiu si quang; cp truyn dn ng di khng cn c nhiu si v
khng phi r nhnh nhiu.
Tuy nhiu si nhng cp khng qu to. V d: cp c 800 si: ng knh ngoi H
35 mm; cp ni ht c 4000 si: ng knh ngoi H85 mm.

Phn loi theo mc ch s dng:c th chia ra cc loi sau:

- Cp dng trn mng thu bao ni ht, nng thn.

- Cp trung k gia cc tng di.

- Cp ng di.

Phn loi theo iu kin lp t: bao gm cc loi sau:

- Cp chn trc tip.

- Cp t trong ng.

- Cp th di nc, th bin.

- Cp dng trong nh.

Cu trc cp quang.

Tuy rng phn chia ra nhiu loi, song s dng ph bin hin nay l cp quang c cu trc
c in. Sau y chng ta xem xt cu to c bn ca mt cp quang c cu trc c in.
Cu trc c in tng qut gm c: thnh phn chu lc trung tm, si quang, bng qun,
cht nhi, lp gia cng ngoi, v cp.



















Si quang
Hnh 2.52 Cu trc tng qut ca cp quang.

Cc si quang c m (dng m lng, m kht, m tng hp, bng dp) sp xp
theo mt th t nht nh.
Cch sp xp si quang

Si quang thng c sp xp theo tng lp hoc n v.

- Cu trc lp: thng dng mng ng di.
Chng 2: Si Quang
77



















(a) (b)

(a) (b) Hnh 2.53 Cu trc lp.
(a) Cu trc mt lp.

(b) Cu trc hai lp.

- Cu trc n v: c mt si cao nn ph hp vi mng cp ni ht.






























S xon rut cp:
Hnh 2.54 Cu trc n v.

Si quang cng cc thnh phn khc (dy ng, ng lm y, ...) s c bn
xung quanh thnh phn chu lc trung tm to thnh rut cp. C cc kiu xon
cp: kiu S (xon thun), kiu Z (xon nghch), v kiu SZ (xon thun nghch).
Trong cch bn SZ phi c dy qun xung quanh cc thnh phn bn gi chng do
cng ca cc thnh phn bn, c bit l ch i chiu.
Chng 2: Si Quang
78














(a) (b) (c)

Hnh 2.55 Cc kiu xon cp

(a) Xon kiu S (xon thun).

(b) Xon kiu Z (xon nghch).

(c) Xon kiu SZ (xon thun nghch).

Thnh phn chu lc (Thnh phn gia cng)

Nhim v ca thnh phn chu lc:

- Gi cho si quang khng b ko cng trong qu trnh lp t cp.

- Tng kh nng chu lc c hc cn thit cho cp, t bit l m bo tnh n nh
nhit cho cp.
- Chng li s xm nhp ca nc v hi nc.

Yu cu vt liu s dng lm gia cng phi nh, c mm do. y l c tnh rt
quang trng trong qu trnh ko cp vo ng dn.
Cc thnh phn chu lc: c hai dng, l thnh phn chu lc trung tm v thnh
phn gia cng ngoi.
- Thnh phn chu lc trung tm nm tm cp (trc ca cp - Xem hnh 4.59).
y l thnh phn chu ton b lc cho cp khi lp t, v khng th thiu c.
Vt liu ch to thnh phn chu lc trung tm c th l kim loi hoc phi kim
loi. Kim loi thng l thp, v thp c ng sut cao, h s nhit thp, r tin.
Nhng phi lu chng n mn v phng in khi c in p trn . Dng thp
lm thnh phn gia cng s khng ph hp vi cc loi cp c yu cu i hi
mm do cao. Vt liu phi kim loi c th l cc si do pha thy tinh, si
aramid, si Kevlar, hay si cacbon. Cp c thnh phn chu lc trung tm bng
phi kim loi thng c trng lng nh v khng b nh hng bi in t
trng ngoi. Si Aramid l mt vt liu nh, bn chc. Kevlar, mt nhn hiu c
th ca si aramid, rt bn v thng c s dng trong cc o chng n.
Nhng cp si quang phi chu sc cng ln thng s dng Kevlar lm thnh
phn gia cng trung tm. Khi c b tr ngay bn trong v bc cp v bc ton
b phn bn trong cp, kevlar bo v thm cho cc si quang chng li tc ng
ca mi trng. N cng c th cung cp cc tnh cht chng n cho nhng cp
cn dng trong cc h thng chy qua khu vc c bn sng.
Chng 2: Si Quang
79





Thnh phn chu
lc trung tm






Hnh 2.56 Thnh phnchu lc trung tm cp.

- Thnh phn gia cng ngoi bao quanh rut cp: b xung thm kh nng chu lc
cho cc phn t gia cng khc trong rut. Vt liu gia cng thng l si t
aramit, bng kim loi c dng si (mt lp hoc hai lp) hoc dng l mng c
dp gn sng hnh sin.






















V cp
Hnh 2.57 Thnh phn gia cng ngoi.


V cp c tc dng bo v rut cp trnh nh hng ca iu kin bn ngoi nh: lc c
hc, tc dng ca cc cht ho hc, nhit , hi m, ...Khi chn vt liu lm v cp cn lu n
c tnh sau: c tnh kh hu, kh nng chng m, tnh tr i vi cc cht ha hc, bo m cho
cp c kch thc nh, trng lng nh, kh chy. Cng tng t nh cp ng, v cp quang
c ch to t nhiu vt liu khc nhau. Cc vt liu thng c s dng lm v cp: PVC, PE,
PUR.
Cht nhi (Cht lm y)

ngn nc vo rut cp, th dng cht nhn vo tt c cc khe h trong rut cp
di p sut ln. Cht ny c yu cu l khng gy tc hi ha hc ln cc thnh phn khc, c h
s n hit b, khng ng cng, khng lm cp b dn n v b cng qu.
TM TT

Hiu c s lan truyn ca nh sng trong si quang khng nhng gip chng ta thy r
nhng u im ni bc ca vic s dng cp quang lm mi trng truyn dn m cn gip chng
ta nm bt c cc vn cn phi gii quyt khi thit k h thng thng tin quang tc cao.
Chng ta bt u chng ny bng vic tm hiu nh sng lan truyn nh th no trong
cc si quang, v cc khi nim ban u v mode, si a mode v n mode. Bng cc s dng
Chng 2: Si Quang
80



l thuyt quang hnh hc n gin (phn 2.2) chng ta tm ra c iu kin nh sng c th
lan truyn c trong si quang thng qua khi nim v khu s (NA).

