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Chng 6:

Tc ng ca nhim mi trng do cht thi rn

Chng 6:

TC NG CA NHIM MI TRNG DO CHT THI RN

Vic qun l CTR khng hp l, x l CTR khng hp k thut v sinh l nhng nguyn nhn hng u dn n nhim mi trng v nh hng ti sc khe cng ng. Trong chng ny s cp n cc tc ng ca cht thi rn n mi trng t, nc, khng kh, sc khe con ngi v s pht trin kinh t, x hi.

6.1. TC NG CA CHT THI RN I VI MI TRNG


Ti Vit Nam, hot ng phn loi CTR ti ngun cha c pht trin rng ri, iu kin c s vt cht, trang thit b k thut cn hn ch, phn ln phng tin thu gom CTR khng t quy chun k thut v khng m bo v sinh mi trng. Cc im tp kt CTR (im hn, trm trung chuyn) cha c u t xy dng ng mc, gy mt v sinh. Ti nhiu khu vc, h thng vn chuyn cha p ng nhu cu vn chuyn CTR hng ngy, gy tnh trng tn ng CTR trong khu dn c. Nhn chung, tt c cc giai on qun l CTR t khu thu gom, vn chuyn n khu x l (chn lp, t) u gy nhim mi trng.

Khung 6.1. Tc ng tim tng ca cc cht kh pht sinh t bi rc - Gy chy n do s tch t ca cc cht kh trong khu vc kn. - Gy thit hi ma mng v nh hng n h thc vt do tc ng n lng oxy trong t. Mt s loi kh (nh NH3, CO, v cc axit hu c bay hi) tuy pht sinh t nhng rt c hi i vi thc vt v c kh nng hn ch s pht trin ca thc vt. - Gy kh chu do mi hi thi t cc bi rc sn sinh ra cc kh NH3, H2S, CH3. - Gy ting n do vn hnh cc my p ca h thng thu kh, cc xe vn chuyn v nh my x l rc. - Gy hiu ng nh knh do s pht sinh ca CH4 v CO2.

6.1.1. nhim mi trng khng kh do cht thi rn


CTR, c bit l CTR sinh hot, c thnh phn hu c chim ch yu. Di tc ng ca nhit , m v cc vi sinh vt, CTR hu c b phn hy v sn sinh ra cc cht kh (CH4 - 63.8%, CO2 - 33.6%, v mt s kh khc). Trong , CH4 v CO2 ch yu pht sinh t cc bi rc tp trung (chim 3 - 19%), c bit ti cc bi rc l thin v cc khu chn lp. Khi lng kh pht sinh t cc bi rc chu nh hng ng k ca nhit khng kh v thay i theo ma. Lng kh pht thi

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tng khi nhit tng, lng kh pht thi trong ma h cao hn ma ng. i vi cc bi chn lp, c tnh 30% cc cht kh pht sinh trong qu trnh phn hy rc c th thot ln trn mt t m khng cn mt s tc ng no. Khi vn chuyn v lu gi CTR s pht sinh mi do qu trnh phn hy cc cht hu c gy nhim mi trng khng kh. Cc kh pht sinh t qu trnh phn hy cht hu c trong CTR: Amoni c mi khai, phn c mi hi, Hydrosunfur mi trng thi, Sunfur hu c mi bp ci thi ra, Mecaptan hi nng, Amin mi c n, Diamin mi tht thi, Cl2 hi nng, Phenol mi c c trng. Bn cnh hot ng chn lp CTR, vic x l CTR bng bin php tiu hy cng gp phn ng k gy nhim mi trng khng kh. Vic t rc s lm pht sinh khi, tro bi v cc mi kh chu. CTR c th bao gm cc hp cht cha Clo, Flo, lu hunh v nit, khi t ln lm pht thi mt lng khng nh cc cht kh c hi hoc c tc dng n mn. Mt khc, nu nhit ti l t rc khng cao v h thng thu hi qun l kh thi pht sinh khng m bo, khin cho CTR khng c tiu hy hon ton lm pht sinh cc kh CO, oxit nit, dioxin v furan bay hi l cc cht rt c hi i vi sc khe con ngi. Mt s kim loi nng v hp cht cha kim loi (nh thy ngn, ch) cng c th bay hi, theo tro bi pht tn vo mi trng. Mc d, nhim tro bi thng l l do khiu ni ca cng ng v d nhn bit bng mt thng, nhng tc nhn gy nhim nguy him hn nhiu chnh l cc hp cht (nh kim loi nng, dioxin v furan) bm trn b mt ht bi pht tn vo khng kh.

