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WORKS ISSUED BY

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THE TRAVELS
OF

PEDRO TEIXEIRA

SECOND

SERIES.

No. IX.

/

9

10,

II-

9.

THE TRAVELS
OF

PEDRO TEIXEIRA;
WITH
HIS

"KINGS OF HARMUZ,"
AND EXTRACTS FROM
HIS

"KINGS OF PERSIA."

€xan9laizts anlr annotatetr is

WILLIAM

F.

SINCLAIR,
)
;

BOMBAY CIVIL SERVICE (RETD.
fflHiti^ furti^er fS^otes antr

an Jntrotruction

fig

DONALD FERGUSON,

LONDON
PRINTED FOR THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY
MDCCgCJI,

LONDON

:

PRINTED AT THE BEDFORD PRESS, 20 AND

21,

BEDFORDBURY, W.C.

BRIGIUM

YOVm NfVFRstW
f

H. B. M. Vice-President. M. LL. M. Richard Stephen Whiteway. Edward John Payne.A. Ernest George Ravenstein.C.A. The Lord Stanley of Alderley. Vice-President. Charles Welch. F.Admiral Sir William Wharton. Colonel George Earl Church.C. Henry William Trinder. R.A. B. . CoMMR. Alfred Percival Maudslay. Soulsby.D.. William Foster. Chambers. K.D.S. Edward Heawood. K. F.S.B. Pres. Honorary Secretary.. Guillemard. R.N. M.A. Sir Clements Markham. President. Sir William Martin Conway.S. H. Charles Raymond Beazlky. Frederick William Lucas.R. ' Howard Saunders.A.COUNCIL OF THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY.B. F. B.A. Mowbray Morris. Basil H. Rear..A. The Right Hon. M. M. John Scott Keltie.G....

.

Harmuz B.. 270 .. of the English . Teixeira's Captain Stevens's Preface to his Translation of the " Kings of Persia" and " Kings of Harmuz. East . Extracts from the C. The First Coming Book . xxv xc III. . . : A Short Narrative of the ORIGIN OF THE KINGDOM OF . : Pedro Teixeira . . . Relation of the Chronicle of the Kings of Harmuz Index .. . cviii The Travels of Pedro Teixeira Appendices A.CONTENTS. . • i II. .. ci Certificate of Orthodoxy and Licence to Print . 153 *' KINGS OF Persia" . to the . . and Dutch .. . .196 240 256 An Account of the most notable Provinces of Persia D. . . PAGE Introduction I." including Teixeira's Preface to his whole work .

.

Kayserling refers to the fact that there were several noted of this same name and this is also pointed out in a footnote on p. and which may be traced in almost every leaf of his book of travels. torn.. 1898. who in all probability resided in Lisbon. faith. which seemed have been innate in him. Kayserling. and possibly relatives. Lisbon. he was yet not educated to in the Jewish his submission to the will of the Almighty. were contemporaries. PEDRO TEIXEIRA. Years in Asia and 1863).INTRODUCTION. A celebrated family of cartographers of the same surname 1889). us in his book. or educate their children in the faith of their fathers . xli. pp. 294-299). of our traveller (see Sousa Viterbo's Trabalhos Nauticos dos Portugueses. I. p.. 29 of the Viaje del capitdn Pedro Teixeira aguas arriba del rio de las Amazonas (1638-1639).^ his Introduction to M. says: ''Our Pedro Teixeira^ be- longed to one of those Portuguese-Jewish families who dared not openly avow their religion. by Mancos Jimenez de la Espada (Madrid. 2 I we still think that in have seen is Dr. . 206. ^ The best biographical notice of Teixeira that the Biographie Universelle.. I. in Benjamin's Eight Africa (Hanover... J. EGARDING very little Pedro Teixeira we know tells beyond what he himself Dr. men . . Although born of Notwithstanding Jewish parents.

and probably a speculator in gems. as having occurred in 1585. VIII. I take to be described from hearsay report on his visit to Ceylon in February. on a voyage round the world by the Straits of Magellan and the Malayan Archipelago (see the references to it in Calendar of State Papers in the Archives of Simancas. 600. Moreover. Sinclair says have been a Christian but from the teeth out.* its advised that a fleet was destination being unknown . vi. chap." : ' ^ The sea-flood mentioned by him at p. and concerned in the drug trade. * This was doubtless the fleet of three ships that sailed on July 21st under the command of Thomas Cavendish. Sinclair. xxxv) Teixeira infra). 578. He says : The King was England. his Antwerp. . birth. 1588. and because. first or even the year in which he sailed from Europe to The earliest date is that he mentions in connection with his travels 1587.' 2 Judging by his frequent references to drugs and their effects. This seems to infra. and even a devout Catholic"! As to his parentage. I. he was a Christian. writing to me. and by the fact of his being present on the occasion mentioned on p. in his Kings of Persia (Bk. us the cause of his going to India. ix of the Viage (p. pp. : ' describes at some length the practices of physicians in different I think it countries of the East. details in his Regarding Couto gives us Decada Decima^ Liv. being got ready in in case " I take Teixeira never to ^ In a letter to me Mr. however. " I agree with you in supposing him to have been a physician says rather an irregular practitioner' probably. 610). be supported by the incident related in chap. is and early Pedro Teixeira tells us. cap. that he was in his youth much addicted to the study of history. that we are able to infer from his narrative. vol. mostly from his own experience. that he arrived in India from Portugal in one of the ships of the fleet of 1586. silent : except that he the prefatory note to his book.ii INTRODUCTION. I cannot help thinking that he was a physician. profession or trade he was trained it is we do not not easy to ascertain from his narratives what was his occupation while in the East. To what know and . 1580-86.^ and we may therefore conclude this fleet.^ tell Nor does Teixeira Asia. 233. iii. that during a life great part of his arrival in —during his travels —that preceded life. is probable that Teixeira accompanied the various expeditions mentioned below in a medical capacity. 230 infra. in himself. Mr. 96.

in his Livro em que se p. is. ^ See infra regarding him. i Pt. ^ p. as making a voyage from Goa to Maluco in April.^ p. II. because he carried the captaincy of Malaca. 177) that the Reys Magos sailed on December 29th.INTRODUCTION. cap. says (p. a fidalgo. with letters for the Viceroy D. 1565. 343). who went to Mozambique in the Sdio Thome\ says that they all left Lisbon on April 13th. 342). xvii. ii. The rest of the fleet. cap. . xvii.. Joao dos Santos gives this same date {Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. and the habit of Christ^ with a good allowance \ and. Luiz de Figueiredo Falcao. .* and there went as captain-major thereof D. and a voyage to Japao. as was afterwards known. cit.^ And the King ordered to embark therein Estevao da Veiga. b2 . 178) says that the fleet sailed on the of April. pp. etc. Couto. 1586. Figueiredo Falcao {pp. cap. Duarte. to which he soon ^ ^ Couto first mentions him in his Dec. in order that he might get ready. and the Viceroy of India. Jeronymo . contan toda a fazenda. * Fr. Coutinho. vii. ^ vol. ll. VIII^ cap. Thome \ the other captains of his company were Antonio Gomes of the galleon Bo7ii Jesus otherwise called Caranja^^ in which embarked Manoel de Sousa Coutinho. 1585. * On February 14th she encountered an English ship and pinnace. That of the Order of Christ. however. and one : for the captain of ship's arriving there in which iie told him that on that he was at once to get ready some vessel for Estevao da Veiga to go in to India. Liv. and a man that had been very long in India •} and on 5th January. as captain of which had been nominated Joao Gago de Andrade. left during the whole of March. 184. which was being got ready for Malaca. l. Mogambique. Liv. * nth . Friar Joao dos Santos. full of honors and rewards. This ship was broken up on arriving in India (see Linschoten. he wished to advise the captain of that fortress. he came in the second succession to the government of India. and the captaincy of Bagaim. Liv. with which he had been provided some years before on the marriage of a daughter. It is not surprising to learn that the old captain died soon after his ship reached Malacca in : October.2 she set sail. that he might send him help therefore he ordered speed to be made with the galleon Reys Magos. 189).^ who embarked in the ship S. xvii Theal's Records of South-Eastern Africa^ vol. 1586 {Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. issued his orders seated on a chair on the poop. II. xviii . to fulfil his mission. l. Ill they sought to go out to India to the parts about Malaca. says that Joao Gago. but succeeded in beating them off after considerable damage. who was old and gouty. I. which was to go to India. Theal's Records of South-Eastern Africa^ vol. and to the ships here named he adds the Concepqdo^ Captain Dom Jeronimo Mascarenhas. who gives a graphic description of the affair. with which she had a severe fight.

Regarding this ship. vol. vol ii. Duarte. ^ See Linschoten.^ who had been a resident there for some years when Teixeira Just before our traveller's arrival at Goa. news reached that city of the humiliating defeat that had resulted to the fleet dispatched in the previous May. Netherlander. Ruy Gonsalves da Camara was uncle to the Viceroy D. impressions of India were we do not know like but what Goa. pp. Filippe^ Joao Trigueiros. iii. iv. 189. ii. Jan Huyghen van Linschoten.iv INTRODUCTION. 124 et seq. 183-189 caps. vol. when our know. ii. pp. 1603. vii. . which had resulted in the carry- ing away faith captive of a number of Portuguese. iii. vol. 1 19-120. Dec. and acts of bad ^ on the part of several of the rulers of those 2 2 See infra^ p. 175 et seq. vol. p. ^ See Linschoten. . The fate of this ship is described by Linschoten (vol. I3uarte de Menezes. a thing that If Pedro Teixeira was on board one of these in ships. 1586.^ What . ^ Perhaps he was on the Bom Jesus^ alias Caranja^ with Manoel de Sousa Coutinho. p. succeeded by the death of the Viceroy D. of the Reliquias^ Francisco Cavalleiro. '' . See Hakluyt Society's edition of Linschoten. vi. . xxiii. whom he afterwards (apparently) accompanied to Ceylon (see infra^ p. X. and of the S. in its place. to the visit Red Sea and Persian Gulf. pp. i. we fortunately do having had that left us a graphic description from the pen of talented young arrived. vol. pp.^ he his must have reached Goa first September. The other ships were the Salvador^ Captain Miguel de Abreu. 167 Calendar of State Papers in the Archives of Simancas. 191- 193)- off the This ship returned from Mozambique. Li v. was traveller first set foot therein.Oriental. fasc.^ as we shall tell has seldom occurred in India. ii. vii. under the command the of Ruy Gonsalves da Camara. see infra^ p. xi. p. 1587* . and all together took their course with great caution and vigilance on account of the report that there was of English. 123 Linschoten. xv-xviii also the King's censure of the expedition in Archivo Portuguez.). ix). Couto. p.^ and of the of the Turks to the north- eastern coasts of Africa. and was captured by Drake Azores (see Hakluyt. the capital of Portuguese India.

says that it left in December. 2 See Couto. and was forgiven. 508.* environs entirely de- which was stormed. parts. see Burton's Camoens Life and LusiadSy p. J. . was to consult with the captain of that place to regarding the building of a fort at Maskat to defend it it from the Turks. xvi. The island of Lamo was next visited. ^ x. 609-612. Liv. cap. (translated in Pinkerton's Collecxi. stroyed. consisting of two galleons. caps. 725-728). punish these and to prevent the Turks from repeating . was to proceed Hormuz. after purpose. i. tion^ vol. ii. Dec. their aggressions and probably one of the first sights that met Teixeira's view on reaching Goa was some of the Learning that accomplishing its vessels being got ready for this expedition. 1587. Dec. 305. 1586. and thirteen foists. This traitor. p. X^ Liv. on hearing of the approach of the avenging ^ See Couto. he applied for and obtained per- mission to accompany this punitive expedition. x.^ Teixeira appears to have thought that would be well visiting. where the captain of one of the ships. for him to take this opportunity of seeing several places that he might not again have the chance of Accordingly.^ V On the receipt of this intelh'gence the Viceroy in fleet to Council resolved to dispatch another treaty-breakers. 306. ii. the king of which place was the betrayer of Roque de Brito and his companions into the hands of the Turks. Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. Vll. viii iii-vi . pp. the king and his followers being put to the sword. de Santos. vol. '^ Liv. Linschoten (vol. pp. pp.INTRODUCTION. under the command of Martim Afifonso de Mello. and the town and its Thence the ships proceeded to Pate. v. cap. set sail from Goa on 9th January.^ The first place to which the fleet came was Ampaza. Belchior Calaga. On this fort see Geographical Journal^ vol. the ruler of which threw himself on the mercy of the Portuguese. vii. this place. this fleet. which. X. 194) : Regarding the situation of vol. three galleys. 187-190.

and burnt. according to Teixeira's statement (p. Mombasa once more wrote and confessing his faults. in a sorely storm-shattered condition. as a satisfactory agreement could not be Martim Aflbnso resolved First. The king of arrived at. the king of Seeing this destruction from the mainland.VI INTRODUCTION. asking for peace. the king and all his people vacated the town. Malindi acted as intermediary. Owing to the valuable cargo that the Salvador had on board. This woman having been recognised as ruler in place of the fugitive usurper. and permission to accompany the . leaving the widow of the former ruler to face the Portuguese. 223 infra). The latter place had been strongly garrisoned and mounted with ordnance but after first making a show of resistance. at the aguada . . (watering-place) of Teive (Taiwa). who asked and was granted fleet to Mombasa. had fled fleet. he dispatched a vessel with letters for the Viceroy. of the king of Pate. p. but. where she was broken up. and the salted head of the late king of Ampaza^ as a present for him. south of Maskat and then. where they were received with all honour by the king. 195) says (erroneously) that it was the head and describes what was done with the gruesome . the Portuguese went on to Malindi. where the king supplied where watered . laden with pepper and other commodities. Just as Martim Aflbnso de Mello was about to set sail with his fleet for Hormuz. which the Portuguese entered. fleet On it the way to Hormuz it the called at Malindi. Martim Aflbnso resolved to take the ship along with him to Hormuz. and the cargo transhipped to another vessel. or early in 1587. to leave for the Persian Gulf however. at Maskat 1 itself. there arrived at Mombasa. object. ii. where our traveller was astonished at the Linschoten (vol. inland. then soliciting terms of peace. the ship SalvadoVy which left had Cochin for Europe at the end of 1586. looted. with provisions at Socotra.

INTRODUCTION. Dec. ix. 170-171. also Linschoten. except his experience at Maskat. 194-196. and it was resolved that loans should city. ^ This Or. under the command of D. where it arrived in October. two galleys. he passes over this expedition in silence. four galliots and seven foists. x. abundance of fish vii and the curious way by which the galleyAfter a few days' stay at Hormuz. pp. i. ii. who had blockaded the Portuguese the Straits of Malacca. thus preventing ships from passing between India and famine by the stoppage of China. 2 iii. be raised from the citizens of Goa. commander died and was The fleet remained in the Strait until September. whence sailed. iii . . on arriving Kishm. Martim Affonso became so ill that the ships returned to Hormuz.^ Martim Affonso's father-in-law. Portthat place. a fleet of three galleons. cap. it when it once more returned to Hormuz. news reached Goa (at the end of March. vill. he returned for Simao da But. See Couto. Cf. with five hundred men and abundant munitions. pp.2 Apparently. of the desperate condition to which that city had been reduced by the action of " Rajale. Pedro Teixeira had been with its Martim Affonso's fleet from the time of departure from thither with Goa and. suffer the horrors of On receipt of these tidings the Viceroy sum- moned his Council. 1587). 1587. as far as Costa. and had for years acted as vedor da fazenda (comptroller of revenue) of There are several references to him in the Arch. to provide succour for the distressed This was done . the fleet sailed for the Strait of at Hormuz . caps. from Malacca. and Chaul. Liv. where the buried. under the command of Simao da Costa. X. Liv. Archivo iii. Not long after the departure of Martim Affonso's fleet. and also causing the unfortunate inhabitants of Malacca to supplies. Bassein. we know. vol. Portuguez-Oriental^idiSQ. but. for Goa." the king of Johor. Paulo de many man was valuer of the Hormuz custom-house. and on 28th April. slaves caught them.^ fasc.

vii. Liv." whom he had driven off with great loss (see Linschoten. and the city of Johor. Liv.* and after dispatching thither what ships and men Duarte and his were available. ii. the "tyrant Raju Sinha I). X. the ships of Aflbnso de Mello's expedition. caps.^ 235 n. is unhappily lost. Couto's Ninth Decade. pp. iv-v. He was chosen to command this expedition because. ix. after a short siege. 232 n. Liv. 221. 3 * ^ See infra^ pp. xiii-xvii. ii. pp. Linschoten's account (vol. caps. xii. five or six when him- years previously.^ At length. Just when steps were being taken for the preparation of this fleet. vol.^ and. 197). Dom Council resolved to get ready and send to fleet. x. Ceylon. in September. xiii-xiv.^ of Captain-major of the on whom he bestowed the title Indian Sea. which place was relieved . cap. Full details of this siege are given by Couto {Dec.^ But Malacca was not the only Portuguese possession that needed ress of relief. p. burnt. caps. was stormed. the defenders had barely been able to hold their own. 193-194. set sail for Lima. though occasional help had been sent to them from India.Vlll INTRODUCTION. vili. he had successfully stood a similar siege by the same " Raju. ii. as also provisions. Liv. Liv. iii. 380. self captain of Columbo some . Liv. vol. p. caps. Since the early part of 1586. caps. viii. i-xvii). the in " fort- Columbo.) 2 Cf. 198-200) contains a number of inaccuracies. had been besieged by the arch-enemy of the Portuguese. For the command of this fleet the Viceroy chose Manoel de Sousa Coutinho. (See also Archivo Portuguez-Oriental^ fasc. (Raja with an immense force. 196. urgent appeals Brito for reinforcements reached the Viceroy from the captain of Columbo. 177178. infra^ pp. See also Linschoten. 235. Paulo de Lima. and sacked. Malacca. under ^ Full and very graphic details of these events are given by Couto {Dec. to whom word had already been sent that he was to sail as soon as possible for Ceylon. vi-xii). containing details of this siege. Columbo fleet a large which was to be joined there by the of D. 274-276. X. 197. Joao Correa de . ix. 1587.

no quarter being given. and saluting the fort with salvos from its cannon and arquebuses. 2 Couto calls it the Ilha de Jogues (Island of Jogis). Paulo de Lima's fleet began to arrive. 1588. from which position he was taken back a prisoner to Portugal. consisting of two galleys. arrived from Hormuz . the ix command of Simao da Costa. of the state of Colombo. the fleet reached Columbo on 18th February. and that the town of Chilaw was strongly garrisoned. decked with flags. vol. where he committed frightful atrocities (cf. and. At this time his fleet before Chilaw.^ Comorin coasted it as far as Ramesvaram whence crossed over. These two officers set off Columbo with eighty Portuguese and in a foist the native lascarins. and Pedro Teixeira. and. with six hundred men. and rounding Cape Island. patched to two officers it Thence a message was disthe captain of Columbo.INTRODUCTION. ever ready to take advantage of opportunities that offered themselves. succeeded in obtaining permission to accompany Manoel de Sousa to Ceylon. came to relieving fleet lay. 143. captained respectively by Manoel de Sousa Coutinho and D. this fleet. Manoel de Sousa and 1 Afterwards (1594-1612) captain-general of Ceylon. where he ended his days in prison. Jeronymo de Azevedo was disembarked. Hakluyt Soc.^ and sixteen foists. asking him to send with native troops to join Manoel de Sousa's to devastate the country forces. ii. Jeronymo de Azevedo. passing the island of Mannar. and nine doneys where the . the enemy was routed. Manoel de Sousa Coutinho weighed anchor. Having been informed of what they had done. came to anchor off Karaittivu. Departing thence. after carrying out various punitive and aggressive operations on their own account. as was intended between from that place and Columbo. so that the citizens of sight Columbo were overjoyed at the of such an array of vessels. also the ships of D. and came with Here a large force under D. p. and the town was sacked and burnt.) and Viceroy of India (1612-1617). n. . set sail from Goa. On 4th February. Pyrard.

where ^ 2 See infray pp. Jeronymo de Azevedo in his galley. anxious to have the whole credit of the affair for himself. 233. as Raju " was really preparing to retire. 1588. 21 0-2 13 infra). and to in he makes only casual references in his matters connected with this journey. and an adequate defence of Columbo. and this was carried into the king's army being routed with great loss. to meet the ships from China and convoy them as far as Goa.^ his return Kings of Persia But one incident some length. Of these stirring events Teixeira tells us nothing." and. 221 and 235. . and two foists as well. 237 . visiting the fortresses of Cananor and Canara. 221.X INTRODUCTION. spies reported that this " blind. asking for an armistice to allow him to observe a At the same religious festival at his capital.179> 222. whilst he went on. who came in a light fleet. was therefore that night agreed to make a general assault on the enemy effect.^ was only a It time. Manoel de Sousa Coutinho reached Goa. and after Raja Sinha's extensive and elaborate siege works force left for the fleets set sail for had been destroyed. the other captains having landed. us arrived in Cochim. Sitdvaka. (21st February). At the end of March. Paulo de Lima arrived from Malacca. and left in that city D. On 22nd or 23rd February. Paulo de Lima might arrive at any moment. 235. D." One of the fortresses of Kanara at which Manoel de Sousa voyage he describes at that " called was " Barselor. however. Paulo's captains coun- selled delay. was urgent enemy. See infra^ pp. Couto tells Manoel de Sousa. Meanwhile ambassadors arrived from Raja Sinha. and knowing that D. Teixeira tells us something of what he saw (pp. while D. 1 77. the two Goa at the beginning of March. a council of war was held to decide what action should be taken against the Manoel de Sousa. also cf. for an immediate attack. pp. landing here. Naturally.

like the young Netherlander.^ D. cap. 197-198). * ^ X. Paulo de Lima arrived. except the pallium. He was buried with great pomp in church of the Reys Magos.^ pp. viii. s. in the same ship with Linschoten's master. X. p. vol.^ Probably as a result of the strain and anxiety he had experienced. covering the years 1 588-1 596. xviii (see p. 1588.^ But it was ^ Couto. x.^ 1588. vol. Dec. all that a was entitled to. Linschoten left Goa for Cochin in November. 291-295. 214. X. iii. cap. accorded still greater honour — in fact. White way's Rise of Portuguese Power in India^ ^ He had left for Portugal in January. record the chief events of each year during his stay in India. . Teixeira passes over with merely a casual reference (p. Paulo de Lima.^ to events. Liv. be right. in his absence. it was found that Mathias de Albuquerque was nominated to the government of India but. 203. Duarte de Menezes shortly afterwards sick of a fever. were opened. Liv. 1589* In view of the loss of Couto's Eleventh Decade. iv.* When the vias^ or letters of succession. pp. 201) suggests it also Linschoten. vol. See Linschoten. ii. 3. his bones being subsequently transferred to the Convent of the Trinity at Santarem. After his return from Ceylon. xix. and sailed for Europe in January.INTRODUCTION. D. 201-203 p. ^ Regarding these. another cause. 210 infra). seeTheaYsBe^^innm^s of South African History.'^ who was recognised as All these Governor with the customary ceremonies. our traveller seems to have spent the remainder of the year 1588 in Goa. ii. ^ ix). it is all the more to be regretted Cf. Liv. likely to Linschoten {u. see the j pp. fell Manoel de Sousa Coutinho. A few days and was Viceroy later (early in April). (vol. however. the Archbishop of Goa (Couto. * ^ that Teixeira did not. Dec. Linschoten ii. cap. . supra^ p.lso details given by Linschoten. Dec. fell and after only a few weeks' illness died on the May 4th. For an account of the sad fate of D. ii.^ the office . XI he was received by the Viceroy and the whole city with many tokens of honour and general rejoicing.) says that was on the 15th but Couto is more * Couto. 1587.

of the ancient and famous temple at Dondra. another naval fleet not long before he was off again with expedition. This fleet. X^ Liv. were forced to weigh anchor and sail for Mombasa. Joao dos Santos. he played upon them until they . the captain of the Turkish to Portuguese prestige had given such a blow on the east coast of Africa in 1586. for a had ever since been preparing . ^ Not to be confused with Thome de Sousa d'Arronches. x. before. a man of a brutal character (see Archivo Portuguez. been forewarned of Mir All's coming and. The captain of the fort. foist first that Matheus Mendes had dis- patched to Goa on the news of the intended descent of Mir All. he set sail from the Red Sea at the end of 1588 or beginning of 1589. where he landed and course contributions at all was well received at and thence he continued southwards. iii.Xll INTRODUCTION. where he intending anchored late one next morning to bombard the town. Martim Affonso set about ward-bound ships preparing a fleet to be sent to the East African coast. gives the year as 1589 but the correctness of . until he came to Malindi. 857861). who has earned eternal infamy by his wanton destruction. however. second descent upon those parts and. getting money night. where Mir All proposed to erect Meanwhile. pp. had. Accordingly.Oriental^ fasc. the Governor had been apprised of the threatened for danger. from which he could sally out and destroy Malindi on some future occasion. being urged thereto in letters from the Moors.^ with a fleet of four galleys and the foist that he had captured from Roque de Brito two years far as . in 1588. seems doubtful. cap. placing some guns on a sandhill commanding the galleys. the command of which he gave to his brother. that Mir All Bey. Dec. xv). in the south of Ceylon (see Couto. by a forts. Matheus Mendes de Vasconcellos. Thom^ de Sousa Coutinho. after the departure of the homeCochin.^ and which consisted of two ^ Fr. He ran down his the Somali coast as Magadosho. the ports which he called. whose account of these events appears to be the only one extant. this .

after many perils. to March 7th the Portuguese entered the find it abandoned. and a message was received from Matheus Mendes announcing the withdrawal of Mir All to Mombasa. and a manchuc^ and carrying nine hundred men-at-arms. and on March 3rd arrived at Malindi. by two ships that lay there Thome de Sousa left Malindi. the ships came to Ampaza. but this soon collapsed. finally. Ordinary galliots had no foremast. de Sousa to make before his arrival. and begging Thome Mir AH. all speed lest the Upon this.. 1589. the ships such severe weather that one of the galleys began to leak and had to return to Goa. galliasses. the two galliasses were lost sight of. and on Sunday. must be here mentioned Sousa's fleet. sighted land on February 20th. here substitutes /wj/^i^ * (foists). the king and prince of Pemba. the enemy should escape ships at once made sail. who was promised security by Thom^ de Sousa on conThe next dition of having nothing to do with the Turks. which had been rebuilt by the prince. five galleys. the place was therethat. . enemy having taken before the arrival of to the woods.. navios. accompanied by the king of that place. The compiler of the makeshift Decada Undeciina. and soon after reached Brava. while the other vessels had to jettison a good deal of their cargo . v. encountered Soon after getting out to sea. Thome de Mombasa was Grig. which is largely taken from Dos Santos's work. where they learned of the arrival and doings of Weighing anchor on February 23rd. and on city. galeotas de traquete. six vessels. March 5th. arrived before Mombasa. It The upon sacked and burnt. and Matheus Mendes. 2 See Hobson-Jobson^ s.INTRODUCTION. set sail from Goa on January 30th. place of call was Lamo. At first some show of resistance was made by his fleet Having increased the Turks . where they were heartily welcomed. Orig.^ Xlll foremasted galliots/ six smaller as tender. where the fleet watered. The rest of the fleet.

268-274. and bound the prince of Ampaza and set sail the kings of Pate and Sio by solemn treaty to be faithful to the crown of Portugal. Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. xxi (English translation in Theal's Records of SouthEastern Africa^ vol. Thome to Pate. Here he left Matheus Mendes de fleet Vasconcellos. advancing from the south. Mir All Bey. Having devastated the island of Mandra. who were shortly . called at Socotra on the 28th Regarding these people. II. while other offenders also suffered the same fate. xv. See also Theal's Beginnings of South African History^ p. pp. i. see Dos Santos. cap. Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. Liv. many of the unhappy -Turks being drowned in their attempts to escape. also Strange Adventures of ^ Liv. Thom^ de Sousa fleet Mombasa. and arrived two days Malindi. I. to protect the place and some from the Zimbas.xiv INTRODUCTION. many as he could After restoring the king of Pemba to his throne (from which he had been driven by left his people). II." who came to the help of the garrison. already besieged from the land side by an immense force of cannibal blacks. a terrible slaughter began. xvii. For Teixeira's reference to this event.^ and p. and their utter destruction by the force of three thousand " Mosseguejos. two missing galliasses arrived at Mombasa. with at his and the vessels later captured from the Turks. 302-304). had spread terror and devastation wherever they These savages now gaining an entrance to the island. on March 22nd. 290-304) and Theal's Beginnings of South African History^ pp. 150. xvii-xxi (English translation in Theal's Records of SouthEastern Africa^ vol. called Zimbas. see Dos Santos. who. . .) For a description of their attack on Malindi. de Sousa carried the king of that place a prisoner where he was formally beheaded for his betrayal of Roque de Brito and the other Portuguese in 1586. Thome de Sousa for on April 15th. 237. Andrew * Battell^ p. To the credit of Thome de Sousa it must be said that he saved as had come.^ expected to pay it a visit Calling at Lamo.^ by means of his boats. among them the On the same day (March 15th) the leader. 268. caps. n. (Cf. xvii. pp. and two of the vessels of the soldiers. see infra^ p.

vii-xii. caps. from the French version of caps." Regarding the " Mocegueios. and 223. tells which city. of which had. 237. account. as outbreak that brought Teixeira to Cochin. in the makeshift Decada Undecima. 204. I think it is absolutely certain that he did so (see his statements on pp. It is this very possible that (if he was a physician. 6. 231 infra)^ was during those two years devastated by a terrible epidemic of the " Chinese Death. where he was welcomed by also received his brother. although Teixeira does not. 728-735. 238. How or where he spent the remainder of 1589 we know not f but during the next two years. the Governor. is : : : Dos cap. the de Albuquerque. Liv. v-x. as in the case of the two previous expeditions. 227). Santos.^ who Mir Ali with great Now. 1590. I suspect) was . see. as ." whom Teixeira must have met at Malindi in 1589. Joao dos Santos in his Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. 205 infra)^ to have been resident in Cochin. according to to his own 1589. with verbal alterations. 198. infra} and the references on pp. from his own statement (p. cordiality. pp. " And less evil ^ In the passage referred to on p.* On May had left 15th. returned to port shortly afterwards owing to unfavourable weather. Liv. he seems. do the black Zinbas today. when seventy or eighty thousand of them went in a body through the interior of Africa in search of the lands of India. was in Cochin from March 22nd * November 2nd." or Asiatic cholera. 1590 and 1591. v. A faulty English translation. not sparing their own people.INTRODUCTION. he us (p. water and provisions. tell us even casually that he accompanied this one. arrived Lisbon in new Viceroy of India. v. 237 Teixeira says is this than to devour human flesh. in addition to the authorities referred to in the footnote on p. I. xvi. with four other ships.. Ralph Fitch. and arrived on XV May i6th at Goa. 1591. Mathias at Goa in the Bom JesuSy which all May. printed in Pinkerton's Collection^ vol. 202. Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. 237. as was seen ten or twelve years ago. These have been reproduced. or of the Cloths [Pannos\ as they said and when any of them fell sick they killed and divided them amongst them and ate them these came to an end before Mahnde and Monbasa at the hands of the Portuguese.. Dos Santos. when he left for Goa it (see infra^ p. i. Manoel de Sousa Coutinho ^ Details of this expedition are given by Fr. * xiii. however. xxvii).

his possessions. I. 1592 . 201. throughout the Regarding Teixeira tells \ in the prefatory note to his book (see infra) and scattered latter are to be found references to occur- rences of which he was eye-witness while in Hormuz. 206. viii). I. Bk. Garajao. to the study of the histories of Persia and Hormuz. 2 So far as can be gathered from his book.^ Judging by casual references in his book. pp.xvi at INTRODUCTION. 209. Liv.^ How or where it Teixeira spent the year 1592 he gives no hint. once delivered over the sword of placed at his disposal for his who homeward voyage sailed the ship he himself had come out in. in his Kings The same The S. during most of the time that Teixeira was resident there. which left India at the time. Whatever the object of he evidently devoted considerable time to the acquisition of the Persian language. left on January on loth. ii. cap. was lost at sea. xxii. his visit. were attacked near the Azores by an English fleet under Sir John Burrough.* He also. but was probably somewhere on the west coast of India. in 1597 ^ : . 166). Teixeira never visited the Coromandel coast or Bengal. Dec. 238). Cruz. 187) but he died soon afterwards. and this. vol. of the chronicles of Mir Khwand and us something Turan Shah. to the translation. He may possibly have called at Diu on his way a statement in Kings of Persia. who captured the former. 221. Bartholomeu^ one of Madre de Deos^ and the Santa 1 the same fleet.^ where he seems to have resided until 1597 (see infra. 241. The loss of Couto's . 234. was Diogo Lopes Coutinho. but. with his wife and all for Portugal from India. In this vessel. 208. office to his successor. in a summarised form. p. * The captain of Hormuz. The latter was succeeded by Antonio de Azevedo (regarding whose romantic marriage see Linschoten. the largest and most richly-laden that had ever Manoel de Sousa. it appears probable that in or about the year 1593 our author left India for Hormuz. in attempting to make Mozambique. XII. chap. (see Couto. 210. is so worded as to leave it XhQ doubtful if Teixeira ever was in Diu. 192. while the latter was burnt by her captain. and all the ship was lost on the shoals of board perished. or which took place during his residence there (see infra^ pp.

^ utilising his stay knowledge regarding the fauna and flora of the Malayan Archipelago (see infra. supply this want to a certain extent (see. but first now we come chapter of his Narrative of my fourney from Decada XI has deprived us of any detailed account of events in or near Hormuz at this period but the royal letters in the Archivo Portuguez-Oriental. 224. 215. 704. i. 808. will be found recorded further on. but regarding which he is silent. 482. 222. 446. Teixeira's wanderings. 415. left p. .INTRODUCTION. where "1599" should be " 1598"). same year he must have (see infra. for instance. . 252). of the fleet in the Strait of Malacca gave Teixeira the opportunity of going ashore on Pulo Jarak. fasc. in Mazanand the north of Persia (see infra. under the command Lourengo 1 which left Goa on 24th September. pp. Some of the stirring events that took place in the Malayan Archipelago while Teixeira was in Malacca. 689. n. since he himself informs us that for in that yeaf he sailed from Goa Malacca We may the reasonably confleet clude that Teixeira of accompanied de Brito. 458. p. 230. pp. and 225. 678-679. 813). 786-791. and cf daron in the p. 592. 232. 204). 505-506.. n. 225-226. for Malacca. 432.^ tidings received in India of an intended attack by the in Dutch on the Portuguese possessions The becalming and adding to history. pp. 711. 198. 164-168. In 1597 our author paid a visit to the city of " " (Sari). 574. 226). 450. his store of information in the field of natural Reaching in acquiring Malacca.. 597. Hormuz for India. 235-236. ^ See infra. pp. gives a brief description of the island as appeared during his residence there (see infra. xvii it of Hormuz.) Thus far we have had for to rely on casual and sometimes vague references In the our information regarding Pedro to solid ground. in consequence of the the Far East. our author apparently remained there for the next two years and a half. * The captain of Malacca during Teixeira's residence was Martim Alfonso de Mello Coutinho (see infra. iii. 586.

How these ships fared is related below. that being in Malacca. just a year after he had sailed from Malacca. I need here only mention the at at incidents. Having rested here a few days. 1601. pp. sea. Passing through La Puebla and other towns. city Teixeira remained until 2nd May. where he arrived at midnight on In this Christmas Day. After a brief stay for provisioning at the Strait of San Bernardino. he tells us. fleet and on i8th July our four new ships bound traveller set sail in for one of a of America. he resumed his journey towards his native land. Teixeira arrived on 22nd June Manila. 1600. to India Italy (see infra. he resolved to do so by way of the Philippine Isles. and. on which day. 231-233). vol.^ and As chief the succinct account that our author gives of his is journey translated below. i). but falling in with some Spanish ships that had been sent out by the Viceroy of Peru to look for the Hollanders. our author set out^ on horseback Mexico. escaping Dutch fleet. the ship with Teixeira on board reached Acapulco on for the city of ist December. He therefore took advantage of a pinnace that was being dispatched by the captain of Malacca to warn the Spanish Governor of the Philippines of the coming of the accordingly left Malacca on ist Dutch into that May. our traveller came to San Juan de Ulua (Vera Cruz). i. that the Governor was to be informed of the departure from Holland of the fleets of Jacques Mahu and Olivier van Noort for the Straits of Magellan. After calling Brunei. p. and wishing to return to Portugal. with the object of reaching the Malayan Archipelago by way of the Philippines. the necessary permit to proceed to New Spain. Dom . ^ 2 With Teixeira's account of this land journey may be compared Fernandez Navarrete.XVlll INTRODUCTION. Dom Francisco Tello de Menezes. who travelled in the opposite that of direction in 1647 (see Churchill's Collection. Here he obtained from the Governor. This must mean. the ship's course was set in a north-easterly direction a dreaded encounter with a . in Borneo.

INTRODUCTION.
whence he
sailed
in

XIX

the

fleet

for

Spain on 31st May.
port of

After being nearly wrecked in a storm off the coast of

Cuba, Teixeira's

ship

put

into

the

Havana,

whence she again sailed on 15th July for Spain by Florida, Bermuda, and the Newfoundland banks and after escaping
;

from

the

unwelcome attentions of a

corsair^

off

the

coast of Algarve, the fleet cast anchor in

San Lucar on

6th September.
Seville,

Two
by a

days later

our traveller reached

and

finally,

circuitous route, arrived at Lisbon

on 8th October, 1601.
Before
leaving

Malacca, Teixeira

had

entrusted

to

friends there a considerable

to Portugal in the usual
India.

sum of money to be remitted way by the homeward ships from
dis-

When

he reached Lisbon, however, he was

appointed to learn that the
failed to arrive
;

money

had, for

some

reason,

and, therefore, after waiting in vain for
half,^

nearly a year and a
inclination,

our author,

much

against his

more.

mind to set out for the East once Accordingly, on March 28th, 1603, he went aboard
his
fleet

made up

one of the

of five

sail

leaving for India under the

command

of Pero Furtado de Mendo^a, and on October

14th arrived safely at Goa.

Presumably Teixeira here attained the object of
journey
;

his

for in less

than four months he was once more

homeward-bound.

Weary
way

of seafaring, and anxious to

view fresh scenes, our traveller resolved to make a land
journey to Europe by
of the Euphrates valley.^

On

1 The fleet also managed to evade capture by the English ships, which were at this time scouring the seas in search of Spanish prizes (see Calendar of State Papers^ Domestic Series 1601, passim).
^

2

two years a half
tific
^

Dr. Kayserling {op. cit.) erroneously says " After a residence of in Lisbon, he started on a second journey of scienresearch [!] to India, Persia, and other countries."
:

Regarding

this

route,

see

Linschoten,

vol.

i,

pp. 48-51, vol.

ii,

p. 159.

C2

XX
February

INTRODUCTION.
9th, 1604, therefore,

he

left

Goa, and on the

nth

embarked on a Portuguese ship bound for the Persian Gulf. Sailing the same day, the ship took a straight course for the coast of Arabia, making landfall on

March 2nd, near the Bay of Masirah thence running northwards, she rounded Cape Ras-el-Had, and entered the Gulf of Oman. Here many vessels were sighted, and in a
;

collision with

one of these the arrogant

folly of a ship's

clerk nearly caused a terrible disaster.

Escaping from

this

danger, the ship pursued her course, anchoring a couple of

days at
length

wood and water at Mdskat, and reaching Hormuz on March 17th.
Sffa,

taking in

at

On

April 14th Teixeira set

sail for

Basra, in a

little

ship

belonging to the Portuguese captain of Hormuz, which,
after passing

through the

strait

between Kishm and the

mainland, coasted north-westerly along the eastern shore
of the

Persian
to

Gulf,

having frequently to cast anchor

owing

the strong currents.

Off the island of Ldr

(Shaikh Shuwaib) the ship suffered somewhat from bad
weather, and proved a friend in need to a native vessel
that

had been attacked by

"

Nihhelus."

After sailing

along this rugged coast for thirty-five days, provisions

began to
creased

fail,

and on reaching Shilu the head-wind
set

in-

to

such an extent that the captain of the ship
the

gave orders to
place
2 1 St.

course for

Hormuz,

at

which

our traveller found himself back again on

May

Disappointed but not daunted by his

ill-success,

Teixeira

once more embarked
refitted

in

the

same
from

ship,

which, having
17th,

and revictualled,

sailed

Hormuz on June
island.

this

time keeping south of

Kishm

This voyage

proved more fortunate, and, after apparently an uninterrupted run along the eastern coast of the Persian Gulf,

the ship anchored on July 25th at the island of Kharag,

where

it

lay wind-bound for

four

days.

Leaving

this

INTRODUCTION.
place

xxi

the ship took a westerly course, and, after being

nearly stranded in a shallow channel by the Moorish pilot

who had been taken on board
anchor on August
ist in the

at

Kharag, at length cast
"

Shdt-el-Arab, and on the 6th
Serrage," where

reached the terminus of her voyage at
ships of burden were

wont

to discharge their cargoes for

Basra.

To

this

town our
canal.

traveller

proceeded the same day

by boat along a

Of

Basra, as he

saw

it,

Teixeira gives a graphic and

interesting description.

In this town he lodged in the house

company and that of two Portuguese gentlemen our traveller had come from
of a Venetian merchant,^ in whose

Hormuz,
Europe

all

having apparently arranged to journey to

together.

But finding that the

river

would be un-

navigable for some months, Teixeira, learning that a kafila

was fitted out

to

make

the land journey through the Arabian
it.

desert, resolved to join

Accordingly, on September 2nd,

he and Diego de Melo, one of the aforesaid Portuguese

gentlemen (who had, at the
sion
to

last

moment, begged permisbade farewell
to their

accompany our

traveller),

friends in Basra,

and proceeded to the plain outside the
start.^

town, whence the kafila was to

^

Regarding

Relaxant, etc., Liv.

Shah AbMs murder and robbery of a
2

man, Santo Fonte, Father Antonio Gouvea, in his cap. vii, relates an incident, showing how severely punished the King of Lar and his accomplices for the
this
I,

factor of this Venetian merchant's.

It was not customary, I believe, for Europeans to travel by this desert route. Antonio Tenreiro was the first Portuguese to undertake the journey in 1523, and again in 1528 ; and Couto {Dec. IV, Liv. v, cap. vii) describes the sensation caused in Portugal by the narrative of his adventures (which was not printed, however, before 1560, at Coimbra). Some forty years later (in 1565 apparently), a certain Antonio Teixeira made the journey from Basra to Bagdad, and thence to the Mediterranean and Galata (Couto, Dec. VIII, cap. v). Fr. Caspar de Sao Bernardino, who made the land journey from Basra to Aleppo a few years after Teixeira, took a somewhat different route. On the subject of these land journeys see the interesting account in Whiteway's Rise of Portuguese Power in India

PP- 53-57.

xxil

INTRODUCTION.
in

After a somewhat trying journey,

which Diego de

Melo proved a troublesome companion, the kafila arrived at Mashad 'Alf on September i8th and, having rested
;

four days, set out again on the 23rd.

On

the 25th the

^

caravan reached

Mashad Husain

(Karbala),

where the

captain of the kafila got married, and invited our traveller
to the wedding.

On

the 29th most of the merchants in

the kafila set off for

Bagdad

in

charge of certain
;

officials,

who had been
of camels.

sent thence for that purpose

but Teixeira,
for lack

Diego de Melo, and a few others remained behind
This want being at
left

last supplied,

our traveller
;

and

his

companions

Mashad Husain on October 2nd
;

on the 3rd they crossed the Euphrates
they entered Bagdad.

and on the 4th

At Bagdad, Teixeira was welcomed by a young Hamburger whom he had known in India, and who did all he could to repay some service our traveller had done him on a former occasion. Of the city of Bagdad we are given a
very detailed description.
In consequence of the siege of

Aleppo and
he once more
the

other

disturbances, Teixeira

had perforce

to remain a couple of
set

months here
on

;

but on December 12th

forth

his journey,

accompanied by

young German, Diego Fernandes, and Diego de Melo,

and crossing the Euphrates on the 24th entered the town of Ana.