nh sng l sng in t do c ci nhn todin v s lan truyn ca nh sng trong
si quang, chng ta cn phi ng dng v gii h phng trnh Maxwell cho ng dn sng hnh
tr vi iu kin dn yu ( tc l cho si quang). Cc li gii ca h phng trnh Maxwell chnh
l cc mode sng lan truyn trong si quang. Vic gii phng trnh Maxwell (phn 2.3) cho
chng ta thy r thm bn cht vt l ca mode l g; v sao nh sng lan truyn trong si quang
di dng mt tp ri rt; v quan trng hn na l cc iu kin hnh thnh cc mode ny
thng qua cc khi nim v tn s c chun ha v bc sng ct. Chng ta ng dng cc iu
kin ny ch to cc si quang n mode c s dng rng ri trn mng vin thng hin
nay.

nh sng lan truyn trong si quang s b suy, tn sc v chu nh hng ca cc hiu ng
phi tuyn. Trong phn 2.4 chng ta kho st chi tit bn cht vt l ca hin tng suy hao v
tn st. Chng ta hiu r tn sc lm hn ch di thng truyn dn nh th no v nguyn nhn
thc y vic s dng si quang n mode. Chng ta cng thy mc d tn sc l yu t quan
trng nht gii hn cht lng ca h thng tc 2.5 Gbps v thp hn na, cc hiu ng phi
tuyn tr nn quan trng tc bit cao hn v cc h thng a knh WDM. Chng ta s kho
st chi tit tr li ngun gc v nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn ny trong Bi ging H
thng thng tin quang 2.
Si n mode tiu chun (SMF-G.652) gip chng ta loi b c tn sc mode nhng
trong vng suy hao nh nht (ca s 1550 nm), tn sc mu vn khng phi l ti thiu. iu ny
dn ti vic ch to si quang dch chuyn tn sc (DFS-G.653) bo m bc sng gn
1550nm khng nhng c suy hao nh nht m cn c tn sc mu bng khng. Phn 2.5 cho thy
nguyn l thc hin vic ny thay i mt ct chit sut li si. Chng ta cng ta cng thy r
cng bng nguyn l ny ngi ta cng ch to ra c cc loi si quang mi khng nhng lm
gim c nh hng ca tn sc mu m cn lm gim nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn
ng dng cho cc h thng WDM.
Chng ta dnh phn cui cng (2.6) tm hiu cng ngh ch to si quang v cp
quang.

CU HI N TP

Cho mt tia sng t mi trng 1 vi chit sut n1 ti mt ngn cch mi trng 2
c chit sut n2. Gi s n1 < n2. Khi :
a. Lun lun c tia khc x.

b. Lun lun c hin tng phn x ton phn.

c. Hin tng phn x ton phn xy ra khi gc ti ln hn gc ti hn.

d. Tt c cc cu trn u ng.

Cho mt tia sng t mi trng 1 vi chit sut n1 ti mt ngn cch mi trng 2
c chit sut n2. Gi s n1 > n2.Khi :
a. Lun lun c tia khc x.

b. Lun lun c hin tng phn x ton phn.

c. Hin tng phn x ton phn xy ra khi gc ti ln hn gc ti hn.

d. Khng c hin tng phn x ton phn.
Chng 2: Si Quang
81


'
1


1
a


Cho si quang chit sut bc SI. iu kin a tia sng vo si quang l :

a. Tia sng nm trong vng khu s.

b. Tia sng nm ngoi vng khu s.

c. C a v b u ng.

d. C a v b u sai.
+
n
T

r
g


r o a
+
'
C
ho chit sut si quang c phn b nh sau: n(r ) =
+
,
s




,
]


vi
+ n a o r o b
|
+
2
n1: chit sut ln nht li, tc ti r = 0. Hay n(0) = n1, n2: chit sut lp bc, r: khong cch
tnh t trc si n im tnh chit sut, a: bn knh li si quang, b: bn knh lp bc si.
quang. Si quang l si chit sut bc (SI) khi :
a. g = 1.

b. g = 2.

c. g = 3.

d. g =

S mode sng truyn c trong si quang khng ph thuc vo:

a. Bc sng cng tc.

b. ng knh li si.

c. ng knh lp bc.

d. Chit sut li si v lp bc.

Nu nh sng truyn trong si quang c bc sng ln hn bc sng ct th:

a. Si quang l si n mode.

b. Si quang l si a mode.

c. Si quang l n mode hay a mode ph thuc vo ng knh li si quang.

d. Si quang l n mode hay a mode ph thuc vo gc pht sng ca ngun quang.

Cu no trong nhng cu sau y l ng cho cp si quang:

a. D b nh hng ca in t trng.

b. Mc hn cp ng.

c. Lm cho cc xung quang yu dn v dn ra.

d. Ch c th truyn cc sng nh sng cc tm.

Cu no trong nhng cu sau y l ng cho hin tng suy hao trong si quang:

a. Hin tng cng sut ca tn hiu quang b suy gim khi lan truyn trong si quang.

b. Hin tng gin xung nh sng khi lan truyn trong si quang.

c. Cc tham s ca tn hiu quang ph thuc vo cng (cng sut) nh sng.

d. Tt c cc cu trn u ng.

Cu no trong nhng cu sau y l ng cho hin tng tn sc trong si quang:

a. Hin tng cng sut ca tn hiu quang b suy gim khi lan truyn trong si quang.

Chng 2: Si Quang
82


b. Hin tng gin xung nh sng khi lan truyn trong si quang.
Chng 2: Si Quang
83



c. Cc tham s ca tn hiu quang ph thuc vo cng (cng sut) nh sng.

d. Tt c cc cu trn u ng.

Cu no trong nhng cu sau y l ng cho hin tng phi tuyn trong si quang:

a. Hin tng cng sut ca tn hiu quang b suy gim khi lan truyn trong si quang.

b. Hin tng gin xung nh sng khi lan truyn trong si quang.

c. Cc tham s ca tn hiu quang ph thuc vo cng (cng sut) nh sng.

d. Tt c cc cu trn u ng.

Hin tng suy hao c th so snh vi hin tng sau:

a. Khi xe hi chy trn xa l th bnh xng cn dn.

b. Xe hi va chm vi mt xe hi khc khi chy trn xa l.

c. Cc xe hi chy trn cc ln khc nhau ca mt xa l c phn lung.

d. Tt c cc cu trn u ng.

Hin tng tn sc c th so snh vi hin tng sau:

a. Khi xe hi chy trn xa l th bnh xng cn dn.

b. Xe hi va chm vi mt xe hi khc khi chy trn xa l.

c. Cc xe hi chy trn cc ln khc nhau ca mt xa l c phn lung.

d. Tt c cc cu trn u ng.

Ca s quang dng cho cc h thng quang SDH/ SONET l 1550nm v:

a. Suy hao ca si quang ca s ny l nh nht

b. Tn sc mu ca si quang ca s l nh nht.

c. Cc hin tng phi tuyn l nh nht.

d. Tt c cc cu trn u ng.