Khung 6.2. nhim khng kh do mi hi ti KCN thu sn Th Quang Ti KCN thu sn Th Quang, hin mi ch c 10 doanh nghip u t, hot ng, nhng c n 7 doanh nghip gy nhim mi trng nghim trng. Ngoi c ngn mt khi nc thi nhim trc tip t cc nh my ch bin ra sng Hn, gy mi hi thi nng nc c vng tri, vic phi phng thu - hi sn, xc tm c... khi xay ch bin thc n gia sc cng gp phn gy nhim nghim trng bu khng kh. Hng trm h dn gn KCN thu sn Th Quang cng phn ng d di khi nh my ch bin thc n A Zet thi khi trng cng mi hi thi qu mc ra mi trng, nh hng n 400 h dn khu vc xung quanh.
Ngun: Cng thng tin B NN&PTNT, 2011

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Khung 6.3. CTR gy nhim thu vc ti Bnh nh

6.1.2. nhim mi trng nc do cht thi rn


CTR khng c thu gom, thi vo knh rch, sng, h, ao gy nhim mi trng nc, lm tc nghn ng nc lu thng, gim din tch tip xc ca nc vi khng kh dn ti gim DO trong nc. Cht thi rn hu c phn hy trong nc gy mi hi thi, gy ph dng ngun nc lm cho thy sinh vt trong ngun nc mt b suy thoi. CTR phn hu v cc cht nhim khc bin i mu ca nc thnh mu en, c mi kh chu. Thng thng cc bi chn lp cht thi ng k thut c h thng ng ng, knh rch thu gom nc thi v cc b cha nc rc x l trc khi thi ra mi trng. Tuy nhin, phn ln cc bi chn lp hin nay u khng c xy dng ng k thut v sinh v ang trong tnh trng qu ti, nc r r t bi rc c thi trc tip ra ao, h gy nhim mi trng nc nghim trng. S xut hin ca cc bi rc l thin t pht cng l mt ngun gy nhim ngun nc ng k. Ti cc bi chn lp cht thi rn, nc r rc c cha hm lng cht nhim cao (cht hu c: do trong rc c phn sc vt, cc thc n tha...; cht thi c hi: t bao b ng phn bn, thuc tr su, thuc dit c, m phm). Nu khng c thu gom x l s thm nhp vo ngun nc di t gy nhim mi trng nc nghim trng. Di y l mt s dn chng minh ho ca cc a phng: - Tnh H Nam: nhim mi trng do cht thai chn nui ang l mt trong nhng vn bc xuc cua ngi dn, thn Bach Xa (xa Hong ng), thn Nhi (xa Bach Thng) cua huyn Duy Tin. Thn Bach Xa:

CTR khng c thu gom gp phn gy nhim khu vc h lu cc con sng v m ph trn a bn tnh Bnh nh l nguy c nh hng n ngun cp nc sinh hot th. Trong , i vi cc thu vc sng, nng ch tiu hu c BOD vt tiu chun t 1,4 - 3,4 ln; i vi cc m, h ngoi ch tiu hu c vt t 2- 4 ln cn c cc ch tiu kim loi cng vt chun cho php.
Ngun: S TN&MT Binh nh, 2011