At

this place,

which as usual he describes graphically

Teixeira and his companions were detained,

much

to their
for

annoyance, until January 13th, 1605, when they set out

Aleppo, travelling, as they had done from Bagdad, in

camel panniers.

At

the village of Sukana, which they
five days,

reached on January 31st, and where they stayed

Diego de Melo once more nearly brought trouble upon himself and his companions by his hot-headedness. On
February 9th the caravan was attacked by robbers
Teixeira and his friends escaped scatheless.
;

but

At

length,

on

INTRODUCTION.
February
I2th, at sunset, our traveller

XXUI

and

his

companions
and

reached Aleppo in safety.

To

a description of Aleppo,

its

inhabitants, trade

commerce, foreign merchants,
whole chapter
full

&c.,

our author devotes a
After a stay of

of interesting details.

two months
sail

in this

town, learning that a ship was about to

from Scanderoon (Alexandretta) for Venice, Teixeira
5th,

took his departure from Aleppo on April

accompanied

by two Venetian gentlemen and by Diego de Melo, who once more proved a source of trouble to the company.

On Good
ship
says,

Friday,

April

8th,

1605,

the

party reached

Alexandretta, and on the 12th they went aboard a Venetian

bound

for Venice, in

which

city our author had,

he

some

special business to transact.

After calling at
fell

Salinas (near Larnaca) in Cyprus for cargo, the ships
in with

some Maltese

galleys, to
fit

one of which Diego de

Melo, in a characteristic
self,

of ill-humour, transferred him-

much

to the relief, doubtless, of our long-suffering
call for

author.

Another

cargo was

made
;

at the island of
after a tedious

Zante, where eight days were spent

and

voyage, owing to contrary

winds, the ship arrived on
his

July 9th at

" Istria."

Here Teixeira and
sailed
in

companions

went ashore, and next day
where they arrived,
1605.
after a

a bark for Venice,

stormy voyage, on July nth,
"

Of

his

doings in Venice, where he
tells

rested a while,"

Teixeira
of the

us nothing, and, though he " saw of that city," his only

somewhat

many wonders
is

comment
re-

thereon

to agree with a certain wise
"

man, who, he

marks, had
in

wisely said," that

it

was

"

an impossible work

an impossible place."

Having

visited "

no small part of
to the
in the

Italy,"

our author came to Piedmont, crossed the Alps and
;

came Spanish Netherlands, where he settled down
saw Savoy
city of

traversed

France, and

(then)

famous

Antwerp.

What

length of time was occupied in

xxiv

INTRODUCTION.

when he came to Antwerp, Teixeira does not inform us, and we have no means (at Dr. KayserHng, in the work present) of ascertaining. " It was at Antwerp, the oldest already quoted, says Dutch settlement of the Spanish-Portuguese exiles, that Pedro took up his abode after the termination of his There he published his valuable work on the journey.
these European wanderings, and
:

origin

and order of succession of the kings of Persia and
[sic]
;

Hormez
Italy
;

there he wrote his

Travels from. India

to

and

there, not at Verona,^

most probably towards
his fathers in a better
latter part of
I

the middle of the

seventeenth

century, he died in the

Jewish
world."

faith,

and was gathered to

For the statements

in the

this

extract Dr. Kayserling gives no proofs, and
to confirm or to contradict them.-

am

unable

1 In a footnote Dr. Kayserling states that Daniel Levi de Barrios, Wolff, Zunz, and Steinschneider all mention Verona as the place of Pedro Teixeira's death but he thinks that more credence is to be given to Barbosa Machado, who, in his Bibliotheca Lusitana (Lisbon, " Vizitou Veneza, donde por 1747), torn, iii, p. 622, says of Teixeira Anveres e nesta cidade fez o seu domicilio ate a morte." terra veyo a In his Biblioteca Espanola-Portuguesa-Judaica (1890), however, Dr. Kayserling leaves the place of Teixeira's death a moot point.
;
:

mation

Dr. Kayserling, to whom I wrote, was unable to add any infornor has Dr. M. Gaster, who kindly made to that given above inquiries for me, succeeded in eliciting any further details regarding
^
;

Teixeira.

INTRODUCTION.

xxv

II.

THE FIRST COMING OF THE ENGLISH AND THE DUTCH TO THE EAST.^
The
( 1

period

covered by the travels of Pedro Teixeira
critical

586-1605) was a
in the East.

one

in the history of the Portu-

guese

In 1580 Philip II of Spain had been

proclaimed King of Portugal, and this country had entered

upon the

"

sixty years' captivity" that proved one of the
in the loss of nearly the

prime factors
possessions.

whole of

its

Eastern

In that
his

same

year, also,

Drake had returned

to

England from
rise to

famous voyage round the world,^

which gave

a " diplomatic wrangle" that eventuated

in a rupture of relations

and a

bitter

maritime war between

England and Spain.
Shortly
sailed (on

before

Drake's

return,

John
for

Newbery^ had
in

September

19th, 1580)

Tripoli,

Syria,

whence he journeyed by way of the Euphrates Valley and the Persian Gulf to Hormuz, returning thence through
Persia,

Armenia,

etc.,

to Constantinople,

and then across
Within six

Europe, reaching London in August, 1582.*

1 The subject of the early English and Dutch voyages to the East has been ably dealt with by Sir George Birdwood, in his Report on the Old Records of the India Office (second reprint, 1891), pp. 183-199 and Sir W. W. Hunter, in his History of British India, vol. i, chaps, v-vii. My object here has been to bring together in a connected form various particulars relating to some of these voyages, mostly from Portuguese sources, that have been hitherto overlooked by English writers on the subject. They will enable the reader, I think, to gain a fairly accurate idea of how the position appeared from a Portuguese
;

standpoint.
^ See The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake, edited for the Hakluyt Society by Mr. W. S. W. Vaux. ^ Regarding this man, see J. Horton Ryley's Ralph Fitch, pp. 202-

211.
*

Details of this journey are given in Purchas his Pilgrimes, vol.

ii.

xxvi

INTRODUCTION.

months of his return Newbery once more sailed for Tripoli, on this occasion accompanied by Ralph Fitch, William
These four Englishmen, James Story.^ following the same route as that taken by Newbery on
Leedes, and
his

former journey, reached

Hormuz on September

5th,

1583, and were at once arrested and imprisoned

by the

captain of Hormuz,^ on suspicion of being emissaries of

Dom
the

Antonio, the pretender to the throne of Portugal.^

In October they were shipped to Goa, arriving there on

20th of November, and being
offices

again

incarcerated.

However, through the good
Father

of the English Jesuit,

Thomas

Stevens,* Fitch and his companions were
bail,

soon released on
tions in Goa.

and
still,

settled to trade or other occupa-

Being

however, treated with suspicion
5th, 1585, Fitch,

by the

authorities,

on April

Newbery and
territory,

Leedes made
succeeded
in

their escape

from Portuguese
"

and

reaching the court of the

Great Mogul,"

Here Leedes remained in Akbar's service; but on September 28th, 1585, Newbery left for Lahore, intending to return by Persia to Aleppo or
Akbar,^ at Fatehpur Sikri.
Constantinople f
while Fitch set out in a fleet of boats

1 Fitch's narrative of this journey was first printed by Hakluyt {Principall Navigations^ vol. ii, Pt. i), and was reprinted by Purchas It has recently been reproduced, with a wealth {Pilgrimes^ vol. ii). of illustrative matter, by Mr. J. Horton Ryley, a member of this Society, under the title of Ralph Fitch : England's Pioneer to India

and Burma (London,
2

iSgg).

By a strange error, Lininfra). schoten says that the captain of Hormuz was then " Don Gonsalo de and cf. Meneses" (Hakluyt Soc. ed. of Linschoten, vol. ii, p. 160 Mathias de Albuquerque took over the office from pp. 187, 202). D. Gonsalo de Menezes in January, 1583 (see Couto, Dec. X, Liv. iii,
Mathias de Albuquerque (see
;

and Liv. vi, cap. x). ^ Regarding whom see Hunter's History of British India, vol. i, pp. 21 1-2 1 2, and footnote. * Respecting this man see Dictionary of Natural Biography, s. v.^ and Ralph Fitch, pp. 211-213. ^ In Hakluyt he is everywhere called " Zelabdim Echebar," the
cap.
ix,

former name being apparently a misprint for "Zelaledim" = Jaldluddin. * Leedes appears to have died in India while a mystery hangs over the fate of Newbery (see Ralph Fitch, pp. 'JT, 100, 205).
;

after having escaped from a suspect. and returning to Goa and Hormuz (where he had still to wait fifty for a passage to Basra). whence he sailed to Chittagong. Basra. where he made a stay loth. a very short one. Neither. the King of Spain wrote^ his arrival at Fitch does not mention the year of his departure from Pegu and Malacca but it must have been 1588. This letter does not appear in the Archivo Portuguez-Orietttal. 1589. and staying there until November 2nd. XXVll down the Jumna and Ganges to Bengal. 5). 20. while That he ran considerable official the following extracts from Portuguese documents show. for good reasons. and he had soon sailed for Chaul. 1 On February 25th. reaching that port on March 22nd. 1591. 1588. fact. Fitch returned by Pegu to Bengal. whence he returned to by the usual route I and so back England. arriving there on April 29th. 2 I translate what follows from a copy (the only one extant ?) of a royal letter contained in British Museum Addit. Leaving Pegu on January stay in reached Malacca on February 8th. mentions the other. however. Probably Fitch prolonged his stay in Pegu until he learnt of the relief of Malacca and the destruction of Johor. The first is : the portion of those travels synchronises with the earlier parts of Teixeira's voyages and wanderings in the East. . in 1589. MS. I Another reason travels visiting is have for referring specially to Fitch's to emphasise the audacity displayed by him in such Portuguese settlements as Malacca and days Cochin (where he stayed over seven months).^ Fitch of a year. and his This was the terminus Malacca was very brief March 29th. since. 1588. whence he took ship to Cochin. 1585. as we have seen above (p.INTRODUCTION. have given the above summary of for Ralph that Fitch's latter travels two reasons. during a great part of 1587 Malacca was enduring the horrors of famine. of his travels.861 (tomo I of Collecqam de Ordens da India^ No. vii). . At Goa his stay Setting sail again on was. Hormuz and to Aleppo. Goa risks. In Fitch and Teixeira were probably at Goa at the same time. when he left for Goa. and then on to Pegu.

and that they have gone to different parts. three of the Englishmen had escaped from Portuguese jurisdiction.^ and they came in the garb of merchants and with goods who had been imprisoned pending such confirmation as he should think right to advise me of. * ^ translate from Archive Porfugues. that if these Englishmen are still prisoners.^ captain of the fortress of Ormuz. 56. (i 591 -1597) Viceroy of India (see supra^ p. 77. p. and that you had information that two of them were dead. ii. fasc. cit. a few w^eeks after the above was written. xv). 1583 to 1586. and just two months after the arrival at Goa of the Viceroy to four whom the letter was addressed. and you have not punished them. who settled in Goa as a painter (see infra. 75. the which you shall order to be specially guarded against at the fortress of Ormuz. Story.Oriental. Philip thought of this occurrence What King the following extract^ from a letter shown by written by him to the is : Viceroy from Lisbon on February 13th. * From 160J. Linschoten gives a curious (and certainly erroneous) reason for their being sent to the Viceroy {pp. And of what you shall do in this matter you shall advise me. and the other One had was . p. and the other two living. pp. 85). 1587 I displeased at the escape of the four Englishmen whom you wrote me that Mathias Dalbuquerque sent as prisoners from Ormuz to that city of Goa in the time of the Count Dom Francisco Mascarenhas. : . of those known to be living was. Duarte from Lisbon to the Viceroy of de Menezes) : And the said Viceroy^ also wrote to me.^ vol. p. 95. Francisco Mascarenhas (see Ralph Fitch^ pp. Wherefore I enjoin on you.* who had arrived at that fortress by way of Bagora . I Ralph Fitch. As I have mentioned. xxix). iii. that Mathias de Albuquerque. although none were found on them. you do so according to the offences of which they shall have been found guilty.'^ And since it is necessary to learn the am ^ 2 ' Afterwards D. India (D.XXVlll INTRODUCTION. 62. ^ Cf. and that it was presumed that they carried some letters from Dom Antonio. which is the gateway by which they are chiefly likely to enter. Prior of Crato. of which you shall order a private inquiry to be made and you shall take great heed that neither these people nor other similar ones be allowed in those parts. of course.^ had sent him four Englishmen.

the former Prior of Crato.^ in which you will already have taken proceedings. as I ordered to be written to you by the fleet of the past year. as it is understood that as regards Turkish affairs they never report them correctly. (Cf. but with respect to Fitch it was happily false. you have sent to spy the strait of Meca in order that before the winter sets in you may learn if any galleys set out and what they do. according to Linschoten letter of (vol.) Archivo Portuguez. and of what you shall do in this matter you shall inform me. pp. •' * ^ To I a inestiqa. XXIX cause of their going to those parts. iii. Dom Antonio had left England intending to go by Venice to Constantinople whereupon the Viceroy had secretly sent a Venetian named Miser Antonio to Bagdad and xA-leppo to find out the truth. is printed in Archivo Portuguez-Orie?ttal. Possibly Leedes may have died meanwhile. of whom you gave me an account that they were merchants. the incorrect statements regarding the four in Hunter's History of British India. but warns him to be chary of receiving news through Venetians. This action the King commends. The last reference to this matter of Fitch and his com- possibly Leedes. and that three of them are dead. p. 1589.^ and that the one that remained was a painter and was married there.INTRODUCTION. I enjoin upon you to endeavour to lay hold of them. ^ i. regarding the four Englishmen who in the time of the Count Dom Francisco Mascarenhas went to India. and that they be kept well guarded and that you order an examination of the persons incriminated in their escape. have found no 1589 referring to this matter. and take proceedings against them . 175.Oriental. and went out to those parts solely with that intention. and nearly all in cypher. dated January 24th. p. by way of Dyo and other parts. 166It appears from it that a report had reached the Viceroy that 167. Two And years later. on February 2nd. The information regarding Newbery's death may have been correct. p. and so will it be of you to manage by And all ways to be ever advised of the affairs of this strait. . I have ordered a private letter^ to be written to you on this matter. the King writes^ : thus to the Viceroy regarding what you write me of the advice that you have had respecting Dom Antonio. iii. You also tell me that. who had taken service under Akbar (see supra). . 166). 1589. I translate from 2 The letter referred to. vol. and of those inculpated in the escape of the three. which was prudent. fasc.* nevertheless in addition to this information that you give me I again enjoin upon you that you make further efforts to find out the intent of their going. fasc. ii. 232.

p.^ and the other was in Goa practising the profession of a painter. iii. on April 8th. But his motto seems to have been " De I'audace. and then gone places. * ^ Linschoten. in : which the King writes^ to the Viceroy as follows he^ also writes to me that of the three Englishmen who went out to those parts in the time of the Count Dom Francisco Mascarenhas two of them were dead. the two ships that was lost on the homeward voyage in 1592 (see Had he been on board the Madre de Deos. Whether or not this order was carried out I have not been able to If it was obeyed. toujours de I'audace. Manoel de Sousa Coutinho.XXX panions is INTRODUCTION. Tiele. and nevertheless since it is forbidden that any strangers go to those parts. namely. which was supra^ p. 2 2 The Governor. in it certainly seems strange that 1588 Fitch should have spent seven in weeks in Malacca unmolested. ii. there would doubtless have been a record of the fact by Hakluyt or some other writer. reduction in the numbers. encore de I'audace. 1591. to Goa and Hormuz . vol. Jan Huyghen van Linschoten. I need here only ^ I translate from Archivo Portuguez-Oriental^ fasc. there sailed from Lisbon for India a for man whose name will ever be famous — the young Dutchman.^ In view of the above royal instructions. nor are they allowed there. 277. xvi)." Two months after the departure from England of Ralph Fitch and his companions. As the old English translation of his epoch-making Itinerario has been so admirably edited for our Society by Dr. he would certainly have been re-arrested. in a royal letter dated January I2th. being an Englishman. do no know who is responsible for this I Cf. without there being any suspicion of any other design in him . 166. and that 1589 he should have stayed between seven and eight months at Cochin. 1583.^ I do not consider it to my service that he remain. . captured by Sir John Burrough. poor Story probably perished in one of discover. Burnell and Mr. p. at either of which one would think. and you shall send him free in the first ship to this kingdom that he may go hence to his own country if And he desire.

Though Linschoten sailed for Europe from Cochin a couple of months before Fitch arrived there from Bengal. Bonaventure. he did not reach Lisbon until January 2nd. Had Linschoten not written his comprehensive work on the East. p. was destined complete the voyage. iii. say that it XXXl seems evident that Teixeira had read the work (doubtless the Latin translation of 1599) before writing his own book. nearly three years after his departure from India f while Fitch. 1592. in the footnotes to the Kings of Persia^ ^ He spent two years in the island of Terceira. it is possible that we might have had a somewhat similar one from the pen of Teixeira. only one of which. arrived in London on April under the 29th. The history of this expedition given in command of the Edward to is The Voyages of Sir James Lancaster. neither makes the slightest allusion to the other by name.INTRODUCTION. that though in 1588 Teixeira and Linschoten must have been in Goa at the same time. edited for our Society by Sir Clements Markham. and the curious report of an English expedition to the East in 1588 recorded by Linschoten. ^ * Archive Portu^uez-Oriental^ fasc. in which he says* " I had advice a few days ago that in England : — were being got ready some vessels with the object of going to the island of Santa Ylena to wait this for the ships that come from those parts to kingdom." The writer therefore ^ See the references to Linschoten's work infra. Frin. vol. 302).. Before this (in 1586-88) Thomas Cavendish had followed the example of Drake. on the other hand. 1591. 1591. Nav. and circumnavigated the world by way of Magellan Straits and the Eastern Archipelago (see the narrative of the voyage in Hakluyt. Less than three weeks before this there had sailed from London Captain for the East^ three ships Raymond. Captain James Lancaster. ii. 317. 1589.^ I would also point out. . It was perhaps the report of the approaching departure of these vessels that led to the writing of a letter to the Viceroy of India by the King of Spain on March 26th. p.

iii. in fact. 1 592-1603. to the effect that the English are capital enemies of the Spaniards and great friends of the Moors. and that any Moors they find captives they ransom and convey to the ports of Berberia and give them their liberty in order with these credentials go to England and put into execution this voyage which he designs to make beyond the Cape of Good Hope and not to Mogambique . first is a royal letter. ix. and that commerce is to be carried on with the inhabitants thereof. The only Portuguese documents two following. call Helena.^ at should be at Angola while the captains were to be instructed to rendezvous at Corvo." the capture of whose richlyladen vessel by English ships is reported in a letter of March 20th. . and that wherever they find them they treat them like companions. pp. the King. 400-401. it as to obviate calling at St. wrote to me that in Marrocos was an English merchant^ of credit in those parts who spoke of the affairs of that State like one who has some experience thereof although he has not been there. The letter^ runs : I. Fernandes Duarte. but as a well-known subject of the King. and that to the effect that in Samatra and Pegu. p. from the Venetian Secretary in England to the Doge and Senate {Calendar of State Papers^ Venice^ vol. not as a foreigner. 555). in the Azores. 2 Printed in Archivo Portuguez-Oriental^ fasc. how- undoubtedly referring to Lancaster's voyage are the The later. iii. homeward-bound possible so as if ships should carry as much water some port where a ever.e. are to be established factories. that have found. 2 ^ I cannot identify this man. written more than two years and. Luis Friend Viceroy. 1603.^ who is at the court of the King Xariffe. for which purpose he has made a ruttier of which : to ^ A similar letter of March 15th. This may possibly be the same man as the unnamed " Spaniard who has been living in Morocco for many years. orders the ships to call at the wateringplace of Saldanha {i. fleet would be waiting to escort them I to Lisbon.^ Table Bay). 389-390). 1593 (in Archivo PortuguezOriental^ fasc. which are places remote from that State and in which I have no fortresses. and orders that they were obliged to . and that for this purpose he is endeavouring to obtain authentic instruments from the said Xariffe. pp.xxxn advises that the INTRODUCTION. send you all greeting. just at the time that Lancaster's troubles were coming to a culmination off the coast of North America.

and providing in every way so that by no means may these English set foot on land . says from Lisbon that two ships of the East India fleet have arrived. * : Grig. History of British India^ vol." This seems to have been a nickacquired by Lancaster during his service as a soldier in Portugal but the reason for it is not evident. that it may be a little over two years ago there left England for those parts Captain Timbertoe. and you shall advise me of everything. iii. and in the case of those that have it not you shall arrange that this good office shall be performed towards them by the nearest king who is friendly to that State.^ matter is of the importance that you have been advised of. 1593. proper that you should know that through the same Englishman it was understood. and that they only saved themselves from the attack of four English These English ships followed corsairs with the greatest difficulty. yet it is to be believed that in so far as is possible the English will attempt everything from which they will gain some profit even though it be in remote parts. d . See also infra^ p..1603). — . " On ' : ^ Cf. " o capitao .^ keeping the kings of those parts in the friendship that they have with that State. i. . I thought that I ought at once to advise you by land. quoted by Hunter. p.' " Whether the original reached India does not appear. 234. the margin of the paper is this statement in contemporary writing Copy of what was written in cypher by land. in order that you may observe great vigilance in this particular. Ixi. them up for a long while. writing to the Doge and " News has come Senate from Madrid on August 30th. although in what this Enghshman intends there are many difficulties in the way of his being able to carry it into effect.^ regarding whom they had advice by land of his having arrived You will therethere. Written in Lisbon the 6th of August. 1592. may possibly be still in existence among the archives According to a note in Archivo Portuguez-Oriental^ fasc. 400. 1593. It is also 1 at ' This rattier Madrid.^ fore well see how important it is to intervene . They report that in the China seas an Englishman seized a ship with a cargo worth upwards of a million and that as there is no word of the two ships of last year it is thought certain that they are either sunk or captured by the English" {Calendar of State Papers^ Venice^ vol. and that he had captured two galleons. ^ The Venetian Ambassador in Spain.INTRODUCTION. taking all necessary precautions in the places mentioned and in any others that you consider needful. because of their lack of commerce there. the statement in a letter from Seville. XXXlll And because this the said Luis Fernandes sent me a copy.^ as also I commanded to be done by the fleet of the coming year. p. . ix. name Pe de pdo.

I consider myself well served by the manner in which he proceeded therein. 421). 1594. and will not dare to take them up again . vol. de Jonge's De Opkomst van het Nederlandsch Gezag in Oost-Indie {i^g^-1610). pp.^ and that Dom Jeronimo de Azevedo. it is very important that by every means you shall think of you shall cause great vigilance to be observed in this matter. i. who was stationed as captain of that fortress. it seems that while occupying this position D.^ prevented her taking in water. in Archivo Portuguez-Oriental^ fasc. History of British India. other reference to Lancaster's voyage occurs in a letter to the ist. iii (p. See. p. of many others coming thither . and since these corsairs have begun to go to those parts. fasc. ^ They were the three ships Mauritius^ Hollandia and Amsterda^n^ and the pinnace Duifken. and also by the order that you gave with a view to allay the excitement that might inconsiderately be created in that State by the news set about by that ship. in order to succeed in every way that is possible to you in capturing those that shall put into the ports of that State. . one paragraph^ of which runs as with respect to what you tell me. xlvii. a fleet of four Dutch vessels. judging by a later letter). for which crime he was tried and acquitted and in 1592 he appears to have returned to India and been appointed captain-major of the Malabar coast. 1595.* as she was doing. ^ I cannot find the date of his taking up this post. however. Other works dealing with these voyages are cited below.— xxxiv INTRODUCTION. Jeronymo killed his wife for adultery (and her paramour also. xlviii). see Prince Roland Bonaparte's Les Premiers Voyages des Neerlandais dans VInsulinde {iS9Si6o2\ and especially J. or to defeat them in such a' manner that not only will they not be able to proceed with their designs. . iii. For details of the early Dutch voyages. six leagues from Mogambique. K. J. as I feel confident that And you will do. From a royal letter of March ist. that an English ship put into Titangone. * ^ 6 This was not the fact (see infra^ p. but it was probably in 1590. but that they will greatly regret having entertained them. 234. 430-431. written in Lisbon on March follows : 1594.^ under the command of 1 * Archivo Portuguez-Oriental^ See infra^ p.^ On April 2nd. Hunter. Lancaster's voyage resulted so disastrously as to give pause to English designs on the East f but another rival nation was now to appear on the scene. The royal Viceroy of India.

and a Gujarati. 372-374 The Description of a Voyage^ etc.^ pp. The first reference occurs in a royal letter^ to the Viceroy of India. It was the governor and council at Bantam that made the agreement with the Dutch (see de Jonge. 20. December ^ Except the casual reference by the Goa Chamber 1597. Phillip was printed in London by John Wolfe in 1598 under the title The Description of a Voyage made by certaine Ships of Holland into the East Indies. and rities he refers to. - See Tide's XXX vi.^ Of this which in little but disaster^ and the disappointment. two Malagasy. ed. J. pp.. 197-198. 15 ^ and 16).^ vol. having lost two-thirds of his crews.. When the other three vessels set sail homewards on February 26th. cit. de Jonge. On January ist. in his History of British India^ vol. 11 6. Cornells de XXXV Houtman. in their letter of The only i in tom. 1597. instead of the two hundred and forty-nine Hollanders that had left with the fleet. op. which was published expedition. of Linschoten. 1 597). a Malay. 6 et seq. The first 1597 (see Tiele's Dutch account of which appeared Memoire Bibliographique sur at les Middelburg in Journaux des Navigateurs N^erlandais. xlvi). p. says: "Houtman returned in 1597.— INTRODUCTION. and 285-374 Prince Roland Bonaparte's Les Premiers Voyages^ etc. besides two Malabars. p. An English translation by W. 1597. his successor was an infant. owing to its leaky condition and the lack of men. but bringing back a treaty with the King of Bantam. Introduction to Hakluyt Soc.861). pp. which opened up the Indian Archipelago with Holland. a Chinese. 187-203. 3 The small quantity of spices brought back was insufficient to pay the cost of the expedition. d2 . 1598. ii. done little in actual trade. op. pp." Apparently Hunter has here been misled by the authoThe king of Bantam had recently been killed. K. the Amsterdam was burnt. 45 of the Collecgam de Ordens da India (British Museum Addit.*^ in Amsterdam resulted find I the same in year. carrying with them. quoted from below (p. sailed out of the Texel for the Eastern Archipelago.* no mention in Portuguese records until the beginning of 1598^ (although the surviving ships of the fleet had returned August. for their guidance. in which the King says : 1 p. dead of disease or killed by the natives. MS. . — . but eighty-nine. extant copy of which appears to be that forming No. Hunter.136). written from Lisbon on January 13th. * Sir Wm. copies of Linschoten's Sailing Directory. i. cit. they carried. 230. See also J.

The Goa Chamber express their agreeable surprise at the action of the Achinese chief. with which he deals more fully in a letter to the Count Viceroy. He : — bore letters to the Viceroy. 1597 (printed in Archivo Portuguez-Oriental^ fasc. lest they should come in such numbers to Malacca as to prove a menace to that place also. via Venice and Alexandria. "Acheen. Phelippe. whose brother. s. But I am not inclined to believe in this matter except what I shall learn from the letters of Mathias de Albuquerque and from yours ." see Hobson.^ India just as Portugal was referred to by writers from India as "that kingdom" {aquelle reino). i. Mathias de Albuquerque. the king of Achin.. King's letter we gather that Mathias de Albuquerque was averse to making formal terms of peace with the Achinese. 2 That is. regarding terms of peace and other matters. written December 19th. i. either to send a present to conciliate the king of Achin. and the rest of the Portuguese who were wrecked in the ship in which he was going. 1 597 (printed in Archivo Portuguez. February 13th.v. but in the makeshift Decada Undeciina there is no mention of them.^ I learnt that the ambassadors sent by the Dachem^ to the Viceroy. The earliest reference to the subject that I have found is in the annual letter of the Goa Chamber to the King. 1597. iii). From these letters it seems that the captain-major of the wrecked ship was D. i). Francisco d'Ega. the King just mentions the topic.. calling his attention to the progress of . all of which arrived at Lisbon on August 27th.Oriental^ fasc. ll). viz. was kept a prisoner by the king of Achin when he released the other Portuguese. and therefore I enjoin upon you to write particularly regarding this. S. with great demonstration of desiring the friendship of that State. departed from him ill content. the Sao and the N. in which they say that their predecessors had informed the King of the matter In his reply of in the foregoing year (which appears to be incorrect). Pt. that the treatment of the ambassadors had been better . (On the form " Dachem.e. de Vencimento. various letters written to me from that State. the Sao Francisco. dated February 5th.^ From 1 have advised you by land by after the arrival letters that went by different ways here of the four ships* of the past year ^ Estado. 1596 (printed in Archivo Portuguez-Oriental^ fasc. whom he had in his power. . Jobson. than reported. Pt. i. and their regret at the bad treatment of his ambassadors and they complain that the Viceroy would accede to neither of their requests. for some unexplained reason. it being only a short time previously that this king released the Bishop of China.")j 2 Couto doubtless recorded these events in his lost Onzena Decada . None of the letters said by the King to have been sent overland to India after the arrival of these ships are extant but the Venetian ambassador in Spain wrote from Madrid to the Doge * The "Some days ago an Armenian and Senate on October 2Qth. or to dispatch a fleet to protect Malacca in case he should From the attack it in revenge for the insult to his ambassadors. 1597 was despatched from here to Ormuz. XXXVl INTRODUCTION. four ships were the Sao Simdo. after the past experience of the Portuguese with him and his predecessors.

we read (p. cit. van der Does.INTRODUCTION. 291-292). F. holding our course West and by South to find the Island of S. at the least 300. in De Jonge.^ vol.) 1 : — 2 ^ Regarding these ships. and we hauing the wind of him. but lay all night Northeastwarde. after a month's separation. the Admiral of their fleet shot off a pece to call their men that were on land to come a borde. miles off. Helena^ which the Portingall The 25. The word via (meaning way. . we being not aboue half a mile from them. and therefore wee durst not anker vnder the Island. ii. and the three sailed homewards. for they were all laden with spices. yj) May in the morning wee discouered a Portingall ship. This was on May 24th-2 5th. ix." (The next day this ship. xi). there lay three other great Portingal ships.^ as I have commanded to be written to you more particularly by these vias^ (and I have also commanded it to be done by land) . and put out a flagge of truce. that were worth a great summe of money. tunnes of gold. or 6. xl). pp. The Porti7igalles perceyuing vs. that stayed for vs. which it is understood that they loaded in ports of the And because I now have advice island of Samatra and of Jaoa. pp.^ etc. which is very high lande. and put forth a flagge out of his maine top. of May we discouered the Island of S. or 75. and as we sayled about the North point. staying for our company. still sayling with a stiffe Southeast wind. 1597 (see letter of March loth. These orders are thought to be difficult to execute for the English will not readily abandon that trade. road. infra . hear that the King of Denmark and the Free Cities have been invited to interrupt English and Dutch trade" {Calendar of State Papers. and so held on our course without speaking to him. having plenty of fresh water on board. disgusted at the bad English commerce in those parts. Helena^ but we could not see the Portingal ship. precious stones. and it may happen that this king of Dachem. see further on. and we shot 5. 369-371). and especially how that the Hollanders who came from those parts that same year encountered at Santa Elena the said ships^ with some pepper and drugs. above is doubtless the one mentioned by Couto as having been dispatched by the captain of Hormuz in 1596 (see note zftfra^ p. and may be scene at the least 14. XXXVll regarding various matters of my service. 1598. op. 1 592-1603. that this year are being got ready many ships of the said Hollanders for the purpose of again making that journey. hauing a South easte winde. route) was used in a special sense in connection with the royal dispatches to India (see also supra^ p. the Hollandia^ met her two companions. of In The Description of a Voyage. : . wherevpon we helde in the weather and to seawarde Northeast as much as we might. likev/ise sought. and charging him to hinder it by all the means in his power. The Armenian referred to Venice^ vol.. therefore he shot two shootes at vs. and because our flagge of truce was not so readie as theirs. and other rich wares. times at him. & about euening we were vnder the Island. "The 24. and then wee saw foure of their shippes together. Three of their ships a few months ago made a great profit in spices with I also the result that in Lisbon the price of drugs has gone down.

of in Archivo Portuguez-Oriental.^ and to give them the chastisement that they deserve. 848. I think. the subject. * ^ Archivo Portuguez. a copyist's error for " aquellas parted'' (those parts). Writing on March King once more reverts to informed that the ambassadors of the in Goa hoping for a reply to the terms of peace which he wishes to conclude with the State. returned disgusted at the time that the Viceroy Mathias de Albuquerque was in the North. reinforcing it according to the present greater need. it not appearing to you that anything else is advisable. I again enjoin on you that you set greater store on the friendship of the Dachem. as follows — . November iii). and command.Oriental. 1598 (also printed learn that the Viceroy .* XXXVlil INTRODUCTION. especially the at a time when the ships of Holland are going to those parts. of which I have commanded to advise you by others of my letters. as necessity in every way requires. whereby they will not be so impudent as to return again . and even if the many inconveniences that will arise from their acting thus be prevented. in order to prevent them from going to those ports. treatment of his ambassadors (if it be as was written to me." " because it is not have him as an open enemy. and with services. the King again refers to the matter of the Achin ambassadors. iii. ^''aquelles portos" which is. will grasp at^ the friendship of these Hollanders. fasc. p. and impresses upon the Viceroy the importance of retaining the friendship of the king of fitting to " Dachem. there cannot fail to be damage and discredit to that State. fasc. of which you shall inform me . that you arrange to have in the Sea of Malaca a fleet such as there used to be. In another dated January 26th.^ because I And am Dachem.. ^ Orig. From another royal letter. which I cannot believe).^ I enjoin upon you. who were waiting ^ The orig. we 21st." 5th. has ^^deste mao" which makes nonsense. I take the words to be an error of the copyist's for deiie a mdoP 2 This surmise proved incorrect (see infra). And for all these reasons and others. letter. and if they attempt to transact any commerce in that island of Samatra. the expression used in other letters '''' dealing with this subject. it appears to me that it would be of service to me to send him an embassy conformable to the state of affairs and to the information that you shall have of the fleet of the Hollanders that is going to those parts. and meanwhile you shall proceed as you shall decide in Council is of most importance to my service. 1598.

it appeared to me that.. fasc. writes^ to the Viceroy . p. 873-874. both from the necessity of watering there and to see if they can encounter any ship from India . iii. . 602-603). . you will have taken steps to send at once to those parts a fleet sufficient to destroy them if they Count Admiral. xlvi) to the king of Achin in a conciliatory manner. it was well shown during the past year of what importance it was to extend that period to the end of May f for this was the cause of the ship Vencimenfo^ which was delayed longer than others. p. iii. xxii) how. fasc. — I had written by Lourengo de Brito (see infra^ p. Liv. Joao dos Santos describes (in his Ethiopia Oriental. when the ship in which he was returning to Portugal had passed the Cape of Good Hope. although formerly it was customary for the ships to wait for one another at Santa Ylena a short period. 865. dealing with the revised captains of : homeward-bound ships. Pt. coming in company of those that arrived first at that island . the King . dated March 7th. it is now more than ever necessary that they come with all preparation and caution. Fa. . IV. 1 The result of this policy is towards the Achinese king and his ambassadors 2 described below. 1598. II.which did not go beyond the 20th of May. ' See supra. greeting.Oriental. Archivo Portuguez. iii. showing : his increasing apprehension of the gravity of the situation the King send you all After having written to you by these I love. and because the said ship there encountered those of the Hollander corsairs that were coming from the parts of the South f and it is probable that those that again make that voyage will always call at Santa Ylena. .— INTRODUCTION. the sealed instructions received by the captain from the Viceroy were opened and read aloud by the ship's clerk. Helena until the end of May. A week later the King writes* as follows. . 1596 (see Archivo Portuguez. vias what you will see regarding the matter of the Hollanders' sailing to the parts of the South of that State. cap. and enjoins all means to : bring about amity. as of those that may there find enemies or And meet them afterwards . An order to this effect was given by the King in a letter to the Viceroy.Oriental. whence they returned last year. pp. In a letter of instructions to — XXXIX March loth. xxxvii and note. ^ Archivo Portuguez-Oriental. although I feel certain that on receipt of the news that reached you from Malaca of this voyage of the said Hollanders. as to him friend Viceroy. one of these being that the ships of the fleet were to wait for each other at St. begging for a continuance of his friendship this King Philip approves of. fasc. . pp.

v.. by D. and in order that you may have complete information of what I have commanded shall all be referred to your orders. 185). to have gone in command of the Sdo Simdo . he did not leave for India in 1599 (when the ships actually sailed). plan to return thither. and that it would be better that there should be two if they were available (for to take two of the five that are going this year^ did not seem to me proper). XII. Aires de Saldanha (in connection with which fact Couto tells a curious story. however. but in 1600. ^ They were the Sdo Rogue the Conceicdo^ the N. XII^ Liv. 2 This man. you will have already there the succour of the said ship. which the captain of Hormuz sent to Spain by an Armenian. As is stated in the note below. in one of the ships of the company of the new Viceroy. nn. i.3d iNTRODUCTiON. 1597. p.. 238. ii) records the dispatch in April. supra. loth. Liv. J. who arrived at the court at Castille at the beginning of December. from Mombasa. p. S. 1597. cap. Hunter's History of British India^ vol. da Paz^ the Sao Simdo^ and the Sdo Matheus^ the captain-major being D. ^ He was some Couto {Dec. which must cause you the anxiety that you owe to my service whereby you will have the satisfaction of not being deprived of one of the five ships that should all arrive at the bar of Goa only that. pp.^ as I am writing to you in another letter in reply to the memorandum regarding him that you made in yours from Monbaga)* should go in the said Malaca ship commissioned to assist in this emergency so pressing and of such importance as the chastisement of the said Hollanders. cap. of Miguel de Macedo to Hormuz with important letters for the King. but. which office he held until his death. 829-830). 1597 (cf footnote. ii. 1598. The King. and with a good captain and the men she carries in less time than could have been the case if the said ship had called first at Goa instead of at Malaca . there shall go with this the copy (signed by the Secretary Diogo Velho) of the accompHsh. 161 2 {Documentos His name is mis-spelt " Laseta" in RemettidoSy torn. writing to the Viceroy on February p. and that Cosmo de Lafeta^ (who this year is returning to those parts. l. from Mombasa. . pp. which is mentioned in a royal letter of February 28th. He was later made a Councillor of India. having to reinforce the parts of the South in this so important emergency. they were not ^ able to leave the Tagus. 61). whose name is sometimes spelt Lafeitar. xxxvi). Francisco da Gama. Jeronymo Coutinho. as I am informed that they are seeking to would be greatly to my service to send this year a ship to Malaca. 312. it . iii. Gerson da Cunha's Chaul and Bassein. and commanded in various naval engagements. confirming similar news he had had a few days before by way of Venice and Flanders {Archivo PortuguezOriental^ fasc. for reason. viii). in his Dec. * . took a prominent part in the defence of Chaul and the capture of the Morro in 1594 (see Dr. says that he has just received the latter's letters of April 8th.

writing from Madrid to the Doge and Senate on April 24th. n^.Oriental^ It fasc. however. owing to the mouth of the Tagus being blockaded by the Earl of Cumberland. 2 It P. 884. on which subject I need say no you than what this matter says of itself. where it had arrived. not in the Archivo P ortuguez. the 17th of March. when the fleet was all ready to sail. I enjoin extinguish to my service to more and destroy the novelty of this navigation so prejudicial and to that State. and with anything else that appears to you profitable to my service. . orders and messages. was unable to leave. in Diogo Velho. 13th) ^ This document is \ in the archives in Portugal. 1598. 1598. The merchants who had put their money on board ship have now withdrawn it in despair of the fleet sailing this season" {Calendar of State Papers^ Venice^ vol. without taking into consideration in this matter anything but what is entirely of importance to that same service of mine. the ruttier^ of the voyage that the Hollanders Now made to the parts of the South. which are already despatched to the East Indies. 2 King Philip II was at this time seriously ill (he died on September and the Prince therefore signed for him. 1598. of vessels. Prince. favour. iii. sending to him as soon as these ships shall arrive in the monsoon of September all that you shall consider he is in need of. men. in order that their ships. 1 592-1603. a supplementary letter was written by the Secretary.2 on the 5th of April. and we are informed that the Dutch have given a large present to the Earl of Cumberland on condition that he prevents it from leaving that port.Oriental but it is and there is a transcript in the India Office in London (see Hunter's History of British India^ vol. pp. which the following* occurs : on the eve of departure of these ships there has come from the island of Madeira. in conformity therewith. in addition to what you shall have provided . says:— "The East India fleet is blockaded in the port of Lisbon. . Written in Lisbon. and munitions. ix. p.319)* Archivo Portuguez. The Finally. you assist. » or who does not appear how this ruttier came into Portuguese hands sent it from Madeira.— INTRODUCTION Instruction^ that I xll Wherefore upon you that. being assured that this will be one of the most special services that you can do me in your time . 238. by order of the Governors of Pqrtugal. may meet with fewer obstacles to the completion of their designs.^ and the dispatches had been sealed up. in order to to commanded be given to him. i. and encourage Como [stc\ de Lafeta. The Venetian ambassador in Spain.

and to advise your Excellency. ii. and to proceed against the culprits. F. pp. Lourengo. Outside of this Bay is the island of Santa Maria. which is in an altitude of i6 degrees on the east coast of the said Island. 67. De 8. and especially the one named in the last paragraph .. ii. pp. Cf. etc. sheep and goats . this island is inhabited.) De Jonge. The «/. has been given to Cosmo de Lafeta for him on his part to do what he was ordered in this matter. and in the first paragraph which treats of the bay of Antao Gil in the Island of Sao Lourengo it appears to them that your Excellency should take heed. 317 Sir fas. and fowls. and a quarter of a league above it is a village of two hundred houses. 885-886. The document follows : — referred to in the above letter is as Extract from the Ruttier of In this Ruttier of the the Voyage of the Hollanders. and they therefore go with this letter in all the four vias of these ships . and of this dispatch being sent to your Excellency . and other lesser ones. to send and have prompt measures taken there and that as regards what is said in the last paragraph. whenever an opportunity offers. C'/J.. in which the Hollanders found the same fruits and provisions and much fish. of which it appeared to the Governors that your Excellency should be advised. Lancaster^ p. voyage that the Hollanders made to Jaoa importance. op. oranges. and is very large and capacious. your Excellency must already have received information and sent to put a stop to this. in The Description of a Voyage^ etc. p.. 67. to whom they are writing on this subject. having a breadth of lo leagues. which was extracted from the said ruttier. vol. . lemons and citrons. van der Does in Description of a Voyage^ Lancaster^ p. but that nevertheless they remind and advise your Excellency thereof on the part of his Majesty.^ xlil INTRODUCTION.) 2 . from which have been extracted the most important points.3 In the strait that lies between Lesser Jaoa and the island of ^ Archivo Portuguez-Oriental^ fasc. 7. cattle. 312-314 (See also Voyage of Sir J. iii. and within it several small islands. has many fruits. (See also Voyages of ^ Cf. . and another copy like that which goes herewith. behind which is a good anchorage-ground . Jonge. vol. of faults committed by the Portuguese in Greater Jaoa. and among them a larger one very high. p. Frank van der Does's description. from the mountain top descends a stream of water. cit. p. the following is of The Bay of Antao GiP in the Island of S. .

van der Does. xliii Bale they experienced such a strong current of water to the north. who welcomed and banqueted them. from Malaca. F. F.^ must now refer to another English expedition. 19. and gave them infor- mation regarding the pepper that there was in the country. in De Jonge.^ vol. op. 14 v (which does not mention the banqueting. 365 .. The former says that he was born in Goa the latter says Malacca. The Description of a Voyage. arriving at the city of Bantao in Greater Jaoa (where they loaded what they brought back). 31. p. 348 . 327 . by some slaves at the instigation of the Portuguese. of an expedition of three ships.. 34. and counselled them to take in their cargo speedily before the Jaos should carry into effect their evil intentions.in De Jonge. The Description of a Voyage^ etc.. ii. The Description of a Voyage^ etc. and calls him " Pedro Truide.. ^ Cf. the south coast of this island of Greater Jaoa not having hitherto been discovered.^ vol. in 1596. cit. * As a matter of fact. p. cit. and others that are not named I in this Ruttier.^ From the island of Bale they set their course steadily to the west-south-west without making land. the ill-success of the to the opposition of the Portuguese. p. 1596. van der Does. The * Cf..INTRODUCTION." Both writers speak highly of him as a skilled pilot and good friend of the Dutch. Description of a Voyage^ etc. in De Jonge. in De Jonge. p. Dutch was largely due . op. ii. p. ii. the which maybe they would have put into execution. cit. on August i6th.^ who advised them of all that was plotted in that city against them. and these Hollanders would not have returned to their own land if this Portuguese had not been there. The publication of Linschoten's Reys- gheschrift and the departure of de Houtman's expedition been the may have prime factors in inducing Queen Elizabeth to sanction the dispatch. p. and the fate of whose participants has hitherto been involved in mystery. p. van der Does. that they disembarked with great trouble.^ so that Great Jaoa cannot be as broad as the ordinary descriptions of those parts make it. cit. 3 Cf. . op.^ vol. as does van der Does). and of the novelty that was hoped for in the loading of their ships f and among these Portuguese was one. they found there many Portu- On guese. which ended even more disastrously than Lancaster's. p. etc. F.^ vol. at the charge of Sir Robert Dudley and 1 Cf. and recount his murder in Bantam. Pedro de Attaide by name. 325 . cp. F. ii. van der Does.

which wee were bound for'' (Hakluyt. where the letter (in Latin) is printed. 8. 1513-1616.^ to refresh themselues with goates. Beniamin Wood with. Richard Allot \x^2A Allen\ and M. the ships must have and it appears from Hakluyt's statement that sailed after that date news of them reached England in February. xxvii. 1597. on the coast of north-west Africa. who were embarqued in a fleet of 3 ships. 1596. his fleete of 3 sailes bound for the straights of Magellan and Chifta. to wit. From Cape Blanco the English and French ships set out "to take the Isle of Fogo. or perhaps may haue some treacherie wrought against them by the Portugales oi Macao. where the French admiral and the caravel stayed behind. It will be : : . INTRODUCTION. who. The river Doro mentioned by Masham is evidently the Rio Oro. And here wee left the flie-boat of Dartmouth lading salte. in his account of the third voyage set forth by Sir Walter Raleigh to Guiana in 1596. pp. the other ships (five English and two French) leaving on the loth for Mayo. " ended our determination concerning the invading of Fogo. 852-854.^ Bear's of The three ships —the Bear^ the Whelp. with an English translation. So vpon Saturday the 12 of Februarie at night wee set saile and stood for the coast of Wiana. but the Frenchmen deserting them in the night. or the Spaniards of the Philippinas" As the Queen's letter is dated July nth. to wit. as follows "The letters of the Queenes most excellent Maiestie sent in the yere 1596 unto the great Emperor of China by M. pp. a man of approued who. XX. Beniafnin Wood. in the Canaries. and to send by the it a letter to the Emperor of China. and the Beniamin. The Voyage of Robert Dudley. etc. may be arriued vpon some port of the coast of China. The Beares Whelp. and committed vnto the command and conduct of M. etc. they came to the island of Sal. 692-693). " Here. and may there be stayed by the said Emperour. Next day the five English ships anchored on the south of Mayo. set forth principally at the charges of the honourable knight Sir Robert Ditddeley. iii. The Whelpe." On February 8th. This is confirmed by Thomas Masham. . The Beare. where they found six Flemish ships lading salt. vol. : . 98 . in which they stayed and refreshed. where they found two French ships in a bay. if God would giue us leaue.xliv others." says Masham.. and the Beniamin : who told us that there was no good to be done in the river Doro" Masham then relates how the five English ships kept together to Cape Blanco. vol. The only existing details of the fitting out of this expedition are the meagre ones prefixed by Hakluyt to the Queen's letter. pp. says "The 28 of Januarie [1597] wee made the furthermost part of Barbaric. iii. together with his ships and company skill in nauigation (because we haue heard no certaine newes of them since the moneth of February next after their departure) we do suppose. just north of the Tropic of Cancer and it would seem as if Wood's ships had been there before faUing in with the other two Englishmen. who as I haue heard since had at the village great store of dryed goates which they carried along with them which were like to bee a great helpe vnto them in their long voyage. and this morning we met with M. : . p. and the Benjamin^ — under command Captain Benjamin ^ See Calendar of State Papers. . . The Beare. and notes . and the China-^^tX. Thomas Bromefield marchants of the citie of London. (Hakluyt Soc). and Hakluyt. Colonial Series^ East Indies.