Suy hao do hp th bi OH- c cc nh:

a. 750nm.

b. 950nm.

c. 1400nm.

d. Tt c cc cu trn u ng.

Suy hao do tn x tuyn tnh l do:

a. S ph thuc ca chit sut si quang vo cng in trng hot ng.

b. S khng ng u rt nh ca li si quang lm nng lng t mode lan truyn c
truyn sang mt mode khc (gi l mode bc x).
c. Cc tp cht nh OH- hp th nng lng nh sng.

d. Nng lng t mt sng nh sng c chuyn sang mt sng nh sng khc c bc
sng di hn. Nng lng mt i b hp th bi cc phonon.
Cc hiu ng Kerr bao gm:

a. Hiu ng t iu pha (SPM).

b. Hiu ng iu ch xuyn pha (CPM).

c. Hiu ng trn bn tn s (FWM).

d. Tt c cc cu trn u ng.
Chng 2: Si Quang
84



Hiu ng tn x phi tuyn bao gm:

a. Tn x do kch thch Brillouin (SBS).

b. Tn x do kch thch Raman (SRS).

c. Tn x Rayleigh.

d. Ch c a v b ng.

Si quang DSF G.653 c :

a. Suy hao nh nht v tn sc bng khng vng ca s 1300nm.

b. Suy hao nh nht vng ca s 1300nm v tn sc bng khng vng ca s
1550nm.

c. Suy hao nh nht vng ca s 1550nm v tn sc bng khng vng ca s
1330nm.

d. Suy hao nh nht v tn sc bng khng vng ca s 1550nm.

Cc hiu phi tuyn c th gim c khi s dng:

a. Si quang CSF G.654.

b. Si quang DSF G.653.

c. Si quang NZ-DSF G.655.

d. Tt c cc loi si quang trn.

Si quang c tn sc m c dng cho cc tuyn di bin l do:

a. Tn sc m lm xung quang co li.

b. Khng xy ra hin tng khng n nh iu ch.

c. Khng cn nng cp s dng di L.

d. Ch c b v c ng.

gim suy hao do un cong:

a. Thit k si quang c chnh lch chit sut ln v hot ng bc sng ngn
hn c th.
b. Thit k si quang c chnh lch chit sut nh v hot ng bc sng ngn
hn c th.
c. Thit k si quang c chnh lch chit sut nh v hot ng bc sng di
hn c th.
d. Thit k si quang c chnh lch chit sut ln v hot ng bc sng di
hn c th.
Khi tn sc ln tng c ly truyn dn:

a. Tng cng sut pht quang.

b. Gim cng sut pht quang.

c. Tng tc bit truyn trn si quang.

d. Gim tc bt truyn trn si quang.

Trong si n mode c th b qua nh hng c tn sc:

a. Tn sc mode.

b. Tn sc vt liu.
Chng 2: Si Quang
85



c. Tn sc ng dn sng.

d. Tn sc phn cc mode.

Trong h thng thng tin quang, c ly truyn dn s v cng ln:

a. Nu c th tng cng sut pht quang ln v cng ln.

b. Nu gim tn sc tng cng bng khng.

c. C a v b u ng.

d. C a v b u sai.

Trong cc loi si quang mi, dch chuyn tn sc ti thiu ti vng bc sng 1550 nm,
ngi ta :
a. Pha thm mt s tp cht nh Ge2O5 v P2O5 lm gim tn sc vt liu.

b. Thay i mt ct ch s chit sut li thay i tn sc ng dn sng.

c. Kt hp c hai phng php a v b.

d. Khng c phng php no.


BI TP

Cc bi tp sau y c trch t ti liu tham kho [1]

Cho si quang c chit sut li l n1=1,5 v chit sut lp bc l n2= 1.47. Xc nh:
a) Gc ti hn \c ti giao tip lp li v lp bc.

b) Khu s NA ca si quang.

c) Gc tip nhn t khng kh vo si quang \a.

chnh lch chit sut ca si quang l =1%. Chit sut lp li l n1= 1.46. Xc
nh:

a) Khu s NA ca si quang.

b) Gc ti hn ti giao tip lp li v lp bc \c.

Cho si quang a mode chit sut bc c ng knh li l 2a = 80 m v chnh
lch chit sut tng i l =1.5% hot ng bc sng = 0.85 m. Xc nh:
a) Tn s c chun ha V ca si quang.

b) S mode sng truyn c trong si quang N

Cho si quang chit sut bin i theo dng parabol c ng knh li 2a = 50 m.
Si quang c khu s NA = 0.2. Xc nh s mode sng N c th truyn c trong si
khi n hot ng bc sng = 1 m
Xc nh bc sng ct c si quang chit sut bc hat ng ch n mode
nu si c chit sut li n1 = 1.46, bn knh li a = 4.5 m, v chnh lch chit sut tng
i l
= 0.25%.

Tnh bn knh li a ca si quang n mode SI c ng knh trng mode (MFD)
bng 11.6
m khi tn s c chun ha V = 2.2.

Cho si quang a mode c lch chit chut tng i = 1%, chit sut li n1
= 1.5. s mode sng truyn c trong si quang ti bc sng = 1.3 m l N = 1100.
Chng 2: Si Quang
86


Tnh ng knh li si 2a.
Chng 2: Si Quang
87



Cho t s bng s gia cng sut ng vo v ng ra trn 1 km l 2.5. Tnh cng sut quang
trung bnh thu c trn tuyn quang di 5 km nu cng sut quang trung bnh pht vo si
quang l 1mW (gi s tuyn khng c b kt ni hoc connector).
Cho si quang di L= 8 km. Cng sut a vo si quang l Pin=120 W, cng sut quang
ng ra l Pout=3 W. Tnh:

a) Suy hao ton trnh A (dB) ca si quang. Gi s khng c connector hoc mi ni no.

b) H s suy hao ca si quang ((dB/km).