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Cht thi rn

Hin nay cht thai rn sinh hoat, chn nui v cht thai nguy hai (gia suc, gia cm cht do dch,...) cha c giai phap x l hp v sinh. Nc thai chn nui mang theo cht thai rn chay ra cac ao h cua thn; Tng din tch t cua thn l 115.859 m2, tng din tch ao h l 29.977 m2, 100% din tch ao h b nhim khng s dng c cho mc ch sinh hoat cua ngi dn nh trc y (gm tm, git,...); tng din tch ao h ang b phu dng l 8.250 m2. - Tnh Ngh An: Dng nc bn thai ra t bai rac v nh may x l rac chay n h Bay Mu (xm ng Vinh, xa Hng ng, thnh ph Vinh). Trc y, h l ni git gi, ly nc ti cho hoa mu nhng khi bai rac v nh may x l rac xut hin thi ngun nc b nhim; Chuyn sang nui ca, ca cht trng bng. 120 h dn trong xm dng ging khoan, ging nng ly nc sinh hoat, nay cng b nc bn ngm vo. - Tnh Quang Tr: Bai rac ngy cng cao ln, trn ra ca ng i, bc ln mi hi rt kh chu i vi cac gia inh sng trn a bn khu ph 1 v 2A, phng 1, th xa Quang Tr. Nhng ngy ma, nc t bai rac khng thm c xung t a trn v cac khu dn c, chay xung h Tch Tng, ni c ngun nc cung cp phc v i sng, sinh hoat cua ngi dn th xa. - T.p H Ch Minh: Bai rac a Phc, mc d s dng cng ngh chng thm hin ai nhng vn l ngun gy nhim rach Rang, rach Bun Seo v rach Nga Cy; Nc trong rach chuyn sang mu xanh, c v hi; Mi hi v rui mui anh hng trn mt pham vi rng, nht l vo nhng ngy ma; Tm ca cng khng cn. Vn nhim amoni tng nng (nc di t) cng l hu qu ca nc r rc v

Khung 6.4. Nc ngm ti H Ni b nhim amoni

Hm lng amoni trong nc ca Nh my nc Tng Mai l 7-10mg/l. Nh my nc H nh 10-15mg/l, c lc ln n 40mg/l. Nh my nc Php Vn l 25-30mg/l, c lc ln n 60mg/l. Trong khi , tiu chun v sinh nc n ung do B Y t ban hnh yu cu hm lng amoni khng qu 1,5mg/l, nitrit khng qu 3mg/l. Hu ht ging khoan (c php hoc khng php) H Ni u c amoni, c bit cc ging khoan do ngi dn t thu lm ti a bn qun Hong Mai, Gia Lm, Hai B Trng. Hin khng nh c nc 500 ging khoan ti cc trm cp nc cc b ca mt s c quan on th... c nng amoni vt tiu chun cho php.
Ngun: Vin Khoa hc v Cng ngh mi trng, ai hc Bach khoa H Ni, 2010

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Tc ng ca nhim mi trng do cht thi rn

ca vic x ba bi rc thi l thin khng c bin php x l nghim ngt.

6.1.3. nhim mi trng t do cht thi rn


Cc cht thi rn c th c tch ly di t trong thi gian di gy ra nguy c tim tng i vi mi trng. Cht thi xy dng nh gch, ngi, thy tinh, ng nha, dy cp, b-tng... trong t rt kh b phn hy. Cht thi kim loi, c bit l cc kim loi nng nh ch, km, ng, Niken, Cadimi... thng c nhiu cc khu khai thc m, cc khu cng nghip. Cc kim loi ny tch ly trong t v thm nhp vo c th theo chui thc n v nc ung, nh hng nghim trng ti sc khe. Cc cht thi c th gy nhim t mc ln l cc cht ty ra, phn bn, thuc bo v thc vt, thuc nhum, mu v, cng nghip sn xut pin, thuc da, cng nghip sn xut ha cht... Ti cc bi rc, bi chn lp CTR khng hp v sinh, khng c h thng x l nc rc t tiu chun, ha cht v vi sinh vt t CTR d dng thm nhp gy nhim t. Nghin cu ca Vin Y hc Lao ng v V sinh Mi trng cho thy cc mu t xt Bng 6.1. Kt qu o ch s vi sinh vt trong 5 mu t ti 2 bi rc S trng giun trong mu t (trng/100g) Gi tr thp nht
Bi rc Lng Sn Bi rc Nam Sn 5 8

a im

S Coliform trong mu t (khun lc/10 g)

Gi tr cao nht Gi tr thp nht Gi tr cao nht


15 120 40 300 2.000.000 20.000.000

Ngun: Vin Y hc Lao ng v V sinh Mi trng, 2006

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nghim ti bi rc Lng Sn v Nam Sn u b nhim trng giun v Coliform. CTR c bit l cht thi nguy hi, cha nhiu c t nh ha cht, kim loi nng, phng x... nu khng c x l ng cch, ch chn lp nh rc thi thng thng th nguy c gy nhim mi trng t rt cao. Trong khai thc khong sn, qu trnh ch bin/lm giu qung lm pht sinh cht thi di dng qung ui, cha cc kim loi v cc hp cht khc nh hng n mi trng. Mt vi m hin vn thi qung ui trc tip xung t, lm t b nh hng xu.