^ 165). which wintered in Mombaga. to Capt. The earliest certain reference occurs in the annual letter of the Chamber in of Goa to the King. one of which he purchased for sixteen thousand five hundred parddos^ two royal galleys. and in the extract from Couto below. the whole of this fleet well supplied with munitions and artillery. with great speed prepared a large fleet of two galleons. writing from Madrid to the Doge and Senate on January 8th." which better conveys the sense. going down to the dockyard. and then in the winter he ordered to be made in the north many light rowing vessels. the Count. p. xl and note. fasc. li. For a description of the ribeira at Goa. i. to the Portuguese. ordering the repair of galleys that time had put into disrepair. and lost off the coast of fleet South Africa sources . 1597. for when we first hear of the are from Portuguese only two ships mentioned. Pt.^ He arrived at this last in rowing vessels. supping. nor can I find any confirmation of the reported sack of Mpinda by English ships (cf. . pp. written in : the writers say — December. n. but appears in distant regions where the navigation is very difficult" {Calendar of State Papers^ Venice^ This can hardly. says: " News from Lisbon that two English ships have sacked Pineda.Oriental^ See SMpra^ p. 45. see ." route they must have abandoned the idea after Masham parted from them.^ . and sleeping there .. translated it "dockyard. Pyrard. which were lacking and having advice on the 20th of August from the captain of Mozambique that in July there passed within sight of the said fortress two English ships. in England through Lisbon. I. Wood's ships. dining. latter of 1596. in respect to this. have reference vol. 251). the This causes still greater anxiety principal emporium of the Congo. p. however. when they see that the enemy not only infests the shores of Spain and Portugal. vol. and many crews of sailors for them. which he bought because of there being none of your Majesty's in the dockyard^ that could be made use of . and nine foists. which I have translated. 13. Strange Adventures gf Andrew For later tidings of Wood's vessels received Battel!^ pp. 3 Grig. he strove with all speed to remedy everything. ii. England in the apparently one of them was left xlv half Wood. rzbetra = r\v^Y^ river-bank but I have here. INTRODUCTION. and with little everything remedy . The Venetian ambassador in Spain. as will be seen by the Portuguese accounts of their doings. He found necessary for war in a state of decay. 1 592-1603. . because The Count Viceroy city on the 22nd of May . 50-51. ix. see footnote i?tfra^ p. the greater part of which he ordered to be made. 1597. noticed that Masham speaks of Wood's ships as "bound for the If they ever intended to go to China by that straights of Magellan. 1 2 Archivo Portuguez. .

when Mathias de Albuquerque But Dos Santos arrived at Goa as Viceroy (see supra. . so that they may not return to those parts to carry on the commerce in drugs that they aim at. and that they might perchance call at 1 Couto mentions him among those that took a prominent part the siege of For his later history. throughout confuses the 1591 and 1597 visits of the English ships to Titangone (of. because the English are coming into the South Sea. p. infra. On May 26th. in the defence of Chaul during cap. li. See Couto's account of this. Liv. 1596. xxxiv). in that he was at Mozambique on both occasions. and novelties under which the Count Viceroy assumed the government of this State are great and extraordinary. cap. where Dos Santos had been making a stay. see infra. VIII. 1570-71 {Dec. xv). that a large fleet of English was going out to India.^ to the captain of Mozambique. because he had received word by land from Portugal. and because of having had news during the past year that in Sunda were sailing about three other ships and a pinnace f God grant that the fleet may encounter and disperse them. and money. wherefore it is most . ^ * : . and during this present year have captured on this coast two of our ships that were going to Bengalla. and one of experience. and as captain-major thereof Lourengo de Brito.— xlvi INTRODUCTION. but the news of their presence in those waters appears not to have reached Goa through Malacca until after the homeward ships of 1597 had sailed. advising him to prepare for their arrival. who was at Mozambique : at the time. an old fidalgo. This is the more curious. when we arrived at Mozambique. . that the English were coming to it. p. They arrived at Bantam in June. * A strange error Manoel de Sousa Coutinho ceased to be Governor of India on May 15th. 1591. xxxiii). xxxiv). of there being none large or small. ^ the people of this island were all uneasy owing to the news they had had. p. from Quirimba and Sofala. .^ who ordered sail to be set on the 20th of September in the direction of Malaqua. supra. on account of its being understood that the enemies would be going there. which was sent by Manoel de Sousa Coutinho. xviii) At this time. p. We call your Majesty's attention to the fact that the necessities . and arms. . thus describes the visit of the two English ships (in his Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. 2 These were the four vessels of Cornells de Houtman's fleet (see supra. Father Joao dos Santos. and six hundred paid soldiers. Governor of India.^ an unheard-of thing. II. Ill. 1595. important that your Majesty should command with urgency that this State be provided with men. since these matters do not admit of delay.

361. captain of he stated.2 All of which might then have been dispensed with. From Couto's account. given below. 317). pursuing their voyage for Malaca. cap. and possibly the day also. which thus became overcrowded. because the English did not come until two years afterwards in two ships only. ^ The month is correct.) ® She did not get as far as Malacca. who was at that time captain/ advised the captain of the coast of Melinde. I. xxv).^ The which ship cast anchor in front of Titangbne (a very famous spring.^ in which letters from Nuno da Cunha. he proceeds : This captain brought that fortress. 26). ^ They arrived only in the Straits of Malacca. in their accounts of this voyage.^ is Couto's account of these events as follows. * Francis Drake (see supra^ p. 5. 1597. (Neither Barker nor May. 5. however. and ^ p. full of soldiers. cit. XII^ Liv.— INTRODUCTION. iv. After recording (in Dec. cap. 26 . Hieronymo de Azevedo. Lancaster^ pp. there had come a single ship of English to Mogambique. of a galliot from Mozambique. Bras d'Aguiar. Lancaster^ pp. Mozambique on xlvii the way. six years before these two ships came. 276. On account of which the residents of all the food and goods that they possessed inside the fortress. Ill. they arrived. and thence took her course this island brought Dom for Malaca. vii. which was the first that went out to India since Francisco Drach. and English translation in Theal's Records o South-Eastern Africa^ vol. it was afterwards learnt.* And already in the year 1591. and not at Malacca itself (see below). op. Liv. The English ships appear to have captured one or both of these vessels (see Voyages of Sir J. I. ® Quitangonha island at the northern end of Conducia Bay (see Voyages of Sir Jas. it will be seen that the captain of Mozambique at this time was Nuno da Cunha.^ Pt. to withdraw The latter at once came there with two foists to Mozambique. The which came in sight of Mogambique on the 13th of June. that in the past July there were ^ Another error : D. Jeronymo de Azevedo had left Mozambique for India some years before. and in addition two pangayos laden with provisions. also Dos Santos. vii) the arrival at Goa on August 19th. where. gives the exact date.^ 15 97? ^i^d passed by. p. five miles from Mogambique). ^ See Theal's Beginnings of South African History^ p. and was at this time (1595) captain of the conquest of Ceylon. .^ where she watered on the 27th of October'^ of the said year. ^ Both the Goa Chamber and Couto say that the ships passed in July.

and showed them the letter. 173-174. a Uttle more or less. . because for that purpose he had much money. : An — : ' : Cf. artillery. At this news the Count was troubled. this event as English." although the Goa Chamber and Dos Santos correctly desigI cannot account for Couto's error. " From this time there appears in India the vile and follows unexpected scourge of Portuguese arrogance. in which there always came more than two millions of gold of all the inhabitants of the cities of India :* that he was quite ready to do all that might be voted in that council. those people having never come round to these parts f and he at once summoned a council of the Archbishop. and all the city. Whiteway's Rise oj Portuguese Power in India^ Hunter's History of British India^ vol. as that he begged them to give him his predecessors had done their opinions in writing. Pt. : 1 It will be seen that Couto persistently describes these ships as " Dutch. of there having been the year before \sic\ in the port of Titangone the first two ships from Holland \sic\ bold to sound those waters. that if these ships went where they were said to be going they might do great harm to our fortress at Malaca by stirring up the neighbouring peoples against it. D. ^ who watered here in 1591. which was the largest in India. and the chief weapon of those that come in with pretensions with new covetousness and without carelessness" {Asia Portuguesa^ torn. because by this time they nearly all sustained thema thing common in those selves more by credit than by foresight that possess without caution and with covetousness. in order that they might more freely . and even possessions. the appearance of deliberate falsification. and everything else that might be necessary and above all much spirit. and to extend it.xlviii INTRODUCTION. . i. * p. flagration this little spark portended to our navigation. Ill. erroneous statement. but to defend it. but He does it by a humble hand. and hopes. pp. because rarely does God chastise any great people. zeal. In this month of September \sic\ there came news to Goa. and moralizes on. whether it refer to the Dutch or to the Faria y Sousa relates. and by damaging the trade of those parts. which had remained in long possession through not being ploughed by other keels than ours. because of its being a new thing. and all the old captains. as mentioned above. which has nate them English. because he had not come to India to rest.v. and covetousness. foists. and willingness to assist in whatever should be for the service of the King . taking in water and that it seemed to him that they were going to set their course for Sunda. and by capturing the ships from China and Japan. Fr. galleys. Wood's ships called at " Titangone" evidently on the advice of '^ Captain Lancaster. pointing out to them. cap. two Dutch \English^ ships in the port of Titangbne. 74 . galleons. and Yet were it imprudent not to expect it to be vile carelessness. i). Aleixo de Menezes. Sunda']. II.^ five leagues from Mogambique. It was understood that they had their bows directed towards the Island of Sunda \sic : see HobsonIt was at once recognised what a great conJobson^ s.

which was a fleet sufficient to secure those and to search for the Dutch ships. His appointment as captain-major of the Malabar coast created much ill-feeling. ' The Goa Chamber. and ten foists. because he said that he wished to undertake the duties. in their letter of December 17th. 1597. quoted from above. 2 The appointment of Vicencio de Brune (not " Bune"). . Couto. vii).INTRODUCTION. 642 . cap. pp. Francisco de Noronha five parts. xlik say what tliey thought was proper for the service of God and the King. The two most famous men that held important office during the sixteenth century were Afonso Mexia and Simao Botelho (see Whiteway's Rise of Portuguese Power in 1 this India^ pp. justifies the Viceroy's action {Dec. 42 . by their means. This having been agreed to. Pt." : — . with hundred men. the ship in which the Count Viceroy left for for the captaincy of Hormuz. three galleys. and was nominated Liv. 577-8. who. XII. since to these he had. accompanied by his servants. Pt. however. Luiz . I. and so it was currently reported . I. the latter being undesirous of appointing anyone to that post. to discharge the duties as long as that business of the fleets lasted f and to his brother. p. strongly condemnatory of the action of Mathias de Albuquerque. i. but as soon as he shifted to the dockyard he appointed D. says Couto. who had Comptroller of Revenue. vii). with which expedition he proceeded with all the diligence and fervour required by the brevity with which the departure was eflected wherefore he is worthy of the favours and honours of your Majesty. and Vicencio de Brune (who is called a " stranger") to refund the pay he had received (see Archivo Portuguez. and in these most were agreed that there should be sent two galleons. where he is assisting. 290-298). cap. * Who commanded India. In accordance with this proposal they brought him next day all their opinions in writing. . Liv. Dec. wrote to the King " Dom Francisco de Noronha came from Bagaim with his household to this court. who had served in that office by order of Mathias de Alboquerque. in supersession of Antonio Giralte. fasc. II. I. and to give protection to those from China and other parts.^ had gone to the Kingdom in the previous January of 1597. 206-207. 116. the Count Admiral went across to the great dockyard of the fleets. p. of artillery and munitions da Gama. on learning that the Count Admiral was coming. XII. 1596) from the King to the Viceroy and the Goa Chamber.Oriental^ fasc. there being then no veador da fazenda^ because Vicencio de Bune. iii. to give an account. without any scandal and with much and for the negotiation of the fleet that the Count sent satisfaction to the Southern Sea he elected him as vedor da fazenda of the ribeira as long as it was being furnished with everything necessary. called forth letters (dated January 2nd and March 9th. ordering Antonio Giralte to be reappointed and compensated. D. Antonio de Lima.* he intrusted the magazines and to D.

and in the other Antonio Pereira Coutinho. who went nominated for the captaincy of Sofala and Mogambique. Luiz de Noronha. 458). vacant by the death of Antonio de Azevedo (see supra^ p. * That is. was to be taken on at Malaca. and on his simple written demands to supply all that was needful for that fleet. pp. to take up this appointment. in which went as captain of the one D. D. as captains of which went D. He then proceeded to the election of the captain-major thereof. j 25-6. The galleys were two. Jeronymo de Noronha. and sent 2 * to the Kingdom for certain faults. I. which consisted of the two galleons of which we have spoken. who was Lourengo de Brito. ^ Any likelihood of his succeeding to the government of India must. have disappeared after his mismanagement of this expedition. 9. ^ left See supra. and the complete to the same fortress" {Dec. of great experience. and supplied and such haste was sailors for all the vessels at increased wages made with everything that soon he had the whole fleet at the bar. p. ^ See infra. when Couto wrote this unfinished Decade. in 161 1. one would think. i). 417. XIII.. Documentos Remettidos. The other galley. 1 INTRODUCTION. xlvi . the King had appointed him to it for another three years). cap.^ the storehouses of obey him as they would himself personally. j'^ He left Goa at the end of 1 597. XII. whither had gone as captain during the past year Ruy Dias de Aguiar Coutinho. the late vedor dafazenda^ who had come from the Kingdom in the year 1595. who is at present^ serving as captain of Malaca Estevao Teixeira de Macedo. formerly captain of Chaul. and paid the soldiers three-fourths of their pay. and brought an action claiming certain rights connected with goods shipped from the Archipelago to India. he being an old fidalgo. Antonio de Menezes. in one of which went the captain-major. and had formerly been captain of ^ofala (and on account of his having been removed before the expiry of his term of office. son of the Conde de Linhares. p.^ and a man whom many considered on his merits to be in the first succession for the government of India. Liv. tom. i. cap. Couto. in enumerating various fidalgos that accompanied the Count Viceroy to India in 1596. King nominated him for three years . n.^ and one who had served many years in India as captain and captain-major of fleets. xlvi. ^ In 161 3 he was removed from the post for suspected peculation. Francisco Henriques. n. and had been deposed. son of D. which he had already held for some time.). to complete the number of three. and of the other. and who carried a provisional appointment as admiral^ of the fleet.* This fidalgo began to proceed with the getting ready of his fleet and the Count Viceroy did not rest until he had got it at the bar. been nominated to the captaincy of Ormuz. mentions " Lourengo de Brito. where he cleared himself. The foists were nine. xvi. Dec. who is at provisions. but lost it (Bocarro. with orders to all the customs officers to .

and note . so more than two months must have been occupied in crossing the Indian Ocean. 97 . to Peter Artson. and Joao de Seixas. Affonso Telles de Menezes. that were on their voyage from Goa to China" \sic\ writer "supposes it is Capt. Henrique whilst cardinal. Takes it to be a Portugal brag" {Calendar of State Papers^ Domestic Series^ 1598Calendar of State Papers. 99). Linschoten.e. vol. where they fell in with some merchant ships that had left Goa for Bengala to load rice. that This could not have been earlier than some time in October.INTRODUCTION. They bring news that two English ships in India have taken two Portugal ships. Cecil). . ii. pp. 1598. Luiz Lopes de Sousa . having the reversion of the captaincy of Malaca. late grand chamberlain of the Cardinal D. They cannot have stayed there very long." He also mentions a "report of great preparations made in India by the Portugal to prevent the Flemings trading at Sunda. belonged to Diogo Catella. \sic\ Dudley's shipping.e.^ Sir Robt. son of D. merchant {i. 125). probably. Resould). as soon as they had finished watering at Titangone.^ Wm. carrying oif from them a large sum of money that was going in them for the cargo f one of them. as we shall see further on. reports that " on ist August three carracks arrived from India. 199. son of Francisco da Silva de Menezes. writing from Lisbon on September 30th. 3 Gyles van Harwick {i. 1513-1616. set sail.^ at which coast they arrived. Rodrigo Lobo. p. 160 1. ii. ^ From the next extract from Couto it will be seen that Wood's ships waited about off Cape Comorin. NicoMo Pereira de Miranda. a casado'^ of Goa. The Literally " married man. vol. in the disastrous defeat of the Portuguese ofl" Malacca by Cornelis Matelief in 1606 (see Pyrard.^ and then ran down the Malavar coast as far as Cape Comorim. p. H present captain of the fortress of Mogambique . 154). p. D. I remember. Wood in Mr. who died in company with the Viceroy D. vol." but used with a special meaning. * Pyrard.^ Jorge de Lima Barreto. pp. where they arrived early in January. Jeronymo Botelho. xvi. son of Henrique Henriques de Miranda. and after he became King was his master of the horse. and one was burnt there full laden. Martim Affonso de Castro. p. of The Dutch which Nuno da Cunha ^ fleet * Meaning. e 2 . casados enjoyed certain privileges (see Whiteway's Rise of Portuguese Power in India. and probably made a short cruise in the Bay of Bengal before setting their course for the Malacca Straits. [Englis/i] ships. and even provided them with some things . and came in sight of the coast of India below Goa. This fleet left the bar of Goa for Sunda on the 24th of September advised the Count. Colonial Series. rich with and the treasure. East Indies. 188. which they captured and plundered. i. whom they afterwards released with the rest of the Portuguese. and thence they set their course for Malaca. 72 . probably in the hope of further prizes. Diogo Lobo. 1598.

land. In cap. I have found no account of these events. xii of the same book of his last Decada. «. being the general opinion. stated that Louren^o of the fleet that the Count Admiral Viceroy sent to Malaca in search of the Dutch \English\ ships.. . who had served in that post. de Houtman's fleet of 1595. of Januarie \sic^ for "Februarie. wherefore a council was called of Louren90 de Brito. captain-major : ^ See infra^ See supra^ p. fleet Couto thus records the strange doings of the these interlopers : sent to chastise vii above. Martim Affbnso de Mello Coutinho. which. but our people were therein ^ 2 : — : mvch ouerseene. and it was unanimously resolved. it appeared that their youthes and wilde heades did not remember it. that the two Dutch \EnglisK\ ships were waiting at Cape Comorim . and joined the fleet. of Februarie we hoysed ankers." {The Description of a Voyage^ etc. i. in fact. went ashore at Manar. leauing our two men aforesaid on . in Chapter de Brito. by reason of the storm that she encountered. "The 22.— Hi . but wee knewe not the cause it should seeme some great promises had beene made vnto them. to set saile & so go homeward. Hollanders belonging to In the narrative of that voyage we C.' with other persons of experience . except the galliot. : . where she was wrecked but the captain with all the soldiers embarked in a ship that Whilst Lourengo de left there for Malaca. xvii. .. . What became 33). n. actual captain of the fortress. that Lourengo de Brito should go with his whole fleet to Sunda and the coast of Jaoa. had remained at Bale as hostages that the others would return with capital to load drugs f and should do everything else that he considered to the service of his Majesty." 1597] two of our read men that sayled in the Mauritius stayed on lande. p. INTRODUCTION. the King was very desirous to haue all sortes of strange nations about him. but wee The 25. . for as we vnderstoode it. minding sent them not. it was understood. killing them and plundering their goods. of these men I do not know. for there they liued among heathens. 1597. Brito was at Malaca vvith this fleet. 225. pp. who. n. that neyther knewe God nor his commandementes. the captain of which was Luiz Lopes de Sousa. * The two " Englishmen" were. . safely with the whole fleet. He arrived at Malaca left Goa on the 24th of September.' and that he might be able to persuade the kings not to receive at their ports strange nations from Europe and that he should try to get hold of two Englishmen. We have already.^ and Francisco da Silva de Menezes. because a little while before the inhabitants of that port had made great havoc of the Portuguese and native Christians. he learnt from a ship that had left Cochim later. one of their names was Emanuel Rodenburgh of Amsterdam^ the other Jacob Cuyper^ of Delft within a day or two they sent vnto vs for their clothes.

and the fleet left. of which he was in want. liii This order was at once carried out. and. when there came out against them many rowing boats. the rest being on shore. moreover. the King gives the Viceroy Aires de Saldanha full instructions regarding an expedition that he was ordered to undertake in person for the purpose of ^ * . and although the Count Viceroy.) See footnotes on pp. those on shore resisted them . infra. See also Voyage of Captain John Saris. was unable to come to their assistance whilst the fight lasted. Luiz de Noronha. and such a strong breeze was blowing that neither the galleons nor the galliots could weigh anchor and for some days the captain-major had been dissatisfied with the captains of the galleys. 93 and ^ * notes. and the captains of the galleys did the same to a soma carrying Chincheos. because they were in want of water.* : Apparently towards the end of 1 597. on meeting with some carrying provisions. in the instructions that he gave to Louren^o de Brito." and Fennell's Dictionary of Anglicised Words and Phrases^ as "Jap. 1601. and told of the violence that had been done to them. that.^ well provided with everything needfiil . from Madrid. captured a somd^ of Chincheos^ loaded with drugs. on which they all armed themselves. he paid so Httle attention to this. captain of a galliot. Luiz and D.INTRODUCTION. which gave chase to them and as the galleys were much hampered in their movements by the goods that they had taken in plunder from the somas of the Chincheos. and. D. the artillery was unable to play." (The latter authority also cites two instances of its use in Cocks's Diary. Jeronymo de Noronha. each of them carried no more than twenty soldiers. These boats went and gave the alarm in Sunda and on the coast of Jaoa regarding the fleet. the galleys went to get it further down at some distance from the galleons. And Jorge de Lima. The captain-major. that the enemy easily got amongst them and killed the three captains. : D. 3 and 7. Lourengo de Brito. p. nor the fact that when the admiral of the fleet. he ordered to be taken therefrom whatever he chose without paying them for it. and Ruy Diaz de Aguiar Coutinho. and. these so careless. had warned him not to allow any violence or insult to be offered to the boats he might meet sailing to Sunda and Jaoa. because he had thought that they did not obey him with the promptitude that was necessary. they dissimulated until they had got on shore several Portuguese and the factor of the fleet and this warning was not enough. In a letter of 14th March. and this becoming known in Sunda. This word occurs frequently in Couto. Smyth's Sailor'' s WordBook explains it as " a Japanese junk of burden.: a small trading junk. came with : the boats of the galleys and other boats to get water. because he was behind a point at the same time that a high tide was running.

And for the purpose of considering his excuses the Count Viceroy summoned the Council.562. he would not do it. although the whole coast of Jaoa was just suited for carrying out successful expeditions with the strength of that fleet. 2 * See the next extract for fuller details. and he was condemned by the Supreme Court to a fine of a large sum of money. and the Count Viceroy having been advised of this. And because at this time it was the monsoon for Malaca. but for private reasons the Council did not desire to take part therein. those that defeated and captured the three galleys of the fleet in which Lourenfo de Brito went.liv INTRODUCTION. in particular. because he wished to introduce into that State the practice that the faults of captains committed in the exercise of war should be punished by the Council. for this insult. it being a matter of public advantage. attacks on vessels of Chincheos (British Museum Addit. the next day he set sail. auditor. before the arrival at Goa of Lourengo de Brito. city of Malaca. The Viceroy did not undertake the expedition referred to." The King also points out that the fate of these galleys showed the danger of taking goods into war vessels. which is sixty leagues distant from Malaca. and ordered them to be voted on. He reached Malaca on the loth of July. which he paid before — chastising "the rebels of Sunda and other enemies. letter No. xxxiii-xxxiv). and becoming reduced to a single ship.* And it was of no avail that the captain of the fortress and the officers of the Chamber requested him to go to Queda to seize that ship. de Brito's So that more than six months had been occupied by Lourengo fleet in the manner described by Couto. whither the news was speedily brought. MS. and this was done. without punishing or exacting satisfaction from that port/ or any other in that kingdom. and other persons. but sent one under the command of Andre Furtado de Mendoc^a (see Voyage of Captain John Saris^ pp." "and. 1598. they having scuttled the other. and they agreed that it should be settled by the ordinary means. after going about in many directions. which was the suitable " monsoon " for that voyage. and not by the judges .^ and remained there until the I St of January. 20. when he embarked for Goa:' and during this time he might have gone to capture the Hollanders \^English\ in search of whom he had set out. nor anything else of the many things that they suggested to him . 57). retired to the port of Queda. . and At the same time he strictly prohibits all property of enemies be burnt. because he came very leisurely. before he disembarked sent word to him by the Secretary that he was to remain in his house until he had cleared himself of certain charges which he forwarded to him^ taken from the letters of the captain. ^ The details given are insuflicient for the identification of the place. who. * The Malacca-China fleet always left for India early in January. and commands that this be entirely discontinued.

the ship of the China voyage. and on the 9th. * 3 * i. and a small galliot. on account of his being already free. 92). caught sight of the two Dutch [£ng/is/i] in : same Decade. which weighed anchor next day . which resulted in disaster to his force and his own disgrace (see Theal's Beginning of South African History^ p." is marked.— INTRODUCTION. the previous day Joao Gomes Fayo set sail. and the encounter must have taken place somewhere . IV. cap. which had come from China. and what was In cap. the captain of which was a brother-in-law of his . the captain of which was Fernao de Almeida . ^ the fleet that was to go to India was got ready. 2. he went on a foolhardy expedition against a great Kafir horde. John Saris). another ship of the same Francisco da Silva de Menezes. whose term of office as captain of that fortress had expired. those Malaca being unaware of the Dutch [Eng/is/t] ships that were already going about on that coast. without waiting for the rest of the fleet. with much honour. which was as follows the ship of Miguel da Cunha. he dispatched Lourengo de Brito to go and command the fortress of (j!ofala. And.^ and who was going as captain-major of all those ships . the captain of which was Ruy Mendes de Figueiredo . from the fauhs charged against him in connection with the expedition in 1 In Liv. They could not have been long See supra. vii. taking over the Iv command of the fortress of Sofala. it having been fixed that all these ships should sail on Twelfth Day." After serving his three years at Sofala. whence. . two junks. Couto writes While the fleet of Lourengo de Brito was still in Sunda. pp. and a ship of Luiz de Mendo^a. we another Portuguese the same historian how chanced to meet the two interlopers. p. 42. in 1604. xvi of the same book : the result of the encounter. in which was to embark Francisco da Silva de Menezes. of his Twelfth Decade.* Joao Gomes Fayo. in the altitude of the islands of Puluparcelar. of this : — Sunda. Lourengo de Brito appears to have been appointed to Mozambique. to which he had been appointed. a little to the south of the Langat river. 322 . Documentos Remeitidos^ torn. and note. I can find in the Admiralty chart of the Malacca Straits but "Parcelar Pt. who was on in advance. " Pulo Parcelar" is entered in Linschoten's Map of the Eastern Seas (given at p. 72. 192 of the Voyage of Capt. lii there at this time (see note supra). when he was thirty leagues from Malaca. Couto says "After the Count Admiral had dispatched the vz'as to Cochim [at the end of 1599]. no "Pulo Parcelar" off this point.^ Although the learn from fleet fleet under Lourengo de Brito thus failed to accomplish the object for which it was dispatched.

and said to Francisco da Silva de Menezes that not only could they fight the ships. which he at once recognised. is in The word 2 common " Baloon. : : — ^ Correctly. which was great. and told them the news. In the midst of this murmuring. Balloon"). there were not wanting men who were lovers of honour. and weighing well the fact that the enemy might overtake them before they reached Malaca. : : ^ A kind of rowing boat (see Hobson-Jobson^ s. and some persons besought Francisco da Silva de Menezes that they should return to Malaca. in narrating this incident. i). Francisco da Silva de Menezes assembled in his ship all the captains and the others. in which they would find much profit and little danger they determined therefore to attack them. cap. esphera or esfera^ which was the name of a kind of cannon. Pt. who either were carrying no goods or esteemed them less than honour. at which they hauled down their white . seeing our fleet. concluded that it was all one of merchants. says two Dutch ships did not have good fortune. although our ships were six. ships. The tidings caused great perturbation in some. and that they should not risk going to India. and they would have done that they almost agreed to return to port so. On this." : " Although the Faria y Sousa. So much is the holder inspired with fear by what he guards. they prepared to fight the enemy. and did so. use in Ceylon under the form " ballam. because the enemy would be sure to keep following after them and annoying them the whole way and in consequence of our people being disordered. which had already retired before the bombardings of the enemy. who. and cast anchor next One of our ships let fly at them with that of Joao Gomes Fayo. and came sailing up to our ships. went towards her with great boldness. they were so afraid of them.v. it was certain that they would go on capturing those ships one by one. torn. and caused it considerable damage. coming on dressed with many white flags and beautiful banners. . ll. and God would give him victory. On the arrival of the balao with the message. as soon as they saw the ship of Joao Gomes Fayo. had not opposed it. and the ships began to get out of hand. who intervened.Ivi INTRODUCTION. and asked them what ought to be done. with a message advising him that they were the ships of the Hollanders \Englisli?\ The latter. and in front of all that of Joao Gomes Fayo.2 Our ships had come to an anchor. when he dispatched a baldo^ to Francisco da Silva de Menezes. that the wind would serve them to go thither. Ill. an espera^ which hit one of the enemy's ships. their commanders began with it for. wherefore he turned back until he sighted the rest of the fleet. but with their boats alone could capture and destroy them that he should go forward. or the guardian by what he holds" {Asia Portuguesa. if four men.

and thus a very stiff engagement was carried on. and persons wounded Silva de Menezes. Our fleet then proceeded on its way to Cochim. Ivii and hoisted others of silk. at once dispatched two very light baloes to find These baloes out in what latitude the Dutch SjEnglish^ ships lay.^ The captain of Malaca. which was the catching fire of the powder that was in the waist of the enemy's admiral. but our ships came to her assistance and fell upon those of the enemy. In all the ships there was some and in that of Francisco da damage. burning many. good order. which seemed best suited for their purpose. fighting furiously. Joao Gomes Fayo wished to advise those at Malaca of that affair. and came at her. and with a large cafila set out for Goa. . board the ship of Luiz de Mendoga. and this they did. with a letter of his. Diogo Coutinho. and killed one who was the elder and two female slaves. where he arrived safely with all a little after the 15th of May. of which the ship of Joao Gomes Fayo received the greater part. for they were determined to fight and to board those ships. that battle : who. on the north-west coast of the Malay Peninsu a. from which he learnt what had happened. practically demolished. having now plucked up more courage . which fought with the Hollanders [EngHsh\ and those from Bengala. for the ordnance of our ships damaged them in many parts. and dispatched as messenger a soldier named Antonio Lopes de Almeida. as if they were happy to have and then began a furious play of bombard-shots. and of what had happened so far.iNTRObUCtlON. went as far as Pulobotum^ without obtaining news of them . which wrought great havoc. which gave them much trouble. in which they gave him an account of how they had got on. morning was spent by our people in making preparations. answered it with another very fair salvo. sailing in very and the enemy attacking them here and there on the and so for eight days continuously they went on in this manner. captain-major of Cape Comorim. The enemy did not go scot-free. until eight o'clock at night. flags. the enemy by their lightness escaping being boarded by our ships. and caused them to retire. when And from that time until it began. fustigating them with the ordnance and the arquebus fire in such a way that they made them desist. as soon as Antonio Lopes de Almeida arrived with these letters. At this time there occurred a disaster." 2 Pulo Butung. however. which lasted from sunset. 1 At the end of the next chapter Couto tells us that at Cannanore " D. and vessels from the coast of Coromandel. . doing no little damage. The other ships also replied very well to them. and. and another from Francisco da Silva de Menezes for the captain. remaining all the time in the waist and directing the working of the guns. collected the ships that we have spoken of from Malaca. and made holes in They determined to their sides. a shot penetrated to the cabin where were his wife and daughters. flanks .

^ : That the above account of the fate of the last surviving ship of Captain Wood's expedition is correct. see infra^ p. that they spent much time in recuperating and from lack of men." whom he had set forth to chastise. Dec. I see no island that we call the Polvoreira^ and they of the country which means house of God. and shaped their course for Bengalla . if they remained in this quarter. IIT^ Liv. s.) the name appears as " Apoluoreira. to go and look for them with three ships that were still lying in port well equipped . which might be taken to mean "powder-mill. It is the " Pulo Berhala (Varela) " of the Admiralty chart. Whereupon he dispatched another larger vessel to go to the Polvoreira Island^ and as far as Nicubar to find out about them . " Macareo. (" Pulo Barahla " means 1 " An ' "idol island:" see Hobson-Jobson^ s. of the Indian Islands^ " Queda.' by reason of an ancient temple Barala^ which stood there " (Barros. ^ The boat that the captain sent to Nicubar also returned without any news. it is impossible to say which is here spoken of as "the admiral. a little to the north of the For the history of this place. ^ xix. and in the other. . describing the kingdom of Pegu. iv). vi.v.^ they embarked what they had. whom our people had killed. 20.") In Linschoten's Map of the Eastern Seas {u. "Varela. cap. had already been efiectually dealt with by a much inferior force to his. not being able to go as far as Nicubar. i). See Hobson-Johson^ s.v." For other instances of Portuguized place-names. and in the latitude of Martavao on the coast of Pegu they were lost in that macareo. in order." Barros. The enemy retired to the port of Queda^ with many men killed. and he dispatched a boat to Sunda. because the natives wished to attack them for various wrongs that they had done to them.) ^ The extraordinary faineance of Lourengo de Brito in regard to the matter was due probably to mortified pride on learning that the " Hollanders. and went off in great haste. ili. and most of the rivers of the principal ports have such a great macareo that many ships perish " {Dec. which was the admiral." {Polvoreira is a pseudo-Portuguese word. 3 " Muda Old Kedah " of the Admiralty chart." The size of the Benjamin I do not know as regards the Bear and the Beards Whelps see The Voyage of Robert . they returned without news of them. 11^ Liv. cap. see Crawfurd's Dictionary river." * As we do not know which of the three ships that comprised Wood's fleet these two were.Iviii INtRODtJCTtON. they left in that port the ship of lesser burden. s. Dudley^ p. says that the coast " is very full of islands. and the rest so wounded. so much so. v. that they left on shore several wounded men. by which he sent advice to Lourengo de Brito of what was taking place.

) the details of the origin of this expedition. cap. xliv. i). here foUoweth. 1601. An so concerneth this businesse." commences thus An other Commission your Royall Audience committed vnto mee. Cf the remarks of Thos. Purchas adds : This. to punishe offenders that did vsurpe a great quantitie of Faria y Sousa. which is dated " From : Porto- the second of October. Ill. have yet beene encountered from the West Indies. adds from which it is to be well noted. p. . Wherein. their honourable expedition. p. and the deeds of English in the time of warre twixt vs and Spaine? extract whereof. it — llX will be asked. as after a shipwracke. that no one should ever be disheartened by a losing beginning. li. Astley {Collection of Voyages and i." After quoting from Hakluyt {u. had not answerable successe . Purchas gives the translation of an extract from a Spanish letter which he of the found among Hakluyt's papers. 254). Auditor of the Royall Audience of Saint Domingo^ and Judge of Commission in Puerto Rico^ written to the and Captaine-Generall of the Prouinces of New Andalusia^ King and his Royall Councell of the Indies. and to this he prefixes a " brief introduction.. how is this to be reconciled with the statements of Purchas? PilgrimeSy Pt. and next in the losse of the Historie and Relation of that Tragedie. after recounting the fight. Qucb Regie in terris nostri non plena laboris 1 This intelligence wee have by the intercepted Letters^ of Licentiate Alcasar de Villa Senor. and gracious commendation by her Maiestie to the King of China in their marchandizing affaires. under the heading. i". : — 2 England being letters 3 at war with Spain at the time. and miserable disastrous success thereof. In his Bk. Travels^ vol. Pt. being the words of a Spaniard. in the miserable perishing of the Fleet. as much The rico extract from the letter. no. reason to doubt. many Spanish were intercepted by English ships. The Voyage Master Beniamin Wood into the East Indies. and the fate of the two " This was the beginning of Holland \_sic\ in India .113.— INTRODUCTION.^ But. let not the imputation of Robbery or Piracie trouble the Reader. Ill. but hath suffered a double disaster : first. whence it might be supposed that he would issue victorious" {Asia Portuguesa^ tom. I. and a few lines of the Queen's letter to the Emperor of China. «. ^ ships. Some broken Plankes. pp. which giue vs some notice of this East Indian disaduenture.