c) Cng dng si quang tng t nh trn nhng chiu di l L=10km v c mi ni trn
mi km vi suy hao mi ni l 1 dB. Tnh suy hao ton trnh trong trng hp ny.
d) T s Pin/Pout bng s ca cu (c ).
Cho cng sut quang trung bnh pht vo tuyn cp si quang l 1.5 mW v si quang c suy
hao 0.5 dB/km. Tnh chiu di ti a ca tuyn m khng cn phi s dng trm lp (gii s
cc connector khng c suy hao) khi mc cng sut trung bnh ti thiu cn c ti b tch
quang l 2 W.
Cho mt tuyn cp si quang di 15 km c suy hao 1.5 dB/km. Si quang c kt ni trn
tng kilometre bng cc connector c suy hao 0.8 dB/connector. Tnh cng sut trung bnh
ti thiu cn phi pht vo si quang duy tr mc cng sut quang trung bnh ti b tch
quang l 0.3 W.
Cho si quang silica, c h s nn ng nhit ti nhit TF=1400K l c=7x10
-11
m
2
/N.
Chit sut n=1.46, h s quang n hi p=0.286. Xc nh h s suy hao ((dB/km) ti cc
bc sng =0.65 m, 1 m, 1.3 m. Hng s Boltzman K=1.381x10-23 J/K.
Cho si quang li thy tinh K2o-SiO2 c suy hao do tn x Rayleigh ( = 0.46 dB/km ti
bc sng = 1m. Thy tinh c h s nn ng nhit c=8.4x10
-11
m
2
/N ti nhit TF = 758
K, v h s quang n hi p = 0.245. Tnh chit sut ca li si n1.
Cho si quang n mode SI c chit sut li l n1 = 1.49 c bn knh un cong ti hn
bng 2 mm khi c pht quang bng nh sng c bc sng = 1.30 m. Tnh lch chit
sut tng i nu bc sng ct ca si quang l c = 1.15 m.
Cho hai si quang c cc tham s sau:

a) Si a mode c chit sut li n1 = 1.5, lch chit sut tng i = 3% v hot ng
bc sng = 0.82 m.

b) Si n mode c ng knh li 2a = 8 m, chit sut li n1 = 1.5, lch chit sut tng
i = 0.3% v hot ng bc sng = 1.55 m.

Tnh bn knh un cong Rc cho php trong hai trng hp ny.
Cho si quang a mode, chit sut nhy bc c dn xung tng cng trn L=15 km l Dt
= 0.1m.Tnh

a) Di thng ti a c th trn tuyn quang ny khng c giao thoa gia cc k t.

b) tn sc dt (ns/km).
c) Tch di thng chiu di BoptL
Chng 2: Si Quang
84


1


Mt si thy tinh c tn sc cht liu c cho bi:

d
2
n

2
d
2



=0,025. Hy xc nh h

so tn sc vt liu M bc sng = 0,85 m, v tnh tri rng xung hiu dng trn mi
Km (m khi ngun quang LED pht ra bc sng 850 nm c rng ph hiu dng ( =
20nm.
Tnh tri rng xung hiu dng trn mi km (m trong bi tp 2.10 khi ngun quang
c s dng l ngun lsaer c rng ph tng i ( / = 0.0012 ti bc sng 0.85 m.

Mt tuyn quang 6Km dng si a mode SI, li c chit sut n1 bng 1,5, chnh lch
chit sut tng i = 1%. Hy xc nh:
a) Thi gian chnh lch gia mode nhanh nht v mode chm nht Tmode (SI).

b) tri rng xung hiu dng do tn sc mode trn tuyn (mode(SI).

c) Tc bit cc i c th t c, gi s ch c tn sc mode BT(max).
d) Tch di thng vi chiu di cu (c) BoptxL.
Hy so snh tri rng xung hiu dng trn mi Km do tn sc mode ca si a mode
chit sut nhy bc trong trong bi tp 2.12 vi si a mode chit sut gim dn c phn b
chit sut ti u c cng chit sut li n1 v .
Cho si quang a mode chit sut bc c khu s NA = 0.3, chit sut li n1 = 1.45. H
s tn sc vt liu M = 250 ps.nm/km. B qua tn sc ng dn sng. Tnh :

a) tri rng xung hiu dng tng cng (t nu s dng ngun LED c rng ph hiu dng
( = 50 nm.

b) Tch di thng tng ng vi di BoptxL
Cho si quang a mode chit sut bc c tri rng xung tng cng l 95 ns trn chiu
di 5 km. Tnh tch di thng chiu di nu m NRZ c s dng.
Cho si n mode c tch di thng chiu di bng 10 GHz.km. Tnh tri rng xung
hiu dng trn tuyn quang di 40 km khng c cc trm lp, v s dng m RZ.
Cho si n mode chit sut bc vi chit sut li n1 = 1.49 c bn knh un cong cho
php Rc = 2mm khi c pht sng bc sng = 1.30 m. Tnh chnh lch chit sut
tng i nu bc sng ct c = 1.15m.
Mt tuyn cp si quang di 8 km khng c trm lp s dng si quang a mode chit sut
bc c tch di thng chiu di bng 400 MHz.km. Tnh :
a) tri rng xung tng cng trn ton tuyn ;

b) tri rng xung tng cng hiu dng trn tan tuyn .

TI LIU THAM KHO

1. Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition- John M. Senior.

2. FiberOptic Communications Technology -Djafar K.Mynbaev, Lowell L.Scheiner, 2001.

3. Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, Second Edition- Rajiv Ramaswami, Kumar N.
Sivarajan, 2002.

4. K thut thng tin quang Hong ng Huyn, H Ni 1993.
Chng 2: Si Quang
83












Chng 3 B pht quang
89



CHNG 3: B PHT QUANG




NGUYN L CHUNG V BIN I QUANG IN

3.1.1- Mc nng lng (Energy Level)

Qu trnh bin i nng lng in thnh nh sng v ngc li trong cc linh kin bin
i quang in c th c gii thch da trn tnh cht ht ca nh sng v tnh cht lng t ca
vt cht.

Theo tnh cht ht ca nh sng, nh sng bao gm nhiu ht gi l photon. Mi photon
mang mt nng lng nht nh c xc nh bng cng thc sau:

Eph = hf (3.1)
Trong , h l hng s Plank (h= 6,625x10
-34
J.s); f l tn s ca photon nh sng.
Nng lng ca nh sng bng tng nng lng ca cc photon (Nph):
E
nh sng
= N
ph
x E
ph
(3.2)
Theo tnh cht lng t ca vt cht, vt cht c cu to t cc nguyn t. Mi nguyn
t gm c mt ht nhn, mang in tch dng, c bao quanh bi cc in t (electron), mang
in tch m. Cc in t ny quay quanh ht nhn theo cc qu o n nh (hnh 3.1) v mang
mt mc nng lng nht nh [1].












Hnh 3.1. M hnh mt nguyn t vi cc in t quay ht nhn vi cc qu o n nh

Cc mc nng lng ny l khng lin tc. Mt in t ch c th mang mt trong cc
mc nng lng ri rc ny. Khi in t thay i trng thi nng lng th n s chuyn t qu
o ny sang qu o khc khi quay quanh ht nhn. Trng thi nng lng ca in t trong mt
nguyn t c minh ho qua biu mc nng lng (energy level diagram) nh hnh 3.2.