Khung 6.5. Tc hi ca ti nilon Ti nilon l loi cht kh phn hy, khi thi ra mi trng phi mt t hng chc nm cho ti mt vi th k mi c phn hy hon ton trong t nhin. S phn hu khng hon ton ca ti nilon s li trong t nhng mnh vn, khng c iu kin cho vi sinh vt pht trin s lm cho t chng bc mu, khng ti xp. S tn ti ca n trong mi trng s gy nh hng nghim trng ti t bi ti nilon ln vo t s ngn cn xy i qua t, gy xi mn t, lm cho t khng gi c nc, cht dinh dng.
Ngun: TCMT tng hp, 2011

Bng 6.2. c tnh din tch t b nh hng bi khai thc khong sn Vit Nam
Hin trng khai thc ti 2002 Khu vc khai thc khong sn c tnh t Khong sn v b nh hng ang c khai thc xu (ha) 4500-5600 Trin vng khai thc ti 2020 Khong sn s c khai thc b sung M rng quy m khai thc cc khong sn ny ng v st s c khai thc vi quy m hng triu tn/nm Tip tc m rng quy m khai thc cc khong sn ny M rng quy m khai thc than Qung st s c k/t quy m hng chc triu tn/nm Bxit s c khai thc quy m hng chc triu tn/nm c tnh t b nh hng xu (ha) 4200-4500

Cao Bng, H Giang, Thic, st, ch, km, Tuyn Quang antimon, mangan, vi Lo Cai, Yn Bi ng, st, apatit, graphit, caolin, felspat, vi Thic, ch, km, st, mangan, than, vng, vi Than

6300-8500

8600-12000

Thi Nguyn, Bc Kn Qung Ninh

5400-6500

5800-6400

1250015500 6600-8200

5200-6200 8500-12500

Thanh Ho, Ngh Cromit, thic, An, H Tnh sa khong titan, mangan, vng, vi Lm ng, k Lk Thic, bxit, caolin, vi, st

5200-6800

6600-8200

Ngun: Vin Nghin cu Chin lc v Chnh sach Cng nghip - B Cng thng, 2010

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Khung 6.6. S c trn bn ti Cao Bng

6.2. TC NG CA CHT THI RN I VI SC KHE NGI DN


Vic qun l v x l CTR khng hp l khng nhng gy nhim mi trng m cn nh hng rt ln ti sc kho con ngi, c bit i vi ngi dn sng gn khu vc lng ngh, khu cng nghip, bi chn lp cht thi... Ngi dn sng gn bi rc khng hp v sinh c t l mc cc bnh da liu, vim ph qun, au xng khp cao hn hn nhng ni khc. Mt nghin cu ti Lng Sn cho thy t l ngi m v mc cc bnh nh tiu chy, da liu, h hp... ti khu vc chu nh hng ca bi rc cao hn hn so vi khu vc khng chu nh hng (Biu 6.1). Hin ti cha c s liu nh gi y v s nh hng ca cc bi chn lp ti sc khe ca nhng ngi lm ngh nht rc thi. Nhng ngi ny thng xuyn phi chu nh hng mc cao do bi, mm bnh, cc cht c hi, cn trng t/chch v cc loi hi kh c hi trong sut qu trnh lm vic. V vy, cc chng bnh thng gp i tng ny l cc bnh v cm, l, giun, lao, d dy, tiu chy, v cc vn v ng rut khc. Cc bi chn lp rc cng tim n nhiu nguy c khc i vi cng ng lm ngh ny. Cc vt sc nhn, thu tinh v, bm kim tim c,... c th l mi e da nguy him vi sc kho con ngi (ly nhim mt s bnh truyn nhim nh AIDS,...) khi h dm phi hoc b co xc vo tay chn,... Mt vn cn c quan tm l, do chim t l ln trong nhng ngi lm ngh nht rc, ph n v tr em tr thnh nhm i tng d b tn thng. Hai thnh phn cht thi rn c lit vo loi cc k nguy him l kim loi nng v

S c v p chn nc thi tuyn ra qung ca x nghip khai thc qung st N Lng, x Duyt Trung, th x Cao Bng (thuc Cng ty khong sn luyn kim Cao Bng). Vic v p l do trong qu trnh xy dng p, cng ty ny khng lu ln, ch t lp xung khe i chn nc li thnh p. S c trn bn (bn thi cha xit st nn c mu ) trn gy ngp bn khong 4 ha din tch la gy thit hi ng k cho ngi dn Cao Bng.
Ngun: S TN&MT Cao Bng, 2011