Richard. subiects to your Maiestie. They succeeded in killing but Thomas managed to escape to the mainland of Puerto Rico on a log. and George . we know) only two Portubound from Goa to Bengal to load rice. told them of the treasures . : : : : in the said Island of Vtias. whereupon these six resolved to murder the English and steal the goods. infra). in a Castle Frontire of the said India English-men rob'd them of it. and sentenced. which your Maiestie hath and the said in Garrison. one of the foure that arriued in the last yeere. Vttas. and left one George^ an English-man. have formed part of any of the crews of Wood's latter captured (as far as guese vessels. for the pay of the Souldiers. the proportion whereof went in the said Relation. which he said he carried for your Maiestie. Now The it is evident that these four men could not possibly ships. . last Moreover. I sent relation to tie. in the Island of I Of the state that your Maiesone Thomas^ an English man. which they had robbed from your Maiestie and your subiects. with only one small Boat made of boords. Daniel. we have seen that the of the three ships ^ I cannot identify this island.Ix INTRODUCTION. and the state of the Suite. and much more goods appertaining and by sicknes of the English-men. and from the Captaine they tooke a great rich stone. and for this onely I will make a summarie relation of the case. described as being three leagues from Puerto Rico. which in a boat put all the goods they could. and on his information the murderers were arrested. goods of your Maiesties. which they had taken from certaine Fisher-men. tried. at the head of Saint John of this Island with the which they came for water hither. The letter then goes on to narrate how this George. being found by six Spaniards (named). to your Maiesties subiects remained only foure. had end of the inserting a declaration of . that out of England went three Shippes for the India orientall of Portugall^ which tooke three Portugall Shippes. by the which will appeare. It can scarcely be Mona (see footnote. and with it chanced to a Riuer in the Island of Vtias} three leagues from this Island where they tooke out their goods on land. whereof one of them came from the Citie of Goa. where their Boat was sunke and lost so they remained on th' Island. They had in them also many bagges of Royalls of eight and foure. of the goods that in the said Island hee and his companions had.

while Edmund Barker." as they expected ( Voyages of Sir James Lancaster^ p. could scarcely be heard of next in an island off Puerto Rico. which escaped the Spaniards bloodie hands. says: of Newhaven to the place where we were. which came from Saint Domingo. one of which was from Goa . she had no real gems on board. other three were slaine by the Spaniards. in which were the remnant of Lancaster's company.* ^ According to Barker. whereby intelligence of our seuen Isle of we had men.— INTRODUCTION. . The narratives of the voyage of the Edward Bona- venture describe the capture and looting of two out of three Portuguese ships encountered by her. i. a small island between Puerto Rico and San Domingo. in connection with the incidents he mentions but it is clear that they were spread over several years. off San April. after chronicling the stay of the two French ships. 14)." nor could the English find any "roials of plate. there came a 1594." The discrepancies \ here are not of great importance f and it is curious that Purchas should have so blundered respecting the identity of the men. but only " false and counterfeit stones . 234). bound from India for Malacca (the "Castle Frontire" referred to above). however. therefore. Hunter (see his History of 2 Mona is ^ It will : : British India^ vol. vpon knowledge given by our men which went away in the Edward the other two this man of Newhaven had with him in his shippe. p. But all the details given in this letter prove beyond a doubt that the four Englishmen were some of Lancaster's crew. one of the narrators. It is not surprising that Thomas Astley. that two of them brake their neckes with ventring to take foules vpon the cliffes . be noticed that Barker does not account for Thomas perhaps he was one of the two reported to have broken their necks while No dates are given in Alcasar de Villa Senor's letter bird-catching. which wee left be- hinde vs at the Mona. * One of the latest being Sir Wm. meane while. shippe Domingo from February to "In this. and thus misled all subsequent writers.^ and also mention the frightful ravages of disease among the ship's company . foundered in the Ixi Bay of Bengal : any survivors.^ which was.

xxxvii). 345 . p. Ixiii-lxix. the chief pilot being the Englishman John Davis. and it is to these fleets that we now turn our attention. and was actually put in irons for three days. x. gives no light into the intelligible. pp. to whose pen we are indebted for the only existing detailed account^ of the expedition. 252-254). however. Dutch ships to leave for the East in 1598 were two. pp. We On p." and adds Voyage itself. 220-230. Bk. of John Davis the Navigator^ pp. pp. It first 1 1 was 6. being then released also Davis's for want of proof (see De Jonge. arrived at Achin. pp. This was literally true . cit. nor the Nature of the Sickness which reduced the Men to four. King Philip II wrote to the Viceroy of India that he " that this had advice year are being got ready many ships of the said Hollanders for the purpose of again making that journey" (to Sumatra and first Java). as we have seen {supra. 129-156 (see also the Introduction. which set out for the East Indies^ came into the West Indies . i.Ixii INTRODUCTION. op. 210-216). January 13th of that year. 1598. ill. nor what became of them .. vol. We The effects of this policy gives an abstract of the letter in his Collection of Voyages and (vol. the Leeuw and Leeuwin (Lion and Lioness)^ under the command of the famous (or notorious^) Cornelis dc Houtman. poisoned Moelenaer. which cost the lives of the com- The mander and others of the company. and is reprinted in this Society's Voyages and Works pp. i. xxxviii) how important the King considered it was for the Portuguese to keep on good terms with the king of Achin. ii. on his previous voyage. must now return to the year 1598. This was the first time European ships other than Portuguese had put into and this first that this port. I. 1 599. ii. description of * him in the narrative referred to below)." who Travels : ^ He was suspected of having. chap. . printed in Purchas his Pilgrimes^ Pt. and De Jonge. cit. the skipper of the Mauritius^ with whom he was on bad terms. nor by what Accident the Ships. These ships sailed from Flushing on March 15th. attempt to break the Portuguese monopoly ended disastrously. the entrepot of the pepper trade in the Malay Archipelago. describes it as "very tedious. and on June 21st. have noted above (pp. and scarce " The Letter. Markham's Life of John Davis. vol. op.y vol.1 24.

and of They their set sail on the third of voyage we shall give an account further on. . year of 1599." The three galleons spoken of were those dispatched in May. The principal points that they came to treat of are not known to me. and received with much welcome. cap. 1600. as historiographer of India. the captain of which was Luiz Machado Boto. because it is also an expedition of his. supra. 1. of the Sao Francisco^ one of the fleet by which the new Viceroy. cap.'* where it was proper that the record of such a matter should be . : : that his ambassadors May of this had brought. as mentioned below.) and He also the dispatch by D Francisco da Gama of various fleets. and the Count Admiral but I know that they were satisfied gave orders to embark them in the galleon going to Maluco.) 3 In the previous chapter Couto records the arrival at Goa. then adds "The successes of these fleets. had the charge of the archives. with good weather. are But left for the time of Ayres de Saldanha.). xl. and commanded them to be very well provided with everything necessary for the voyage and he sent the Achem a suitable present in return for another from the Achem. 2 Couto. 1600. n. In his last by the Achinese to De Decada. in which they took place. as follows Since we left Luiz Boto Machado \sic\ departed for Amboina. ordering them to be provided with everything necessary until it was time for them to return. Antonio de Lima (cf supra^ p. . as it also falls in the time and government of the Count Admiral. where the ambassadors of the Achem were disembarked. necessary for us to continue with his voyage. finish with the Count Admiral. This promise Couto this fulfils in Liv. V. II. Aires de Saldanha. as we have This galleon. which the Count sent off. and entertained them right well.* fortress of Malaca. ix (with which : Decada abruptly ends). was coming (cf. Couto gives us In Liv. arrived at the said above. the Portuguese version of this affair. we read : D. n. because of the it is ^ To enter on the captaincy vacant through the death of D. we shall give an account of before we what happened to the three galleons that in his time he sent to Maluco. are seen in the treatment accorded — 1x111 Houtman's expedition.— INTRODUCTION. Luiz da Gama having left for Ormuz. as I have not found them in the Secretariat. x. on October 3rd. p.^ the Count proceeded to the dispatching of certain ambassadors who had come to him whom he had received with great honour in a decorated chamber with all the fidalgos and captains that happened to be in Goa at the time. when he dispatched them with satisfaction. : . (He wrote this in 161 1.

the coast was it was the r^ja of Johor that blockaded cleared [This is a mistake The Kinge of Spaigne. who at that time was Fernao de Albuquerque. in his March loth. which had always been the one that was feared most of all. Amaro. ambassadors of the Achem. This galliot found at the bar of Achem two Dutch ships* of the company of those which I have already mentioned as having fought with the ships of D. because he was versed in the language. " Apparently. li. Jeronymo Coutinho at the island of Santa Helena. Davis says ^ See supra. : : 2 Here was also a Portugall. in Malacca. Fulke Greville. ^ arrived at Achin almost See infra. to prevent our trade. * : See infra. the same as " Dachem"). p. 140). and his own according to their custom. .^ Wherefore the captain. and wth his gallies stopped the passage of victualls and trafificke from China."Ixiv INTRODUCTION. and capable of transacting affairs of such importance. letter of : — . and with him went Fr." Kinges of Acheyn and Tor are. and to transact affairs of importance this Affonso Vicente was known to that king. 121 -126) says Taprobuna. to hand over to him his people. p. who received our envoys with many honours. a casado^ of Malaca. pp. therefore. hath often resolved to He adds " The conquere Sumatra . but yet nothinge is done. of course. n. as mentioned above. and accompanied by the Portuguese and by many persons whom the king sent to receive them. enemies to the Portugals the cheif is the Kinge of Dachem. and received of the good dispatch that the Count Viceroy had given them. enemies to the Portugals" ("Tor" is a misprint for " lor" = Johor. that came with foure Barkes from Malacca. and of good parts. who beseiged them in Malacca. whom he chose as ambassador to send to that king. or Bruce's Annals^ vol. by a mayne fleete. favourable dismissal given to them by the Count. in lyke sorte. Affonso Vicente simultaneously with the two Dutch ships. vii]. Ixix-lxxi. and entrusted the ambassadors to Affonso Vicente. as the sequell doth show" {Voyages of John Davis. a monk of the order of the Father Saint Augustine. named Don Alfonso Vincent. which was supplied to them with great readiness. and of the honours that he had done to them. and Molucco. p. And having from his ambassadors an account of their embassy. to Sir Francis Walsingham (quoted in " The iland of Sumatra.^ ordered them at once to be embarked in a very fine galliot. regarde of the importance of this passage. The galliot entered the and our ambassador disembarked hand in hand with the bar. on account of the liberality with which they paid for everything. Couto describes the frequent engagements between the Portuguese and Achinese. till. and "Acheyn" is. since all was redounding in peace and quiet for that fortress with that neighbour. pp. Japan. i. 1600. is possessed by many kynges. and the present that he : 1 In his previous Decades. and they had an audience of him.^ which were there taking in cargo.

from which he exfor ^ Davis states. Our ambassador. ended thus :— " As touchinge your Merchandize it shall be thus I have warres with the King of lor (this Kingdome of lor is the south-point of Malacca) you shall serve me against him with your ships your recompence shall be your lading of Pepper . Alfonso hath been earnest with me to betray you. but it shall not be . for I am your friend . and that he should one day invite the captain-major and the chief men of the ships. and so easy did he make the affair for him.." and " I must further tell that. he should continue on the same terms with them .^ p. de Houtman] beeing with the King was exceeding well entertained. among other things. 2 Davis says. with the greatest dissimulation possible. that as those men were being admitted so freely to him and to his country. that on the 20th of July "our Baase : [z. who was a shrewd man. and that it was time to show it by deeds that he had to inform him that those corsairs that were at the bar were pirates. and traitors who had risen against their rightful king and lord that since he professed himself such a servant and friend of the King of Portugal. And that he should order to be held in readiness the fleet that he had determined to send against the King of Jor. 142). he invited the Dutch captain-major for the appointed day. and recognising therein the state of mind and inclination to grant him all he might ask of him. this was agreed" {pp. ordered the fleet to be got ready. The king seems to have played a double part in this tragical affair. This was. cit. Ixv had sent him. 141). and that at the banquet they should murder them. being one day alone with the king and the interpreter.INTRODUCTION. which consisted of more than a hundred vessels. he was so gratified that he knew not what honours and favours to show to our people.e. C. that he won him over. that the king's conversation with De Houtman. that since he showed such signs of favour to the Portuguese.^ And when all was ready. : : / . and at the same time attack the ships. cit.^ For this purpose he at once. he had in his hands a very good opportunity : : proving this. and capture them with the whole of the stores and money that they had on board. And such things did Affonso Vicente say to the king. which he had promised therefor. seeing the favours that that king showed towards the Portuguese. the king said to him you. said to him. for which expedition these same Hollanders had offered their services in exchange for a shipload of pepper. and knew very well how much they desired to preserve his friendship. that it must always be of greater profit to him. and therewith gave him a Purse of Gold" {op. and succeeded in gaining what he wished. at the same time spreading about the report that it was to be sent against the king of Jor. as neighbours. which was much. referred to in the previous footnote. than that of strangers.^ p.

1600. 153. the Achinese having drugged the wine. returned to Achin on October 6th. rest * : so they fledde" {op. 1599. " We lost in this misfortune threescore and eight * Davis says persons. ii. of which we are not certaine how many are captived only of eight wee have knowledge" {pp. 146. Houtman. Having overcome these difficulties. they reached St. 1600. his with the cused himself on account of indisposition. cit. And thus of these two ships not a single thing escaped. Voyages ofJohn Davis^ pp. but sent a nephew^ of most honourable men of his ship. v\^as lost off Dover .^ they were obliged to abandon the smaller ship and all get into the other one. who was actually 2 The affray really took place on board the Dutch ships. which the king at once ordered to be seized. One.Ixvi INTRODUCTION. " there came eleven Gallies with Portugals (as we thought) to take our ships. whither they retired and reformed themselves. with the fleet after them until they disappeared. and one ship Boate" {Ibid. and fired some shots at one on the i8th they sailed for of ten galleys that they found there Tenasserim.^ vol. and were distressed for lack of food. and on the 15th (25th) had a fight with a Portuguese caravel. where they had bad weather. . 145).^ p. ^ . ^ Davis says that while they were at Pedir seeking one of their pinnaces on September 2nd. Davis says " Wee lost two fine Pinnasses of twentie tunnes a piece. in which they set out in the direction of Magulepatao. Helena on April 13th (23rd). the Achens set upon them and murdered them -^ and at the same time the whole fleet sallied out and attacked the ships with great fury. As a matter of fact. . * Cf. since they had lost on shore more than fifty persons. And being drunk at the banquet. and got lost in the macareo of Tanagarim.). seeing this onset. The Hollanders. cit. after watering and refreshing at Pulo Butung off Kedah. 144-145 De Jonge. three other Zeeland ships sailed same parts. op. cit.. ^ Here Couto seems to confuse the fate of the Dutch ships with that of Wood's two (see supra^ p. had no other or better remedy than to hoist their sails and make their escape. : : . p. and beate the . The two ships ultimately arrived at Middelburg on July 29th. Cornelis de Houtman and others were killed while of the Dutch on shore at the time only a few were spared and kept as prisoners. 1 This apparently refers to Frederik de the brother of Cornelis. among them Frederik de Houtman (see Voyages ofJohn Davis pp. hov^^ever. 145). as described in the next extract. the Leeuw and Leeuwin.^ p. 214). This occurred on September ist.^ And because they had few people left in the ships.^ leaving the goods that they had on shore. Iviii).* The Hollanders took their course for the river of Queda. and two pinnaces that were in different ports. We sunke one.'' About the same time Middelburg for the that the Leeuw and Leeuwin left for the East.

Helena. left Texel on July 19th. the Langebercque and the Zon^ left infra^ p. Pt. and reaching See De Jonge. that they left reached Bantam in February and March. 216-217. 1599. in giving a summary account (not very accurate) of this expedition. four of the ships. and there for in November. under the com- of Jacob Cornelisz. p.) ^ See Voyage ofJohn Saris. 447 . (Cf. Ill. 1599. for the Moluccos. Ixvii and of the voyage of the other two we have no detailed account. on the way thither. like spoilers of the vineyard of Christ. p. Ixxiii. 1599. to be second Mauritanians in those climes." broadly insinuates that the Hollanders took out with them the worship of Bacchus {Asia Portuguesa^ tom. under Van Heemskerk. ^ Faria y Sousa. till St. 1600.^ vol. losing a number of men by drowning. cit. Almost Europe ist. iii). making a stay at 8th. sailed out of the Texel these arrived at Three of maining five Bantam on November 25th. and. after coasting Sumatra and calling at St.INTRODUCTION. op. again for the East in 1601. all that is known of them is. and thence for home.^ Warwijck. arrived in the 1599- The other four ships. and the recame there also a month later. On January nth. ll. ^ : — : Voyages ofJohn Davis. under Van Warwijck and Bantam on January 8th. and having to ransom many prisoners). cap. says " Mauricio \^Mauritius\ was the name or title of the admiral's ship it appears as if by a fatality. left for Banda. 134. after some Jacob van Heemskerk. reaching Amboina on March 3rd^ (having had. months' stay. they sailed on July 5th for Bantam. /2 . 1 599. with the first two syllables ever grievous to Catholic ears (let severe censors pardon what they may call frivolous considerations). pp. whence. which the He also somewhat efforts of the Portuguese had planted there. also footnote. under the command of Van Neck. These two ships. van Neck and Wybrand van for the East. On the nth of the same month two of the four ships. 379. Helena from December January ist. a fight with the natives at Arissabaya on the west coast of Madura. a fleet of eight ships.^ On May mand 1598. ii. left Bantam. xxxiii.

The remaining two ships under Van Warwijck left Amboina on May 8th. by a firom Portugal in 1599 (see infra. da Paz.— Ixviii INTRODUCTION. who was going as captain of the ship S. Couto. Liv. Vasco da Gama. cap. in his Decada XII. Mattheus. at the beginning of 1601 {Asia Portuguesa. the Sao Simdo. 1599. records the dispatch of this fleet by the new Viceroy. vi). which had been lying at that place 21st. xiii. the Conceigao. Helena prevented ships from refreshing there included the Van Warwijck's one with which the Leeuw and Leeuwin had had an engagement. Ill. S. Jeronymo Coutinho. 1601). strange blunder. and the Sao Martinho. wherefore we shall give an account of it. as mentioned in the footnote supra. which we left taking in cargo in order to leave for the Kingdom . of Amsterdam. ^ 2 . and reached home about September. cit. tom. the N. but could not land. . and arrived on November 19th at the Texel on 19th. the Count Viceroy ordered the passing of a provision to D. 1600. II. owing left to the presence of a number of Portuguese carracks. . Jeronymo See footnote infra.. Ixxiii. Pt. accojnplished by eight shippes of Dayly Register. and reached Helena on May 17th. . And because the captain-major D. and the other captains should obey him until they should meet with D. (London. Ixxxiii). pp. Aires de Saldanha. that he should fill the office of captain-major of the five ships. and the other five ships^ of his fleet were sailing from Cochim.^ The carracks whose presence at St. cap. 203-210. . May Bantam. arriving there on the 22nd. The Journall or See De Jonge. and of what happened to it on the voyage. all of which had come Faria y Sousa. 2 These five ships were the Sao Roque. gives the Portuguese version He says : We seem to have been forgetting the fleet of D. so again on the 22nd. for Leaving some of Ternate. 374-474 the voyage. op. months. the two ships St. IV. p.^ On January sailed 1600. having the day before met and spoken with the two Zeeland ships eight referred to above (the Zon and the for Langebercque). of this affair. their company here to transact their business affairs. 1600. etc. under Van Warwijck from Bantam. Jeronymo Coutinho was sailing from Goa. they left on August 19th. p.

and because he knew very well that if they put out to sea the corsairs were : . having ^ Fa. Asia Portuguesa^ tom. that. on its way from the Rio da Prata^ to Angola and on going to look for the anchoring-place. which is opposite the Hermitage. to whom we shall return presently. because he was greatly in need of water. ^ The Sdo Simdo. IV. who. Liv. that on the 25th of April the ship of Diogo de Sousa^ made landfall at the island of Santa Helena: bearing in her company a large caravel. who remained loading in Goa. says Dos Santos. of these ships Diogo de Couto sent to the King his Decada This had a better fortune than the Decada Setima^ which the author sent two years later by the Sao Tiago. The other five ships. 1602. who gives details of the voyage in his Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. and thus went pursuing its voyage with such fair weather. Pt. — devils. Liv. on March i6th. Sumatra^ p. Ill. sure to come after them and might give them trouble . xx). . set sail one after another up to the i5th^ of January. Diogo de Sousa. . cap. and set off on his course. caps. thus prepared he proceeded to cast anchor with much confidence. it at once set out without waiting for the other. and whom they called the Galician. This fidalgo. certain huge fishes of fearful and wonderful mien appeared one night around the ship fishes such as had never been seen before by the sailors.2 with which year we are dealing in such sort. who were certain therefore that they were 2 By one Sexta. . » The River Plate. Sz'mdo. The Galicians {Gallegos) are still noted for their robustness and activity. set sail on Christmas Day with a grand send-off given him by the Count.^ because he came from Viana. Ixix Coutinho. * ^ On April 23rd. as soon as he saw them put his ship in order. and which seems to have been destroyed with all other documents by the captain to prevent their falling into the hands of the Dutch. who was the captain-major. II. at St. who went at the request of the retiring Viceroy as chaplain in the S. Helena. that had been waiting there five or six days for two others of their company. they saw lying at anchor two Dutch ships. and got ready his guns. as soon as each one was loaded. which she had fallen in with* in 16 degrees. ll. To add to the horrors of this tempest. in which was Fa. xx-xxvi. and cast anchor at a little distance from them. vi Valentyn.INTkODUCTlON. says that this ship left Cochin on January 19th {Ethiopia Oriental^ Pt. captured the ship after a severe fight (see Couto's letter prefixed to his Decada Setima^ which he had to rewrite in summary Faria y Sousa. iv. which were loading in Cochim. II. 29). and the good father It seems that there was an elephant on board naively confesses that the sight of the terror inspired in this poor beast by a severe storm that the ship encountered before passing Cape Agulhas added greatly to his own fear. 1600. cap. who was a fidalgo. Joao dos Santos. Joao dos Santos. .

" (Stevens under" they soon recovered themselves. though written in 161 1. that it might reply to them. However. until he put them to a shameful flight " while further on. posted in the places most necessary for men under arms and any eventuahty.— Ixx his INTRODUCTION. and of what they nearer. v. and having the advantage in points [there is here a play on the word puntos. and cut through the foremast. a man hailed those in the ship. sent at once from the ships.) . and deliver up the ship to him.^ As soon as he anchored there came a launch. 1 The account and Dutch ships agrees so — Faria y Sousa {loc. keeping his own mouth shut. he gives a fuller account of the engagement. as he states Faria y Sousa. and lying at a little distance from ours. iii. This took place very much as when ripe apples fall from trees shaken by a strong hand. as soon as he heard the message. cit. (The Ethiopia Oriental of Dos Santos was issued in 1609 .) characteristically writes: "There was once sent from them to our ships an arrogant message. of which all were made with As soon as the that follows of the combat between the Portuguese closely with that given by Dos Santos (both being often verbally identical). that they were to surrender immediately. asking him to go forthwith to him in his boat. which means both the pips on cards and the sights of guns]. and not wishing to take advantage of their courtesy turned about in great haste. if he did not wish to go to the other world in Sousa saw that the reply that he had to give needed a great haste. he caused that of a cannon to be directed at them. Sousa fought singly with two Dutch ships at the island of Santa Elena. Ill." stands these last words to mean * — at : : and so renders them. that the captain-major of those ships sent word to the captain. they let fly eight balls. of that Decade). Pt. cap. caused a falcon to be levelled at the launch. vi. and gave their captain an account of what had passed. while Couto's Decada XII unfinished was first printed only in 1645. in his Asia in Liv. in cap.^ Dutch captain saw that our ship would not yield. that he would deal well with him . and that the captain was to go and yield obedience to them. he gave orders to play upon her with his guns with great fury. but erroneously postdates it a year. . he would send and fetch him. Diogo de Sousa. so. suspected. that it is evident that both must be derived from a common source. and said in Spanish. Ill. torn. otherwise. which from sheer terror caused all the sailors that were furling the sails on the ship to fall from the yards and rigging. loud voice. cap. says: "On his return voyage. and they killed two of her men. and well nigh unrigged it. they resembled balls in rising. ll. because it was a mouth with a loud voice. Portuguesa. and gave orders to hail them to come but those in the launch understood the intention of our people. and shot through one side of the mainmast with a ball of cast-iron. It spoke and understanding it very well. as they did not understand it . if they resembled caduke apples in falling.

4 Dos Santos. at Sun-set.^ And so he quickly gave orders to work his guns. 2 This differs greatly from the account given by Dos Santos. She was utterly " . and that he trusted in God to conquer them and take them along with them. He says Davis's account of this engagement is very terse. The The thirteenth we anchored at the He Saint Helena.^ and made them return once more to the ship. the ship went veering round. and took to flight well fustigated. which they fired at Ixxi of our ship seeing that our ship.''' ^ Dos Santos states that. were for the most part so terrified. with a beautiful moonlight.^ with such great fury and terror. put an anchor into the boat. that the Hollanders went hauling on warps until they lay across the bow of our ship. he informed Diogo de Sousa of the intention of some of the Portuguese to escape to the caravel.^ who was a very sagacious man and of great experience. according to similar laudatory terms. He then gave the men white biscuit and wine to refresh and reanimate them. who says that Diogo de Sousa. which had been done in so short a time." : says ' Dos Santos.— INTRODUCTION. Thus they went on firing for the space of twenty hours. The master of our ship. and caused such havoc. not being able to endure the injuries that they received from our guns. . until lo in the morning. On this Diogo de Sousa hurried up. was cast into the sea direct from the ship. the former not being on speaking terms with the captain. veered away their cables. with which also he killed many of their men. who describes him in According to Dos Santos." as Dos Santos correctly says. that the rebels. because of its being very light. who anchored a large musket-shot to wind-ward of us. and lying with all her guns athwart the other ships. at others urging them to defend themselves like valiant Portuguese. the Dutch had put an anchor in a launch for the purpose described above but the anchor here spoken of. The people destruction. . hoisted their sails. which seems . made the former sheer off to some distance with a cable attached. where there were only two pieces of artillery. at the request of Pero Gomez d'Abreu de Lima. .^ and fastening it to the capstan. 3 Antonio Diaz. that they betook themselves to the side on which lay the caravel. 6 "All night. much more fi probable. and not the anchor itself.* and ordered it to be cast into the sea on one side in such manner that it lay near the whip-staff. after bringing all who were in the caravel on to his ship. It was the cable. that lay " on the poop near the whip-staff. at times uttering abusive words. in order to jump into it. fifteenth. there came a Caravell into the Road. assuring them that to deal with those ships theirs was enough . he says. and seek shelter there. in order to play on her from there with less risk.

the Portuguese found the following letter in Spanish. and slew two of our men. that the Jaos had held them captives for six months until the arrival of two other ships of their company. because I am a Christian and fear God. a punto de me sacaren la vida cada dia (I. : — * Dollars (see Hobson-Jobson^ s. wherefore they seized all those that they found on shore. not having one Peace mounted we fought her all this night. que me ha librado de muchos baxos. who landed with the captain and others. . also states." etc. they being ready to take my life every day). who gives a similar account of the cause of the imprisonment of the Dutch. the morning. Our Sunda . remained victorious. that on disinterring the sacred vessels that were kept in a secret place there. por que soy Christiano. ado me he visto perdido en esta viage. by midnight shee had placed sixe Peeces which shee used very well. which had remained in Achem loading. and cut up. the Jaos came to know of the falsity of the money. The difference of dates in the two accounts is due to the fact that the Portuguese observed the New Style. Juan Roberto. which had them set These at liberty.Ixxii INTRODUCTION. until there arrived two other ships unprovided. have done no harm to this church. in us often through. of which we shall presently give an account and in the writing they gave them to understand. although shattered land. which our people found there. better then two hundred shot. and gave her. In eight houres shee never made shot nor shew of regard .^ load at two ships. we departed. and has likewise liberated me from captivity in Jaoa. and the Dutch (and English) the Old. man was I have been unable to discover. Helena a few days later. and conducted service in the Hermitage. had gone to and disembarked on . and contained very little silver. where I was a captive Who this six months.v. and having bought many drugs therewith. left by the Dutch. y temo a Dios. shot So the sixteenth. ado " estuue captiuo seis mezes. as I thinke.). which came in handy for themj^ and in the Hermitage they found^ a written message that they had left there for two other ships of their company. " Yo luan left apparently by some man from one of the Dutch ships Roberto no haga mal a esta Iglesia. who has delivered me from many depths [or shoals ?] in which I have found myself lost in this voyage. and the cause of their imprisonment was this. people. and all the patacas^ that they carried were falsified. ^ Dos Santos. 1 Dos Santos says that they also tied at the foot of a fig-tree. because these came from Sunda. . 1 56). and kept them prisoners four or five months. according to Dos Santos. found two goats. ( Voyages of John Davis. where they found the barrels of the Hollanders that they had left there to be filled with water. 2 This was on the following day. says that this information was obtained He from the Hollanders who called at St. y ansi mas me ha librado de catiuero de la laoa. p.

Helena on their voyage home. arrived so much later. who gives a number of details of wonderful escapes during the combat.^ Jakatra] towards Bantam^ where two Dutch ships lay. 1599] wee sayled thence [the mouth of the 'fresh Ryuer' near Saketra. * What follows is almost identical with the account ^ given by Dos Santos. though starting from Goa. were well received.^ The Dutch ships having left the island of Santa Helena. ^ Dos Santos. while the two ships under Van Warwijck did not leave until January 21st. .' i. 1599. Helena. they were the Long barke \sic!\ and the Sunne. our people at once set to work at refitting the ship. says that when the enemy disappeared. about three ^ to . in the afternoon. 1 XXlll of their company. op. ii. and earlier. day we spoke with them. 54) November. : — ' . 379). which came laden with drugs . day [of The Journall. and on the 3rd of May the Concei^ao^ and on the i6th the ship of the captain-major. given in "The 17. : The above rather confused statement is interesting. the masts. the carpenters and caulkers set to work to repair the damage. and ransomed them by giving the Jaos other good and lawful money. and coming to make the anchoring-place. five days after the battle.^ According to a letter of Van Warwijck's (De Jonge. there arrived at that port the ship Nossa Senhora da Faz. the ship having received seven shots between wind and ' water. The story about the bad money and the imprisonment seems to be explained by the following details. Ixviii). not refreshing themselues). which. the two Zeeland ships sailed on November i8th. where they had so neerely bartered all that in the ende (for want of money) they trucked also the whistles from about their neckes. which learnt of the case. and rigging it anew^ and on the 30th of April. The 18. (p. and farther were weakened 55. Dos Santos." The next day they arrived at Bantam. which had lyne eight moneths and tenne dayes before Bantam (and were departed from thence in the night time. who also records the arrival of these ships. In the narrative of the voyages of Van Neck's and Van Warwijck's fleet we are not told of any letters having been left at St. men. or Dayly Register^ etc.e. for both the ships had but 60.INtkODUCtlON. Helena and therefore we may conclude that the message was left by these two Zeeland ships for their fellow Zeelanders in the Leeuw and Leeuwin^ who evidently knew nothing of how they had fared in the East. 1600. and yet had not effected any great matter. the Zon and the Langebercque^ referred to above (pp. last of Pepper and Clones together. adds that on May 15th the River Plate ship left St. cit.^ And from Diogo de Sousa they learnt the whole of the affair. And^ on the same day that the captain-major anchored appeared the two other Dutch ships^ that we have said the others were expecting. when they saw our ships they proceeded to anchor at the point of the island. as it appears be the only proof we have that the two Zeeland ships. called at St.^ vol. for Europe. Ixvi-lxvii. and helped him to repair the damage that the enemy had done to him. p. and got full loads of spices. The Amsterdam and Utrecht^ under Van Warwijck.

and that he begged him to give them leave to send their launches to get it at the place where he was. Jeronymo Coutinho. which was the 2 1 St of May. The Hollanders perceiving the design of the captainmajor would not take advantage of his courtesy. that the captain be Portuguese. firing ofi" many rockets 1 This is put confusedly. Jeronymo Coutinho paid little heed to them. where she watered and took in provisions in the Bay of All Saints. D. day in the morning we had sight of a Carrack ndere vnto the land. in which he said to him. on which was D. D. and that there they could water just at their will the which message he sent to them. that they were Christians. to go and attack them. there arrived at that island the ship S. who by means of bombard shots forced the two Dutch ships to weigh anchor . that they were merchants. in order to see if he could draw them out of that quarter. whereby wee were forced to put into the old Roade. Jeronymo replied to them. they should come and anchor near him. sayling into the Roade of S. and vassals of a king who was a friend to his. sent off a launch with a letter to D.^ put out again to sea. IxxiV INTRODUCTION. Matheus (which.^ and must have had to go to the coast of Guinea to Then the captain-major get water. made landfall at that island. whither he was unable to go and seek \ The Dutch them. Helena^ where lay at anchor three other Carracks. but afterwards discovered his mistake. where our people could do them no harm. seeing that there was no water in that part where he was. when in the dusk he caught sight of the Portuguese ships. Martinho^ the captain of which was Joao Soares Henriques. which is the. 2 Dos Santos says nothing of a bombardment of the Dutch ships by the S. the ship S. Vasco da Gama. in fact. that as they were Christians. if the weather should give him the opportunity. but nevertheless made ready. being the Admirall of the Portugal s Fleete.^ What Couto meant was. The 17. of which they were in want. thought that they were also some of the enemy's vessels. first valley that you come vnto after you are passed the north west corner. in order. Dos Santos says that the captain. Helena^ wherewith wee were all greatly comforted. Mattheus. at the end of which time. and discovering the Dutch ships. and set her course by Brazil. just at nightfall. And on the same day. because of the wind*s being contrary for going against them. and friends of the Portuguese. captain. supposing them to be ours.. 3 The Dutch account of this affair is as follows "The sixteenth day [of May] about noone wee had sight of the Island of S. or necke of the land. but continued to lie there five days longer . at first took the ships to : and with much demonstration. and one night they set sail. on finding that these two ships were Dutch. seems to have arrived after they had gone) he simply states that they set sail. who were going about the world seeking their living that they were in want of water. and the Roade where the Carracks lay is the third valley beyond the : .

which was the sixt Carrack that we had now scene. On June a solemn service had been held on shore. arriving in India and returning to Portugal with all his ships in safety. Jeronimo took four ships out to India. 3 This In 1586 D. and being vnder saile. The ships did not go to Guinea. says Dos Santos. four of which reached there safely (see supra^ pp. Helena^ it is a very high hillie land. day foure of our men went vp into the land at S. while one was burnt by the Dutch off Goa. wee directed our course north-west diXidhy vjtsi" {The Journall^ or Dayly Register^ etc. charge of a fleet of five ships for India. the 5. who gives details of the voyage.^ which was a great piece of good fortune.. but the Portugales would not suffer vs. 1600. beautified and enriched with very faire and pleasant valleys. with great abundance wee meant to prouide our of Goates. the sayd necke of the land. and another was burnt at Mozambique on the way home. so that we lay within Sakar or Minion shot of each other wee sent vnto them foure men to parley with them. which was the onely cause that wee could not here refresh our selues. whence she returned for Portugal. wee sailed thence (with God his helpe) home: wards. p. (refusing the land) they cast about. their sufferings 1 had become ist. they anchored at Cascaes. seeking to refresh our selues in that place. 2 On August 22nd. and in 1600 brought five safely home (as stated above). and returned to Portugal next year but the fifth. D. but The same euening came I cannot write what communication passed. and with all the ships under his charge set sail/ to see if he could overtake the two ships of the rebels . after terrible. that they haled vs. as surmised by the Portuguese. The 21. and directed their course Northwest to seaward. another Carrack making towards the Roade. sailing about the north west necke hard vnder the shore. iii-iv).. insomuch that she came so neere vnto vs. 57). but was captured by Drake off the Azores. two of which returned to Portugal next year. The i8. INTRODUCTION. and on the 24th reached Lisbon. where. being Ascention day. the Dutch.^ Besides sending all the above-mentioned ships to the in East round the Cape of Good Hope. In 1599. by the time they reached home. but he was unable to catch up with them. and ours arrived together at the Kingdom. And this fidalgo was always thus venturesome and fortunate in the voyages that he made. IxxV caused D. through their having gone far out of their course. they found no water. . so that we were without hope to make any prouision of water at this place for they had ordained a strong watch on the shore. so that. Filippe^ got only as far as Mozambique. says Dos Santos. and some store of Swine : : : selues there of fresh water. Vasco da Gama to be supplied with water. however. In 1607 he took out five ships to India. wee descried another Carrack making towards the Roade. but to Ascension. Jeronimo Coutinho took is hardly correct. and demaunded of whence wee were and vnderstanding that we were Hollanders.

William Adams. i.. which he at once did. pp. now called Oita. of which we are treating. resulted in utter disaster. 1600. lest some disaster should befall her . Bk. V. same ships. North latitude 33* 15'. enemies of the Portuguese and ^ For his history. ^ The * ® On April 19th. p. Introduction. that it might be some ship going from New Spain to the Lusoes. 18-24. and as at that time it was not the monsoon for ships to come from China. 1598. " she anchored about a league off the capital of Bungo. p. following details given by the great historian of Portuguese India seem to have been overlooked by all writers on the dawn of Dutch and English commerce in Japan. this expedition. ^ The Liefde. 218-222 O. as soon as they heard of the ship. And at this same time two fathers of the Company who resided near Xativai. 93 et seq. cit. see Dictionary of National Biography. appears to have obtained his information from the Jesuit fathers. and discovering her to be Dutch. governor-general of those realms on the western side. '^ and I there- myself to quoting what Couto {Dec. Nachod's Die Beziehungen der Niederldndischen Ostindischen Kontpagnie zu Japan^ Purchas. ll. year.^ to Except that led to the opening Dutch trade. in Beppu Bay. Introduction. Couto. sent advice by letters to Tirazava. and coming near to her. at the port of Xativai^ in the kingdom of Bungo .^ vol. vol. 1598. in order that he might send help. went with some boats to assist her . pp. 33-39 Satow's Voyage of Captain John Saris (Hakluyt Soc). They sent word to the king of Bungo. XII^ says^ on the subject : ii) In this year 1600. who wrote this Decade in 161 1 (the date of Adams's first letter). about this same time there arrived* a Dutch ship^ at the Islands of Japao. of the Empire of fapon (Hakluyt Soc). Some Portuguese that were in Naganzaque. Satow {pp. which left up of Japan Rotterdam on Details of the June 27th. that through some storm had been driven out of her course. 73. pp." . nor from the Filippinas. Randall's Memorials p. ii. voyage have been given by various writers fore confine Liv. According to Sir E. i. they turned back again. M.— Ixxvi INtRODlJCtlON. 104. seeing the ship. under the The first of these consisted of five command of Jacques Mahu and Simon de it Cordes. 78-79. xlviii 2 . dispatched two fleets thither by the south-western route. op. who reside there. it appeared to the fathers of the Company. cap. xlviii). . the pilot of one being the Englishman. of how that ship was one of Lutheran corsairs. xlviiDictionary of National Biography^ vol. cit. \ . See De Jonge. pp.

^ The " fifteen ships" are apparently the eight of C. 27). and of what happened to them. hammers. three hundred and fifty-five darts. and other various kinds of chain-shot. The .^ went privateering for some time on the coast 1 Cf. Compare this list with that given by Fernao Guerreiro in the footnote infra. 38). on whose death Simon de Cordes assumed command. was. after the death of Juriaan Boekhout. They confessed that in the past years of 1598 and 1599 there set out from the States of Holland fifteen ships to go to Sunda and Maluco. a box with four hundred branches of coral and as many of amber. we shall give an account of those of which we have learnt. actual commander was Jacques Mahu. ' Couto here apparently quotes from an official document sent to Goa by the Portuguese in Japan. where they divided into three squadrons. and took its course for Sunda. In the year that we have mentioned* there left Rotterdam these fifteen ships. The third. very confused and . a great chest of glass beads of divers colours.. five hundred muskets. what Adams says in his letters (Randall's Memorials of the Empire ofjapon^ pp. cit.^ had letters from the king.^ To the other squadron we have not learnt what happened. * "^ See supra. van Neck. with which it would seem they were coming to conquer and inhabit. three great chests of coats of mail. a great quantity of nails. de Houtman. as regards some of them. and the five of J. and what was found therein was the following :^ Eleven great chests of coarse woollen cloths. Mahu but it will be seen that Couto's account is. and five thousand balls of cast-iron. appointed captain of the Trouw. * The years 1598 and 1599 had been mentioned but it is evident that now Couto is speaking of 1 598 only. 25. iron. fifty implements. and the other two proceeded to put into the port of Achem. (see also footnote infra^ and Rundall's Memorials of the Empire ofjapon^ p. three hundred quintals of powder. and their goods. three-fourths having breastplates and pectorals of steel. whose relationship to Simon I cannot discover. Balthazar de Cordes. ^ At Sakai. two thousand cruzados in reals^ nineteen large bronze pieces of ordnance and other small ones. pp. passed where three ships separated themselves. the captain of which was one Balthazar da Corda. inaccurate. and ordered the ship to be brought into port. Tirazava hastened to the kingdom of Bungo. Ixxvil' On receiving this message. One of these soon the Cape of Good Hope. and in order that something may be known of them. loc. 23. of whom I shall have more to say presently.INTRODUCTION. .^ and laid hold of the Hollanders. the two of C. regarding which they gave no satisfactory account whatever . many children's pipes.* which kept together as far as the coast of Guinea. of which an inventory was made. some mirrors and spectacles. according to Satow. Ixiv-lxvi. and having already of all Christians. scythes and mattocks.

^ and as soon as the weather served they passed through the Straits to the other side. and thence crossed over to Angola. and the former was never heard of again. and those on the ship came to meet them with a boat.' and one went running at hazard to make for the Islands of Maluco. they made a sudden attack upon it. cit. p. and of these they killed fifteen. returned home from the of this fact Couto was evidently ignorant. I. For our knowledge of the doings of the four ships that passed the Magellan Straits we are almost entirely dependent on what Adams De Jonge {Joe. Purchas. so fierce. and plundered and profaned the temples and all that was in the fortress. while Simon de Cordes and others of the Hoop were killed on shore at the * : Mocha (see Rundall's Memorials. and then they turned about in the direction of the Strait of Magalhaes. which they entered. . for I have found no tidings of her. ' Cf. Bk. 20-22. and turned towards the coast of Peril. . and in some sallies that they made to seek water and provisions they had several men killed . Rundall's Memorials.. 20. 33-35. 35-36 Purchas. The Trouw. cit. 18-20. i.^ where they arrived.. This was the Trouw (see infra). etc. where she arrived. the captain of which was a certain da Corda. And setting sail they went to seek Maluco.. loc.. remaining there for several days as much at their ease as if they were in Flanders. and rescued them. pp.. while the other five leapt down over the walls. after capturing and plundering several Spanish ships. Rundall's Memorials^ etc. in Peril. among these five being Captain Corda.^ where a storm struck them. nephew of the captain-major Balthazar da Corda. and attacking the fortress entered it. and a little further on we shall give an account of her . 74). but were separated by a storm.^ the other seems to have disappeared.Ixxviil INTRODUCTION. they collected several companies. and taking possession temporarily of the island island of . and swam out to reach the ship. pp. unpublished documents in the Hague archives relating to two of the 2 ships. out men. The Blyde Boodschap was seized by the Spaniards at Valparaiso. and on its growing calm he proceeded to put in at the And learning that it was almost withfortress of Chile. the Geloof. 35. pp. ^ Sebald de Weerd's ship. there being no more than twenty Flemings therein . that it separated them. Straits of Magellan * Couto may possibly be here confusing several of the ships. of Brazil. and in which they were detained ten months with many troubles and starvings. These tidings having come to the Spaniards that were in the interior. where it did some damage. putting to death some of those that were within. went running before the storm along the coast. and entered it. vol.^ the other. and cast anchor at the ^ Cf. The Hoop and Liefde then set their course for Japan.) mentions two says in his two letters of 161 1.

sent her to the kingdoms of Canto* to load timber. as they wrote to us from Malaca. The first Dutch ships to call at Ternate were Amsterdam and Utrecht under Van Warwijck. which. speaking with them. ii. the which passing through the Strait of Magalhais set their course for Sunda. raxas ^ Cf. and the Hollanders that were most in health he sent to serve as bombardiers in a war that he ordered to be undertaken against a rebel lord who was called Cangeatica. 11. however. among whom was Captain Corda. wherefore they let themselves go at the hazard of the winds. which it was said had two years before left Holland in company with other four. that she spent four months in reaching the Tropic of Capricorn. in his Relagam Annual^ etc. in cap. 23. The first news the in June. whithersoever she was able. xxi of the Cousas do Japao which treats of the work of the Jesuits in " At a port of this kingdom there put in this year a Bungo. and these sick hunger that they suffered on such a long voyage. which went running before the storm. Simon de Cordes had been killed. 1 the left This is an error. n. the island before the Trouw arrived there. until these and the tides brought them to Japao. cit.^ vol. Ixxix half a league from our fortress. the missing one was this ship which we have found in Japao. 279). On arriving in port and coming ashore they said that they came to carry on trade in Japao. These five being separated by a storm. and was. after he had ordered the ship to be emptied. torn i. infra . made a prize of by the Spaniards at Tidore. 19. as stated in the footnote supra.^ The pilot of this ship was an English- of Chiloe (which is evidently what Couto refers to). 27 . set sail for the Moluccas. that they looked like dead men. says ship of Hollanders. as we have said. there being already at Ternate another ship of this company^ . p. there came to land at this Bungo this She brought only five ship of which I have spoken much shattered. van Another error. glass beads. mirrors. op. 242. pp.INTRODUCTION. : — ^ [coarse cloths of little value]. where had arrived other English ships.. understood that they were heretics. pp. and prostrated by the cold and and twenty men alive. and other curiosities of Flanders and they had much and large ordnance. and had such changeable weather. Memorials^ etc. 1601 (see Dutch had of the Neck 2 fate of this vessel was on the visit of Jacob De Jonge. village of Soli in the island of Tidore.^ there remaining alive but five and twenty. 38. where they disembarked. corals. p. and see Rundall's Memorials of the E^npire of Japon^ p. and note).. The Father. but the Tono soon discovered that they were .^ who were not sufficient to manage the ship . ^ Fernao Guerreiro. i. Rundall's * The Kuwanto. where she was visited by an outbreak of disease so contagious. of whom two died on arrival. that in a few days there died a hundred and fifty and five persons. She carried some woollen cloths and scarlets. Adams's History ofjapan^ vol. in which Yedo (Tokyo) is situated (cf. naturally enough. That king. . all so enfeebled..