Nng lng E(eV)
E4
E3
E2
E1


E0





Di cm nng lung (energy gap)
Eij=Ej - Ei
Trng thi nn (ground state)


Hnh 3.2. Biu mc nng lng (energy level diagram)
Chng 3 B pht quang
90



Trong biu mc nng lng, trng thi nng lng thp nht ca in t c gi l
trng thi nn (ground state) E0. y l trng thi n nh ca in t. Cc trng thi nng lng
cao hn ca in t c gi l cc trng thi kch thch (excited state) c biu din bng cc
mc nng lng E1, E2, E3, Cc mc nng lng ny khng lin tc v cch nhau mt khong
nng lng c gi l di cm nng lng (energy gap) Eij = Ej Ei (i,j = 0,1,2,3 ). Nh vy,
nng lng mt in t c th l E0, E1, E2 ch khng nm gia cc mc nng lng ny.
Mt in t cc trng thi nng lng khc nhau ph thuc vo nhit v c th
c biu din bng hm phn b Boltzmann [2]:

N
i
= N
0

e
[Ei / kBT ]
(3.3)

Trong , Ni v N0 l mt in t mc nng lng Ei v mc nng lng nn E0, Ei l
chnh lch nng lng gia Ei v E0; kB= 1,38.10
-23
(J/
o
K) l hng s Boltzmann, T l nhit
tuyt i (
o
K).

Lu rng phn b ny xy ra khi cn bng v nhit.

Nng lng E

exp(-Ei/kBT)

Ei








E0

Ni N0


Mt in t

Hnh 3.3. Phn b mt in t theo phn b Boltzmann khi cn bng v nhit
Mt s nhn xt rt ra t hm phn b Boltzmann:
- Mt in t trng thi nng lng thp cao hn so vi mt in t trng thi
nng lng cao: Ni > Nj (vi i<j)

- Mt in t trng thi nn l ln nht.

- Ti T = 0
o
K (nhit khng tuyt i), tan b in t trng thi nn. Khng c
in t trng thi kch thch.

- Khi nhit tng ln, T > 0
o
K, cc in t s hp th nng lng do nhit cung
cp (nng lng nhit) v thay i trng thi nng lng, chuyn t mc nng lng
E0 ln cc mc nng lng cao hn. S in t cc mc nng lng kch thch tng
ln khi nhit tng ln.

Mt in t cc mc nng lng khc nhau n nh khi cn bng v nhit v ng
thi vi qu trnh hp th nng lng ca in t (lm tng mt in t cc mc nng lng
cao v gim mt in t mc nn) l qu trnh tr v trng thi nng lng nn ban u ca
cc in t khi cc mc nng lng cao. Hin tng ny xy ra v trng thi nn l trng thi
Chng 3 B pht quang
91



nng lng bn vng ca in t. Cc in t khi cc trng thi nng lng kch thch lun c
xu hng chuyn v cc trng thi nng lng thp hn sau mt khong thi gian duy tr trng
thi kch thch. Khong thi gian ny c gi l thi gian sng (lifetime) ca in t. Thi gian
sng thay i ty theo loi vt cht, thng thng trong khong vi nano giy n vi micro giy.

Khi in t chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao xung trng thi nng lng thp hn,
theo nh lut bo tan nng lng, n s gii phng mt phn nng lng bng ng chnh
lch gia hai mc nng lng. Nng lng c gii ta ny c th di dng nhit hoc nh
sng. Qu trnh ny din ra t nhin v ngu nhin v y l bn cht t nhin ca vt cht.

3.1.2- Cc nguyn l bin i quang in

Nguyn l bin i quang in trong thng tin quang c thc hin da trn 3 hin tng
c minh ho nh trn hnh 3.4.

E2 E2 E2

hf
hf
hf

E1 E1
E
1
hf (cng

a. Hp th
(Absorption)
b. Pht x t pht
(Spontaneous emission)
c. Pht x kch thch
(Stimulated emission)

Hnh 3.4. Cc hin tng bin i quang in (a). Hp th (b). Pht x t pht
(c). Pht x kch thch

Hin tng hp th (absorption), hnh 3.4.a, xy ra khi mt photon c nng lng hf b
hp th bi mt in t trng thi nng lng thp E1. Qu trnh ny ch xy ra khi nng lng
hf ca photon bng vi chnh lch nng lng gia mc nng lng cao v mc nng lng
thp ca in t (Eg = E2 E1). Khi xy ra hin tng hp th, in t s nhn nng lng t
photon v chuyn ln trng thi nng lng cao.

Hin tng pht x t pht (spontaneous emission), hnh 3.4.b, xy ra khi mt in t
chuyn trng thi nng lng t mc nng lng cao E2 xung mc nng lng thp E1 v pht ra
mt nng lng Eg= E2 E1 di dng mt photon nh sng. Qu trnh ny xy ra mt cch t
nhin v trng thi nng lng cao E2 khng phi l trng thi nng lng bn vng ca in t.

Hin tng pht x kch thch (stimulated emision), hnh 3.4.c, xy ra khi mt in t
ang trng thi nng lng cao E2 b kch thch bi mt photon c nng lng hf bng vi
chnh lch nng lng gia trng thi nng lng cao v trng thi nng lng thp ca in t
(Eg= E2 E1). Khi , in t s chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao xung trng thi nng lng
thp hn v to ra mt photon c nng lng bng vi nng lng ca photon kch thch ban u.
Nh vy, t mt photon ban u sau khi khi xy ra hin tng pht x kch thch s to ra hai
photon (photon ban u v photon mi c to ra). Photon mi c to ra c c im: cng
tn s, cng pha, cng phn cc v cng hng truyn vi photon kch thch ban u. y l cc
c im ca tnh kt hp (coherent) ca nh sng. Do vy, nh sng do hin tng pht x kch
thch to ra c tnh kt hp.

Hin tng pht x t pht xy ra t nhin do cc in t lun c khuynh hng chuyn
t trng thi nng lng cao xung trng thi n nh c nng lng thp hn. Cc photon nh
Chng 3 B pht quang
92



sng do hin tng pht x t pht to ra mt cch ngu nhin theo thi gian v khng gian. Do
, pha, tn s, hng truyn cng nh phn cc ca sng nh sng c to ra cng ngu nhin.
V vy, nh sng do hin tng pht x t pht to ra khng c tnh kt hp.
Hnh 3.5 minh ho cc trng thi thay i nng lng ca in t khi xy ra 3 hin tng
bin i quang in nu trn.










a. Hin tng hp th v pht x t pht b. Hin tng pht x kch thch

Hnh 3.5 Minh ho cc trng thi chuyn i nng lng gia in t v photon [2]

Cc linh kin bin i quang in dng trong thng tin quang s da vo mt trong cc
hin tng ny thc hin qu trnh bin i quang in theo chc nng ca tng loi linh kin.
V d nh:

- Hp th l nguyn l bin i tn hiu nh sng thnh tn hiu in trong cc linh kin
tch sng quang (photodetector)

- Pht x t pht l nguyn l bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu nh sng xy ra trong
LED (Light Emitting Diode). V vy, nh sng do LED pht ra khng c tnh kt hp.