Biu 6.1. T l triu chng bnh tt ca nhm nghin cu v nhm i chng


Ch thch: Nhm nghin cu: x Qung Lc v x Hong ng (Lng Sn) - chu nh hng ca bi rc thi Nhm i chng: x Hp Thnh v x Mai Pha (Lng Sn) + khng chu nh hng ca bi rc thi

Ngun: Bao cao anh gia anh hng cua bai rac tp trung n sc khe khu dn c xung quanh, xy dng hng dn tiu chun v sinh bai rac, Vin Y hc Lao ng v V sinh mi trng, 2009

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Cht thi rn

cht hu c kh phn hy. Cc cht ny c kh nng tch ly sinh hc trong nng sn, thc phm cng nh trong m t bo ng vt, ngun nc v tn ti bn vng trong mi trng gy ra hng lot bnh nguy him i vi con ngi nh v sinh, qui thai, d tt tr s sinh; tc ng ln h min dch gy ra cc bnh tim mch, t lit h thn kinh, gim kh nng trao i cht trong mu, ung th v c th di chng di tt sang th h th 3... Cht thi nng nghip, c bit cht thi chn nui ang l mt trong nhng vn bc xc ca ngi nng dn. C nhng vng, cht thi chn nui gy nhim c khng kh, ngun nc, t v tc ng xu n sc kho ngi dn nng thn. Trong mt iu tra ti tnh Thi Nguyn i vi 113 h gia nh chn nui t 20 con ln tr ln cho thy gn 50% cc h c nh gn chung ln t 5-10m v ging nc gn chung ln - 5m th t l nhim giun a, giun tc, giun mc v s trng giun trung bnh ca ngi chn nui cao gn gp hai ln t l nhim k sinh trng ng rut ca ngi khng chn nui; v c s tng quan thun chiu gia t l nhim k sinh trng ng rut vi k sinh trng trong t cc h chn nui (ai hc Y khoa Thai Nguyn, 2008).

Khung 6.7. Cc im nng nhim Dioxin v tc ng n sc khe

Ti cc khu vc c lng tn d ca Cht c ha hc/Dioxin cn rt cao nh cc sn bay: Bin Ha (ng Nai), Ph Ct (Bnh nh) v Nng, nghin cu ca Hc vin Qun y nm 1998 cho thy cc loi bnh tim mch, thn kinh, xng khp, rng, h hp, tai mi hng v mt nhm ngi sng gn im nng u cao hn nhiu so vi nhm sng xa khu vc nhim. Bn cnh , th nghim v ri lon min dch v cc ch s ung th u cho thy nguy c b nh hng nhm sng gn im nng l cao hn ng k so vi nhm i chng. Theo nghin cu iu tra trn 445 ph n sng gn vng nhim v 261 ph n vng i chng, cho thy t l cc tai bin sinh sn nhm sng gn im nng l 36,16 % (so vi vng i chng l 14,44%). Cc tai bin sinh sn nhm phi nhim thng l sy thai, nh cn, cha trng. Tn sut sinh con d tt bm sinh nhm nghin cu cao gp 10,3 ln so vi nhm i chng H Ni. Thm ch, nhm phi nhim, 15,4% s gia nh c c hai con b d tt bm sinh. Ti khu vc sn bay Nng, nghin cu ca Hc vin Qun y i vi cng ng sng gn im nng nhim cho thy mt s nh hng nh tng ri lon to mu, tng t l ngi mc ung th (AFP+ v CEA+). Ch s thng minh (IQ) la tui 7 - 12 trng tiu hc gn sn bay Nng cng cho thy thp hn r rt so vi nhm i chng.
Ngun: Bao cao nhim cht c ha hc/dioxin Vit Nam, Vn phng Ban ch ao 33 - B TN&MT, 2010

6.3. TC NG CA CHT THI RN I VI KINH T - X HI


6.3.1. Chi ph x l cht thi rn ngy cng ln
Trong 5 nm qua, lng CTR ca c nc ngy cng gia tng. Chi ph thu gom, vn chuyn v x l CTR v th cng tng ln, cha k n chi ph x l nhim mi trng lin quan n CTR. Cc chuyn gia v kinh t cho rng, vi iu kin kinh t hin nay