Ixxx

INTRODUCTION.

man, ^ a good cosmographer, and with some knowledge of astrology: in Meaco' he confessed to the fathers of the Company that the Prince of Orange had already made use of him several times in
journeys of great importance, principally in the years 1593, 1594, and 1595,^ when he sent him to discover a way above Biarmia and Fimmarchia,* for his ships to pass to Japao, China, and Maluco, in order to bring thence the riches of all those islands, because that by that way they would have the shortest route and the freest from our fleet and that on the last occasion, which was in the year 1595, he reached 82 degrees north f and that, in spite of its being the height of summer, and the days almost continuous, there being no night, unless it were of two hours, he found the cold so excessive, and the masses of ice and snow so great that broke up in the lower part of that strait, that, driving in the teeth of the ship, they forced her to turn back.^ And he affirmed, that if one coasted along the coast of Tartary on the right-hand, and if
:

going to another part, and that they came to Japao only through the storm, since they did not carry goods in such quantity or of the same quality as brought by the other ships that came to Japao, nor did they
well dressed, and splendid with the pomp of servants and attendants, as the other merchants were accustomed to come, but only as soldiers and sailors, and beside this with much ordnance and arms by all of which they were known to be people not of good title ; and Dayfugama, having been advised to this effect, at once sent a captain of his to Bungo to have the ship brought to Meaco or to Sacay, where he took possession of her as a wreck, according to the laws of Japao, and sent her to a port of his kingdoms of Quanto, with the Hollanders that came in her, and eighteen or twenty pieces of ordnance and all the rest that she carried he retained, the greater part of which was arms and a large quantity of powder." In caps, xxviii-xxxiii is given an account of the war referred to above by Couto, the rebel lord being called " Camzuedono" (cf. Adams's History of Japan, vol. i, p. 66 ; Morga's Philippine Islands, p. 143 et seq.).

come

:

;

^

William

Adams

(cf.

Voyage

oj Saris, p. 80).

^

Kyoto.

Either the Jesuit fathers misunderstood Adams, or Couto has The expeditions referred to are those of Barents in 1594, 1595, and 1 596 and there is no evidence that Adams took any part in any of these (see The Three Voyages of William Barents, etc., second edition ; also Rundall's Voyages towards the N. IV., p. xii).
^

erred.

;

*

What

"

Fimmarchia"

" Biarmia" represents I do not know, unless it be Bergen. is Finmark, in the extreme north of Norway.

^ This refers to the discovery and circumnavigation of Spitzbergen by Barents, who, however, did not get so far north as 82° (see The Three Voyages of William Barents, pp. cxxx, yy and cf. the map prefixed, the gradation of which is incorrect).
;

*

Cf.

The Three Voyages of William Barents,

p.

lo^et

seq.

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxxi

along it one went running eastward as far as the Gulf of Aniao,^ which enters between the lands of Asia and America, he could accomplish his purpose. And this pilot also affirmed that the Hollanders would not desist until they had carried this enterprise to a conclusion, because of the great desires that they had to discover this road.^ And the English had already tried to discover this voyage by way of the west, between the islands of Grotlandia^ and the land of Lavrador but that owing to the same difficulties they turned back on the way, as did that great pilot Gavoto,*
;

globe that this pilot posChina another that I have in my possession,^ are clearly seen these two ports, the route by which they attempted to pass to them, and, placed in gradation, this island of Japao, with all its kingdoms, as far as the country of Chincungu, where, they allege, are those rich silver mines. ^ This pilot also said, that when the Prince of Orange saw that he could not carry out his purpose in those parts, he equipped these fifteen vessels, in charge of which he came, to go to Sunda and Maluco to load drugs.'' At this same time that this ship arrived at Japao, there set out from that island sixteen ships of corsairs to rob ; these came as far as the Philippine Islands, and on the way captured a ship of Chins, who were going to those parts with goods amounting to sixty thousand pesos : and they also captured another boat from the Manilhas, and killed and captivated several natives thereof and three Spanish soldiers, of which the governor of Manilha sent to complain to Daifuxama, king of Canthem, who at once ordered
forty years ago.
in a

more than

And

sessed,

from which there was drawn

in

^ The modern Bering Strait. In the curious map prefixed to^ The Three Voyages of William Barents it is entered as '' Estrecho de Anian" (see also p. 149, and note).

2 The success of Houtman's voyage by the Cape of Good Hope in 1595-97 caused the abandonment of any further attempt at finding a north-east passage to the Far East.

^

Greenland.

but their attempts were made much more than forty years before Couto wrote he refers apparently to Frobisher's voyages.
*

John or Sebastian Cabot

;

;

have found no other reference to this map. Linschoten's Map of the Eastern Seas, in the Voyage of Capt. John Saris (p. 191), where " Minas de prata" is inscribed opposite the north-western part of Japan. Couto, in his description of Japan {Dec. V, Liv. viii, cap. xii), names "Chicungo" as one of the governorships of Bungo. Probably the mines of Iwami are meant, there being none, apparently, in Chikugo (cf Morga's Philippine
^
6 I

Cf.

Islands., p. 147).
7 The wording of this is very confused. Of course the Prince of Orange did not equip any of the ships, and Adams was pilot of only

one ship.

$

Ixxxii
several vessels to be

INTRODUCTION.

armed against these corsairs, and encountering attacked each other ; and they captured one of their vessels, in they which they found some of those Hollanders that were in the ship. And afterwards, from time to time, Daifuxama got hold of many of these corsairs, all of whom he ordered to be hanged ; and he made a law that not more than four vessels each year should go to the Manilhas, and all the rest should be destroyed and their
owners
crucified.^

The second

fleet

dispatched by the Netherlanders in

1598 for the Far East by the south-eastern route consisted of four ships under the command of Olivier van Noort,

and
is

sailed

on September
Purchas
is

1

3th.
1,

An
Bk.

account of this voyage
II,

printed in
full

(vol.

pp. 71-78),

and a
have

very

summary

given in the Society's translation
173-187.

of Morga's Philippine Islands, pp.

As

I

mentioned above

(p. xviii),

Teixeira, in his voyage from

Manila

to

Acapulco

in

1600,

by mere chance escaped
fleet,

encountering the two surviving ships of this
arrived before Manila on

which

November

24th,

and on December

14th had a fierce engagement with two Spanish vessels,

Thence Van Noort sailed for Borneo, which he reached on December 26th, and left on January 4th, 1601 f and after touching at Java he set sail homewards, calling at St. Helena, and
resulting in the loss of one ship

on each

side.^

reaching Rotterdam on August 26th, 1601.
first

He was

the

Netherlander that circumnavigated the globe.

While the Dutch had been sending all these ships to the East in 1598, the Portuguese had been unable to
dispatch a single vessel from Lisbon, the
that had been equipped for India having
fleet

of five ships
in

had to remain

Cf Morga's Philippine Islands^ p. 148. See Morga's Philippine Islattds, pp. 166 ff, 184 ff. 3 On this day Van Noort captured a junk from Japan, and learnt from the captain, a Portuguese of Nagasaki, of the arrival at Japan of a Dutch ship (see Purchas, vol. i, Bk. 11, p. jy). This was the first
^ *

news the Dutch had of the

fate of the Lie^de.


INTRODUCTION.

;

Ixxxiii

the Tagus, owing to the presence of an English fleet off the

mouth of the river.^ However, in more fortunate. Couto {Decada XII^
says
:

1599, they were
Liv.
ill,

cap. x),

account of the news that was received in Portugal, that Holland to go out to those parts of India, as they did, of which we shall treat more fully in its proper place,^ the Council gave orders to send thither this year a good fleet, which consisted of seven ships, of which they elected as captain-major D. Jeronymo Coutinho.* And when it was the beginning of February, 1599, the captain-major set sail with four ships, because all could not be got ready to leave at the same time. In the ship S. Roque embarked the captain-major Diogo de Sousa, who was here^ called the Galician,^ went in the ship S. Simdo] Sebastiao da Costa in the Conceifao] and Joao With the captain-major embarked Pais Freire in the ship Faz. Joao Rodrigues de Torres, who was to fill the office of veador da fazenda at Goa, on whom the King bestowed many honours and favours in connection therewith.'^ Soon after the departure of this
ten^ ships were being got ready in
fleet,^ in the March following of 1599 there set sail the other three ships of the company of D. Jeronymo Coutinho. There went as captain-major of these three ships Simao de Mendoga, a fidalgo, married in India, who embarked in the ship Castello. In the other two went Joao Soares Anriques in the ^S*. Martinho^ and in the ship S. Mattheus Caspar Tenreiro, who was promised the succession of the fortress of Mascate. These three ships were to remain in India.^ These two fleets united at Mogambique, and all these ships anchored together at the bar of Goa, except the ship Castello^ which was lost on the ^ofalla bank near Quilimane, in front of the river Licumbo, sixty leagues from

On

^ 2

left Holland for the East in 1599 (see infra). 3 As Couto never completed this Decade, this promise was unfulfilled.
*
5

See footnotes on pp. xl, xli, supra. As a matter of fact, only seven ships

Cf

pp.

xli,

n..,

Ixviii, «.,

supra.

* See supra^ p. Ixix. King at the end of 1603, the Goa Chamber Writing to the complain that this man was leaving for Portugal owing them 2,500 xerafins., and setting at defiance a warrant that had been served on him wherefore they had sent instructions to have him arrested on

That

is,

in India.

'^

;

landing
pp.
^

at Lisbon 124-125).

{Archivo

Portuguez- Oriental^

fasc.

i,

Pt.

11,

These four ships and the S. Matheus formed the fleet of 1598. The two that reached India returned next year with the others, as we have seen above,
®

^2

^

Ixxxiv

INTRODUCTION.

Mogambique.^ After Simao de Mendoga, who was the captain, had got on shore with all the people, he and many others died. By this fleet there came news to the Count Viceroy of the death of his son D. Vasco, which he felt much, having no other. There also came news of the death of the King D. Filippe the Prudent, 2 whose exequies the Count Admiral celebrated with great ostentation and ceremonies.

Of the Dutch
under the
left

ships referred to above
first

by Couto

as being

got ready to go to the East, the

to sail were three

command

of Steven van der Hagen.

This

fleet

Holland on April 26th, 1599, stayed a couple of months at Mauritius, and reached Bantam on March 13th,
1600.

The

ships then proceeded to

Amboina and Banda,*
the

where they had encounters with
to

Portuguese

and

trouble with the natives, and returned on

Bantam.

Here they found

six other

November 19th Dutch ships, with

four of which they sailed on January 14th, 1601, calling
at St. Helena,

and reaching home
21st,

in July, 1601.^

On December
under the

1599, another fleet of four ships,

command

of Pieter Both,^ of Amersfoort, sailed
East.*^

from Holland
fleet divided,

for the

On

April

26th, 1600, the
calling

two of the ships under Van Caerden
6th, the other
ships,

at

Madagascar and passing through the Maldives, and

reaching

Bantam on August

two
at

vessels

arriving soon afterwards.

These two

under Paulus
Priaman,

van Caerden, were sent by Both to load pepper

whence they proceeded

to other ports in Sumatra, reaching

^

Figuereido Falcao {Livro

em que
was

se

contem toda fa azenda^
p. xli,

etc.,

p. 183) says that the Castello
2

lost at Socotra.

On September

13th, 1598 (see note
Pt.

on

supra).

Cf letter of 1599 of Portuguez- Oriental^ fasc. i,
2 * ^ ^
^

Goa Chamber
li,

to the

King, in Archivo

pp. 61-62.

Cf. Voyage of Capt. John Saris^ p. xxxiii. See De Jonge, op. cit.^ vol. ii, pp. 226-229. Afterwards Governor- General of Netherlands India.

See

De

Jonge, op.

cit.^ vol.

ii,

pp. 229-235.

;

INTRODUCTION.
Achin on November
21st,

Ixxxv

and learning from some of the

captive Hollanders there the details of the attack on the

Leeuw and Leeuwin.
unfriendly,

Finding the Achinese monarch very
left

Van

Caerden, after various acts of piracy ,1

again for Bantam, arriving there on March 19th, 1601, and
finding that
or

Both had

sailed

homewards
ships.

January, in

charge of seven

December On March 29th
in

there arrived at

Bantam

three ships from Holland, under

the

command
with

of Jacob van Neck, who, proceeding in one
left

of these to the Moluccas,
return

the other two at

Bantam
sailed

to
for

Van

Caerden.
13th,

The

four

ships
in

Europe on April
St.

1601, calling
letters

September

at

Helena, where they found

from Both, stating

that he

had been there

in June.

The

tidings brought from

Malacca to Goa of the conships
in that city

tinuous arrival in the

Malay archipelago of Dutch
in their

must naturally have caused increasing alarm
but, curiously
letters of

enough, the Chamber of Goa,

annual

subject.^

1599 to 1602 to the King, say nothing on the In spite of the discouraging fiasco in which the

dispatch of the fleet under Lourengo de Brito resulted,
the Viceroy seems to have sent what reinforcements he

could to Malacca.
{Dec,

In April,

1598, according to

Couto

XII^ Liv.

I,

cap. xvii), he dispatched "

Joao Pinto de

Morais

in the galleon 5.

voyages with
therein

many

Jodo^ to go and make the Malaca and provisions and munitions for it
;

embarked Ruy Gonsalves de

Siqueira, provided

with the captaincy of that fortress, D. Juliao de Noronha,

^

See

De

Jonge,

u.s.

2

The

letter of the

the royal letters to the
to
*

Goa Chamber to the King, written in 1598, and Chamber from 1600 to 1609 inclusive, appear

have been lost. There seems to be some mistake here, as Figueiredo Falcao {op. cit, p. 182) records the return of the S. Jodo to Portugal in 1598. (According to him, this ship remained in India in i6qo.)

Ixxxvi

INTRODUCTION.
there,

who was
{Dec.

having completed his time."^
1600,

At

the

beginning of

May,

we

also

learn

from
"

Couto

XII^ Liv.

IV, cap. xiii), there left

Goa

the galleon

that

was going with the provisions

for the fortresses of

Amboino and Maluco,
Pereira de Sande.^

as captain of which

went Fernao

And

before this he [the Viceroy] had

sent two galliots as reinforcements to Malaca, on account

of the news that he had had of Dutch ships

;

and as

captains of these there went Estevao de Albuquerque, a
natural

son of

Fernao de Albuquerque, and Trajano

Rodrigues de Castello-branco.
in

The Count Admiral

also

this April

dispatched Fernao de Albuquerque, to go
in a ship

and enter on the captaincy of Malaca,^ who went
of his
;

and

in

his

company went
all

the ships for Malaca,

China, and other parts,

of which arrived in safety
lost, as

except only the galleon for Maluco, which was
I

shall relate

farther on."*

Again, in Liv.
:

same Decade, Couto says " In the past April the Count Admiral received word from the parts about Malaca that there had come to the coasts of Java those ships from Holland of which we have given an account in the second chapter f and being fearful of the injuries they might cause, both to the commerce of India and to the trade of Portugal, if they should load drugs, as well as by the
the

V, cap. viii, of

capture of the ships of our merchants that might be sailing

^ Again there is some error as stated above (pp. 52, 55), Francisco da Silva de Menezes was succeeded at the end of 1597 as captain of Malacca by Martim Affonso de Mello Coutinho. (Valentyn adds to the confusion by stating, in his Malakka, p. 328, that the captain in 1598 was " Roch de Mello Pereira.")
:

2

He commanded
in 1605 (see

Tidore

one of the two ships captured by the Dutch at Valentyn, Moluksce Zaaken., pp. 213, 214).

^ He apparently succeeded Martim Affonso de Mello Coutinho, and held the post until September ist, 1603, when he was replaced by Andre Furtado de Mendoga (Valentyn, Malakka^ p. 329).

*
^

Death prevented Couto from
See supra^
p. Ixxvii.

fulfilling this

promise.

INTRODUCTION.
for those parts,

Ixxxvii
alteration that

and above

all

by the

might

take place in the kings neighbouring to our fortress of

Malaca

;

because, as they are Moors, our enemies, and
it

every time that they deserved
their snouts for them,^
it

the Portuguese smashed

change

;

was certain they would try a and the Hollanders, as rebels, would solicit this,
first

being the

to

come out

to those parts

:^

therefore he

resolved to send a fleet of two galleons and three galliots
to join there the

two that he had sent

in the past

May

,2

and nominated as captain-major of

this fleet

Goterre de
this fleet
it

Monroy de Beja
necessary for
it

;

and with the preparation of

the Count ordered great speed to be made, because
to set sail in September."

was

Accordingly we

are told, towards the end of the

much enthusiasm

the fleet for
is

same Malaca

chapter, that " with
set sail

on the day

of S. Jeronymo, which

the last of September, consisting

of two galleons, in one of which went the captain-major,

and

in the other

D. Alvaro da Costa, son of D. Francisco
galliots, the captains

da Costa, and three

of which were

Pero Fernandes de Carvalho, Filippe de Oliveira, and

Maximiliano de Mendoga."

As we have
May, 1600,
islands

seen above, Pedro Teixeira

left

Malacca

in

for the Philippines, in a

pinnace dispatched by

Martin Aflbnso de Mello to warn the governor of those
of the increasing

number of Dutch
left

ships

that

continued to arrive in those waters.
I
1

In addition to those

have mentioned above, there
601,
for

Holland, in 1600 and

the Malay Archipelago, four fleets comprising

1

"

Lhes quebrdram
to Couto.

os focinhos

.•"

a brutal vulgarity of diction

uncommon
2

is not strictly correct, the English having preceded the in visiting " those parts" ; but the latter were the first to systematise their voyages, and carry them out on a large scale.

This

Dutch
^

See supra.

. which was worth more than three hundred thousand cruzados. . 1603. II 2.^ and three or four that were going with money to Bengala f and have since captured the most powerful and richest ship that ever left China. p. adds ing. •} twenty-eight ships so that in the seven years beginning with 1595. This capture took place in conjunction with Lancaster's ships on October 13th. 2 fasc. 1603. 72-73).^ With the conin 1600. Sic in orig. 334. See the Table in Hunter's History of British India. she was estimated at over seventy hundred thousand guilders " ships : {Reyse van loris van Spilbergen. vol. .Oriental. i.* Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION. off the east coast of Ceylon (see Orientalist. pp. In the Dutch account of Spilbergen's voyage there is a picture of the fight. in Archivo Portuguez. in 1601. p. because they are such that they speak for themselves. to gain a share in the trade of the East ended in disaster (see Introduction to Gray's Pyrard). no five ships in fifteen fleets than sixty- had sailed from the Netherlands eastward and westward to stitution of the first English Insulindia. East India Company and the amalgamation into the United in 1602 of the two Dutch companies East India Company. which was J for this city. 278). i. 1602 (see Voyages of Sir James Lancaster. besides the plunderafter describing the rich lading.II 3. pp. p. John Saris. by two Dutch under Heemskerk. ^ Details of the doings of these ships will be found in the Introduction to the Voyag'e of Capt. bound from Cochin to Negapatam. even worse for the Portuguese and by the time that Teixeira arrived in India again. " So that. shall do it very briefly. The chronicler of . Pt. Sebald de Weerd captured four Portuguese vessels. . pp. the position was so critical as to evoke from the Chamber of " to Goa we the following " bitter cry the King : — Although the affairs of the South demanded a full relation. a little beyond Malaca. ^ i. and this year they captured the ship that was making the voyage from Samtome to Malaca laden. when Cornelis de Houtman made less his first voyage round the Cape of Good Hope. 91-93 also Hunter's History of British India.Spilbergen's voyage.^ where they also captured a junk laden with provisions. 38). ^ * iii. vol. and was bringing the means of subsistence of the whole of India. This capture was effected in June. off Johor. It is full of Hollanders. at the end of 1603. 1603. ^ In May. ^ The attempt of the French. * Annual letter of December.^ matters became . vol. pp. which they went to wait for at the Strait. xxxiii-xxxiv. II.

and they call for it very urgently. the needs are so great. 85. i. because however good it be. that the city of China^ Ixxxix was sending to Andre Furtado for the The fortress of Malaca is without provisions. . and the city of Malaca wrote to us to supply it with provisions. because it is in your Majesty. and not to come to India. vol. 278. that peradventure able to go thither. but the State could not grant it. because the Achem sent ambassadors hither to ask permission for a fortress in his territories. 2 . and directed to Malaca. affairs in the Far East v^hen his land journey homev\^ards ^ Macao. p. 1-4 Hunter's History oj British India. they will attain it . See Voyages of Sirjas. nor can it obtain any. because the Hollanders stopped those that the Jaos were bringing to it. The remedy for these things is very far off. and let not your Majesty reckon on its being given from here. and may it please God that when He shall see fit to grant it. 2 and he says. and without the South there is would not be no India.INTRODUCTION. as they were perishing from famine.. and they returned. 95-97 Letters Received by the East India Company^ etc. if it it should come here. that he will give it to the one that goes first . vol. i. wherefore your Majesty must provide the South from that Kingdom with a suitable fleet. . rehef of the fleet. Such was the cendition of Pedro Teixeira left India on at the beginning of 1604. and he has sent others to England to the same effect. pp. Lancaster^ pp.

Caspar da Cruz. way it may yet be in Shiraz or thereabouts. no doubt. " Considering the In one of his letters to me. he purchased. it seems probable that Teixeira had access to a unique manuscript preserved among the royal archives in the palace at Tur^nbdgh the same document. Sinclair writes absolute sack of Ormuz only a few years after Teixeira wrote. There is an odd little passage in Pietro Delia Valle's xviith letter from Persia. TEIXEIRA'S BOOK. from which the Dominican monk. prevented affairs. III. nection with business India. and in the translation of the Chronicle of the Kings of Hormuz by Turan Shah^ and (in a very summarized form) of a portion of the voluminous History of Persia by Mir Khwdnd. survived of the king's library. to leave his palace and take refuge in the fort.. but I think the odds are : : — ' ' against 2 it. This precious manuscript evidently perished in the shameful sack of Hormuz after its capture by the combined Persian and English force in 1622. settled down in the (then) Spanish city of Antwerp (some time between 1605 and 1609)." of this work.' 29th Nov. escaped in this confessionary. necessitating his return to him from giving the world the benefit of But when he had his labours until several years later. spent a considerable part of his time in the acquisition of the Persian language.' and gave them to Pietro. and probably saved few books. Mr.^ When he returned to Portugal in 1601. it is He had not likely that many MSS. it would probably now be in one of the libraries of Europe. dated Combru. made his brief abstract a quarter of a century earlier. Had he been able to buy a copy of the Hormuz Chronicle. while residing in Hormuz.XC INTRODUCTION. our traveller must have brought these translations with him but worries in con. We have seen above that Teixeira. where he mentions that books plundered from Ormuz were sold about Persia with other 'loot' by the returning Persian soldiery. from whom a captive Ceorgian queen bought a Latin breviary and a Portuguese If the MS. 1622. Teixeira says. The manuscript . he turned his thoughts to known be now ^ As no copy of this work is to in existence.

1-376). Antwerpen (Antw. y de Harmuz.'^ After the title comes a six-page explanatory note.^ To this he appended his Kings of Hormuz^ and. He in accordingly obtained the necessary licence from the for this authorities his purpose . " a dry waste. finally. 1 I contains a ." 2 list This date is prefixed to the of the kings of Persia. bringing the history given above. In 1610.— INTRODUCTION. so). see F. but then. Viage are charneca = 'm Port. ." but in Span. as he the tells us Preface. the publication xci of his works.^ M. "cloudiness". and other members of this famous family of in Antwerp booksellers. . . Regarding whom. Olthoffs De Boekdrukkers * . DC. X. abobada = 'mV ort.^ and added to it a second book in the same down to April. 1609." because Teixeira's Spanish number of Portuguese words. and others he has noted on the Sinclair refers in his footnotes Instances of these in the margins of his copy of the Relaciones. an account of his journeys. Port. "vault". pp. 1891). vedar=m Port. with the following title-page " : Relaciones de Pedro Teixeira d'el Origen Descendencia y Svccession de los Reyes de Persia. "a pistachio tree". To some of these Mr. of which a summary has been language. y de vn Viage hecho por el mismo Avtor dende la India Oriental hasta Italia por tierra. he transmuted into Kings of Persia from Portuguese Spanish. Con Priuilegio. " Al Lectori Then follow the two books of the Relacion de los Reyes de Persia (pp. in the form of a small octavo volume. name of Sh^h Abb^s at the end of the was also 3 Which. carranca = \n Port. and a Breve Relacion de los Provincias mas notables y qve mas han dvrado en el sennoria de la have used the word " transmuted. "to pay" (with pitch). apparently (though Teixeira does not say turned from Portuguese into Spanish. yielding his to pressure of friends. consisting then of the Chronicle of the Kings of Hormuz and the History of the Kings of Persia to the time of the Arab invasion. 102-107. " decoy. negassa (for negaqa) = 'm. En Amberes En casa de Hieronymo Verdussen.. Teixeira's work was published.

etc.. in 8. the account of Persia and Hormuz appended by Commelin to Hendrick Hagenaer's voyages {Begin ende Voortgang. more numerous than one ^ I may mention W. death did a translation of Teixeira's book into another tongue appear. who. Lasor a : " Pedro de is the following entry Amberes. 1628). ^. Bibliographique sur les Journaux des Navigateurs Neerlandais^ P.. Terrarum Orbis of Alph. Sixteen contents unnumbered pages containing the table of conclude the volume. in his Persia^ etc. however. Varea (Raphael Savonarola) there Veixeira \_sic\ .). ii of the Universus . Bat. 40 and 41. 269) notes this reference to an Italian translation of Teixeira's work. are misprinted as 36 and 37. who in his Tarich^ etc. 1-45). appears to have utilised Teixeira's book in the compilation of his Dictionarium PersicoLatinum^ published in 1669 (see Browne's Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in Cambridge University Library^ p. 47-1 15)." Pinelo {Bibl. 58 and 59. published at Antwerp in the same year as the original but I can find no record of it elsewhere. would . 249).* This was a small octavo (or duodecimo) volume with the following title-page : ^ Pages 50 and 51. &c. Or. in 8. Castell. and also (on pp. 2 The might expect printer's errors in which are not in a book of this kind. 1610. .^ Not.255. . . de Laet. 44 and 45. and 62 and 63. the Biblical and Oriental scholar. Edmund vol.— XCU INTRODUCTION. 1633). naturally quote his until long after his work as an authority . and 48 and 49 while pages 200 to 215 are misprinted 100 to 115 (p. Persia (pp. 296-330) gives a summary of Teixeira's According to Tiele {Memoire itinerary from Hormuz to Aleppo. and suspect an error. transfers freely from our author.^ That Teixeira's book met with a favourable reception from the reading public there is no reason to doubt and later writers on the East. 1610. & Italice. i.^ tom. especially on Persia. Relationes Antu.. (Tubing. praises Teixeira and draws largely from his work . . . followed by the Relacion del Camino qve hize dende la India hasta Italia (pp. 377-3^4) after which come eight unnumbered pages containing tables of the Reyes qve sennorearon la Persia hasta la entrada en ella de los Arabes segun Mirkond- Then comes the Relacion de los Reyes de Harmuz (pp. (Lugd.^ on the verso of the last folio of which is printed the Licence to print. 207 having a double error as 197). 54 and 55. 1645. ^ * In tom. and J. ii) was compiled principally from Teixeira's work. Schickard.

with the otherwise abbreviated. M.^ a translation of the whole book at one time . tion. writing the Biographie Cotolendi's Universelle (tom. V. however.INTRODUCTION." and expresses his con- fidence in our author's judgment. 114. Audiffret. p. 207). xciii "Voyages de Texeira traduite d'Espagnol [sic]. publish scholar and translator. from December." French version in two volumes." and adds " Cette version contient beaucoup plus de fautes que le texte. with new general ^ Regarding title the ^ whom see Nouv. LXXXI. the dedication to the Cotolendi. see Dictionary of National Biography. and The translator. vol.English Dictionary (1726). This appeared in A New Collection of Voyages and Travels. ov I'Histoire des Rois de Perse en Frangois le A Paris." in mieux que j'ay M. but at first only our author's account of his two journeys in 1600-1601 and 1603. as we learn from Due de Montauzier.. 1708. Biog. Gen. given as 1621. xii. where of this translation is given in a curiously incorrect form.^ " many digressions omitted. ^ . Stevens occasionally quotes Teixeira as his authority for the use of a word. au Palais. p. DC. p. the Spanish Stevens did not.1605. as " describes version^ : une assez mauvaise traduction. & si souvent cit6. la Chez This Claude Barbin." With this criticism we may leave it. For a notice of his literary works (of his life even less is known than of that of Pedro Teixeira). of which is. The date by a misprint. The only is other translation of Teixeira's complete work that in English by Captain John Stevens. sur Chapelle. qu'il est connu de tout monde. H. tom. xli. 231. sans pourtant trop de scrupule. was Charles si who begins his preface by the statement that Texeira [sic] est un Autheur le fameux. and gives the whole of Teixeira's work. is second Perton de Privilege Sainte Avec du Roy. published in London in monthly parts (small quarto). As to his le own transla- Cotolendi remarks : " Je I'ay faite pu. In the second edition of his Spanish. to 1 7 10 (the whole reissued in some time in two volumes.

Arabia. and the following lengthy title-page sia. Stevens's of the in rest of Teixeira's work octavo appeared a few years later. Nixabur. and coins he generally translation adds the English values. " Teixeira" " Tiexiera." * The page-headings appearing in many Mr. in 1711). letter to the Hon. Some of the voyages Which should be 73.^ : pages version containing is the Contents and Index. Kermon.* a change of circumstances He has occasionally interpolated in parentheses a remark calling attention to since Teixeira wrote . though here and there he has misunderstood or misinterpreted the original. Kings from the The History of PerThe Lives and Memorable Actions of its first Erecting of that Monarchy to this :^ '' — Dominions a curious Account of India. pp. This translation of Teixeira's Viage . apparently. ^ It is in this collection ^ possible that one was never printed. Paley.XCIV title-page. should apparently have had a separate title-page is but this The first page (signature B) has the following heading " The Travels of Peter Teixeira from India to Italy by Land. and of weights. The Dictionary of National Biography {u." but I cannot trace such an edition. and the Islands of Ceylon and Timor as also of . ^ Which. van der Aa's Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden^ deel ii. is rather misleading in its summary of the contents of the volume. it will be seen. Containing. have title-pages. I -8 1 f and then come six unnumbered wanting in all the copies I know of. Sinclair gives some instances in his footnotes. by evidently. ^ This edition has a dedicatory Stevens. the etc. the form of an volume with an engraved frontispiece by Jan Lamsvelt^ (representing. Edm. Tartary. ." The translation occupies pp. all the translations were made. pages following 80 having been wrongly are also very carelessly places as " Teizeira" and numbered printed. J. Regarding whom see A. Stevens's a fairly correct one. others none. by whom. scenes in Persian history). 89. s.^ INTRODUCTION. Time an exact Description of all its . I do not know whether the translator or the ^ publisher is responsible for it. measures.) says that the work was "republished in 1719 . China. . 94-95.

Product. by Torunxa. 369-375 whilst History of Hormuz occupies the rest of the volume 1 Apparently these words ought to have read "render'd into EngHsh by Captain John Stevens . . 305-306 duplicated). ." 2 unwarrantably) referred to as curious that in it Stevens makes no reference to the fact of his having previously translated and published Reprinted below. or Ormuz. and his chronological . Preface^ and MDCCXV. with the translator's name in capitals. now render'd into London Printed : English. Manners and Customs of those People. both of them Translated into Spanish. and Bokara. Burning of the Dead .INTRODUCTION. 361-368. by inserting a full stop after " English. King of that Island. and Stevens's Supplement (bringing the history of Persia down to the beginning of the eighteenth century^)." this Contents (occupying fourteen come the unnumbered occupying pages) pp." and putting the next four words in large type in a line by themselves. To which is Added. who liv'd several Years in Persia and India and the Kings of . With many instructive and pleasant Digressions. An Abridgment Harmuz." but the printer. Beasts. for By Captain John Stevens. followed by the History of Persia^ 1-344 (with pp. all XCV Cities occasionally mention'd. of several Countries sick . covering pp. see Stevens's statement in his Preface quoted infra. It is Teixeira's Viage. Samarkand. as Schiras. . is given on pp. . Trade. of the Lives of &c. a Famous Eastern Author that of Ormuz. . &c. as Strange Burials . Practice of Phy- famous Physicians East Actions of Tamerlan. Regarding this Supplement. Hunting in the Fishing . occasionally occurring.^ After Jonas Brown at the Black Swan without Temple-Bar. . has led to this book's being generally (and " Stevens's History of Persia. The Persian History written in Arabick by Mirkond. 345Teixeira's Brief Account of the Provinces of Persia 360. by Antony [szc !] Teixeira. Liquors being remarkable Stories or Passages. Persian Worshippers of Fire Plants. . table his of the sovereigns of Persia on pp.

Teixeira cites a number of Arabic words naturalised in Portuguese. on p. In some cases Stevens gets over a difficulty by omitting a word or even a whole passage for instance (p. 93). 129). 156) his courage fails him. ^ To this last class {diS sesamum . 286. and tamara he explains as " a Tamarind" (it really means a date). of Stevens's translation belonging to King George III the British Museum Library) has some curious marginal notes and comments (by the royal owner ?). and Teixeira deserves every credit for his attempt to give scholars in this Europe the benefit of his researches in branch of knowledge. (ii) But it is for his (also summarized) translation of the now lost Shdkndma of Turdn Shah that Teixeira chiefly may perhaps be referred (p. As in his translation of Teixeira's Viage^ so in this book Stevens has introduced in brackets occasional comments. while in some places he has unwarrantably fathered on Teixeira statements of his own. reduced the number of chapters from fifty-nine to forty-eight. and he omits the word altogether. I many in- believe. That there are not a few errors in Stevens's translation cannot be denied (though prints^). xxii of the first book. while later on (p. these : may be classed under four heads (i) His translation (summarized) of Mir Khwdnd's history of Persia. the word 7neru = a kind of deer. To each of these Stevens appends a translation . the first into a European lan- guage.^ to compensate In the second book of the History of Persia Stevens has. he boldly invents the word lake to translate laquequa ( = bloodstone). There are also many misprints in proper names. INTRODUCTION. was. though doubtless containing accuracies." . 376-416). In chap. where a certain wazir is described as a "pickthank" (the original Spanish is enbtistero). For instance. some are due to mis- but his language has often a raciness that goes far for occasional inaccuracies.. Other errors are pointed out in footnotes further on. 92) semanufn for a translation oi gegelzn=]m]\]\). by combining two or more of Teixeira's shorter chapters. iZo) Phy a for Pegu. one of the worst being (p. In one case (p.— xcvi (pp. As regards the contents of Teixeira's book. the marginal comment is "A droll style for * The copy in (now history.

ii) recounted in the Chronicles thereof^ which were interpretedfor us from the Persian) was after this manner" (then follows a summary account. pp. It bears the following title " Relagam da Cronica dos Reyes Dormuz.s. he does not refer to it. Ixii) :— " L'abrege de la Chronique de Touran Chih. . 856-858 (art." ^ See also the appreciative remarks of Chr. p. It is also in Portuguese. II jette peu de lumieres sur les evenements qui se sont produits dans le golfe Persique jusqu'a la conquete 1893). tirada de hua Cronica q copos hu Key do mesmo Reyno. Seybold (Stuttgart. xvii. ne nous offre qu'un rdcit confus et mal dispose. " Ormus"). pour * I who writes : h . Schefer. x. deserves our gratitude far the fullest version. Schefer. That Sir it has received the commendation of a is scholar like value." cannot endorse the too-sweeping judgment of M. et les noms orientaux qui figurent dans cet ouvrage sont. pp.INTRODUCTION. the main details of which will be found recorded in footnotes to Appendix A. by a curious error. infra). at of Turdn Shdh's Chronicle. and forms an appendix (of eleven pages) to Fray Caspar da Cruz's Tractado da China (Evora. 31 d'Ormuz par Albuquerque. II. ." The "Dominican monk" was. appeared seventeen years later.* Barros appears to have had access to a translation of part. for in his Decada Segunda (which was printed in 1553) he says. See his Book of Ser Marco Polo. " Le Voyage de Teixeira ne presente aucun {u. On the other hand. The first translation bearing Turdn Shah's name. q na ilha dormuz fundou hua casa de sua ordem.^ for. II. 1785-87. . : : — . XCvii first. 1610). though not the it is his was by and the only one now generally available. fait par Teixeira. when dealing with the history of Hormuz " The beginning of this kingdom of Ormuz {as is (in Liv. pp. scripto em Arabigo \_sic\ t sumariamente traduzida em lingoajem Portugues por hum religioso da ordem de sam Domingos. da funda^am da cidade Dormuz.. where. in Festgruss an Rudolf von Roth {Relaciones de Pedro Teixeira. 124-126. and Encyclopcedia Britannica^ ninth edition. however. in his Introduction to the Estat de la Perse en 1660 of Raphael du Mans (Paris. : who 2 printed A complete it (omitting portions) in his Pilgrimes^ Pt. ^ least.. apparently.^ (iii) 1 Henry Yule^ his sufficient proof of its His narratives of journeys in 1 600-1601 and .1 605 prove Teixeira to have been a careful observer and the second especially contains information of interest real and value. the eminent French scholar. second edition. says (p. 1569-70). translation is given in Appendix D. F. cap. 604. Ch. Ch. 1890). Teixeira does not appear to have known of his translation at any rate. An English translation of this summary of Caspar da Cruz's was found among Hakluyt's papers by Purchas. chamado Pachaturunxa. vol. Caspar da Cruz himself. infra.) interet. Yule speaks of " the Jesuit Teixeira.

Sinclair says *' The view I I take of Teixeira that he still was an excellent valuable in that observer and eye-witness. The Voyage is to me. O. more etc. . it is true) a mass of information. cv. but a good other hand. pp. Sinclair died on May 15th. not lived may be well here to quote his opinion regarding the author. who undertook the translation and editing of Teixeira's book. own remarks on the subject in and Mr. ethnology. 1900. Sinclair. see Teixeira's Prefatory Note infra^ ^ p. or less valuable.— xcviii (iv) INTRODUCTION^. and the rule observed by him in his translation. In his numerous and sometimes very lengthy^ digressions throughout the first book of the Kings of Persia^ Teixeira has brought together (in a somewhat inconvenient form. pharmacology.' and silly have therefore translated bodily. except one story of the mercheta mulierum^ which la plupart. Colloquios of Garcia de Orta. 1900. transcrits de la fagon la plus barbare " latter accusation. 610-612. at this day. little. Sinclair's comment thereon). but generally to find fault with. to what he reports " at second-hand. appeared in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society^ July. — much of deal. complete his task. Writing to : me on January is 20th. An appreciative obituary notice of him. from mere hearsay. 1899. in spite of his own stout confidence in his informants. " The Kings * of Hormuz' represents the lost I Shdhndma it of * Torunxa. is cannot attach much importance. (as regards this his In several chapters the digressions occupy six or eight times as as the history. * Mr. much space ^ Not a also. W. to F. Codrington. the main part of the book and have translated it bodily without omission. from a .^ it has. it from his personal observation. respecting Asiatic and African topography. Mr. * Hakluytian' point of I view. from the pen of Dr. natural history. unfortunately.^ on the As Mr. appears to have been abstracted from the whom Teixeira occasionally names. and character.

first Sinclair ' writes: look upon him as an early — or the globe-trotter." Again. in the notes to the Decline and Fair On February 5th.— INTRODUCTION. Sinclair wrote: "I cannot look upon Teixeira.. as a ^l/3\cov could man about whom [xerya be wished for. on January 23rd. I it have the former only in a few cases where left was absolutely required. I xcix am " sick of finding continually turn up in all sorts of places. intact. wherever (as have said) he speaks as an eye-witness. in his preface) but he seems to have been quite as careful and could be expected in his day. I my thanks to the . Shdhndma of Ormuz. for repentance of ('spite have not found any reason having excluded them from the extracts . However. Mr. Mr. only by extracts from I Teixeira's digressions. my knowledge of Arabic and Persian have to express of the In conclusion. for the (I I can only is plead that slightest. or the passage cannot be separated from such testimony. in my MS. only as an interesting traveller. Sinclair was not able to make any altered final revision of his translation and notes. myself." critical as In view of the fact that Mr.' and value him his chiefly in that capacity. putting any additions of I my own is feel that an apology unscientific fear) somewhat due to scholars spelling of names. The Kings * of Persia' is of little historical value to a generation that has translations of the Rauzdt-us." 1899: "As to matters which he I reports on the faith of others. to preserve and as having had the sense and good fortune lost some fragments of the Then. on May loth. of Pedro's protest in their favour. and have most of the notes in brackets. he and translator Stevens had the honour of a couple of quotations by Gibbon.Safety and is represented. 1899. " I 1899.

C INTRODUCTION. is my due for his careful revision of the proof- and for many valuable suggestions and contributions to the footnotes. in gentlemen whose names are mentioned notes as having furnished several foot. . special gratitude sheets. me with information and to Mr. F. William Foster. the late Secretary of this Society. D.

and 1701. . 2 ^ "Antony" by mistake. . 1687. 1892). F. vol. with additions.D. are here given verbatim^ as a fair sample of his work. one of the Great Eastern Monarchies."^ including the Author's Preface to his whole ERSIA is at this time. and is But Stevens's Preface. 16-18. them occasionally other Books make mention of the Conquests of it by the Tartars and the Sarazens. the author's. and reissued. 1638.'' at the Black Swan without Temple-Bar. i. of the various writers on Persia is given in Curzon's Persia the Persian Question (London. and has been for several Ages.. Turkish History* here and there has something of . in 1610. of the Kings was printed A list F. i.^ Several Travellers have described the Country. and given us the Lives of some of the their latter Kings . 1700. and * — D. 1631. chap. That of the Voyage was a separate publication altogether.Captain John Stevens's Preface to his Translation of Pedro^ Teixeira's '' Kings of Persia" and '' Kings of Harmuz work. 1621. Stevens probably refers to Richard Knolles's General! Historie of the Turkes^ first published in 1603. A compleat History of that Kingdom from its Foundation to this ^ Stevens's title-page says Jonas Brown in London "for Stevens's translation mdccxv. and yet the Accounts we have hitherto had of it in English have been no better than Fragments. and his translation of dealt with in its place. pp.

being sensible that is nothing perfect in this World. as a Work doubtless Acceptable to it curious Persons. the Spanish from which is now translated being very scarce. we take our selves as Nor are we to conclude that it those Things which are may perhaps appear to us incredible is absolutely false. since most certain that their Histories the Asiatick Nations were civiliz'd.Stevens. the Dominican translator of Tiiran Shah's Chronicle of the Kings of Hermuz commits a similar blunder (see infra. xcv) and. after the conquest of Persia by the Arabs. All Nations have it is their fabulous Originals. and had the use of Letters long before us. F. and is here presented with. for what may appear Romantick remotest Antiquity for but reasonable to allow the to all Persians the same Liberty that those Primitive Times. the Arabic characters were substituted for those previously used in writing Persian. been addicted to reading of History. and consequently may with Truth extend much further than there ours. in my Youth. has altered the phraseology throughout. — The original has the heading "y^/ Lector" and the note is addressed to the " curious reader . of his Kings of Persia (see infra. i. we shall now give him as much of Teixeira's Spanish Preface to his Translation is from the Arabick^ as His words are as proper for the understanding of the Motives that induc'd him to write. xxii. follows. 256). p. and therefore it is hop'd none will in its condemn this Work ." but . still AND what the Publick is Time has been all wanting. chap. and of his Performance. it will be seen. Not to detain the Reader too long.cii STEVENS'S PREFACE. The Judicious will not be apt to condemn Things slightly. and first for those Ages which are most remote from the Original of that Kingdom. D. more curiously still. . p. 2 — . 210). D.^ I is Having. and the Arabick^ from which that was taken very little understood. as mentioned by Teixeira in Bk. F. The mistake is probably due to the fact that. was often at a stand on Account of the Disagreement that there ^ Stevens repeats this error on the title-page of his book (see supra^ p. there does not appear to be the least just Cause of Objection against what is here said of them.