- Pht x kch thch l nguyn l bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang xy ra trong
Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). Hin tng ny cng
l nguyn l khuch i tn hiu nh sng xy ra trong cc b khuch i quang (Optical
Amplifier). nh sng uc to ra sau Laser cng nh cc b khuch i quang c tnh
kt hp.

Lu rng, trong t nhin, c ba hin tng ny xy ra ng thi vi nhau. Qu trnh hp
th nng lng photon (hin tng hp th) v pht x photon (hin tng pht x t pht v pht
x kch thch) cn bng vi nhau trong iu kin cn bng v nhit (Khi , phn b in t cc
mc nng lng khc nhau l n nh theo phn b Boltzmann). Ty theo mc ch ng dng ca
tng loi kin quang in, mt trong cc hin tng ny s c tp trung, lm tng kh nng xy
ra di cc iu kin nh hng bn ngoi nhm t c hiu sut cao nht. Chi tit v cc iu
kin ny s c phn tch c th trong phn trnh by cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca cc
linh kin bin i quang in.

Vng nng lng (Energy Band):

Trong cht bn dn (cng nh trong cht rn ni chung), cc mc nng lng vn ri
rc nhng chng rt l gn nhau v c xem nh mt vng nng lng hn l mt nhm cc
mc nng lng. Khi nim ny c th c minh ho trong hnh 3.6 khi mt khong lin tc
ca vng nng lng khi c phng to ln s cho thy n c cu to bi cc mc nng
lng ri rc nhau [1].
Chng 3 B pht quang
93



E


Vung dan
(Conduction band)


Di cm nng lng
(Energy band gap)


Vung hoatr
(Valence band)



Hnh 3.6. Vng nng lng ca cht bn dn [1]

Trong cht bn dn, cc in t phn b trong hai vng nng lng tch bit nhau
c gi l: vng ha tr (valence band) v vng dn (conduction band). Vng ha tr l vng
nng lng c nng lng thp v l vng nng lng bn vng ca in t. Cc in t lun
c xu hng chuyn v vng ha tr sau mt khong thi gian sng vng dn. Vng dn l
vng nng lng cao hn ca cc eletron. S dn in ca cht bn dn c thc hin bi
cc in t nm vng dn ny.

Qu trnh bin i quang in xy ra trong cht bn dn cng c gii thch da trn
ba hin tng: hp th (absorption), pht x t pht (spontaneous emission) v pht x kch
thch (stimulated emission) nh trong biu mc nng lng. Ngha l, iu kin mt
in t c th chuyn t trng thi nng lng thp (vng ha tr) sang trng thi nng lng
cao (vng dn) l: nng lng m in t nhn c phi bng vi chnh lch nng lng
gia hai vng nng lng ha tr v vng dn. Nu nng lng c cung cp khng bng vi
bt k chnh lch nng lng no gia hai vng nng lng ny th qu trnh hp th cng
nh pht x kch thch s khng xy ra.

Ngun quang bn dn (Semiconductor Light Source)

Ngun quang l linh kin bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu nh sng c cng sut t l
vi dng in chy qua n.

C hai loi ngun quang c s dng trong thng tin quang:

- Diode pht quang LED (Light Emitting Diode)

- Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

Cc yu cu i vi mt ngun quang s dng trong h thng thng tin quang l [3]:

- C kch thuc nh tng ng vi si quang c th ghp nh sng vo trong si
quang. L tng, nh sng ng ra ca ngun quang phi c tnh nh hng cao.

- Thu nhn tn hiu in ng vo mt cch chnh xc gim s mo dng v nhiu ln
tn hiu. L tng, ngun quang phi tuyn tnh.
Chng 3 B pht quang
94



- Pht ra nh sng c bc sng ph hp vi vng bc sng m si quang c suy hao
thp v tn sc thp, ng thi linh kin thu quang hot ng hiu qu ti cc bc
sng ny.

- C kh nng iu ch tn hiu mt cch n gin (v d nh iu ch trc tip) trn di
tn rng tri di t tn s m thanh ti di tn gigahezt.

- Hiu sut ghp quang tt gim suy hao ghp t ngun quang vo trong si quang.

- rng ph hp gim tn sc trong si quang

- Duy tr mc cng sut ng ra n nh v khng b nh hng nhiu bi cc yu t mi
trng bn ngoi.

- Gi thnh thp v c tin cy cao cnh tranh vi cc k thut truyn dn khc.

Loi ngun quang c s dng trong thng tin quang l cc loi ngun quang bn dn v
c th p ng c cc yu cu trn. V vy, cu to cng nh nguyn l hot ng ca ngun
quang (cng nh linh kin thu quang) c trnh by trong phn ny l cc ngun quang bn dn.

Tuy nhin, khng phi cht bn dn no cng c s dng ch to ngun quang trong
thng tin quang. c th c s dng trong thng tin quang, cc cht bn dn cn phi c di
cm nng lng trc tip [3] v rng ca di cm nng lng ph hp sao cho c th to ra
nh sng c bc sng nm trong vng bc sng hot ng ca thng tin quang.

Khi xy ra qu trnh pht x nh sng, nng lng ca photon pht x bng vi chnh
lch nng lng ca in t khi vng dn v vng ha tr. Do , nng lng ca photon:

Eph = hc/ = Eg (3.4)
vi Eg l chnh lch nng lng ca in t khi vng dn v vng ha tr.
Khi , nh sng c pht x c bc sng:
= h.c/Eg (3.5)
Do mi loi vt liu khc nhau s c phn b cc vng nng lng khc nhau nn c th
ni rng bc sng ca nh sng do ngun quang pht ra ch ph thuc vo vt liu ch to ngun
quang.

Trong thng tin quang, nh sng ch c s dng ti 3 ca s bc sng 850nm, 1300nm
v 1550nm nn vt liu bn dn c s dng ch to ngun quang phi c di cm nng
lng gia vng dn v vng ha tr ph hp vi cc ca s bc sng hot ng ny.
Chng 3 B pht quang
95




























Hnh 3.7. (a). Di cm nng lng trc tip (b). Di cm nng lng gin tip [3]

Hnh 3.7. biu din mi quan h gia nng lng v ng lng (hay vector sng) ca
in t ti vng dn v vng ha tr ca hai loi bn dn c di cm trc tip (hnh 3.7.a) v di
cm gin tip (hnh 3.7.b). Qua cho thy,

- i vi di cm trc tip, phn y (c nng lng thp) ca vng dn nm i din
vi phn nh (c nng lng cao) ca vng ha tr. Do , cc in t hai vng ny
c ng lng bng nhau.