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Khung 6.8. Thnh ph H Ch Minh nng gnh chi ph... x l rc

Theo tnh ton chi ph xy dng, vn hnh bi rc Phc Hip th gi thnh x l mi tn rc khong 20 USD. Trong , chi ph xy dng khong 160.000 ng -180.000 ng/tn, chi ph x l nc r rc khong 90.000 ng/m, chi ph ph nh khong 140.000 ng/tn, chi ph gim st cht lng mi trng khong 10.000 ng/ tn, chi ph bo tr khong 30.000 ng/ tn (c tng kinh ph l 430.000 ng/tn, tng ng 20 USD/tn). Nh vy, ch tnh ring Phc Hip, mi ngy thnh ph phi tn n 60.000 USD tin x l rc. Ti a Phc, khong 48.000 USD. y thc s l mt gnh nng cho thnh ph trong bi cnh khng hong kinh t.
Ngun: S TN&MT TP. HCM, 2011

(nm 2011) th mc ph x l rc l 17 - 18 USD/tn CTR da trn cc tnh ton c bn v tng vn u t, chi ph vn hnh, chi ph qun l, khu hao, lm pht, v.v... Hng nm ngn sch ca cc a phng phi chi tr mt khon kh ln cho cng tc thu gom, vn chuyn v x l CTR. Chi ph x l CTR tu thuc vo cng ngh x l: Mc chi ph x l cho cng ngh hp v sinh l 115.000/tn - 142.000/tn v chi ph chn lp hp v sinh c tnh n thu hi vn u t 219.000 - 286.000/tn (Thnh ph H Ch Minh tng chi ph hng nm cho thu gom, vn chuyn, x l CTR sinh hot khong 1.200 - 1.500 t VN). Chi ph x l i vi cng ngh x l rc thnh phn vi sinh khong 150.000/tn - 290.000/ tn (Thnh ph H Ch Minh 240.000/tn; thnh ph Hu ang ngh 230.000/tn; thnh ph Thi Bnh 190.000/tn, Bnh Dng 179.000/tn). Chi ph i vi cng ngh ch bin rc thnh vin t c c tnh khong 230.000/tn - 270.000/tn. (Cc Ha tng k thut - B Xy dng, 2010). Ch tnh ring chi ph vn hnh l t CTR y t i vi cc bnh vin c l t, mi thng bnh vin tuyn trung ng chi ph trung bnh khong 26 triu ng, bnh vin tuyn tnh 20 triu ng, bnh vin huyn 5 triu ng. i vi cc bnh vin thu Trung tm thiu t cht thi y t vn chuyn v t rc, chi ph khong 7.500 ng/kg. Chi ph vn hnh l t cho x l cht thi cho cm bnh vin l khong 10.000 15.000 ng/kg CTR y t nguy hi. i vi mt s bnh vin a khoa ln, chi ph cho x l CTR y t ln ti 100 triu ng/thng.

Khung 6.9. Chi ph x l cht thi rn y t ti mt s thnh ph ln

Chi ph x l cht thi rn y t thng thng ti H Ni dao ng t 160.000 ng/tn n 421.000 ng/tn. Chi ph x l cht thi rn y t thng thng ti Hi Phng v Tp. H Ch Minh tng ng l 420.000 ng/tn v 100.000 ng/tn. Chi ph x l cht thi rn y t nguy hi Hi Phng tng i thp l 7.900.000 ng/tn. Chi ph trung bnh x l cht thi rn y t nguy hi thnh ph H Ch Minh v Tha Thin Hu l 12.000.000 ng/tn trong khi chi ph ti H Ni v Nng tng ng l 9.400.000 ng/ tn v 8.100.000 ng/tn.
Ngun: Nghin cu Quan l mi trng th tai Vit Nam - Tp 6. Nghin cu v quan l CTR Vit Nam, JICA, thang 5 - 2011

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6.3.2. nh hng n du lch v nui trng thu sn do cht thi rn


Vic x rc ba bi, qun l CTR khng hp l cn gy nhim mi trng ti cc a im danh lam thng cnh, cc khu di tch lch s vn ho v cc a im du lch, nh hng n tim nng pht trin du lch. Cc a danh thu ht khch du lch nh cha Hng, vnh H Long, cc bi bin,... cng ang gp phi vn nhim mi trng do tnh trng x rc thi ba bi. Pht trin du lch ti cc lng ngh truyn thng ang l mt hng pht trin kinh t c nhiu a phng la chn. Tuy nhin, vn nhim mi trng ti chnh cc lng ngh gy cn tr ln ti cc hot ng pht trin du lch lng ngh, lm gim lng khch du lch,... dn n gim ngun thu t hot ng ny ti cc a phng c lng ngh. Cc bi trung chuyn rc l thin v bi chn lp rc khng m bo v sinh thng xuyn gy nhim mi trng, nh hng n sn xut nng nghip nui trng thy sn.