F. and finding him very extensive and universal as to the Affairs of Persia.^ and travelling there I came to Ormuz. i. same Things. F. : F.D. etc. I laid hold of the Opportunity to resolve my Doubts.— D. At length. F. I lik'd the Advice. I could hear nothing of them. but found my self more perplex'd than before . 2 Agathyus de Bello Gotthorwn Romse. 87-88. Joannis Zonarce Annales. Corpus V7iivers(z historic pr(2sertitn bizantince. Men of Knowledge and well read. or both of them. ciii among Authors about observ'd in us in Writing by those who went before us concerning the Kings of Persia and their Succession. * — D. and to discover the true 'till History of those Kings and Antiquities. and in order to make the true use of it. agreeable to what these have related of them. Basilise. 1567. pp. with my Desire. and having perus'd. I laboured under this Uneasiness for some time. 1 509 .teixeira's note to the reader.— D." Regarding the Rauzat us-Safd of Mir Khwand. ' — D. : Gilbert Genebrard Parisiis. I began to make Inquiry after them. I extracted as here presented with. and others mention'd by our Greek and Latin Historians. Lutetia. deliver'd their Actions with less Confusion and more Certainty than those of other Nations. who were often mis-led either by Prejudice. that they seldom agree in any Point. whose Relations are so uncertain. among which Authors are Procopius^ Agathius^ Genebrardus^^ Zonaras^^ Tornaniira^ and several others . etc. 15 16. for when I asked for Cyrus. ^ — D.. Artabanus. 7 . see Rieu's Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the British Museum. — y reperiorio de " Pars" in Stevens . where the same Curiosity still possessing me. F. concerning the much as the Publick Number and Succession is of 1 sis Procoptus de Bello Persico. Ayminius. Ahasuerus. etc. that is. and Procopii Caesariende rebus Gothorum. vol. Pamplona.. or their Actions. This I more particularly what has been seriously and confusedly transmitted to the going over to India^ and the Eastern Parts.. after much Discourse they advis'd me. F. that the History in greatest Reputation among them was one they call Tarik Mirkond. enquir'd and was inform'd. los tiempos « Francisco Vicente de Tornamira Chronographia a la moderno. having acquainted some Persians. 1585. etc. or Distance. 1567. to take up with what had been writ of them in their Chronicles. Chronographia in duos in libros disiincta. 1531. Romas. Mirkond's Chronicle!^ which I purchas'd.. et aliis peregrinis historiis. and to that End. for the Spanish is ''^partes. and the Dominions of Persia . since I design'd to know the History of their Kings. the Authors whereof being nearer at hand. but this is a plain misprint. Persarum ac Vandalorum libri vii.

It is not my Design to argue upon doubtful Points. under Persia. so that this History of ours may be of use for the perfecting of others. could give us no more than the Name. . D. x. — 2 Misprinted " confufe" in Stevens.) D. at the end of which Barros says. from the first of them to him that is now reigning. and is confirm'd as Truth by their Writings . Liv.^ Curiosities. up to the Arab invasion of But when I would print it. II. and since they look upon it as such. that the information he gives in cap. inherited by his death the kingdom of Persia. or to confute^ the Opinions of others. but only briefly to relate what the Persians have preserv'd by Tradition. which is of the life of the Califas who succeeded him" The (Muhammad). as already licensed. who speak like Eye-witnesses.civ Stevens's preface. The Portuguese Historian. is ''^refutarJ^ ' ^ luan de Bayrros." —D. but having at first design'd to publish only the First. and I thought it I Shah Abb^s (i 585-1628). and their Kings. am sensible that some of them might have been more properly placed in the Second Book . I put it into Castilian. for we ought rather to believe the Natives. and brought the second book up to our days thinking that in that tongue it would have a wider market.. the marginal note " Abril 1609. Near the end of his Kings of Persia. it is reasonable we should do so too . than Strangers in this Particular ." To the word " to-day" he puts a marginal note " 1608. this Book contains some most of them taken notice of in the Margent." (Stevens has reproduced the blunder on his own account in his Supplement to Teixeira's History. ^ Here Stevens has omitted a whole paragraph. ^ : which he possesses to-day the rule of which he has held for thirty and three years. and is rendered additionally wrong by . and only the first book. son of the blind Mahamed. Chronicle in his Decads f but for want of Understanding the Language. And therein is my own land rather helped than hurt. I Besides the short Account of the Kings. the above having been written in 1609. they were plac'd there. cap. pressure and counsel of my friends. which I leave to the mercy of the wise and candid reader. In orig. there must be many errors. F. F. reference appears to be to Dec. as written in a foreign tongue. John de Barros^^ makes mention of Mirkond^s.^ which being altogether new and not publish'd by any other. v. more important than he thought : — — " First I wrote these Relations in my Portuguese mother tongue. though I doubt not that. which have hitherto been very imperfect. vi concerning the history of Persia is chiefly taken from "the Tarigh of the Moors. as believing them pat to the Purpose and diverting. Teixeira says " Xa Abas." The curious error here as regards the length of Sh^h Abbas's reign is repeated at the end of the list of the kings of Persia." . where " 33" is given in figures. " The Spanish F. which have inserted. I thought might be acceptable.

without any Alteration. to our Year of CHRIST. according to the Persians. CV not worth while afterwards to remove them -^ the Reader may give entire Credit to them. been always careful to give Men and Places their Proper Names. I give a Relation of those I thought better to give I. I shall be very well pleas'd. that the more universal Languages are. 230 infra. " and so he will not condemn whatever he may not understand. who may call in Question any of the Etymologies produce upon Occasion. I have thought it the best sample of him that I could choose. or receiv'd from Persons I believe as I would my own Eyes. and return him now Thanks beforehand.^ teixeira's note to the reader. I did my best." This is very well put.^ Things. may perhaps be thought harsh and difficult which it or of other of Pronun- could easily have adapted to our Language. or Flight. But the persons whom he placed confidence did not always deserve ^ After " Tongues" the original has. but used one of his own. the Religious Chronology starting from the Hijra. either of Men. by reason the altering of them generally creates Confusion . When Teixeira comes to the Persian solar year. Unfortunately. &c. ciation.] ^ Here Captain Stevens omits the last two paragraphs of Teixeira's Preface and as I have made use of his own as a favourable example . oi Harmuz. [See p. As this Preface contains hardly any proper names. And in regard that this Book may happen to be read by some Person that has attain'd the knowledge of the Persian and Arabick Languages. for had those who have writ. by reason of the difference of the Lunar Year us'd by them. D.* and the Solar by us . but after the fourteenth chapter this distinctive sign is dropped. * I. and if any other can and will reduce it to a greater Exactness. The Calculation of Time. F.— jy. — ^ As a matter it. is to be seen in general in the First Book. F. It is possible I may have committed some Mistake in reducing the Years of their Era. or translated Histories.^ In the earlier chapters of the Kings of Persia. but much more particularly in the Second.e. the more they vary in their Terminations. or of Places. for they were either seen by my self. which alone would make it impossible to edit his translation without constant and wearisome correction. but them their own Sound. ^ or Ormuz. Teixeira himself in is generally a good eye- witness. The Proper Names. and still better (as might be expected) in the original. whereof there are Instances enough in our own and in the French^ Latin. there would be less Confusion in reading of them. and Greek Tongues. I desire such to take Notice. of fact. Together with the Kings of Persia. Captain Stevens was not content to follow Teixeira's spelling. their method being still observed. according to the Provinces they are used in. I . he has no hesitation in calling the Naw-Roz the 20th of March. and only two Asiatic.. these digressions are distinguished by having an asterisk prefixed .

I have not claimed for this my work any other patronage but thine alone. with the discussion of various matters. is them down from Time of his work. y ansi a ti solo lo dedico y ofifresco. " como de lo que aqui escriuo no espero loor. far AND I Thus our Author Teixeira . Reyno. expense and trouble employed on it. que pienso no te daran disgusto. " At the end thou wilt find a relation of the journey that I made from India to Italy. nor " Y : fear the tongues of the ignorant and censorious because all is true. despeza. y sugetto a la Corona del nuestro de Portogal. y muy pocos los que los saben notar y inquirar. ni temo leguas de Ignorates sensuradores por ser todo verdadero. o Prouincia. and which being so great in itself. not that thou cavil not at it. con el discurso de algunas cosas. que por ser tanto en el. porque como lo hize por mi gusto recebi adelantada la paga del tiepo. que va poco en lo vno o en lo otro. no pretendi para este mi trabajo otra protecion mas que solo la tuya. it seemed to me right to describe its origin and the number of its kings until the Portuguese occupied it. no small part of which is contained in that of Persia. sin inquirir primero la possibilidad de lo que dubdas. te podra dar bastante satisfacion qualquiera persona que en ella haya estado. and subject to the crown of our kingdom of Portugal. which was not little. pues son muchos los que las pueden ver. que de mi parte yo estoy satisfecho. because since I did it for my own pleasure I received in advance the payment of the time. Sinclair had written only as far as the word satisfecho in the above extract when he died. no que no lo muerdas.— cvi STEVENS'S PREFACE. but that for thine own quietude thou observe. as follows " With the Kings of Persia I give thee also the relation of those of Harmus. and therefore to thee alone I dedicate and offer it. to which shall only add. There remains only to beg thee. ni pienses tambien que de los particulares que se escriuen de vna Region. Vale. that if perchance . a kingdom. sample of his Portuguese notes : two paragraphs as a specimen of the who has not. and append a translation. que no fue poco. so I will give these original Castilian of our traveller. " Hallaras al fin vna relacion del viage que hize dende la India hasta Italia. and I for my part am satisfied. unhappily." [Mr. que si algo a caso hallares en estas relaciones que te paresca arduo no lo condenes. curioso lector. Reyno de que en aquel de la Persia se contiene no poca parte. o que lo alabes. which I think will not cause thee displeasure. which concerns me little one way or the other. Resta solo pedirte. nor that thou praise it. left us any Tambien te doy con los Reyes de Persia la relacion de los de Harmus. desseado que te agrade. desiring that it may please thee. curious reader. y trabajo empleado en ello. and I alone as interpreter and eye-witness of the greater part. " And as of what I have here written I do not hope for praise. that the short Supplement Persia^ to continue made his to his Kings of to ours. me parecio [rajrazon escriuir su principio y el numero de sus Reyes hasta que los Portoguezes lo occuparon. I have finished the quotation. sino que por tu quietud aduiertas. y yo solo como interprete y testigo de visto de la mayor parte.

: : time Stevens wrote. Francesco Gemelli-Careri Napoli. and later editions. Jean de Thevenot Relation d^un Voyage fait au Levant^ etc. 1664-84. 1686. London. and that it was not made longer. lest it not to bear Proportion with the rest of the History. Paris.] difficult See supra^ p. but very few those that know how to take note of and inquire concerning them. 1699.. since many are those that are able to see them. 1687). thou shouldst find in these relations anything that may appear to thee thou condemn it not. and later editions (English translation The Travels of SirJohn Chardin into Persia and the East Indies. : Journal du Voyage . etc. Everard Turkey into Persia and the East-Indies^ London. en Perse. (No English translation at the * Jean Chardin : . without first inquiring as to the possibility of that which thou doubtest. 1676. or province.^ Gemelli^ &c. nor that thou think also that of the particulars that are written of a region. Londres.1 700.) . London.... ci.teixeira's note to the reader... etc. ^ Giovanni Giro del Hondo. as Thevenot^ Tavernier? Chardin. Lovell The Travels of Monsieur de Thivenot into the Levant^ etc. Valer—v>. ^ Les Six Voyages de Jean Baptiste Tavernier en Turquie^ ^ 2 : : en Perse et aux Indes^ Paris. n. and later editions (English translation by D.^ and the best Modern should be thought Travellers. and later editions (English translaCollections of Travels through tion by J. any person that has been there will be able to give thee sufficient satisfaction. F. kingdom. 1686). Philips and E. evil collected from the Turkish History.. etc. 1684).

viii. cit. has read and examined it.1635). du Roy. a native of Antwerp (i 551-1608) and a voluminous writer (see BackerSommervogel. F. p.CERTIFICATE OF ORTHODOXY AND LICENSE TO PRINT. des Pays-Bas^ torn. 6od Nouv. p. 1894 et seq. ii.. xlv. —D. 50). F. Signat. lUAN DEL RiO. contains nothing contrary to the faith. See further regarding him in Delvenne's Biog. op. 2 Jacques Tirinus. as we are assured in writing by the Reverend Father Jacobus Tirinus. W0UWERE. ii. a native of Antwerp. 840 Bzog. tom.). Gen. — . torn. Univ.. xlvi. This History of the Kings of Persia and of Harmuz.3 1 Sommervogers Bibliotheque de col. torn. Dean and Vicar-General of Antwerp. 1 580-1636 (see Backerla Coinpagnie de Jesus^ torn. . the 22nd of September. a native of Antwerp (1576. Roman Catholic or against good morals. of which city he was elected a councillor in 1602. 2 J .^ of the Bishopric Cum Gratia et privilegio ad quadriennium. col. Done in Antwerp. 84. Biog. written by Pedro Teixeira. . can find — Jan van Wouweren.. F. 1609.^ who. by our order and commission. D. p. no reference to this man in the books I have consulted I but he must have been a relative of Martin Antoine del Rio. Professor in Divine Theology of the Company of Jesus . with the Journey from India to Italy. D.

which the Captain Martin Alfonso de Melo^ despatched to warn the Governor of those Isles of the entry of the ^ Dutch is into that sea. . — D. ed. chap. F. I. See Voyage of Capt. with a short notice of a previous one. Teixeira F. xxxiii. infra). B . to Portugal. to save time and see something of the tempted also by the opportunity of a pinnace {pataxe\ fitting out there for that voyage. go I And wishing to country. John Saris (Hakluyt Soc. ^ — D. NARRATIVE OF MY JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.^ How duction. Dec. xxix.^ region which the ancients called the Golden Chersonese. cap. p. Liv.THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. my own thought to do so by way of the Philippine Isles world. Introduction. at the beginning of 1 599 (see Couto.). XII. . CHAPTER Of my reason for I. making this journey. N the year 1600 A. xvi and compare Appendix B. came to be in Malacca explained in the Intro- 2 Who apparently succeeded to this post on its vacation by Francisco da Silva de Menezes. from India to Spain by way of the Philippines. of I was in in the that fortified city Malaca.. — D. F.D.

of the figure of a [numeral] and for half a league so narrow that the ships. lat. pp. i. 107-111.^ formed by isles. Thimor. in that year. — F. 28)." separating the isle from Johor. of Af. ed. yet rich. i. iii. if little civilised. opposite to the island of Linga. and other almost numberless the Javas. westwards. p. sail to Amboyno. vol. i. pp. cannot tack therein. In Linschoten's map of the Eastern Seas (see Voyage of Capt. isles Bale. 2 Cf Linschoten^ vol. 150-156. P)/r<3:r^/ (Hakluyt Soc. Linschoten (Hakluyt Soc. whereof was once a states are part. vol. and many other Pole. likewise. See Comment. to pass the It 1 For descriptions of Malacca in the early part of the seventeenth century. iv.^ left On we the Strait of Sabam. ii. either entrance. and abounding in fine gold. vol. 192). awaiting a Therefore they anchor at tide.). and. pp.. F. and a strait. boat sent ahead to help the helm. 30 min. ^ — * This strait is the old passage north of the Isle of Singapur. vol. pp. and other goods of the right. for the tides. F. and though it lies so close under the sun. and kingdoms of that And coasting the continent. bound either for India or China. white benzoin. kingdom it therein of that commonly called Achen. . but separated by the force of the sea. May. see Commentaries of Afonso Dalboquerque (Hakluyt Soc. called by the Malays themselves " SaMt Tebrau. ed. Thereby men Solor.2 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. pepper.). fresh.).fohn Saris. camphor. and fertile. Its many.. D..* we came isles to the Strait of Sinca- between that and the This is which form the other of 5. we sailed from Malaca. 265-277 . good with which. 90 n. besides plenty of victuals. 104106. —D. Dalb. standing in 2 deg. the 1st of On We ran southward along the coast. that price. Maluco. the climate is temperate and healthy. lac. Sabam is shown as a town on the coast of Sumatra. pp. only eight leagues from the continent. sea. 244 etseq. and passing by the rivers therein named Muar and pura. p. and only used now by coasters and ferry-boats fsee China Sea Directory^ 4th ed. ed. p. That land is ever green. D. vol. Sunda. leaving on the right the great Isle of Samatra. Sabam. after a name which lies over against it . and. N.^ a chief station and mart of all the South Sea.

JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO
happens often that they must wait
for so long,

ITALY.

3

three, four, or five

days

;

more or

less,

the tide runs ever one way, a

thing surely worth wonder.

Nor

less strange is

it

that in

all

that coast and isles the shell-fish are seen to be fat at

new

moon and
In this

void at

full

moon, contrary

to those of all other

lands and seas.^
strait,

sea-folk called

and by the neighbouring shores, live those Seletes (of whom I have made mention in
fishers

the

first

book of the Kings of Persia^ great

and

greater thieves.
us,

In the midst of this strait the tide failed

and the pataxe got on the rocks, where we were in great danger, and with toil and trouble enough got clear of
it.

It

pleased

God

that the return of the tide was speedy,

with which
in

we got out at the other end. Here we watered Romanya, which is on the continent, thirty-two leagues
left

from Malaca, and passed on our
well

hand the White Rock,^
the
East, for
it

known

to

our Portuguese

in

is

a

beacon to ships

in search of that passage,

bound

to

Malaca

from Japon, China, Cacho-China, Chincheo, Camboia, Siam,

Pam, Champa, and also as one of those places where the compass shows no variation.^ We pursued our voyage amongst islands almost countPate, Patane,
less,
all

uninhabited.

In

twenty-three days'

sail,

from

them but for one. We reached Borneo without adventure, beyond the common alarms of that voyage, of shoals, reefs, currents, and
Malaca to Borneo, we
lost sight of

^ This notion of mollusca waxing and waning with the moon is derived from PHny the Elder {Nat. Hist.^ Bk. ll, chap. xli). [Cf. Linschoten^ vol. ii, p. ii. D. F.]

2 ^

See Appendix B, chap,
Better

xxix, infra.

— D.

F.

known now
i,

schoten, vol.
*

p. 119.

— D.

as bearing the
F.]

Horsburgh Light. [See Lin-

The variation is not great on our last charts, and probably could not be detected by such instruments as Teixeira's ship may have had in 1600 A.D. Pam is Pahang, and Chincheo was a port in the Chinese province of Fuh-kien, somewhere near Amoy. [See Hobso7i-fobson^ s.v.
"

Chinchew."— D.

F.]

B 2

4

THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXElRA.
;

sudden storms
sail

by reason of which great ships cannot

this
isle,

way.

the

on the western point of and coasted northwards two hundred leagues to
landfall
is

We

made

the port, which

and spacious, formed by the channel of a great and deep river, there falling into the sea, and by certain other isles that surround it.^ Borneo is one of
safe

the greatest eastern

isles,

but not of most

resort.

The

inhabitants are Moors,
looking, especially the

all

of olive complexion, and good-

but for a cloth girt
that
is,

women. Most of them go naked, about them the best with a baju^
;

a light short
isle

skirt.

The
regions.

abounds
is

in

all

sorts

of

produce of those
out

Here

got

the
"

pure and perfect camphor,
it

called (as

most excellent)

of Borneo," by scraping

of the heart of a great tree with iron

claws, like resin,

throwing
until
it

it

into cold water,

and often changing the same
is

be refined.
it

This

not brought to Portugal,
|

because

fetches very high prices in India.
is

There

plenty of bezar stones,

much

tortoise-shell,

wax, and some gold.

But the
others, all

isle

on

this side is neither

well-peopled nor very healthy.

For the kingdoms of Lave,
rich enough, lie

Maiar Magem,^ and
other.

on the

Nor
is

are the people hereabout

much

given to trade.
in

So

there

no export

here, but

what the Portuguese get

barter for

some
in

cloths that they carry thither.

This port

was once
doned
it

the possession of the Spaniards,

who abanchief place,

as unhealthy

and

little

fit

for traffic, the land

unsuitable,

and the

folk unserviceable.
this port lives,
is

The

where the king of
houses are
all

in the river.

The

of wood, built on piles and platforms, stayed
is,

with hawsers of canes,^ that

of the rota already men-

1

it

modern Brunei. * Represented by modern Pontianak and Banjarmasin. ^ Vexucos {bejucos of modern dictionaries). Teixeira seems a word requiring explanation. " Rota" is rattan.
This
is

the

to

thmk

JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.
tioned.^

5

When

he

pleases,
else,

on

account

either

of

the

weather or anything
the river with very
marvel,
for

the whole town moves across
trouble.^

little

Nor
do

is

this

matter of

so are they used

to

in

Palinban,^ and

Andreguir,* and other places and ports on the opposite
coast of Samatra, and in

some other
that
isle

isles

of that region.

All the dwellers

in

are

prone to thievery,
little

which the better to
boats,

practise,

they set forth in weak

and go four hundred leagues, or more, to the coast
;

of Pegu, to plunder

and return with

their

barks and

prizes laden with booty.

And seldom do
And
if it

they suffer from
is

the weather, for the
that

Malayan or Malacan Sea

so calm

men

call

it

the Ladies' Sea.

be disturbed by

the not-infrequent storms, which are of wonderful violence,

though soon over, they take refuge on the shore, which
they ever hug close
the weather mends.
targets
:

and proceed on

their

voyage when
is,

Their arms are swords, cofos^ that

made
;

of rota or vexucos^ lances, assegais, and even

arquebuses

but the commonest are selihhes] which are
;

charred stakes, so hard as to pierce like iron
broken, whereupon they have the

and

easily

wound

full

of a thousand

^ In the Kings of Persia^ Bk. i, chap, xxxiii, where Teixeira, describing the methods of obtaining camphor and diamonds in the kingdom of Lave, says that it is in the woods there that the fine rota grows, and he adds a description of it (see infra^ App. A). D. F.

Stevens has translated this passage as if the houses were built on anchored rafts. But I think it will also bear the construction in the text, and that this is in itself more probable because Brunei is at this
2
;

on piles, like many other Malayan settlements. 2 Palembang, on a river flowing into Banka Strait, called the Sungi Sungsang. * The Indragiri River, flowing into Amphitrite Bay, in the Berhala Strait. ^ Cf. Ant. Tenreiro, Itinerario da Tndia^ cap. " trazem huns escudos a que chamao cofos de seda, de algodao tao fortes, que os nao

day

built

i

:

passa
*
^

nenhuma

frecha."

— D.
F.

F.

Rattans (see note above).

— D.

F.

Javanese, saligi or sdligi^ " a

wooden dart or

javelin " (Crawford's

Malay-Eng. Dict.)—T>.

6

THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA.
make
it

splinters that

almost incurable.
folk, are

Next

after this

weapon, amongst

this

the darts of the zerue-

tana} which are very slender,

made

of a
fish
;

certain

rush,

tipped with the tooth of a venomous

which,

if

they

draw blood, are deadly.^
the zaruetana^ their shot

But, as these are only blown out
is

easy of defence, and their

venom

of cure, for very effective antidotes

have been

discovered.

On

the African coast of the Indian Ocean, the

Portuguese could never yet find any such for the poisoned
arrows of the mainland negroes of Melinde and Monbaga.

By

these

I

have seen

many

die offhand of

mere scratches

with frightful suffering, and without help or hope.

Enough
the
isle for

said of Borneo.

We left

that port, and coasted

two more days, passing near the Mount San
be seen
for fifty

Pedro

therein, so high as to
it

leagues.^

Leaving

astern

we kept our

course,

ever

amongst

unpeopled

isles,

whereof the best known are Paragua and
;

Malaua,* with others beyond count

and

at every step

we

among them. we anchored in the Bay of
seemed
lost

At

last,

on the 22nd of June,

Cavite, the port of the isle

and

city of Manila.

Manila

is

the chief town and headquarters
call

of the Isles of Lucon, as the natives
call

them, which

we

the Philippines, because they were conquered in the

time of the King

Don

Philip the

Second, of glorious

memory. Although not then first discovered, for they and more had been found long before by my countryman, the
Blowpipe (see Hobson-Jobson^ s. v. " Sarbatane"). D. F. 2 In Balfour^s Cyclopedia of India, blowpipe darts are said to be sometimes headed with fishes' teeth, and poisoned with Upas sap. The authority for this is not clearly stated, but appears to be modern. There are some fish-teeth very suitable, especially those on the rostra of small saw-fishes (Prisiis), abundant in the Malayan seas. Many fishes, especially sting-rays, have suitable spines.
1

3
*

Mount Kini
Paragua
is

Balu.

Palawan

;

Malaua may be Malawale.
;

It

is difficult

to believe that

Teixeira had any good information about them. They cannot have been uninhabited though probably the population ?yas not dense.

"

JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO

ITALY.

J

Portuguese Fernando de Magallanes, after he found the
strait to

which he gave his own name, and which yet

retains

it.

And
are

he

fell

in

one of these
this port.^

isles,

called Zebu,

one hundred leagues from

These

isles

many, and some great

;

all

well peopled.
Ilocos

The

folk

are

submissive,

yet some, called

and

Pintados,^ have at times given the Spaniards

enough

to do.

They
for

are of gray or olive complexion, and

go naked, but
partly heathen

certain sheets of cotton.
;

They were

and partly Moors

but the latter have been rooted out,^

and now there are only heathens and Christians.
isles

These

by the trade brought in by the Spaniards, who import yearly more than a million and a half of silver from New Spain, and export hence China
are improving greatly

goods, brought in great quantity by the Chincheos,^

whom

they call Sangleys f yet not of the high quality of what the Portuguese draw from China.^

The

city

is

great,
it

composed of

fine

stone and lime
is

buildings.

Both

and they exceed what

wanted: which

the Spaniards understanding have thrown a plain wall
across the middle of
it,

that in case of need they

may

bring

themselves into a

less

compass.

^

^ ^

out that they were warring on the Spaniards, from Teixeira's days to ours. Foreman's Philippine Islands^ 2nd ed., London, ( Vide^ for details, Either Teixeira was deceived, or he was afraid to publish the 1899,)
truth.
* Chinese of Fuh-kien. Soc. ed.), pp. 226-227. D.

In Matan or Magtan, a little isle close to Zebu. The Ilocos were of N. Luzon the Pintados of the Viscayas. The Moros, or Musalmans, were so far from being " rooted
;

[Cf.
F.]

Voyage of Capt. John Saris (Hakluyt

Stevens, in his Spanish- English Dictionary^ explains the origin of the word thus: "Because at their first coming thither [the Philippines] the Spaniards asking them who they were, they answer'd Xang Ley, that is, we come to trade, which the others not understanding thought it had been their name." That the word represents Chinese sang /<?, " to trade," seems evident. D. F.
^

^

See Morga's Philippine Islands (Hakluyt Soc,
Philippines.

on the trade of the

ed.), p. 336, et seq.^

D. F,

8

THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA.
There
is

a cathedral

church,

the

seat

of

an arch;

bishop,

and three more bishops

in other places

a royal

court of justice, and a governor with viceregal powers.

Some
walled,

noble

new churches were being

built.
;

The

city

is

against a possible risk from

Japon

with which, though

they have trade, the Spaniards are

and good behaviour.

The

isles

much upon their guard bear much rice, and wine
sort

made

of the nypa

'}

and though there was formerly no

of cattle, these have bred and increased under the care of

the Spaniards, insomuch as to rival
is

New

Spain.

There

got here

to

much wax, and much gold, profitably exported Mexico and though many of the native islanders pay
;

their

tribute

in

gold,

and deal
time, for

in

it,

yet could

never

the Spaniards, up to

my
it.

all their

endeavours find
;

out whence these got
default

They cannot raise wheat here in whereof they make bread of flour from Chincheo^

and Japon. There is found plenty of ebony and cannaOf fistola,^ and of all the fruits common in those lands.
these, moreover, they export great supplies to the neigh-

bouring lands of Maluco, without which they would fare

by reason of the great distance and uncertain supply The China trade of India, whence they are victualled. with these isles is favoured not only by its profit but by close neighbourhood, for from the furthest of them to the
ill,

mainland of China

it

is

not more than ten days' voyage

;

and so those bound from Mexico to Manilla talk of their China voyage, and passengers from Manilla for New Spain
say they are from China for Castile.

When

I

was come

to Manilla

I

got leave of the Governor,

Nipa fruticans, a plant allied to the palms, and producing, as most of them do, a sweet fermentable " toddy." 2 See note 4 on p. 3. The Philippines now import rice from French It will be noticed that Teixeira says nothing of hemp, nor of India.
1

tobacco.
2

Our

cassia fistula,

— D.

F,

JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.

9
Spain
;

Don

Francisco Tello de Menezes/ to go on to
in

New
is

without which one can
granted.
to
sail,
I

nowise go

;

and

it

not easily

went on board a new

ship,

one of four shortly
on

whereof the Santa Margarita, which was capitana,
lost

and the San Geronimo, almirante,- were

that

voyage on the Ladrones

Isles.

Of

this last,

the captain
I

was one Diego Rodrigues de Segura, with

whom

had

made
it.

a bargain, but

God

in

His goodness diverted

me from

Another, the

Contadora, was seven
little

months on her
better than a

voyage to Acapuilco, and got there
wreck.^
I

was berthed then,

as

I

say,

aboard this

ship,*

whereof

were captains and owners, the Marshal Gabriel de Ribera,^

and the Captain Domingo Hortis de Chaboya, men of
means,

who had

built her for their

own voyage

to Mexico,

with intent to take no passengers.

But they gave

me

passage as a great favour, and on July i8th we set sail from that port, which is in 13 deg. 30 min. N. lat, and on
the 26th

we came

to the

end of the

isles

of that Governsailed

ment,

all

inhabited,

amongst which we had

con-

^ Couto {Dec. XII, Liv. 11, cap. xi) mentions him by this name as Governor of Manila in 1598. (See also Appendix B, chap, xxix, infra.) Ant. de Morga, however, calls him "Don Francisco Tello de Guzman,

knight of the habit of Santiago, treasurer of the House of Commerce with the Indies." He also informs us that Don Francisco entered upon the government of the Philippines in July 1596, and died suddenly in Manila in April 1603, having been succeeded in office by Don Pedro de Acuna in May 1602. (See Morga's Philippine Islands,
pp. 55, 199.)— D. F. 2 The capitana, as usual in the Peninsular squadrons of the period, is here the flagship, and the almirante that of the second in com-

mand.
{pp. cit., p. 188) mentions only two ships as having sailed from Manila for New Spain, viz., the flagship Sta. Margarita, commander Juan Martinez de Guillestigui, and the San Geronymo, under Don Fernando de Castro. The sad fate of both these vessels is also related by Morga. D. F.
^

Morga

in 1600

*

The

fourth

Teixeira does not
^

and only lucky ship of the squadron. tell us her name.

Oddly enough,

See Morga

{op. cit.\ pp. 25, 27, 429,

— D.

F.

10

THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA.
hundred leagues.

tinually for one

The

place

is

called,

from

the

name

of one of them, the Pass of Kapul.^
it

This was no

small mercy of God, for

often happens that
place, with

two months and

are wasted in getting to this

suffering

weariness enough.^

Here we took
tried to

in water, fowls, pigs, fruit,

and vegetables,'

which the islanders bring
wind,

for sale to the ships.

When we
by so

get out of the pass, with a fresh and following
to noon,
all

we were hindered from midnight

strong and terrible a tidal current, that for

the wind's
;

help

we

could not gain half a league until the tide turned
at such a rate that shortly

whereupon we got out
sight of all the Isles,

we

lost

and shaped our course

for those of

Japon, formerly called Argentarias, for their great produce
of fine
great
silver,

whereof the Portuguese yearly export a

amount

to China.

Of

these Isles, or of the best part of them, the

Taycosama* had the Empire in our day. woodman, who lived by bringing daily on

He

Conbaco was a poor

his shoulders a

^ This is the Strait of S. Bernardino, opening eastwards between the Isles of Luzon and Samar. Kapul is a little island just inside {i.e. south-west) of the Strait. Some English maps and old charts give the name of S. Bernardino to the whole channel through the Isles, but its western end is called on a fine Spanish map, reproduced by Berghaus (1832), " Estrecho de Mindoro" and on an English Admiralty chart now (1898) in use, it is called "Verde Island ChanneL" It is north of Mindoro, and south of Luzon. There seems to have been much confusion of names in Philippine hydrography.

2

For a description of the course taken by ships from Manila
Spain, see

New
^

Morga

{op. cit., pp. 355-357).

— D.

to

F.

Frutos including vegetables. Taiko Santa seems to mean " My Lord the exRegent," or something like it. At any rate, the ruler referred to is
*

Kwambaku

Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and the description apparently correct. He was of humble birth though I cannot be sure about the faggots, he was Kwam-Baku and after his (nominal) retirement, he was properly He did invade Korea, by deputy, and died entitled " Taiko Sama." Probably Teixeira, who does not seem to have landed in in 1598.
; ;

I am indebted for the substance Japan, got his information in Manila. of this note to the works and courtesy of Mr. W. G. Aston, and to the Ancien Japon of Messrs. G. Appert and H. Kinoshita, a wonderful multu7n in parvo.

isles looking out for certain that lie thereby.) Wherefore all we came prepared. We were now the latitude of Japon.^ (For none in. at Cape Mendozino. we had warning by the Mexico ships that certain Dutch vessels had passed the Strait of Magallanes into the South Sea. compass.] 2 The P.^ in over 40 deg.^ of Japan D. lat. forcing managed almost with uncommon wisdom and to politic the indolent Japonese to agriculture." or metropolitan province. in defence. far from the Isles. where the Portuguese have a factory. lat.— JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO faggot from the forest.e. These he made on the call mainland of Koray. Cantoo. and the realms of the . II for his living. See footnote 4 on the next page. which was of no small avail in Corea. is in 33 deg. F. when we left the Philippines. which Portuguese authorities a commonly vassal to its kingdom bordering on China. according to Morga {op. that in the " Hondo. we sailed many days on that wide South Sea. and his neighbours to dread his arms. in the useful little map attached to Mons. whereof the southernmost port. for the lands of third of New in Spain. and subjecting their untamed energies those realms laws. a point of no variation of the Thence. N. rule. cit. ^ and Cedars." latitude and context suit the north of suppose I proper. G. may sail thence before these [Mexico ships] come not if they have to await them to the next year. N. Hereby he felt made to prosper above precedent. D. we made the land This is 40 deg. Yet by and caution he won that it and kept and justice. Appert's Ancien Japon. and selling his valour it ITALY.'-^ Now. Nangazaquy.357)- — D- islands of Cenizas F. F. 1 These are puzzling. some (isles) we altered the course to east and sighting new and unknown. On the November. and so well appointed." which is the name of the "Home Counties. Being by the sea-marks not . " Hondo" and " Cantoo" to represent " Kwanto. and the king thereof.^ — . we ran down the coast southward. exclusive of Yeso. The i. [The term " Kwanto" was often applied loosely to the whole of the northern half of Hondo.

bered. 3 " Dar al travez. for the hearts of the wariest and the boldest failed little them all alike. F. and (I find. we found ourselves amidst three ships one inshore of us. and four hun- dred thousand assayed parted as pieces. Viceroy of Peru. F. Cahfornias. came to speech of us asking whence we came. had sent from Lima. 261-264)." ship inshore thinking to run ashore^ if they were foes. and we answered " From China. as we down the coast at about two leagues distant. . (See also Morga's Philippine Islands^ pp. chap. — D. of thirteen in a reals each . Captain Stevens. ii. near the fine . since adopting it) has the support of the older translator. bitter irony of the original. 151. Pilgrimes^ vol. ship (whose cargo was worth about four hundred thousand ducats) we had no more than seven repair. and close aboard." My construction is not borne out by my dictionaries. and that they were on the look-out. out of ran Pursuing our voyage.^ who had and that. I fear that I have failed to render the quiet." * See Morga's Philippine Islands^ p. need not tell how we The all felt. 2 See note on next page.^ or eight swords. company it storm on September 2ist not. 149-187. lib. i. Perhaps none could be spared from Manila to arm a new ship. they found her they held all her for foundered. but it is forced by the sense. and one arquebus. it may be remem- * These were the squadron of Olivier van Noort. warranted by several other instances in the Viage. but for their own flagship. a summarised account of whose voyage will be found in Purchas.^ one moonlit night. holding for pretences and in this 1 No mention is made of cannon throughout the voyage. not for those only.. with three hundred men. forty great guns.^ all For these tales . But they said chase of certain that they were of a squadron that Don in Luis de Velasco.* come into that sea . wherein was their Capitan Mayor^ Don Juan de Velasco. Hollanders. was Spanish territory. I the others in the offing at some distance. The shore. and so trusted had befallen. . we them not. Captain Stevens freely translates "Pieces of Eight of essayed Silver. ^ — D. 12 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. v.

* third. Comic incidents were frequent on such ferries." Rafts. or pontoons. tow is over. very lately." to denote Upper and Lower California. is is that of Papagayo. is comparatively modern. that It lies in 16 deg. On these two rivers the passage is paid for. which like the Tagus in Portugal. fishery. over great and steep moun- with countless rivers of good water and thick woods. Rivers were passed in India in this way. and above. N. which passed in a ferry-boat . River) of fordable in swimming. we came on the first of December the port of that voyage. which the Indians. in the lands of New Spain in the is South Sea. and safest from I winds have seen at sea. in the world. calmest. and all one of the most spacious. I and deep. 2 * months. I have often so crossed them. and a half had been four months which was a good voyage enough. ^ Herein has lately been found a great pearl than seven hundred to Acapuilco. terrible tains. 357) more or less. when the others reassured ourselves by the . After coasting for more leagues. missed the ford. 40 min. and is abject. says that the voyage "usually lasts five and frequently six months or more time. and dangerous road ill-peopled. lat. who had turned our grief into joy.^ We Having I rested here for some days. though great places. is The land and the natives dull and very deep. and we exchange of and gifts praising God. started Mexico. The end of it was better known than ^ Teixeira supposed.. — D. On this journey one crosses three rivers of name. 13 we were visits until morning. closed and saluted us. cit. then that of the Balsas. The which called (the is San Francisco. a gulf like the is We held on our course past the .. Californias.^ p. it means only the mouth of the Gulf. distant thence eighty leagues of . Here. . of a swift current. JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO apprehension ITALY. and had been lost outright Our use of the expression " the Californias. a little {op. and is passed upon balsas^ of canes laid upon dry calabashes. First. Red Sea though as yet its end not known. 2 Morga F. and settled my affairs.

which is worthy of note. passed the Volcano. and. Along most and so they of this road a plague of mosquitoes. seventy or eighty leagues from Mexico. fleet Thence 1 the last day of May. I think. as being the only important Mexican port of those parts. On the map it looks but perhaps what he rode over was some far out of Teixeira's way The Conqueror's fief would naturally have wide limits. since other places south of the tropic. by common is road.^ which a peak and pass.^ and got into at I Mexico Here I midnight on Christmas Day. neither very easy nor very safe is and what on the little good there about it is I due more to sailed in art than to nature. 1898.^ a new port on the Northern Sea. yet ever lies covered with snow. 142-3." " Pusieron " I take to be a misprint for punqieronP The " m^'' is quaintly expressive of the outraged sense of property. when is I started for Spain. There issues from it a thick smoke. we crossed the Marquisate of the Valley. until I came and town of those the of less Indies. La Puebla de Zaragosa.* and to commonly La account. . Puebla. 6 The Atlantic. running down the coast northwards. F.^ It is. " Now better known as Vera Cruz notable in English history as the scene of Hawkins's and Drake's defeat in 1567. * Now.^ After this. all by reason of calms in the Sound of the a la muerte el mejor esdavo. 2 . called I went by the City of Los Angeles. is but. ° . San Juan de Ulua. Awakening of a Nation^ New York and London. next to my good horse saved me. pp. steep is it it enough. But it cannot help playing a part in every war of Mexico with any Atlantic power. and Oaxaca (C. note). This the only port in a great stretch of that coast. outskirt of it.14 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. granted 1529. 1 " Me pusieron ''• the "Valley" that of This Marquisate was that of Cortes himself. was until May 2nd. 60 1. we thought to die of thirst. . God. Lummis. 2 Popocatepetl. grievous that no defence avails against them stung my best slave to death for me." the angels having been urned out with the Spaniards. travelling with only the usual inconveniences. so terrible and .

and sailed to the banks called of Newfound- Thence we shaped a course for Spain. It is clear from the text that Teixeira's ship had not parted company with the fleet. At last trusting in God's providence. Oppenheim tells me desert or nameless. near lost. St. M. 15th. in mid-channel. — 3 Not far that this Mexican treasure-fleet. pleased God. lat. that towards morning the wind for the port. in 42 deg. . we got to the Havana. we stayed without. 2 Bacallaos. without water. We the the Havana on July and passing through Bahama Channel. and near it Him. Vincent. Dict. There is at the entrance of the port. and made landfall on August 28th. a port of the Isle of Kuba. in who such as trust changed. getting there too late to enter. it. whereon we grounded by the negligence of our as it pilot. Here was my ship well enough known and frequented. and in the night our four anchors and it blew so hard that we lost all cables. land. for the weather would not allow of isle. along the coast of Florida. which kept us forty days on a ten or twelve days' voyage. a great shoal. victuals. and it is not his habit to pass any isle unnoticed. For. and New Eng.3 1 This is the second case of the use of " al traves " for " ashore.^ N. or anchors. 1 Tortugas. See Ant. although we fired guns. 56 . and. As the ship was drifting ashore/ we made sail. and we ran down the coast of the in the greatest afflictions helps It pleased God. p.5 ' JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. with left little damage. passed the Barmuda. or of Codfishes. ed.). and made the mainland at Cape He attributes the strange course to bad navigation. 12. was a most unusual landfall Mr. but. though for the from the Bayona Isles. we could put about in As we got we found the second to command of the fleet coming meet us with ground tackle in a boat. F. neither if were we heard nor could we have been helped heard. which commonly sighted the Azores. " Bacalao. and God delivered her by a miracle.^ s. Galvao's Discoveries of the IVorld (Uakluyt Soc. v. as on p." D.

needs must things worth consideration happen and be observed. . de Betancor^ the captain-major . " These ships. to please those of tell it my friends left to whom could not face to face. Antonio Vaz Salema . and had enough to do to look out for the corsair Murat Arrays. that Teixeira returned to India. we pursued our we anchored in San Lucar on September 6th. — From the " Relagao das Naos e Armadas da India" {Additional MS. S. we learn that the fleet of 1602 sailed 2 from Lisbon on March 24th .l6 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. whence they sailed on April 9th.902. 20. .) D. In so long and various travel. but by a roundabout way. Simdo^ Andre Moreira. the galleon S. on the 8th of October. viz. but five vessels under the command of by the fleet of 1603. xv. At the end of his 1604-05 'ourney. where we were becalmed.. Jodo. Lane Poole's Barbary Corsairs^ pp. occasions. When the I sailed from Malaca." so called to distinguish him from others of the same name. and anchored in Sta. Pero de Almeida Cabral (pilot. F. the ship N. British Museum).. I came to Lisbon. referred to. regarding him. having often done so such as asked me about them. But now failed and I made up my mind I to return to India. for dispatch to Portugal in homeward ships from India. March 29th. When we got a wind. consisting of Pero Furtado de Mendo9a. I had with friends. Matheus^ Vasco Fernandez Pimentel Salvador. "cast off from the port of Lisbon on Easter Eve." says the MS. the galleon S. Catherina. See. to keep promise with a friend. Thence I went to Portugal. object But as my I only now is to relate my last journey overland. the ship S. Sra. Simao Castanho) ."— D. the galleon S.^ who came with some galliots and failed not to make prey of some folk of the fleet that tried to go ashore in boats. therefore. the very last thing I had thought of went aboard on March 28th. will be more I diffuse therein. At last. and on the 8th I came to Seville. I have not here related the for details of this voyage. " the Great Mur^d. Teixeira mentions reports of Murdd's being in the Gulf of Venice. it could not have been by this. (See infra^ chap. F. We ran down the coast to Algarbe. 192-193.2 and ^ This was Murad Reis. voyage until a year and a half out of Malaca. trusting this business some money the usual way by them as on former outright.