- i vi di cm gin tip, phn y (c nng lng thp) ca vng dn nm cch xa so
vi phn nh (c nng lng cao) ca vng ha tr. Do , cc in t hai vng ny
c ng lng khng bng nhau bng nhau.

iu kin qu trnh pht x photon xy ra hiu qu trong bn dn l khi xy ra pht x
photon, ng lng (hay vector sng) ca in t (nm vng dn) phi bng ng lng ca l
trng (nm vng ha tr) [1], [3]. Khi , ng lng ca in t c bo tan.

Nh vy c th thy rng, iu kin v bo tan ng lng khi xy ra qu trnh bin i
quang in ch t c vi cc cht bn dn c di cm trc tip. Khi , nng lng c pht
ra khi cc in t chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao (vng dn) sang trng thi nng lng thp
(vng ha tr) s to ra cc photon. Vi hiu sut pht x nh sng (pht x t pht v pht x kch
thch) ln, cc cht bn dn c di cm trc tip c th to ra cc ngun quang c cng sut pht
quang ln, hiu qu.

Ngc li, i vi cc cht bn dn c di cm nng lng gin tip, cc nng lng c
to ra do qu trnh chuyn trng thi nng lng ca in t s pht ra di dng phonon, khng
pht x (nonradiation). Nng lng ny c th l nng lng nhit hay dao ng ca cc phn t.

Nh vy, cht bn dn c s dng ch to ngun quang cn phi c: di cm trc
tip v nng lng chnh lch gia vng dn v vng ha tr phi ph hp c th to ra bc
sng nm trong cc ca s bc sng hot ng trong thng tin quang.
Chng 3 B pht quang
96


V
-
-

-
+
-
-

Thc t cho thy rng, cc bn dn thng thng thuc nhm IV nh Si, Ge, khng
tha hai iu kin trn. Vt liu bn dn c dng ch to ngun quang trong thng tin quang
c to ra bng cch kt hp cc vt liu nhm III (Ga, Al, ) v nhm V (As, P, In, ) nh
GaP, GaAsP, AlGaAs, GaAs, InP, InGaAsP

InGaAsP

GaAs/InP

AlGaAs

GaAsP

GaAs


0,5 0,6 0,7 0,85 1,0 1,3 1,55 (m)

Hnh 3.8. Bc sng nh sng pht x ca mt s loi bn dn nhm III kt hp vi nhm V [6]

Hnh 3.8 cho thy: to ra ngun quang c bc sng 850nm ngi ta s dng bn dn
AlGaAs, GaAs hay InP. Bn dn InGaAsP c s dng ch to ngun quang pht ra nh sng
ti ca s bc sng 1300nm v 1550nm. Gi tr ca bc sng c thay i bng cch thay i
t l gia cc cht kt hp trong bn dn ny In1-xGaxAs1-yPy.

3.2- LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)

3.2.1- Cu to v nguyn l hot ng:

V c bn, cu to ca LED c pht trin t diode bn dn, hot ng da trn tip gip
pn c phn cc thun. Qu trnh pht x nh sng xy ra trong LED da trn hin tng pht x
t pht (hnh 3.9). Trn thc t, LED c cu trc phc tp hn, gm nhiu lp bn dn p ng
ng thi cc yu cu k thut ca mt ngun quang.

I
+
-



Vung hiem
p (Depletion region) n
- +
- +
Phat xatphat
+ -

photon
-
-
+ V>VD
-
+ -
+
+
+
- +
- +
+

Ec

Eg = Ec - Ev

Ev

-

Eph = h
E


+
-
V
D
+


+ Lotrong

- i en t


Hnh 3.9. Cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca LED

Khi t hai lp bn dn p v n k nhau, ti lp tip gip pn, cc in t bn dn n s
khuch tn sang bn dn p kt hp vi l trng. Kt qu l, ti lp tip gip pn to nn mt
vng c rt t cc ht mang in (in t hay l trng) c gi l vng him (depletion region).
Chng 3 B pht quang
97



Lu rng: p l cht bn dn c tha l trng (mang in tch dng), n l cht bn dn
c tha in t (mang in tch m) nhng c hai cht bn dn ny u trung ha v in

Ti vng him, bn dn n mt i mt s cc in t nn mang in tch dng, cn bn
dn p nhn thm mt s in t nn mang in tch m. iu ny to nn mt in trng VD
ngn khng cho cc ht mang in khuch tn qua li gia bn dn n v p.

Khi phn cc thun (V > VD) cho bn dn pn nh hnh 3.9, cc in t trong bn dn n s
vt qua vng tip gip pn v chy v pha cc dng ca ngun in (ng thi cc l trng s
v pha cc m ca ngun in), to thnh dng in chy qua bn dn pn. y l nguyn l hot
ng ca diode bn dn.

Trong qu trnh in t t bn dn n chy v in cc dng, cc in t c th gp cc l
trng ti bn dn p (bn dn c tha l trng). Khi , cc in t v l trng s kt hp vi nhau
to lin kt cng ha tr gia cc nguyn t trong bn dn.

Xt v mt nng lng, khi mt in t kt hp vi l trng c ngha l in t chuyn t
trng thi nng lng cao (vng dn) sang trng thi nng lng thp (vng ha tr) ging nh
hin tng pht x t pht. Khi , theo nh lut bo tan nng lng, bn dn s pht ra mt
nng lng bng vi chnh lch gia vng dn v vng ha tr. Nu cht bn dn c s
dng c di cm nng lng trc tip th nng lng s c pht ra di dng photon nh sng.
y l nguyn l pht x nh sng ca diode pht quang LED (Light emitting diode).

3.2.2- c tnh P-I ca LED

Nguyn l hot ng ca LED cho thy rng, s photon pht x ph thuc vo s in t
(do dng in cung cp) chy qua vng tip gip pn, kt hp vi l trng trong lp bn dn p. Tuy
nhin, cn lu rng, khng phi in t no i qua lp bn dn p cng kt hp vi l trng v
khng phi qu trnh kt hp in t l trng (chuyn trng thi nng lng t vng dn sang
vng ha tr) no cng to ra photon nh sng. Nng lng c to ra ny c th di dng nng
lng nhit. Do vy, s photon c to ra cn ph thuc vo hiu sut lng t ni int (internal
quantum efficient) ca cht bn dn. Hiu sut int c nh ngha l t s gia s photon c
to ra trn s in t c dng in bm vo LED:

int = Nph / Ne (3.6)

Cng sut pht quang (nng lng nh sng trn mt n v thi gian) ca LED c th
c xc nh theo s photon pht x nh sau:

P = E/t = Nph.Eph /t= (Ne.int.Eph)/t (3.7)
Ngoi ra, ta c cng dng in chy qua LED:
I = Ne.e/t (3.8)
Vi Ne l s in t do dng in cung cp, e l in tch ca in t .
Do , mi quan h P-I gia cng sut pht quang v dng in c xc dnh nh sau:
P = [(int.Eph)/e].I (3.9)
Trong cng thc trn, Eph c n v l (J). Nu Eph c tnh bng n v (eV), th cng
sut pht quang:
Chng 3 B pht quang
98



P(mW) = [(int.Eph(eV)].I(mA) (3.9)

Hiu sut lng t ni int ph thuc vo vt liu bn dn c s dng v cu trc ca
ngun quang. Do , i vi mi loi ngun quang khc nhau s c c tuyn P-I khc nhau.
Cng sut pht quang t l thun vi dng in cung cp v trong trng hp l tng, c tuyn
thay i tuyn tnh nh hnh 3.10.