Khung 6.10. Rc thi ti cc im du lch

Trong ma l hi ti Cha Hng, s lng rc thi ra ln ti 5,4 tn/ ngy, cn cc ngy khc trong nm s lng rc x t cc h dn, cc qun n ung dc hai bn ng vo bn Thin Tr cng khng phi nh. c tnh trong 5,4 tn rc ca mt ngy c 2,79 tn c chnh quyn x v b con thu gom theo phng php th cng, cn li 2,69 tn rc cha c thu gom. Dc cc bi bin c nh gi l p v hp dn nh C N, Bnh Sn - Ninh Ch, Bnh Tin (Ninh Thun),... bn cnh nhng hng dng xanh r, bi ct trng mn, l rc thi sinh hot t ngi dn sng gn bin, t du khch n tham quan, du lch, cc nh hng: v s, v c. Khng nhng trn b m di bin cng c bch nilon tri ni. Do nhiu khch du lch khng dm tm.
Ngun: Bao Ninh Thun, 21/06/2011

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Tc ng ca nhim mi trng do cht thi rn

Khung 6.11. Mt k sinh nhai v nc r rc

6.3.3. Xung t mi trng do cht thi rn


Xung t mi trng xy ra trong x hi khi vn bo v mi trng v pht trin kinh t cha dung ha c vi nhau. Trong nhng nm gn y, khi x hi cng pht trin, nhn thc ca cng ng cng cao, trong khi , li ch kinh t vn c t ln trn vn BVMT v sc khe cng ng th s cc v xung t mi trng cng nhiu. Trong qun l CTR, xung t mi trng ch yu pht sinh do vic lu gi, vn chuyn, x thi chn lp CTR khng hp v sinh. Nhng xung t gia cc doanh nghip gy nhim mi trng vi cng ng b nhim nh hng n sinh hot v sc kho, hoc nh hng n cc hot ng vn ho, du lch v cnh quan khc cng l loi xung t mi trng c tnh ph bin. Trong qu trnh hot ng, sn xut, cc lng ngh sn sinh nhiu cht thi rn gy nh hng ti mi trng khng nhng ti ni din ra cc hot ng sn xut m cn nh hng ti cc vng ln cn. Chnh v vy, ti y ny sinh nhiu vn xung t mi trng. Xung t mi trng gia cc nhm x hi trong lng ngh, gia cng ng lm ngh v khng lm ngh, gia cc hot ng tiu th cng nghip v hot ng nng nghip, gia hot ng sn xut v m quan, vn ho,...

Nc r rc t bi rc a Phc - x a Phc huyn Bnh Chnh, thnh ph H Ch Minh thi trn ra ng vo lc ma ln v triu cng ln cao gy nhim nghim trng. Tnh trng mi hi thi pht sinh t bi rc trong phm vi rng ln Ngoi nhng nh hng xu v mi trng nh mi hi, nn rui, ngi dn a phng cn b thit hi v kinh t v cc con knh, rch khu vc b nhim, khng th nui thy sn. Chnh v tnh trng nhim ny, nhiu ngi dn a phng trc y nui thy sn nh tm, c, cua th nay phi b ngh.
Ngun: VietNamNet, 11/06/2009

109

Bo co mi trng quc gia 2011:

Cht thi rn

Xung t gia cac nhm xa hi trong lng ngh do CTR. y l loi xung t ph bin nht. S hnh thnh cc c s sn xut ngh nm trong cc khu dn c, c th hn l t chc sn xut ngay ti trong nh mnh. Cc loi cht thi rn pht sinh nh hng trc tip n cc h xung quanh, gy ra nhng xung t, dn n nhng khiu kin. Xung t gia cac hoat ng san xut tiu thu cng nghip v hoat ng nng nghip. Trong khi cc cng ng lm ngh cng nghip, th cng nghip thu c li nhun t hot ng sn xut ca mnh th cc cng ng sn xut nng nghip b tc ng ca nhim mi trng lm cho nng sut cy trng gim, vt nui cht v mt t sn xut nng nghip. Dng xung t ny xy ra hu ht cc lng sn xut gch, ngi, gm s,... Song song vi s pht trin ca lng ngh, din tch dnh cho hot ng sn xut ca lng ngh ngy cng c m rng th din tch nng nghip li cng ngy b thu hp. Xung t xy ra khi ngi sn xut khai thc t st t cc rung la, ri cc loi ph phm t gch ngi, x than li b thi b xung cc rung ng khin cho rung sn xut nng nghip tr thnh bi rc.

Khung 6.12. Khiu kin, xung t mi trng ti mt s a phng - Tai qun Lin Chiu, thnh ph Nng Ngy 9/12/2007, ngi dn sng xung quanh khu vc bi rc mi Khnh Sn, thuc phng Ha Khnh Nam, qun Lin Chiu ( Nng) ng lot ra ng ngn khng cho xe ch rc ca Cng ty Mi trng th Nng n rc. Tnh trng ny khin rc thi n li trong ni thnh sut t sng n chiu. Khng ch trong cc kit hm m ngay c trn cc tuyn ng ln nh ng ng ch Khim, L Dun,... rc thi n li thnh nhng ng ln nhng mi vn khng thy xe rc n dn, khin ngi dn ht sc bc xc. - Tai thnh ph Vinh, tnh Ngh An Ton b rc thi ca thnh ph Vinh vo cc cha rc tm. Lo s tnh trng nhim mi trng li tip din nn ngi dn ra chn xe rc. Khng phi ngi dn khng cho rc Khu x l rc thi rn Nghi Yn m vi iu kin chnh h s p ti xe rc vo h cha rc chnh 1A. - Tai thnh ph Bin Ha, tnh ng Nai Hng chc ngi dn phng Trng Di, TP. Bin Ha, tnh ng Nai n trc tr s Cng ty C phn Mi trng ng Xanh ngh ban gim c cng ty gii quyt tnh trng nhim mi trng. Bn thn l nh my x l rc nhng cng ty ny li l nguyn nhn gy nhim mi trng nghim trng. Theo phn nh ca ngi dn, sau nhng cn ma ln, nc cng cng vi nc r rc t 2 nh my x l rc ti y trn vo nh v ging nc ca cc h, gy nhim nghim trng mi trng v ngun nc. Ngoi ra, mi hi t rc pht tn theo gi vo cc khu dn c xa hng trm mt, khin mi trng sng cng b nh hng nng n. Sau nhiu ln phn nh khng c kt qu, ngi dn ko ra ng ngn chn tt c xe rc ti, khng cho vo nh my. Trc , vo nm 2010 ngi dn cng nhiu ln phn i nhng s vic cha c gii quyt dt im. y ch l mt v d trong rt nhiu v xung t gia ngi dn a phng vi t chc, n v qun l hoc thc hin cng tc x l mi trng, cho thy phn nh ca ngi dn l bc thit v nng lc qun l yu km ca nhiu a phng.
Ngun: TCMT tng hp, 2010

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Chng 6:

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Khung 6.13. Mu thun gia hot ng sn xut v m quan vn ha lng ngh sn xut ch x da ti M Cy, Bn Tre

Bn Tre c nhiu lng ngh truyn thng sn xut ch x da, tp trung nhiu nht hai bn b sng Thom ca huyn M Cy. Cc lng ngh ch x da x An Thnh, Khnh Thnh Tn c 150 c s, hng ngy lng mn da thi ra khong 500 tn. Trc y, cht thi rn ti cc c s ny khng c bi cha, khng c thu gom nn thi trc tip xung sng Thom nh hng n cht lng nc sinh hot ca ngi dn v hy dit ngun li thy sinh vt. Hin nay, vn ny phn no c khc phc bng cch mn da c thu gom v ti s dng p vin xut khu.
Ngun: S TN&MT Bn Tre, 2010

Xung t gia hoat ng san xut v m quan, vn hoa. Vic thi b cht thi rn ca lng ngh khng ng cch v ty tin dn n mt m quan, vn ha. Lng trng da Lm Yn (i Lc, Qung Nam) vi cht thi rn nh ro da tha, lng, m... gy mi hi thi kh chu cho dn trong lng.

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