1 Aires de Saldanha succeeded D. We made once and took in none. as she was greater. got her bowsprit and spritsail over our main- yard. Thence we ran northwards in for two days along the coast. to our great confusion and terror. 1600 Gama. 16015. I On the February the left Goa. so fair was our weather. as Viceroy of India. and came to Harmuz. and curiosity. near the Sound of Mexird. but turned back. she bore us over. D. We held on along the coast. occasion and motives of my Such were the resolving on the journey. left Goa.^ Viceroy Ayres Saldafia river. being ill-handled. Conde de Vidiand held office . . fouled ours . now follows the account of CHAPTER How I II. the chief city of Portuguese dominions in India. I sail at and after two days' delay in the embarked on the morning of the nth. which we Portucall Maciejra. till . I was now weary of such long and tedious sea-faring> and thought I might shorten the same by this journey. a new and powerful vessel. One of these. and. to the Cape of Rogalgate Arabia. We arrived at Goa on October 14th. sighting many ships bound on the same voyage. A clerk of our ship. — December 25th. wherein was then . until January.7 JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO will ITALY. rounded it. C . 1 make no mention of what happened on the voyage to start the sooner with that whereof I propose to treat. I was also inclined to it by it. Vasco da gueira. bound from Basaym for Ormuz (or Harmus. This we made on the 2nd of March. and sailed thence for Bagora. and entered the Persian Gulf between that land and Persia. as it should be more rightly called). As she caught us on the beam. 1604. F. we came guese to the coast of Arabia. 9th.

the wind heading us. sail After two days.. That done. Persia. he had related an experisouth-east of — D. F. catches and eats them. Whiteway's Rise of ^Ae Portuguese ^ . fire her. Had we fire all not made till haste to restrain him. xxix (see ence of his when first visiting the place in 1587. Power ^ in India.^ a port all same land. Stevens translates " Hand Granadoes . which hath these and others. it It pleased God that the did not catch. taking this for a fire-balls. and thence we sailed for Harmuz. is . getting a wind. We toiled in haste to get the ships clear. he should for. he was going to throw more. ." but these were very modern artillery in 1604 and not very likely to be in use in the Persian Gulf. we held on our voyage until. that in his Kings of Appendix B. as fast as these from the fugitive. called dndr. infra). S. F. contrary to anchored on the 17th of March." the same as " grenade" and " granado. Mr. without fail we had perished. chap. — Mdskat {Persian Gulf Pilot). cutting away much tackle of both. opens beak. being one month out from Goa. such as are still used in India to turn heavy game out of cover. sixty leagues distant. of the we made and reached Mascate. Whiteway. where we that part. Sifa. in we anchored Syfa. Here we were two days taking in wood and water. unless it were certain fowl. and hove them aboard the other ship. pursuing below. at Maskat. 41." I am confirmed in this view by some correspondence with my old comrade. And the natives say ^^ Alcanzias.8 1 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. escape the stronger.^ lit who thought case of honour. I conjecture that they were fire-balls of clay. i. [Cf. a good authority. on board a small vessel. probably. whether to this end or from fall native spite. in terror voids the contents of We as as to its belly.e. "pomegranate. saw nothing on that voyage worth setting down new. which hunt each other The weaker of these. himself a valiant soldier. Teixeira gives no defor the reason. And its the other.] Now a little ^ Though he stayed two days scription of the place. hopeless of cure. p.^ a haven of Arabia. soaring upwards natural enemies. had done so. — D." The dictionaries translate " stink-pot " but there nothing in the text about stink. hastily took two loaded the matches. about what someone has written. R.

There also are Karuez and Angan. whence Harmuz is commonly provided. and the mainland of Persia. which has been eported as a cold-weather visitor to the Persian Gulf.^ worthy of that and of I much isle better places. all (Queixome) is very fertile.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO that it ITALY. and wells of good water . gardens.* The point of Queixome on the outside^ has plenty of palm orchards. in a little 14th. parts half a league or This isle is from five-andin greatest twenty to thirty leagues long. except when sea-eagles hunt ospreys. From Documentos Remettidos. and Sermion. good quality and in plenty. ^ ^ are on our charts yet. though not thence alone. torn. on April the We sailed between the of Queixome that or Broct. by in a strait. and the latter drop fish from 1 to may their clutches. from the letters referring thereto. 2 . forms in its last. Lapht. on the E. rather biassed. D. a little sound a very This isle safe haven. that the Portuguese rule in Hormuz was at this time in a very unsatisfactory condition. Teixeira's commendation of Diogo Moniz was. point of the isle. The three first where our own queer exists. i. Now there is little Several predatory sea-fowl have this habit. and bore suitable produce of . barley. I believe that n all cases the prey is either dropped or thrown up frojn the beak. sailed thence for Basora. Chau. F. It has several ports within and without. which of I have recorded as then the seeming extraordinary. . and ten or twelve width. The robber referred probably have been Richardson's skua. when it was better peopled as wheat. I am afraid. Karvez is not now identifiable Angan is Henjam Island. C 2 . The best within are Dargahon.^ The Captain and Governor cavallero Harmuz was Diego Munis Barreto. fit to hold many and very great ships.^ which distinct island used as a port. — ^ * Clarence Strait of our charts. and less. 19 lives on nothing else. Sermion must have been little possession of Basidu or Bassadore now Extant and prosperous.^ may be at most three leagues wide. vessel of his. we learn that Diogo Moniz Barreto was succeeded this same year by Pedro Coutinho and it is evident. fruit and vegetables. but mostly very shallow.

or Niquilus. The first has no settled population. now Basidu. isle Passing between this half-way. * — . Homem — Ras el Mion. cap. * Farur and Kais. in the day. F. x. want of anchorage and watering places thereWe passed the isles of Phelur. fit it So there we must needs be delayed. 373). 161 5 (printed in Bocarro's Dec. and January 26th and 31st. But Kais has been luckier than Hormuz. and fifty fishing boats or more. who could and cheaply amend the same. is Leaving Point Sermion. Rem. .* which was once what ^ Regarding the Nihhelus.^ we ran up the Gulf along the Persian coast. as well as from one written by the Spanish Ambassador. vi. and west-north-west. we anchored us. Don Garcia da Silva y Figueiroa. or sometimes oftener. when the tide failed and when it served again. and we the loss of these later on. Liv. cap. and urging the destruction of their ships. and has three villages. cannot be done on the Arabian shore. D. flocks. it would seem that the effect of the fulfilment of the Royal commands was to exacerbate the already strained relations between the Portuguese and the Shah of Persia. p. which remained foul of the bottom. and the main. our anchor came home without the stock. which we call Pelouro . herds. but Pereira sustained a the force sent against them under Pedro severe defeat at their hands (see Couto.20 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA.^ Keys (or.^ only three easily distant. for two days of favourable felt weather. that lay it waste. ' Meaning " cannon-ball " in Portuguese. in 1622. In 1585. for abouts. according to one to three leagues off shore according to the tides. Liv. VII. distant at most leagues. heading west. at from sail anchoring and making which run strong twice or thrice. in the D. dated January 27th. 16 16. which the end of the isle. xvii). by reason of the raids of the Nihhelus Arabs. to with another. produce. which culminated. are Royal letters of February 13th. XIII. 1612. its ins-and-outs. 1610. and In Doc. F. loss to the former of the island fortress of Hormuz. as we say Cays). Dec. referring to these pirates. From another letter in the same collection. through the negligence of the leagues' sail Captains of Harmuz. the Portuguese had attempted to chastise them for piracies . agriculture. on February 17th. see note further on. For the ruling winds of This fifty that narrow sea are ever strong from the north-west. X.

and take their name from it. p. Some wanted grace of God. and twenty-five pearl-boats. and by reason of the raids of the Noutaques^ and Nihhelus. about five hundred men. or Lara. of whose eggs the Arabs come and gather great store. the weather very dark.] The "Maritime Truce" of the East India Company. Hobson-Jobson^ s. ^''Dar al travez. iv.v. p.^^ Teixeira's third and most unmistakable use of phrase for " running ashore. Shaikh Shuwaib has ten villages.^ and the called for the multitude of them that roost there. ^ Called Noitaques in the to in a previous foot-note. 185. infra. but the identifica[Cf. under the opposite isle of Lara. Linschoten^ vol. still to some extent maintained.— D. it warned who got hold of it it and hoisted on deck. of See note above and next below." The isle is Shaikh Shuwaib. and this the " Nihhelus. . whose opinion prevailed. —D. some derivative of Arabic tayur (=birds). harm had surely ^ As * ^ related in the Kings of Harmuz (see Appendix B. from which God delivered us by miracle.— JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO Harmuz is ITALY. and others to execute them aboard. and trade in them hither and thither ." from Bandar Nakhilu on the mainland opposite. the wind forced us to leave it in the morning for shelter. the While we lay wind increased. four. the ironwork of the rudder. The wind was very strong. * tion rests on position.^ so now. the Noutaques. and if we were I near losing the officers. Isle of 21 Birds. Shitw^r. and that of Lar." presumably ^ Nakhluwis.F.^ Andreuy.^ vol. so nigh furling it it .^ Having anchored here. " Lar" (^). [Cf. see Comment. by the Had we gone ashore. and not on this name. F.) Hindarabi. Royal letter of January 26th. so that we came ill inhabited. Arabs who dwell on the Persian shore so called. D. to carry ashore for repairs.* All these are at three. 16 12. or five leagues off shore. — D. referred Af * ^ Dalb. and foot-note. On F. ii. a boy had not shown it to me. and the island low. The chief village is called Ldz. F. small and scantily peopled. here. made life and business possible on these islands. 154. as forced us to anchor under full sail without to avoid running ashore^ and going to pieces.] Shaikh Shuwaib. and the ship laboured so much as to carry away it.

with much loss. . Anglice^ "foists. N. . it Our provision began to nor we renew there." Chilao is probably Shilu. there were there some Nihhelus. The Point of Vedican is Ras Naband. and is on all {Persian Gulf Pilots p." 22 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. " four miles to the westward of Tahiri Bardistan is not far away. vol. i. not far from us. ofAf. Along this coast we sailed for thirty-five days. for use and traffic. [See Comment. But the Moors defended themselves fight. a place sound between Point Vedican and the shoals of Kane. we came upon them with daybreak on seeing which. to kill them and it was a wonder that none landed. And making speed. as we learnt afterwards. a Moorish terraddS bound on the same voyage. come of it. who heard the noise of and saw some guns to scare the enemy. for all that shore is disturbed by the wanton ravages of the VoxXyx^M^s^ fustas^ which com- monly cruize there. attacked her one night in the morning watch. and there breed some herds and flocks. Some of the other side were wounded who came aboard us for treatment. 255). " Teradeh " as the name of a small fishing-boat on the Tigris. looking out for Portuguese shore parties. Dalb. p. with fail . the flashes. fired . There had come there for shelter of the isle. and laden with cotton. rugged and barren. 43. For. which yield them milk. except that within it are some places where the natives cultivate the soil by irrigation from wells. 105. and from that on they kept us closer company.. at {Selections from Records^ Bombay. Two terradas of the Nihhelus approached her by stealth and thinking to .^ the head wind increased and ^ Terrada seems to have been a term applied to more than one Commander Felix Jones gives sort of small craft in the Indian seas.. stoutly . 366) Karsten Niebuhr uses it for an open boat. recent maps and charts. That coast of Persia is mostly mountainous. and we. butter and cheese. When we in a had got to Chilao near Verdostam. D. the thieves drew off. No. F. take her at unawares. . S. n. p. much could toil and trouble. as it is usual enough to do.] BagdM 2 * — Small armed vessels.

of bread-stuffs. and good quality. thirty-nine days out weary enough. We former voyage. 23 So. having lost an anchor and cable.^ which was close aboard. and sore at heart. In our return we had use sight of several pirates' terradas. the captain gave orders to bear and in four Harmuz. . or sheltering Bandar Baid Khan and the shoals of Kane are certainly those of Ras-al-Mutaf. fruit and beyond vegetables in its territory. We passed the shoals of Kane. back to Harmuz on Friday evening. got and western port. indeed." or Rishahr." ." in the Viage. We that refitted and victualled ourselves such as had tried in Harmuz. ^ " Reshire. for that assured us that at season the north-west wind was less constant and some difference. find . It belongs to the Shah. to the sailed again from Harmuz. that we had for toil. never absent from . and by the Tigris and Euphrates to the city of Basora. though less than they reported. away gained. those seas wherefore merchant ships sailing from Harmuz commonly the convoy of Portuguese fustas. which depends . This time we sailed outside of the and ran up the same coast as on the isle of Queixome did.^ famous for the abundance. with much in five-and-thirty. perforce. close to " Bushire. and them the fortress of Rexel. hoping it voyage violent. and for a better started again on the 17th of June. .— JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO continued. May the anchored in the We 21st. near whose northern end is Ras-al-Khan not that this name matters much in their identification. days we ran eighty leagues. and very nearly run on the shore. and came head of the Persian Gulf. ITALY. on ^ position. The fourth use of " dar al travcz " for " to run ashore. CHAPTER How I HI.

but from this on they trend inland.2 Here we anchored on the 25th of and lay four days wind-bound. He puts it next after the " River of Boschavir.^ and pass out of sight of navigators . but " Bender Righ or Rik. lying over against little this. and their some of them peril of the recognise the Portuguese. taking cartazeSy or passaportes^ without which they would sail in Portuguese fustas. King of on whose shore it stands. seaward. Up to this place the high lands of Persia are near the sea and in sight. ll. mostly Arabs. the sand or strand of Ceyfadin). cruising commonly in those narrow ill seas.24 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. *' uncommon . Pt. Further north is Regh Ceyfadin^ its (that is. you ^ " Bandar Rig" (not *' Righ"). tributary to Shah. nor in Musalman India and we shall find several chiefs of Hormuz so styled below. and is well garrisoned. ' Pilots ^ This is Kharag. viii). when Thevenot embarked here for Basra. the folk are July. some palm-orchards. it had no name for him. . So also the Persian Gulf Pilot. chap. before mentioned therefore. by reason of grievances . But in 1665. with good water. fear of four galeotas that sailed with us. whereof great cargoes are taken to Bagora and other ports . described in similar terms in the Persian Gulf which mentions " some vegetables " as obtainable. Persia. is not clear. ^ I have thought that these two words might be of more interest in the original Spanish. inhabited." and "a day's sailing from Bender Rischer" {Travels into the Levant^ Lovell's Translation. London. But it has not been an title in Persia." which he translates aright. by Arabs. this is " Regh Ceyfadin. or King . does mean " Sandy Bay. The men and of Regh Ceyfadin were then on and for terms with the Portuguese." and probably. even at a little distance. is good shelter from the north-west wind. sheep and goats. and the land is so low that. and mountainous and stony. Here is grown store of onions." Who Ceyfadin " (Saif u'd Din) was. like most part of this coast of Persia. from its position. the people had clean deserted three leagues to It affords the isle of Karg. in Persian. and more than two in compass.

that is "the Point."^ They say that was a great that was overflowed by reason of low position." commanding to discharge their waters. nearly put us high and dry at a pass which the Moors call Karab. Hence we near.3 Here they unite " river" of " Rexel " is " Khor Sultani. it." " Kornah. which unite at Corna. This . a large creek with a Bandar Rig has " a small khor " {Persian shallow bar. Rexel and Regh Ceyfadin. on the ist of August. 1 The . Our familiar Hindustani khardb. losing sight of land." at Bushire." lesser kor. G. but it has now disappeared from our own charts and the Persian Gulf Pilot. Wedelager. by reason of the varying depth best. The R. we found more water. and land on both hands and running up the Persian coast we cast " anchor. famous rivers Tigris fortress called Corna. channel is is about four leagues wide. meaning simply " bad. that there its is. Wedyana. with many banks . in the narrows three leagues away from is formed of the two and Euphrates. the last point of Mesopotamia that lies between them." of modern maps. whereof men draw the fresh water it.. This means river xai^^ in the River of the Arabs. whence are named and This Spain the Wedelquebir. river. S. Here have the Turks a three days' journey above Basora. 3 " Kurnah." is of later use. both channels. though reputed " the best in those narrow seas.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO cannot see it. This fellow.^ . or "ruined. The translation is sound in Persian and Arabic. " Kiirnd. Once through ." Perhaps metaphor. Gulf Pilot). The place lately retained the name. though low being in charge of a Moorish pilot that we took aboard in Karg. and always passed with the lead overboard and a boat three fathoms at ahead. others. a point i^) The term rightly Karnd^^2i horn^ and so. broken" city. by is as common in Asiatic Geography on shore as at sea. 2^ Two at deep rivers of fresh water have their mouths hereabouts. 2 Khardb. map has a showy-looking " Shahpur River. for that sailed it is westward . ITALY." half-way between them. or who call a famous and the wed . in the channel of the Xat-el Arab. if not more so.

and is at war with him pretending a right to these and to the territory of Basord. 1616. dates. Dorak. little which here from west to may be here a over two miles wide. bank are fertile and cultivated. son of Motelob.. lie widely waste. December loth to 23rd. There was a strong head wind. But the river has changed too Teixeira's channels cannot be verified now : much. against the Turks. i and ii. or Arabian. all sell hens. it divides into two equal parts. near really believed the Isles of Bahrein. geese and ducks. G.^ The makes near mouth a is great bend. D. torn. to induce them to form an offensive and defensive alliance with him. east. an Arab chief who holds them against the Turk. geese. The inhabitants are Arabs. Letter No. forming of that bit of land an isle perhaps more than eighty leagues long.26 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. and about six of low water. This contrast still exists [Persian Gulf Pilot and charts). Those on the with river its other. Delia Valle. which last we shall see reason to think that he * The translation ." see also P. or Fella- — hieh. with a strong fathoms deep at current. and its gardens. from Bagdad. any mouth of the Shdt-el-Arab to reach El Katif." and the liberal terms offered by him to the Portuguese. R.^ In his territories are Magdom. milk. Ahwaz (or perhaps Hawizeh). and enters the Persian Gulf at Katifa near Barhen. whereof the northern Mombarek. many palm-groves.* The other channel is that 1 For " Mombarek. S. this season On either shore are abundant herds and flocks. level between shores on either bank . [A number of Royal letters in Doc. to victual. Oeza.] 2 Maktueh. but returns to It course.. It is difficult to suppose that Teixeira is literal. * map of Persia. 17. Rem. and other fowl and beasts. Dawrak. who carry on communication by swimming upon inflated skins. and other very cheap. not barren.^ cities of importance. butter. They or Persian plains are in the possession of . but untilled for fear of the Turks. refer to " Bombareca. and Doreka. F. One flows southward through Arabia. Many came thus to our ship. orchards. so we got but slowly up the river and after eight or nine leagues came to where .

and their vassals therein. below the entrance of the Hafar. the description of F. and hotter. 197.. of Aj. But Kiepert has " Saradji. where ships of burden anchor to discharge cargo. The water is more brackish. or Kirun. Cf. corresponds to that position. . and stronger. and from this on the single stream A little way up it we is wider. D. cast anchor over against a fort that the Here we Turks to hold on the river side. which may have two tide.2 fifteen or sixteen leagues from the bar . and more than three at flood For the tide is felt here. 2*J by which we had come. deeper. against the Arabs' forays. and gardens watered than one league's journey. * —D. than that of the Hafar. 232-238.^ By this creek. printed from the Sloane MS.^ of it. set about two miles west of the joint Euphrates and Tigris. green enough. one league in length. in geographical leagues of twenty to a degree. the land. and communicating visited. therefrom. They have many protect other such. Rise and fall at Basra " about nine feet. after less palm-groves. iv. and ships should prefer the latter {ibid.] — This description would suit the modern island of Muhalla.). Basora^ is a city of Arabs. in the territory of Mombareka." a 2 below Basra. One can only suppose our author to have been misled by an ignorant or mendacious pilot. Dalb.M." The influence of the tides reaches about thirty miles beyond Kurna. Basra referred to in the foot-note supra. in the Comment. is fathoms of water at ebb. F. and half as much broad. I left the ship and entered a canal. pp. of August the 6th to Serrage. Yet the distance. 2 Not noticed by the Persian Gulf Pilot little or charts. vol. [In the description of Basra. or channel into the Kdrun {Persian Gult Pilot). and full of palm-groves and gardens. we came at 8 A. fringed on each side with ploughed lands. came to an islet in mid-stream. the writer makes the same statement regarding a branch reaching to Catifa. we came to Basord. on the west bank. The channel is deeper on the Arabian side Pursuing our voyage. but the stream always runs down. both above and below it.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. though the water ever fresh. the rise and fall gradually decreasing to nil {Persian Gulf Pilot).

and not a citadel reserved for military use only. musketeers and horsemen. It hath a citadel. Here also are most of the and the head-quarters. from the creek. and may have within and without the fortress ten thousand houses. Kurds. mostly large. they cost it much has no timber at and costly of import. much and good a and some galleys and ill-built. for that land Small as they all. There artillery. of small scantling. . and almost in filled Around Within is it is it a deep and wide ditch. They launched there. and therein . and a custom-house. and most of the garrison. exact heavy tribute. yet longer than wide where many ruin. is here an arsenal. are about ten traffic. whose for dues are and pay the garrisons and other expenses. great. It is cut up with artificial public conduits and stands in a plain. Those of the poor are commonly of reeds. . T\iQ fortaleza^ or fort. with them by the canal above mentioned. thousand houses. as someone has written the Turks know them. There is a Pasha. . but of poor architecture .28 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. between Arabs. and besides outposts. They ^ 2 cross their creek by a wooden bridge set upon Asshar creek of the Persian Gulf Pilot. foursquare. walls and ramparts are all of earth. the supreme com- mander in peace and war. from whom is they . I but these are few. mats and bundles of abundant in the rivers.^ and here crafts. built of sun-dried bricks that scarce stand for three years. new one for of the same sort while was These are not kept against . Turks. the centre of This may be in all of three thousand men. the Portuguese. to keep order the rebellious Arabs. with a great surplus. well that with such they could do no harm to for use in the river But they are in and thereabouts.^ and by land but the latter channels. usually means in the East a fortified city. are. The number above assigned to the fortified city and suburbs.

Basora is well provided and fertile. and of their being uncaulked. and Arabia thereabouts.^ Persia. so good. v. being covered with a bitumen that they especially in dates call quir^ whereof I shall have more to say. especially the children and women. asses. to the great improvement of the climate {Persian ^ Note the The Gulf ' Pilot). " Kil. Traffic is mostly conducted by means of camels. wheat. Hobson-Jobson^ s.^ Regh Ceyfadin. and the climate very chiefly the latter. cattle. are said to be not very chaste. and so abundant. but not good. that they are exported yearly in great quantity to Bagdad. " Lasdn " is probably Al Hdsa. crayfish. in place of pitch. There are and of is . eight boats. Lasan. the price down. Bagdad. The folk are Turks and Arabs. . quas^ built of 29 and elsewhere in boats that they call dane- any of little scraps of wood for want of greater. and Dorek. in plenty all sorts of great and small Indian fowl. rice. and vide note. and for being many and I good. f. is ports of Persia and soil Harmuz. garden-stuff. There are here countless as big as scor- pions." d. they are exported to Harmuz the Indian trade. and wheat and dates have replaced it. JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.^ The air is unhealthy. . These horses last who are natives here most are well-favoured. and equalled in by many scorpions. When 1 came to Basord there were many houses in ruin Cf. Catifa. abundant and cheap and as there import is from Rexer. whence come with Barhen. But in spite this. .— . all There wares all trade with Harmuz. mules. and fish from the river. the staple food. cultivation of rice has fallen off of late years. of which there are great studs in the land . 23. p. where the text has Rexe/. they are very staunch and water-tight. the province of Arabia surrounding Al Katif. and are a The and kept bears all fruits and vegetables. and . and I saw many common hot. barley. final r. * tilis\ size Presumably the fresh-water crayfish or ecrevisse {Astacus Jluviawhich is not very unlike a scorpion in shape.

2 This was in 1546 (see Couto. which were being rebuilt very hastily. seized it. iii. reference here He — — — . 34. and As manners. There was great damage in most of the city. 232. very clean. 35. i. Liv. v). especiTeixeira was well aware of the shifts of Basra. worth sixty-five marave- dis apiece and secondly. that eight or ten days fire. where they are said to have been They were worth at this time about tenpence. alluvial plains. to whom it leathern sacks of was made subject by an Arab claimed their protection. p. within and without the walls. which is and as I artificial. The canal. before. D. and is now in its third site. round coins called xays^ of the sexillo. and an groves. which very fine. the larins^ long money with both ends . * ShdhiSj worth at this time about fourpence English (see Letters Received by the E. is to one of the numerous slight shifts of site to which Asiatic capitals are very Hable. is shape and value of our real This is of a lower standard than the other.%0 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. and women from noon to sunset any should transgress the same of malice. There are Their rule here no buildings of importance.^ vol. that men thought the end of the world was come. D. have said. An first coined. F. bent. runs far into the land. immense number of palmAncient men assured me that it had once been 1 The and reconstructions. 2 So called from the city of Lar. is In the city. men up if to noon. which may have been here two centuries. The silver coins are. VI. with such uproar. dress. for the who tell . there are profitable. first. p. cap. 326). All gold and silver coins pass in this country for what they may be worth but those struck there in the mint are of . several public baths. and from it are watered great fields. magazine had caught and five thousand odd powder exploded. Dec. ally on mentions the second site of it on p. D. Gray's Pyrard^ See also infra. vol. Appendix C. F. he would be most severely punished. and the first on p. whose ways are well known. a The reason was. illustrated note on the subject will be found in Mr. and to admit . iv. F. there is nothing to Arabs and Turks. silver and copper.^ The Turks have held it now for over fifty years. India Co. and because they customs of the are all folk.^ tyrant.

support and service. whereof falls it 3I now far short. as they dress. ^ less 2 The very cool and cautious expression of this passage is worth [Dr. cit. is. particular attention and after great offers. 170. navigable to a point thirty leagues inland. dwelt there. to see a it. we consider that the three thousand Jewish families who. Teixeira's. He wondered at my speech. who held much of the country that I afterwards traversed.^ man for his presence and aspect worthy of that and of a better position. By means . Whereat I wondered for though I knew that the Moors honour him greatly and call him Ruyalah.) quotes this statement of noting. n. p. or Lord. that Jesus. for that he had never seen a Frank." Dr. in the time of Benjamin of Tudela. and manners. call the Christians of Europe. it is quite possible that their number : : . Descending the which is really very pleasant. and adds " Without doubt these were remains of Christian communities. at a certain point saw the I Moors a little in my boat rise. One day they took me up leagues. which had formed themselves at the time of the found" It is surprising that ation of Christianity. looked whither they faced in prayer. ben Mariam. that is. who. If. — I took leave of him." I had never known them to dedicate a temple to him. and pray very reverently. however. Kayserling {op. only twenty years since. a He was Xeque of an great Mahamed eben Raxet. rather more than three called Xeque. assigned to . the son of and showed its me much land and many palm-groves. "the Breath of God. amounted to two thousand.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. Later on. and saw on the shore house like it a hermitage. They said that was dedicated Maria . he seems to have less Turkish than Arabic. and asked what to Iga it was. have now decreased to fifty. interpreter. but still is notable as the work of man's hand. Kayserling also says he does not mention the Jews of this city. and entertain- ment on a small favour little ill-stewed goat's meat — which I was no river. which he considered with .^ This is one of the passages that indicate Teixeira to have had Arabic than Persian. he spoke at large with me showing pleasure therein..

some dispatch may be sent by means of them."~D. we must wait at least four or five months for that the water was low in the Tigris then. 2 — — . Rem. a Venetian merchant. When we came stood that to arrange about our passage.^ tom. than I. I When came to Basora. F.32 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXETRA. who have their correspondents and factories in Ormuz. and would be less daily until Christmas with the first rains. D. a city in the same. who proved such a source of trouble to his companions. 1606 {Doc. and often do Nor can the boatmen tow the boats beginning of the seventeenth century was in like manner too inconsiderable for Teixeira to have anything to relate concerning at the them.] In a letter of January 3rd.* a man in much esteem both of whom were more closely connected with Fonte . xiv. and thence by ship to " the other by the territories of Bombareca along Italy and France Persia.^ tom. : . when it begins to increase and without them none can sail. and arriving at Alepo and Alexandreta. . the King of Spain requests the Viceroy to send him dispatches twice a year by land. i). the thieves that get chances to attack the it. ^ F. as having married a daughter of Belchior Dias da Cruz. F. in whose company journey had come from Harmuz. 1607 (in Doc. for the . infra. D. where likewise are found ships for Venice and other ports of Italy and having also the chance of merchants Venetians. who was drowned some years previously in the Gulf of Venice. : — Regarding this man. ^ This may possibly be the same Joao Pinto who is referred to in a marginal note to a Royal letter of December 15th. see foot-note to chap. Rem. many banks. and my daily route until I came to Mexat Aly. we under. CHAPTER How I IV. F. departed from Basord by way of the desert. while carrying dispatches from India to the King. . and are well-known and trustworthy men. called to make this in the There were with us a country-born gentleman of Diego de Melo de San Payo f and another Portuguese by name Juan Pinto. I settled in the house of Santo I Fonte. meaning same." D. and boats. on each occasion by two distinct routes one courier via Hormuz going from Basra to Suez and Alexandria.^ India. i).

). personal last. v. my greater convenience who was an Arab Moor. indigo. Diego de Melo determined to ^ Though generally used (as by Teixeira below) as a synonym for " caravan. in whom the Portuguese and Venetian men of business put much faith. baggage. f. d. . boats that left This happened to a of Basora twenty-five days before our arrival in getting to and spent three months and worry enough. My broker was one Mostafa. was that of the natives. a cafila began to . and irregular. a Jew turned Turk. dwelling near Basora. with cost was in this perplexity. and hitherto As I doubted of getting so speedy a chance by the of such as might be able to give cafila. fit out for the land journey through the Arabian desert little in use. but as saving the annoyances that the discharge of dues upon their saw others suffer. in spite whereof for determined to do so. I in When I was going to start. By his means it was agreed agreed with the captain of the cafila^ that for fifty ducats I should be carried to Bagdad. JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO at ITALY. to brought with me three bales of meet my expenses. It was. and that turned out : the best of my bargain not as a mere matter of money. Whilst I Bagdad. very scanty. which the captain helped me to consume. by a route uncertain." cafila was often applied by Portuguese writers to a convoy of ships or boats (see Hobson-Jobson^ s. with the better heart that I they were not his own. as they do for most of that voyage and at which in flood takes from thirty-five to fifty days. low water cafildS about double that time. I took counsel about joining this I They alleged many and objections. called Agi Mahamed ben Faldh Atsany. persons and property. it river. foul. This he agreed to transport clear of all charges and dues whatever. — D . little with my bedding and a diet.. 33 low water. and have attendance and This throughout the journey. eked out by a bag of good biscuits and some boxes of preserved quinces. however.

We place.^ Whereby much of them. and covered with salt. who had not yet dispatched The next I evening. having brought much goods with and we him. I agreed to Diego's urgent request. Friday. and by a more attendance in the mosques. and five wide. set forth. In all my is arrangements I was much indebted to Geronimo bon Tempely. are the Moorish horsemen. the first Musalman Basra. They cease not from work and business on that day more than on another. who could not get away so soon. founded after ^ The . in the come same company. making small scruple in respect of it. to who are many and is wont meet there on Fridays. or plain whence the alone slept caravan.^ Of this some remains may " coniunciones'^ appear to be spring-tides in August. the 2nd. very great in those parts. without awaiting that of Santo Fonte. compli- we went forth to this place. with our friends' last . Maxarak. the 3rd. when they are highest in the Persian Gulf {Persian Gulf Pilot). though more than ten leagues distant. and my friend on horse-back. On called the south of Basora a great open and level place fair. expert. a Venetian merchant. has been desolated. 2 Now Zubair. all his waiting for business. went about half a league through palm-groves. but they only observe little by this practice. it This their holy day. arranging that he should go with Mostafa above mentioned. or cafila^ was beginning first to file off. and then entered on desert plains. and lay amid the ruins of the second city of Basora. which. the of many bad nights before us. We This is produced by the heat of the sun. rode along the top of a dyke. subject to flood. We there that night. once fertile. six or seven spans {palmos) high.34 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. or near it . drowns these lands in certain conjunctions. my captain. from the sea-water of the Persian Gulf. On September ments. four leagues to our halting- which was called Drahemya. used as a market-place and general all Moreover. we followed the rest : on a camel.

^ After a at more than two leagues' march. We started west-north-westwards. and chief of his own tribe. We halted here the Satur- day and Sunday. and these lands are cultivated. On Monday. which the desert full Arabs gather to the battle of Kadesia.and partof its city. barley. that is. lord of those lands. Basora. ^ This mountain is . which I cannot verify further. yielding wheat. ditch. which and nearly isle in all take that way. course to-day was southward. agents of Xeque Mahamed eben Raxet. only necessary to mind. . iv.' JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. Mazini a comrade of the Prophet. as above related who levy his dues on merchandize. between it and Mount Sinai nor does Teixeira seem to have made any. . When I saw how others were dealt with the 6th. Tabari is explicit as to the origin of the name. through lands won- derfully flat and barren. my opinion. which at that place and season immoderate. we halted noon by some wells of cool and good water. we moved off. D 2 . I am not aware of any other evidence about this oldest " Basra. leaving on our left hand a very high in mountain. six or seven leagues distant. and that the from Basora to Meka. are so water there. 35 yet be seen. weary enough of strife with the Arabs. (Zotenberg's Tabari. and in the Oriental it is say that there no confusion. about two in length. and the same to whom I had been introduced. chap. flat Those lands. beginning to feel in the open is air the heat of the sun. cafilas Mount Sinam where of old was the first city of They say that it has many waters. in a plain of colocynths. The Arabs call this Gibel Sinam. and. To all appearance it was a great Our There are some wells of good water. " on a plain covered with white stones whence the name " by Otba. hereabouts. September on that and other occasions.) — — . as the walls of a great mosque. son of Ghazwin." but there is nothing improbable in the tradition of a great city's existence at the foot of Jabal Sinam. I held for well spent free all what I had paid to the captain to be of those vexations. xlii. Pt. is in the modern maps. and vegetables. it that it seems as little were an the sea. fragments of the rampart. under the orders of the Caliph 'Umar.

yet our great need and thirst made it On the this day. and India for a pauper pilgrim to Mecca. the we marched. After two leagues more. for them afterwards. where were three wells of and brackish water sweet to us. in Nameless "ruins " are shown on this route in Kiepert's . that is. more than in five leagues and a half. hares. thick." or something like it. with many wells of good and sweet water. until we marched noon. foul. with a terrible sun and high south wind that scorched us like fire. They call this place Bragacya. which are Choa bedeh. who wander in naked. At four in the afternoon we decamped. make medicine of them.36 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA.^ the poorest families through those deserts beasts. Our was a plain called by the Arabs Reamelah. an hour before dawn. ninety-five donkeys. and poor Beduynes. starting daylight. . Miskin 2 a pauper. mixing them with camels' milk. " the Here came all the cafila together. through lands very level but very dry. — and marched " until one o'clock. over ^ " Beduynes mesquinos is = " Bediwin Miskin. which before had fallen. plain. Wednesday. passing the called ruins^ of tilled two great buildings. gazelles. camels. good Arabic for now commonly used map. by hunting which they live etc. once the dwellings of such as all those lands. foxes. who fled at sight of us. finding no water. or clad in skins of . bought of one of our company a good camel and an ass and but ill he paid Our course was north-north-west. wild asses. after noon. to me better. or Cobrocya. wolves. place of ducats. two camels fit fell with me thrice wherefore captain. Our halt route was long. and twelve Here we found some folk. to await a camel. and lagged behind with On Tuesday. and. we halted in a barren and waterless 7th. because. we started westerly." though little. such as deer. it was of one-hundred-and-fifty horses. . the 8th. . and marched in the same direction over plains. its load. who we learnt were of Arabs.

fore-feet. 37 Having come about seven if we rested in a plain called like the last Choabed^h. there was a great and thick smoke north of us water. Here were some and fetid water. and tail as of a rat. and head as of a rabbit. waterless. this some dry place still coming under the name of Choabedeh. All this day. . The Arabs ^ Jerboas. the 9th. where the Arabs were burning the reed-beds That may have been two good days' march off our road. about three leagues. . wells of foul out by In the midst of I have told of. by jumps. and their hind-legs like those of a gazelle. told. JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO sands and very dry wastes. through somewhat rougher ground. On day. for was some thirty fathoms deep but I changed my mind on our drawing from : a lizard more than four palms long. there are plenty in and the Arabs eat them. to a stone well of clear and fresh it. along all which we saw many hares and bush-rats. eyes.. we drew up we were a great which. leagues. and say they are very good. and burrow this desert. and halted at sunset in a sort of vale. it were eight cabins of such Beduynes as covered with coarse goats'-hair blankets. we marched at dawn. Thursday. like rabbits . These are as big as our greatest common rats. but the end of the tail. water but stinking so that we could scarce come nigh We thought that this that the well was for want of it light and motion. They move for their sowings. lay over the banks of the River Euphrates. grayish-white their ears. with the venomous snake dead. . and might be two leagues about. some six or seven leagues through troublesome sand-hills. of course. from one of which. as compass. and one thick a hideous creature. until mid- when we came . We and many and great snakes . laid was round as a threshing-floor. but with grass. It ITALY.^ marched hence at four in the afternoon.

^ On . which snake-bite we took to have died of feathers. and we were almost to an at the last gasp. Hhynigha. and Ahen. spot. and all. by a quaint slip. We had kept a westerly course. of colocynths. place Hheun. all meaning not Eyes. There were many wells. After three leagues' journey we got into great sand-hills.38 call this THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. and the intolerable heat and want of water. This is a stupid note." This last does not seem to be a regular meaning of the modern Castilian ojo . and . clear water. and called by the Arabs set. west-south-west through yesterday's. Hhyuna. wherewith we satisfied it and provided ourselves. started again on the about three leagues' plain. the way we found little a great and fair gazelle. and lurkthither scarce alive. salt. o'clock. and unwounded. the we marched two hours lands like before dawn. dry loth. with a few bushes: such bad travelling. for and a beyond many ostrich up. On Friday. so bad was the way. which and the camel-men carefully gathered thereabouts. sweet. but it is yet a dictionary meaning of the Portuguese olho. We cleared them a little. who had bid spring there for our help. as we shall have the word again and again and as Stevens. ever ranging the desert." and also. that from that. but necessary. our hunger and thirst." The Arabic word is ^Ain^ plural ^Ayun. several camels and asses died. and does mean " eye . that they are much valued We saw many hares bush-rats. praising God. and our fear of the Arab thieves. all choked and at a full of mud. and such the heat. Therein were Arab thieves but who took its themselves off when they found the cafila on guard. same at four in the afternoon after march we halted in a great. who came ing for prey near every watering-place. depth of a fathom. two. lying At one we came full open under a high sand-dune. That day we had come some eight leagues. ^ " Ojos. " fountain " or " spring. long dead. ! . fit to count for fourteen. yielded plenty of good. applies the Arabic name to the ugly lizard — . or three cubits. or one.

So came we to this place.. we marched three hours before sunrise. but in hope of their own gain. seeking devices to plunder. who brought on himself many and serious annoyances. places. with hillocks. and requirements of special service. beyond which we ventured not that day. and sometimes to slay them. by his air of dignity and reserve. we marched at five o'clock in the evening. due at the end of the These go ahead. and no less than the fear of our foes was that of our own company. as ours some Arabs. all for that those last are faithless. All travagainst Diego de ellers in these parts little should avoid the like . of such tribes as they may meet. north-westwards for about two leagues. God be treasons praised. After a league and . degree. between clan cafilaSy and clan wherefore the caravans. or ever keep in pay. there is no passage . as they think European Christians) to be very rich. all good. over very level ground. And. Yet had we in advance certain Jews of the caravan with an Arab. they never lose sight of them . whom in such case the captain used to give them for escort. v/ho seldom put them to good use. Without folk that. and halted before sunset to await a laggard camel. from their especially that they brewed against us and Melo of our company. the 12th. who delivered ourselves . the nth. treacherous. On some half. and so halted there for the night. and covetous to the Franks (that is. to secure good usage and as guides of the ways and watering. we found some wells of good water and at eleven of . in return for certain services trip. that they may rest on their Sabbath (when they may not march) without caravan. Sunday. ITALY. to attract as as may be the eyes of the Arabs. but waterless. falling in rear of the On Saturday. west-north-westward. 39 another. JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO Nor spare they one did. after resting most of the day by those wells.

marched three leagues more. as Teixeira explains hereafter.) Vide query in Hobson- ^ " Tell Kesroeh " (Tal Kasrawi) appears on Kiepert's map about half-way between Basra and Mash ad Ali. of Chesney. with twelve bastions. and though our victual was failing already.40 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. . . worn out the rest of the and asked us to company took share but we would . three of a side. square. It is they call all buildings of kings or half-way between Basora and Mexat Aly. Jobson. has. 755. that for so is. I which supposed from its size and position. one to each angle. costly. the morning." princes. to secure the passing this way. much water in winter and so . their flesh to eat. All this was already must much its the worse for wear. of course. we came to the channel of a dry they said. There stands there yet an old mortar. —had at not our need overborne We had marched about eight leagues. or more so and probably Shaikh Muhammad's grandfather made use of bricks from some ancient ruin on the spot. not. its erection have been very It difficult. when we sunset. yet no less than a royal work for excellence. river. we started three hours before day. in that place. fort. or Kaygar. and for that. The godfather is as likely to have been a Persian Khusru as a Roman Caesar. p. a forefather of cafilas my Xeque The Mahamed eben Arabs call it Raxet.^ all well built of burnt brick and About seventy paces outside it was a little alcoran^ ten cubits high. and toilsome. which had evidently been higher. of like material and construction. the ^ 2 13th. and two on each ( curtain. Meaning. . On Monday. apparently. on the authority. whither we were bound. and halted here until four o'clock in the evening. " the palace or house of Caesar. but of intolerable stench it. Alkaygar. before the Turks occupied Bagdad and Basora. and encamped all Five camels of the caravan died that day. A minaret.^ in the We and found bed of that river some wells of clear fresh water. was built by an Arab king.