P(mW)


10




5




0
100 200
I(mA)

Hnh 3.10. c tuyn P-I ca LED
3.2.3- c tnh ph ca LED
Trong thng tin quang, nh sng do ngun quang pht ra khng phi ti mt bc sng
m ti mt khong bc sng. iu ny dn n hin tng tn sc sc th (chromatic dispersion)
lm hn ch c ly v dung lng truyn dn ca tuyn quang. Tnh cht ny ca ngun quang ni
chung v LED ni ring c gii thch nh sau [1] (hnh 3.11):

- Cc ngun quang trong thng tin quang c ch to t cht bn dn. Do , cc in
t nm trong mt vng nng lng ch khng phi mt mc nng lng

- Cc in t khi chuyn t cc cc mc nng lng Ej trong vng dn xung mc nng
lng Ei trong vng ho tr s to ra photon c bc sng:

- Do c nhiu mc nng lng khc nhau trong cc vng nng lng nn s c nhiu
bc sng nh sng c to ra.

- Phn b mt in t trong vng dn v vng ho tr khng u nhau, dn n cng
sut pht quang ti cc bc sng khc nhau khng u nhau

- Bc sng c cng sut ln nht c gi l bc sng trung tm. Bc sng ny thay
i theo nhit do phn b mt in t trong cc vng nng lng thay i theo
nhit .
Chng 3 B pht quang
99



E


Vung dan
(Conduction band)

1 2 3 4




Vung hoatr
(Valence band)



Hnh 3.11. Ngun quang bn dn pht ra nh sng trong mt khong bc sng [1]





1



0.5
Cng sut
chun ha






p
(nm)

Hnh 3.12. c tnh ph ca LED

rng ph ngun quang c nh ngha l khong bc sng nh sng do ngun quang
pht ra c cng sut bng 0.5 ln cng sut nh (hay gim 3 dB).

rng ph ca LED ph thuc vo loi vt liu ch to ngun quang. nh sng c bc
sng 1,3 m do LED ch to bng bn dn InGaAsP c rng ph t 50-60nm. LED c ch
to bng bn dn GaAs (=850nm) pht ra nh sng c rng ph hp hn 1,7 ln so vi LED
ch to bng bn dn InGaAsP [4].

3.2.4- Cu trc ca LED

V cu trc, LED c th c chia lm bn loi [3]:

- LED planar (planar LED)

- LED dome (dome LED)

- LED pht x mt SLED (surface LED)

- LED pht x ra ELED (edge LED)

Trong 4 loi LED ny, LED planar v LED dome khng c s dng trong thng tin
quang v cho d c cu to n gin (xem hnh 3.13 v 3.14) nhng hai loi LED ny c vng
pht quang rng, nh sng pht ra khng c tnh nh hng c th ghp nh sng vo trong
si quang mt cch hiu qu. Thay vo , hai loi LED ny c s dng trong cc ng dng
hin th, quang bo trong cc thit b in t, TV, n bng hiu
Chng 3 B pht quang
100





nh sng pht x



bn dn p

in cc
tip xc


bn dn n

Hnh 3.13. Cu trc LED planar

nh sng pht x




n

p


in cc tip xc

Hnh 3.14. Cu trc LED dome

LED pht x mt SLED (Surface LED) l loi LED c nh sng c pht ra pha mt
ca LED. Hnh 3.15 minh ho mt loi SLED, c gi l LED Burrus do cu trc ca LED c
ch to u tin bi Burrus v Dawson [3]. Trong cu trc ny, vng pht x nh sng (vng pht
quang) ca LED c gii hn trong mt vng hp bng cch s dng mt lp cch in hn
ch vng dn in ca tip xc P. Do , ti vng tch cc ca LED c mt dng in cao dn
n hiu sut pht quang ln. nh sng ca SLED c a vo trong si quang ti pha mt tip
xc N. Ti y, tip xc N v lp nn N c ct b i mt phn c kch thc tng ng vi si
quang. Bng cch ny s hn ch c s hp th photon trong lp N v tng hiu sut ghp nh
sng vo trong si quang. Tuy nhin, vn c mt phn ln nng lng nh sng c pht ra
ngoi vng t si quang. Do , hiu sut ghp nh sng vo si quang ca SLED khng cao,
thp hn so vi ELED.
















Hnh 3.15. Cu trc LED Burrus
Chng 3 B pht quang
101



LED pht x cnh ELED (Edge LED) l loi LED c nh sng pha cnh ca LED (hnh
3.16). Trong cu trc ny, cc in cc tip xc (bng kim loi) ph kn mt trn v y ca LED.
nh sng pht ra trong lp tch cc (active layer) rt mng. Lp tch cc ny c lm bng cht
bn dn c chit sut ln c kp gia bi hai lp bn dn P v N c chit sut nh hn. Cu
trc ny hnh thnh mt ng dn sng trong ELED. Do vy, nh sng pht ra lp tch cc c
gi li v lan truyn dc theo trong ng dn sng ny. Kt qu l, nh sng c pht ra hai u
ng dn sng, tc l pht x pha cnh ca LED. Si quang s c t mt u ca lp tch
cc ghp nh sng vo. Vi c im cu trc nh vy, ELED c vng pht sng hp v gc
pht quang nh. Do , hiu sut ghp nh sng vo si quang ln hn so vi SLED.


















Hnh 3.16. LED pht x cnh (ELED)

- LASER (LIGHT AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF RADIATION)
3.3.1- Cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca Laser
V c bn, cu to ca laser c cc c im sau:

- Cu trc nhiu lp bn dn p, n

- nh sng pht ra v c gi trong lp tch cc (active layer)

- Lp tch cc rt mng, lm bng vt liu c chit sut ln kp gia hai lp P v N c
chit sut nh hn. Cu trc ny to thnh ng dn sng.

- nh sng ca laser pht ra pha cnh, ging nh LED pht x cnh (ELED)

- hai u lp tch cc l hai lp phn x vi h s phn x R <1. Cu trc ny to
thnh hc cng hng Fabry-Perot. nh sng c to ra v phn x qua li trong hc
cng hng ny. Loi laser c cu trc hc cng hng Fabry-Perot ny c gi l
laser Fabry-Perot (hnh 3.17)

- Anh sng c a ra ngoi qua mt phn c ct nhn ca mt mt phn x