"^ The water was indifferent. Kiepert's map. On Wednesday. ^ 38. but when it we had it for though was clear was drawn and bright. was salt as the sea. and some remnants of buildings. at league . whereof one died to recover whose load we stayed there that night. in a suitable position. but uneven. heading north-west. eastwards. that he might advise them hence. we took . half marched north-westwards over the like country. and. and in places jungly .JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. subject to the flood of the Euphrates. as of late. " the Bull's Heart. Sayda. After about seven leagues' march. having made about six leagues. when to come and rob us. we halted a league from old city . march we saw pany declared the 15th. but better than yesterday's. we halted. we in a plain. we halted amid uneven sands to some laggard camels. on the warning of a pilot of that he cafila^ was a spy of a clan of those parts. a few palms. Here was to be the made the prisoner a certain Arab. At eleven. We had await . stony. . the road two hours after before dawn. little it over half a which some went to small joy of it. who had come with us from Basord. try. having made about three leagues. but the place is not on my maps. that is. heading north-west in the east a great and fire. " Ain Saida " is on 2 The translation is correct. p. We marched again at four in the afternoon. and halted at ten in the morning in a place called by the Arabs Kalb al Sor. that is. 4I and went through low lands. one hour before sunrise. He defended himself For the etymology. which is a short day's march distant salt. the 14th. note. " the eyes or springs of Sayda."*^ where was one well of foul and stinking water. We marched six leagues. The land was not level. see above. one hour's all which the com- work of thieving Beduyne Arabs. some wells lying left amid the ruins of a great It is called whereof are now but those wells. and by the Arabs Hayun Sayda. water on our right hand. On Tuesday. .

dry and All that stony. about leagues. bound and we well guarded. into a great ravine. the 17th. and against lions."^ or beasts gave It it would seem that the name. Having marched a little more than two called leagues. and just fifty we took the road two hours before dawn we had an alarm Arab thieves. brought in pay of the cafila for that duty. sunrise. to make all they brought him on to Mexat Aly. with some shade : of bushes and reed-beds. of the text 2 This is on Kiepert's map. camels. and lying all upon our arms. though there are so many in those lands. but. day we saw many herds of wild asses. On Thursday. a Already that evening one had attacked man of our company. we descended is. wards. order than hitherto bringing all our men. the i6th. after all. ahead Perhaps "the Choker" would be a closer rendering. but the sense is clear. against the thieves that prowled about that place. and marched until ten at night five through rough country. and those not close at hand. we saw few. The same again. that loss the Drowning.M. in better . kept strict guard all night. day. On of ^ Friday. which are not wanting there. we started again.42 firmly. with fires. wherein during winter flows a fierce torrent that the " Arabs Hhanega. Four men. four leagues started and marched through the We halted in a convenient place. but by the grace of God hurt him Whereby also. before daylight. safe.^ At 3 P. . like country. before four in the afternoon. we set out three hours before not. and wells of good water the Arabs call it Semat. denying the charges . It of some men this has some trees and green grass. on five-and-twenty camels. THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. and other beasts within a leaguer of piled baggage. After about eight leagues' march north-west- we rested at noon in a green place. until sunset.

JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO of US. swords. 43 So they go commonly in that desert. and so worn with the way. thieves passed on without reinforce. twelve musketeers. Then we all made ready for fight. every trifle disquieted us. So. wherever Arab soldiers 2 " Laguna. The We were afraid that they went but to seek that ments. The best own defence. two on each camel. seeking a watering-place it. shields and caniales. heat and that hunger and thirst. Our cafila got under arms . but one of our Arab pilots kicked up his gray mare.^ They have also many horsemen. and a few with other arms of close halt." I have avoided using the English form " lagoon " for fresh water. which are great broad. fearful of thieves. I should say. mares to horses in use. safer. four mounted lancers. recognised them. 2iS jambtya. is evidently formed from khdnjar^ and the descripdagger well known in India. is marked on Kiepert's map as Rumyah. This morning's march was and lay for three or four leagues in sight of a great lake. out of respect to modern custom. look-out. or marsh. ITALY. to rest in. armed took the vanguard. Before an attack they dismount at a their little distance. leave camels hobbled. and went prancing and shouting war-songs. The lake. Their usual arms are lances. For all and in the best order we marched on the we could keep. by securing one knee in a bent position. as swifter and and 1 " Caniales'^ tion is of that go. crooked daggers. being about forty bowmen. as being themselves too few for the venture but they came not again. We were so cold. and then advance to the attack. and returned prefer to say that they were Beduyne hunters for water. and at marvellous speed joined those people in an instant.2 a backwater of the river Euphrates. forced. and coming towards we saw there some folk. bows. to encourage themselves in their and that of the company. and made sure that they were thieves. encamped there (The Arabs. . fight.

betwixt and the foot of the flanking cliffs. even then we fared no We left this place at three in the afternoon. halted in a waterless plain. me until night. barley. which the Arabs call Utcela. Jews behind. more easily fed in the desert than staHions. east. foundered by haste and heat. We for I made we might and . with good trees. . it.i It was plentiful and good the place green and shady. and perhaps it is the place. having made before three leagues sunset. fore it Where- seemed the nearer Diego de Melo. for it stands on high land. north-westward.M. though the land in general desert like the rest. in sight. thanks to a little is stream of fresh water running through them. At 3 P. and he himself fresh water Here were shift as best and green grass. we marched by again. bearing cotton and vegetables. for that next day was their Sabbath and. We got to it about i p. over plains.M. march through tilled fields. over and east of the lake. and south ^ Kieperthas "el Athy" a suitable position. leaving the . and my saddle-bags were now but and empty . At i P. which smote us with dreadful force. it somewhat in forcing the pace along the lake. Since morning we had held Mexat Aly to us. miles. get ahead of us to his horse. We in headed north. reed-beds.) The water was a spring in a great dry river-bed. having marched six .m. specially to rest. I worse than many. we came head of after eight leagues' wheat.44 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. On Saturday. at two leagues from the backwater. rushes and other plants. could not eat of a rice-stew that full my captain had provided. which cost him fell who must needs sick afterwards. but no shade from the sun. we marched two hours to the northern day. wherefore patience must serve better.. of grease taken from the camels that had died on our way. the i8th.

regular form. ^ Necessarily. They cast what was gravel and there. . shoe. They here amounting to had marched up the south-west side. rainy season.^ ITALV. and had to make Mashad Ali. at the foot of which many men and boys welcomed all of us in general.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO succession. if it because of its good paces. a lake. on the whole. was very lame of a forefoot should be journey. lake already mentioned is fed by the EuphraIn the that whose waters run naturally and form here as hither. and sewed to the sole with alternate stitches. and the took up its foot to see and found a great and deep fistula. that day. while the caravan rested at the head of the I was in the mess of one Xeque Alaby. when they brought Arab pilots. 4$ and after about six leagues' journey. but has various arms rather long than otherwise. on the north-eastern corner. To reach the town we had to climb a high and rough hill. without I have recorded this to show what the river most barbarous folk can learn from necessity. he much vexed could not hold out for the He had pilot scarce done speaking. This he cleaned out with an iron. The tes. which lies north-west and south-east. were a great sea whereof the fifty I water-marks bear witness. to a woman's injury. and filled it with cotton and burnt rags. the camel to him. showing a difference of palms between high-water-mark and the level at which saw it. as they were . in flood. they are swollen desert. and especially their own kinsfolk and acquaintance. we came to Mexat Aly. so cleverly that I wondered Hereby the further camel could both go and mend. may be thirty-five or forty now rounding the head of the backwater. very painful. in the season of least water. who complained . Then he took a it piece of leather. On lake. a great friend that his saddle-camel of mine. and that. extracting much mud. It This lake is of no and is. just as the sole is stitched at him. sufficient to cover the foot. it by much water from . with one of the it. one hour after dark.

but those in Those of the town are as the open country have no partitions. but one common place for natural purposes. For the place was foul." though of similar . but very moderate. fish. it. each with its door and key. on Saturday. a pass in the middle where water. The like are also in India. described. and find shelter on the numerthe the call ous islets. . turns salt. and cooking- place. In fresher than at low water. Some have a well in the centre. " Chawls. o tenants. ill-sheltered. There is leagues about. power alone. entered Mexat Aly. as was well seen for some of the men fell sick. as it is fordable to camels at low is when I saw it. although in bad repair. Our " Dharams^las" . There are some that can hold three or four hundred men. And. for the love of God. and others a place for the beasts. and six in greatest breadth. The water salt is pro- flows in fresh. especially in our worn-out condition. ^ ' Of September. . * Caravanserai. We i8th. whole unloaded in a k/ian^ or karoancero^ as they certain places built to shelter cafilas and travellers. In others there are fees charged. too.^ The Arabs call this lake Rahemah. much at It duced by flood-time. These are built like the cloister of any of our monasteries divided into cells. called chales^ but not so well built and clean. as I have said. and unfit for rest. or set of rooms. 1604. as the soil saline. This khan was great and. . the Bombay etymology. had Here we slept. as the heat of the sun its it is is extreme. are simply large houses let out in rooms. has plenty of great and small wherefore there are innumerable waterfowl that live thereon. Some by the are free. uneven. and not a few of the evidently been built with care and cost. here and Bagdad. stony. Because it was late. All the rest is deeper. but. and the night was no easier than those gone by. one hour cafi/a after nightfall. only it is the custom to make a present to keeper. being built to that end rich Moors .: 4-6 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA.

and was with them until we left the place. and salutes and to embraces. which had been sent as a present to meal for my captain : no great me. (Zotenberg's Tabari. and waste. that is. but he was no dependent of 1 " Sobrtno" ^ All's. cvi. they asked me take quarters with them. feats victories and valour. who had in gone ahead and got good lodging look another khan^ came after me up if at daybreak . iv." was founded about one thousand years ago. they put according to his left to dying direction. and I joined them. body. to avoid cause of complaint. or means the same thing. as they are wont.^ clean wasted. 47 We supped on dates. which "Aly's mosque. and water. tell dismiss. as here I out of place. who had been had given all day almost fasting. for my special biscuits with patience. shortly. which they take its own meaning more literally nephew. beasts died. or Mam Aly. to his companion.) . that Ali was buried in the palace at Kufa. without express permission of my captain. Needs must I bear all which on such ways is the first and most out. whose tribe does not appear. fit subject for laughter. to Mahamed. These. which is about ten English statute miles from Mashad Ali. chap. as we had been long I apart. Pt. whom he had from childhood. Diego de Melo and Mustafa. a place not far from this. it. Mexat Aly. temple. son of Muljam. but says. Kufa. They pressed for and got it . He was cut down in the mosque of Kufa by Abdul Rahman.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. and already recorded by many. now When they had washed and anointed his it. They commonly enemies of him Mortz Aly and his sectaries (mortal the Sunis. at the time of his death. as Teixeira says. many and miracles. would not. Tabari has not got the story of the camel. sour milk. The in inhabitants say that Aly was reared treacherously slain by his own man. cousin^ call He was and son-in-law . to of the city. needful provision. or rather for tears. on a camel. his who are of the Turks' persuasion) relate of him.

suffered not a little in appearance and condition. following it in view.4S THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. Then those who followed came to it at once and built here a tomb for the corpse. the Grand Turk. when it hath not over poor five hundred and those mostly and ill-furnished. There is wells. for that the aqueduct its was foul and choked up. it is not long before his tribe give him founder's honours. course. gifts. and that brackish. As they grew up a held the land for hallowed there was such resort of city . to see where it is it stopped. who favoured the place greatly. inhabited. which Sultan Selim. of burnt brick and mortar. not over or sixty years ago. This. and under is annual clearance. was so enriched with rich. now breached no water but of in a thousand places. At last rested in this desert.^ king of Persia. 1 Mashad again an ' In 1576 A. and things needful are All is supposed to represent the ancient Hira. Some inhabitants told me that it had declined in every way after the death of Xa Thamas. as their ruins bear witness to this day. it way. Such as must have it sweet fetch it from an aqueduct. with time. as were the mosque and houses. But now. i). the attendance and offerings fail and the building has . all There great scarcity of wood. with But when we came there. and that Of older Alexandria (Kiepert's and D'Anville's maps). for desert to the last degree. It was surrounded by a wall. opened up from the Euphrates for three leagues. we great cost and trouble. men there. had from six to seven thousand houses. and squats in the ruins. could not drink of it. .^ Most of these were great and well built. built. and the devotion and frequentation of his worshippers and sectaries. that by degrees there fifty which. . at its best. when an Oriental conqueror sacks a town. by that interment. with the decline of that sect and doctrine. that there grew fairly up a temple and alcoran^ very and wrought enough.

and no less to of their own sect. Turk is . The road was one and we met footmen and horsemen. except some of neighbourhood. This land king. The people are mostly white. for sin to and deal with others and if they have to take anything handled by such. they say. were away. visible some ruins of sucos^ (which were marts). where . In their absence the natives were so masterless and unruly. fowls. Moors not They value themselves much on all it observing talk its rule. No Jew nor Christian may dwell among them. level but desert land.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO imported tables. and droves of ^ Further on spelt succos. wheat. without fear or shame. as usual in towns thereabouts. and its lord. called off to Bagdad by reason of the Persian war. vaulted. different princes. After four days' rest that we started anew. three hours before . pays fifty is subject to the tribute. It represents the Arabic j?^^= market- F. fruit diet is The common fish in of dates. and round cakes of wheat or barley. barley. but all ill-conditioned. richly bejewelled. curdled milk made is into cheese. E . There usually a garrison of all Turks but these. at the time of our stay. the lake. . There are yet with windows the city. —D. but they use little There plenty of of it. they have a thousand ceremonies. an Arab him . who stayed there. the body presented by of Aly. so strictly. 49 and vege- as sheep. and lighted so well built as to prove the past glory of In the mosque of or temple. place. that they committed a thousand violences and outrages. and raise many objections. there are things of price great and especially three lamps gold. : ITALY. the 23rd and marched north-west- wards over very in use. for they bear mortal hate to these. is. sunrise of Thursday. that they hold .

We halted started flat.: 5P THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA." the name of the khan. While we were in Esegel. the 24th.m.^ whom It is held in the highest the Moors and Jews call Ezkhel.e. as do all those born in India It and was that exceedingly sorry for himself.^ He was his unused to much hardships. for ease and because his horse was yet unserviceable. who seldom deals an hour.— D. half a league from the route. near a great well of and good water. over hard sands. ride call Melo which he had already felt in Aly. where tomb and body of the holy prophet Ezechiel. no less for his life and holiness. 2 This tomb of Ezekiel is on some modern maps." the khan and the neighbourhood probably take their name from the tomb. or had lately. through His servant. a great building with a high tower. 1 This .] 2 It may be remembered that Diego overrode his horse into * Ghaneiza of Kiepert. with this many camels. About three leagues before are the we had seen.^ " Haskel. at two hours after midnight. blood-lettings and pleased God two some cool drinks set at 3 p. what seems to us an odder form " Esegel. 158. F. leagues. Israel of Kolaba have. asses. camels and At half-past eleven o'clock. karoancero^ called At sunset we near another fair by the Arabs Geneza. On started we on a forced march over very bare sands. [See description of tomb by I. op. Friday. having grown up much at ease and pleasure. and at two gunshots off fifteen huts or tents of Arabs.* in a clear though dry plain.. six leagues. is At day- in fractions of an uncommon phrase with our traveller. Benjamin. though not in The identification of Ezkhel is all right and the Beni Kiepert's. but great fine well and well In a plain near was a of very good water. Mashad Ali. we halted in a karoancero^ or built. . than for respect by all the miracles which they say God has wrought here . J. ancient. He had to on a camel —both . cit. . and marched north- wards. Diego de this fell khaUy which the Arabs sick of a fever.^ having come about seven khan it . hence him all right again.^ p. is the same word i.

after seven leagues' march on a north-west course. . many of them well designed in the country fashion. but all or Mexat Ogem. we halted a free khan^ whereof there are many there. Ogem. not thinking themselves safe there while war should last between their nation and the Turks. that is. and how we went thence. stands F. in When we got into the city. I. . as here." for the martyr's title of Imdm [though Teixeira appears to consider it a synonym for mashad ^ Karbala. Appendix C. or Xyahys. D. territory. as merchandize for that many merchants of various countries meet there. — it is often used. many Agemis.^ like those of Aly and therefore mortally hate all other sects and None laws. of and Turks sent to control that were then there. as well of Moors as of Christians and Jews.1 JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. The all inhabitants are native Arabs. "the mosque of Ogem. same reason. for E 2 .^ Rdfizis or SMahs. all The markets are well is vaulted. rightly translated " Husain's Mosque. and : things needful are abundant. Mam of poor construction. The natives of Mexat Ogem are all Rafazis. foundation." of course. and if one but chance to he is very ill-looked on. Properly. F.e. F. but the whom none For the gone to Bagdad to the war. or " Mashad Husain. crossed the Tigris. across River Euphrates and Mesopotamia. infra. had left town. 5 break we saw the town of Mexat Ogem. ^ See note. and entered the city of Bagdad is that thereon. * — D.^ or Persians. of these two last live in the land pass through all it. is Mam. CHAPTER Mexat Ogen^ and the its V. d. seeing the site of Babylon. the term Rdfizi should be — confined to a particular sect of Shiahs^ but the whole body.] (mosque). but came not to it until nine o'clock." is an open town of more than four thousand houses. and well built.

at the end of which he was murdered by the victors (see. This city is well and cheaply supplied with wheat. beauty and And though they be less ancient than his by but few years. alcoran. by reason of the rainwater all that they collect in winter. remain green and grassy the rest of the year. they show much better.52 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. filled from the Euphrates. and many go with water-skins and clean brazen cups giving drink to the thirsty without it if through the asking money. formerly desert place. and increased by the devotion of the Xyais.^ it therefore the Moors. like those of Aly. seq. The mosque and for their size. for the love of God to all who ask . canal. which. in this the son of Aly. barley. At the end of the town next the Euphrates are two great square reservoirs. And as. for a decent old authority. They are very capa- and at present the canal water is stored there. with some curious glazed tiles. The climate just is milder than in those lands whence we had come. 11. hold for a good work to give water streets. by reason of the remains of rooms and cious. vegetables.). p. There are some public wells of good water. though they do not refuse offered. 1 Husain (son of Ali. son of Abi Taleb. away in time of There are many herds and fed on the neighbouring pastures. and especially those of that sect. which seem. iii. 35. iv. with its alcoran^ dedicated to O^em. plenty of The land is watered by a trees. rice. There is a mosque. many were wont to die of thirst. et Teixeira records this in the Kings of Persia^ Bk. who is buried here. daughter of the Prophet) and his men suffered fearfully from thirst during his last fight at Karbala. chiefly on certain low plains. and some mosaic work. and of European fruits. to have served as cool places of resort and entertainment. galleries around them. and meat. fruit. vol. . is eight leagues flocks. Zotenberg's Tabari. which flood. by Fatima. founded in the same way. and serves them during most of the time that the common supply fails. The material is brick and mortar. chap. are notable cost.

This town. My captain was about to wed.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. by reason of the Persian war. Most of the men go on horseback. waiting for the others until his turn comes round. slain and despoiled by Arabs of that very city it . but not extravagant in dress. They use commonly and pack-bullocks. house. Diego de Melo. cooked —dates. there were sold in public the well-trapped horses. and meat with its — God his knows how . a little rice. and some floor. 53 This city and Mexat Aly are subject to Mir Na^er. all served on the on a round sheet of But our great piece of civilisation was that each had own spoon. fruit. clothes. were not that custom mingled with other and uses that altogether obscure it. consequent withdrawal of the Turkish garrison. woman of own clan and alighted at his bride's house. that. took up quarters in a khan or karoancer6\ whence my captain- sometimes carried me to dine at his victuals. an Arab For king. freely of his bread to every comer that needs ill it. a . and very convenient for his camels and establishment. For to common amongst the Arabs of the open country have but one spoon among ten or twelve. and arms of thirty or forty Turks. on his wedding broth These were dirty cakes. is very short of wood. not of the best leather. asses. and camels. I. vassal to the Turk. myself. and many of the best family there. with his kith and kin. wherefore they burn mostly the dry dung of oxen and camels. while I who lives upon those lands. for was mostly in revolt. Yet what they offer is of honest goodwill and herein were the Arab better than many other folks. ill-made. all was there. wherefore they had nothing horses. and of his our caravan. of fair complexion and tolerable appearance. The people are left to fear. which was new and well ordered. his companion Mustafa. in this city. like that of Aly. and worse cooked. that he gives . . and each in it is order takes his spoonful.

until the segmenes took thtem- selves We few folk who remained of the caravan.. like "chasseurs" and "Jagers. '"'' . . p. these. Very few remained. but in the Turk's employ feared from whom we some violence. latterly. were and he such a mean miser that he would ». a sort of irregular police soldier" {Turkish Probably the imperial huntsmen were always Dictionary^ sub voce). charged to forward thither the merchants with their goods. where they were well put up khariy and we stayed in much on our off. s. king. Redhouse says: Saghhdn {Seymen). not Turks. guard. sagman. under annoyance enough ." sa^hdn. the 29th of September." or kennel establishment. formerly a soldier of a particular corps of the Janissaries. or one at least. and disorderly. = " dog. thanked him much. friends. But Persian to he bade beware. and. "doggery. or supposed to be especially good light troops.keeper. whom many were very unwilling. because our in For his own had come up and the rest such condition that speedily unserviceable . pressed the captain so hard that he gave way. in chief because there were billeted in the same khan forty segmenes^ with their officer. And we had good cause. five died. " dog . for they are a loose folk. for that the segmenes meant have away with them both I my comrades' horses. Whilst we were here there came from Bagdad officers of the Customs. there me me a Moor. a sort of household troops." The last Indian prince of the vieille roche told me that his were the only troops he had worth trusting. nor law. seeing our time wasted. more or less irregular. fearing neither God. and I do not know why he chose in me rather than another of the three of us. and warned my the and we sent the horses to our captain's quarters. We and remained here eight days. not hire others. next a soldier of some regiments organised in the European style." 1 Sag^ Persian. These are arquebusiers.54 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. But on Wednesday. and we amongst captain found us no camels. When came they had the route (having only halted to here). . of at last they set out.

and of others connected with him. but afterwards They use these on the canal. for that we were and that road as much used by them as by travellers. 29. on the Euphrates . river Euphrates. upon the persuasion of his brother-in-law. lay near the which flows there very smoothly. p. and signed by Lieut. sunrise on Sunday. . and for we halted thieves. After eight leagues we came. It truly a royal work. or occupy its site.. strong. which its are considerable. when it holds water. cut in the banks. We went its most of that march along the fertilizes all canal above-mentioned. late LN. were some wells of and thereby. we set out from Mexat Ogem for Bagdad on Saturday. the water was on the bank. It looks rather like a fortified tete-de-pont. The canal may . the 3rd of October. be three fathoms and a half wide. to a great. When collected and prepared. As It it was now the end of summer. On a beautiful map. the bitumen of Hyt. F. a chief man." or Musaib. there is a bridge of boats shown here. like those of Bagord. This is the passage of " Moseyb. which drawn liquid from two wells there. we crossed See supra. few. Bewsher. with some large building on the west bank. Caravanserais often are very defensible fortresses in a small way. at five in the evening. and of high repute and worth. ^ low. becomes very hard. dated 1865. and one In bed. a common crop thereabouts.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. much of it cultivated chiefly under cotton. keeping a good look-out was too late in the day for us to cross the river. D. and prepared to 55 accompany us. at nine o'clock in the morning. 2 — . whose water those lands lying within command. called danecas} pitched with quir^ that is is. and a half deep. and very spacious. drinkingalso therein certain troughs for the beasts. On that day we marched over good and level land. not without fear of thieves. good water now dry. and clean khan. but may very well be Teixeira's khan. the 2nd of October. of whom At ^ there is no lack thereabouts. There were boats.

good fish. everywhere tortuous. used along most of the banks. . but gave and stood amidst the ruins walls. set over It was weaker. river. smaller. Furdt. as much and as high as they please. high bank. Its waters are held for very pure. At that time of year it may be two hundred paces wide. fair follow Hadyta. a silver coin worth eleven maravedis. the river in two ferry-boats. Haluz. F. climbed the river.— D. very muddy and the boatmen told The water was me that where we It crossed the depth was over thirty fathoms. Yet better water-wheels." 2 Musaib. The most famous are Gedida and Hyt guese call the latter for the quir or bitumen. easy. built than that opposite. already mentioned. and fruits. " about three Halfpence. breeds plenty of The Arabs and Persians call it Forat. We got its on to the Mesopotamian side of the river. abounding in vegetables.^ For all all our haste. runs here from north to it and we crossed . As you ascend the river there are .— D. which the Indian Portu- quiky and use it to staunch the water tanks in that they have in their ships place of casks. the company and goods were not before ten o'clock of the morning.^ and the Hebrews Parat. rising four to six cubits. and worse good shelter.^ whereof to-day remains nought but the name and some old But there are many gardens. luba 1 (full of Then women). paying per head or parcel one maydin." says Stevens. and over.$6 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. but in flood much more. with engines of leather worked by oxen are the raises its : a cheap. of an old city called Megayehb. " 2 That is. over The south. and reached another khan. palms. and used for the irrigation of many fields and gardens. F. Mamura. some European though running far For they draw water from the river. many towns. below. whereby the current of the river own water. against the sun. and profitable device.

that Probably Khan Mizrakji of Kiepert and Rich. D. according to Dr. the bhdn of the .^ and the place prophecy a least frequented of all that region. we passed. same speed to another kkan called Berenus that is " the half-way house. Forest Flora. 507 <2^z/^Brandis. Israelites went captive The fields all thereof in Mesopotamia. to be Popidus Euphraiica.. at. whereof are now few it. of the beauty of the The towns are put out of their proper order. About two hours' march down stream of us lay Hela. 153. weeping willow Salix Babylonica. p. and called the 465).^ Having rested noon.. p. This kkan was the love of God. 2. for ambushes and onslaughts. ff.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.). Psalm cxxxvii. and these are the rivers whereby grow many willows mentioned by the Psalmist. Indus (C. Dr. * Isaiah xiv. wife of a chief of the Customs in Bagdad. near cut . by a Turkish lady. which great eminence of various condition. op. F. and strong kkan. Some modern botanists have supposed this tree. "Hyt" is modern Hit. [Cf. are in Mogayehb until seven in the after- we entered on the lands of Mesopotamia.* We halted not here. ^ : 2 called p. the river Euphrates. be fulfilled in respect of Forcing our march. garab in the Psalm. that the may new. built in a place where thieves are likely to be found. «. our right hand. Kayserling {op. and the bitumen is brought thence even now. are up with water channels. is the modern Hillah. five in the evening. we is Old Babylon two leagues on traces . The latter says it was named after " a Bagdad merchant who founded it. 155. the ground favouring them. Hela. and the ladies of Juba. cit. in accordance with tradition. Ana. Koch. Kayserling's note on this passage of Teixeira.." In this passage our traveller speaks chiefly " from information he received. near Aleppo. but with no left Heading northwards." and not as an eye-witness for instance. 19 F." . of course. ii. an ancient town of the region whither the into Babilonia. whole passage is of little value.^ S7 to Byra. but pushed on at the . Linnaeus had adopted our author's view.] — ^ —D. at fair. and many others . lying one over against the so to be very convenient built. and ancient Is. Dendrologia^ vol. p. are many as little hills. for For there other.

being very and the land pretty are visible at four leagues' distance. October 4th. rivers. 1839.e. at two o'clock A. square and weatherworn. and in by cafilas and want of others is that place. country. and others watered from many wells.^ stands half-way between the It is a noble building. lofty. 17. with brick parapets and great stone troughs. In this are some wells of water for used by them. The Well of the Half-way" (Rich. first the alcoraneSy which. On Monday.. It is not exactly halfway between Bagdad and Hilla." Rich refers it to the Hillah Road.M. Babylon and Persepolis. horses. from Bagdad. in either case . very well built." unless they are represented by mounds. have a few indifferent travellers. pressing the pace through varying now dry.^ The distance from the Euphrates about eight leagues. along both sides of the road great stores of burnt bricks. above ground and in which 1 " Bir-un-nous (incorrectly for nisf)^ i. December loth His story agrees very closely with Teixeira's. to 23rd of that year). and Biranus of Kiepert's. of the second league. Delia Valle went over the same route in 161 6. P. we found all pits. whereon were great herds of cattle of camels. P. right up to the From the end city. London. strong and spacious. on his way to and from Babylon and Hillah (Letter No. . but might pass for it.^79)It is Bir Enus of Bewsher's map. At one is musket-shot beyond another khan or karoancerby old and ruined. level. especially from two that we saw. now abounding all sizes. But it does show irrigation and cultivation near the existing khan. and therein were ten or twelve Turkish horse regularly posted there for the help of passengers. we marched northwards. 58 for THE TRAVELS OF FEDRO that it TEIXEIRA. 2 Bewsher's map does not show the second and third khans of " Bir Enus.. or Karbala. who fields thereabout.. hardly for half-way " between the rivers. And these were the first stones that sunrise we saw that all between Mexat Aly and Bagdad. khatiy Opposite it is another and ancient where some poor families shelter themselves. in pasture. part of At we saw of Bagdad which is in Mesopotamia.

^ which is a circular gallery. before our arrival. at regular hours. but commonly like a ship's mast.^ their And Book is called Koran it or Alkoran. Within a staircase up to the gallery. thrice the night. We got into the Mesopotamian quarter of Bagdad at I P.M. He was called Diego Fernandes. And." . whereof in these some very magnificent and costly. And what they say is: " God is great. raise a loud and musical chant. for that is inciting the people to the praise of God. cylindrical to the top. three months out of Basora by boat on Knowing of my coming. shorter and more slender. will describe them such as know not what The Moors have these buildings in their mosques. a native of Hamburg. the little E. an old Indian acquaintance. and I believe is and bear witness to the same." in sailors' technical language 1 Gabia platform at the masthead. In this he had expressed wonder at my route (for the renegade that " a top." And besides this. and they are of various construction. who had come ahead of the caravan from Ogem. He had reached Bagdad seven days before. and above that. he had written me his a letter that I never got. and there is none like him. and twice in Moors charged with that public duty. But. by one Jafar. He are is who one. already advised of the cafila's arrival. a the river. renegade. which the essential matter never omitted. I was welcomed by a young German.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.^ in the call to night prayers : " Prayer is better than sleep. they make additions. they for I that I several for times mentioned the alcoranes^ are. not the very summit. and that I was in it.g. is. I 59 mention in advance of what have I shall have to say about Bagdad. and that is Mahamed his messenger. 2 = . like is the top-mast. where his right name was Joachim Ozemkroch. in whence. the mulds^ the day. the is same name given to the place whence lands are set forth. as we have lofty belfries in our churches.

F. Concerning the City of Bagdad.] — : — . or Diguylah. caused by the wars of Aleppo.000 yards to the inch. D. * Xenophon and Felix Jones found thirty-seven a coincidence of which the latter makes. is There one bridge of twenty-eight boats. The river runs through be two pretty nearly from north to south. and plans of the city at various periods. is Whereby I well seen how . his leagues come to 27 to a degree on the Equator. on a scale of 4.^ overlaid with 1 For these two marches. near the gate. as I have said. and I went to his where. less usual head that I was going by one and and had warned me of the insecurity and troubles of the roads. he rendered me many it services. it. having marched ten leagues that day. As near as one can guess. well worth while for that to do a good turn when you can least little after so long a time. but a league on that scale is a very fair hour's march for a laden camel. perhaps. a beautiful sheet. see Guy Le Strange's Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate^ London. and may hundred and thirty paces wide at lowest water. 177-186. F. We house . and when thought of it. which we made is together. as when I was there. crossed the river. D. 1900. [On the Bagdad bridges of boats. I I for the Along with him on the other side. that he is not here using the long " Portuguese leagues. and on my journey to Aleppo. too much.6o got it THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO into his TEIXEIRA. more perilous). Bagdad^ is set on the river Tigris. I can compare Teixeira's distances with the Indian Navy Map." 2 For the history of Bagdad from its foundation. as are Sevilla and Triana on the Guadalquivir. and entered the city about three o'clock in the afternoon. met. at any rate. It is quite certain.^ CHAPTER The famous city of VI. which the natives call Digilah. see Le Strange's Baghdad^ pp. No accurate calculation is possible. service that I had so advantageous a return had done to this young man.

The water floods the gates of the city. the lofty spoil-bank of as we did. ITALY. is 6l the fast and between boat and boat is. 3 The original has " casa de Kaodh" (see next page). Hasan Pasha Wazir. and so likewise under stress of flood. that four paces. 2 As we should now — . 1 This is in contrast to their negligence of the fish at write. thrown across but is always cast apart during prayer-time on Fridays. and after that reunited. by Agen Baxa Wazir. enter that part lying west of the river. as It beam of one of them. Some- which stands on a bank not much more than that height above it. it.^ and sweeter than that of the Fish are plentiful and good. one near each side. and the Moors clearer For the maintenance of the bridge there maydin. use them. Teixeira's "Wazir" would satisfy the strictest Anglo-Indian. made in name I —very fine buildings. khan^ and coffee-house. but here that is difficult. Those coming from Mesopotamia. gateways of this any building of khan. I prefer to write " Pasha" in the customary Enghsh way. ditch. over a deep and wide dry which serves as a rampart. and half on each bank. has two fixed wooden is and secures that quarter against the Arabs. that is is a toll of one worth eleven maravedis. F.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO timbers .^ who also built thereby the market. seemed to me much Euphrates. on every load of goods inward or outward bound. the wind or water goes down. much as is made to the city walls chains. D. excessive when people it use ferry-boats. and of a Mashad Ali. is When again.^ yet known by his 1601. lies and houses on each side with great iron it Every night wind or is cast apart in mid-stream. do not remember having seen stone except in the in this city. river rises in winter six cubits it The times and more. while the Pasha and people are in the mosques. the enemy most to be feared on that bridges. It end of This ditch a new work.

whether Bagdad this least the position is The last word represents the Arabic qahwah^ when Teixeira wrote. caroanceros. river.^ a vegetable of the size and of dry beans. that all is. higher up the which some hold to have been Nineveh. and the the founder was the same Pasha.^ The details that follow are repeated by our author m s.. prepared and sold in public houses built to that end wherein great or all men who desire it meet to drink it. richly dressed. At name 2 suggests that governor. It is black and rather tasteless some good qualities are ascribed to it. vi. . They are brought from Mosul. public and workshops of Everything so is . and by day in winter. " Coffee "). I. is from that side. as Coffee little is I have a coffee-house.v. or both. They sit in order." No. in them very porcelain cups holding four or his five ounces each. 26. Bk. Dict. brought from Arabia. This part of Bagdad may have three thousand inhabited . with succos. who serve the coffee with music and other diversions. houses baths. cooling and sipping and. hand as marble. for that the provisions and some things more in come mostly said. although are proven. you enter the city by the These stones are white and very hard. and for entertainment and in order to attract custom there are here pretty boys. none Only their custom induces them to meet use this here for conversation. F. had not become naturalised in the various European languages (see Hobson-Jobson and the New Eng. . or sedile. handicrafts in use among the Moors. Every man takes it. near the river. of his Kings of Persia (see infruy Appendix B). — D. which. marts. over which it has many 1 On Felix Jones's Plan of al Vizir. own in his hand. frequented at night in and take the money These places are chiefly This house is summer. be they mean. mosque appears as " Jama that described. but not the left new mosque/ on bridge. chap. Amongst appearance other public buildings. 62 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXETRA. Casa de Kaodk. and it is brought to hot. as plentiful as within the city.

public use. almost its circuit rather over that given by Teixeira. galleries.^ It is girt a ditch some eight cubits deep. the citadel where the Pasha lives: rather spacious than strong. one enters it by a great its gate. paid and his provisioned at own cost. and in circuit about with one thousand five hundred common paces. walls The and bastions are of are sheltered brick. all the land is and fertile. The whole description of this wall is Pietro Delia Valle and Thevenot give no help. Herein the Pasha. and twelve wide. On and this side there are to be seen. F. with guns mounted here and his there. who are commonly from one five thousand hundred to two thousand men. flooded in some years this in the the winter. When is happens. which boats came alongside of. a very irregular quadrangle. and unsatisfactory. At northern point. which is [Cf. for This wall more than a league and a half It is. — D.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. and two resort. etc. pentagon. in shape a long quadrangle.2 1 middle of the wall. very flat On side. and description of the fortifications. unless we suppose that the "bridge" {puente) vjdiS really a floating stage or pontoon. 2 on Felix Jones's plan. and not surprising. Bagdad (not Babylon). the plan of Bagdad. This arrangement is . and many more throughout Turkey and Persia. Windows. in Tavernier's Voyages.. city. besides . and is crossed in boats. and the best of immediate following.] not easy to understand. with one gate towards Persia. The this citadel gate opens southward. . tilled and sown in in proper season. No hill it nor other obstacle breaks the view is and being so thrown level. as shall presently Passing hence to the city by the bridge of eight-and- twenty boats. which be a is there are five posterns on the river face which may great mile in length. ruins of ancient buildings. upstream. 63 making it it a very pleasant There are others like in the city. I which testify to the former magnificence of this great For here was at first the tell. without the rampart ditch. a bridge from a window of a bastion. and from this citadel starts the city wall.

" Madras"). F. and others over the a madrasc^ which was a hospital. Of these four are great. is and of they dependencies. . which are many. pp. well-built and strong enough to bear their guns . horse and foot. The scattered in garrisons and posts and besides these are the Pasha's household troops. and the other end rests on the river. and many bastions.— D. already mentioned as living with him in the city.64 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. whom rest make use of fifteen Four or hundred thousand live in the city. of are whom are Janissaries. heavy. about. F. with some salients. peace and war. D. There brick. Baghdad^ 2 —D.^ in river. for better defence. see Le Strange's F. wherein was seen how far that protection extends. 252. in a very important case. and the wall is with platforms. returns.^ I suspect some Felix Jones very little. It has two more gates landwards : one in the middle and of burnt one at the southern extremity. of Turks and of other nations. but have followed Stevens's translation as the safest course. for " college" (see Hobson-Jobson^ s. 266-270). or p. The its force appointed to the defence of this city. commonly five of fourteen thousand men. here has absolute and supreme all of bronze. He defends them very honestly. which is not his fault. For he went so far as to imprison the royal officers. v. when his clients are threatened with any notable wrong. against who stands up for them and for him and the other royal officers. There are visible the Persian times. Yet have the strangers a protector. and good. 1 On the Jami-al-Kasr. which contained a hospital (see Le Strange's Baghdad. describing a semicircle. corruption in the text. in The Pasha command. — . and made the Pasha abandon his pretensions. ^ This was the famous College of the Mustansiriyah. Mosque of the Caliph. Bagdad ruins of fine buildings of such as the mosque called the Calefah's. Arab. the merchants. appointed by the Turk. is a deep ditch all round. as happened when I was here.

They live are all of old bricks got ruins. but poorly All are flat-roofed . because of the war. most have no windows on the and but small from the selling these. by a Pasha his saint. as far as it may be seen For none but Moors may enter conversion all places. mostly large built.^ a costly work enough. Probably the shrine marked by Felix Jones " Sheikh hdb-ood-Din. by the great gate. . last the rest Turks. whereby is supplied with river-water." near the " Bab-al-Wastani. for famous alike it for its construction and an aqueduct. is Besides these memorials of the past there is nothing deserving note but two mosques. it may contain over twenty thousand houses. especially life those most in use. and roomy. and there are great palm-orchards." Omer F Sha- . may be two or three hundred houses of Jews. Kurds and Agemis There or Persians which my time. street. 62. Although one-third of the space within the walls of Bagdad lies waste. and seldom well planned. already mentioned (see supra^ p. As in for the inhabitants. whereof one left on the of one as you come It into the city from the river. whereof ten or twelve profess to be remnants of the first captivity. * and note). and of great public benefit. for four or the land miles around the Mesopotamian quarter full of deep pits. set at the head of the city. Some of them are well1 The " Jama-al-Vizir" of Felix Jones's Map. the most part are civilised : Arabs. 6$ some old alcoranes which are wasting away.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO the vaulted markets. without plain peril of or of forcible but this is not enforced with equal vigour in The other mosque. and ITALY. and in pious is memory surely a costly and judged from without. these mosques. lie near the palm-orchards that is between it and the rampart. and many all only by quarrying and five is Wherefore.^ was built whom you may call work. were not very numerous. fair but yet a proportion. street doors. showing how great was that city in other days.

and manners. and believe that the title 1 Dr.'*' D. and eighty of Nestorians. The men. Pange Aly. commonly bax.) —D. some. at times. and have a The folk of kanzs or synagogue. of r to 3 /. G. some for women. says that the kanis referred to was "perhaps the Kenisa'gdolah des Rosch Hagolah. p. and as many khans. but in their THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. some for all men of only." (Note the change = — . use them freely. closed at night with great iron chains. and remained there imprinted. Benjamin's description of Bagdad {op. wherefore they have there a sort of oratory. or five fingers" because they say. near the river. de Sao Bernardino {Itinerario. F." D. 140).* I arquebusier.66 to-do. or fail to drop their veils on purpose. but all is places much is.^ There of fair were ten houses of Armenian Christians. and workshops of the crafts used among lodge : Moors . In the There are in the city many very clean baths. Kayserling. " chudder. v. black or purple. are seven or eight streets all shops for goods. and many tapers is in it at night. Beyond these a street called ." See Hobson-Jobson. nature. f. * Here there is a confusion between banduk = a gun.^ Hereabouts is. Bagdad are commonly complexion and good appearance. here appeared the hand of Aly on the wall. They dwell in liberty own ward. who go mostly on horseback. who quotes this statement of Teixeira's in a footnote to I. wherein merchants frequented. The buluk bashi was simply a captain. and most have fine eyes. 2 Persian chadir or chddar mantle. a stationed a bolugo baxi.' which Benjamin de Tudela mentions. they are simple enough. an head. so that they see all and cannot be seen not that they object much : to that. so-called from bolugo. of whom many are very hand. that a chief or head arquebusier. cit. — = . and midst of Bagdad. that " Aly's hand. In the streets they wear always mantles called chaudeles^ but not black. most of them very poor. F. 103) describes this under the name of " Panyaly. p. J. veil the Anglo-Indian " chudder. As for the other etymologies. dress cleanly and richly as do the women. s. and buluk a company or squadron. and over their faces veils of silk or gauze..

yet I cannot remember to have heard of any violence being used I those streets. in great number. and Cam Bax or Black-head : names of his amongst Persians and Turks. from this station. or by the deserts on either side of it. horses. attends to all those succoSy or markets. or Red-head. Tripoli. meat. as the case may need. he sends them to the kabdy} who is the regular judge. for disposal. meaning head of the fighting tribes government. and healthy though the rarity of the air affects some careless folk with catarrhs. and even of war. cotton and use silk. cotton and silk all wrought up and used are never out of work. fruits. and from India through Bacora. or Didr Bakr. and so also Cazel Bax. on the western branch of the Tigris. and is so efficient. Provisions are abundant. and is Agemi or Persian. F 2 . ^ Probably a misprint for kazy. pure. and cheap bread. In time of peace. and sees that no buyer or seller be there offended.^ from Aleppo. Damascus. Summer and winter are as in Europe. nor any violence or injustice committed. There . the where are more than four thousand weavers of wool. means or severity. good. 67 of the same derivation. merchants resort hither with much goods out of Persia. that although there were there so soldiers. If he cannot. cold very : but the heat excessive. This plan seemed to me very good. asses. mules. Arabic. Bagdad enjoys a very climate. from Karamit. fair he settles them by word of mouth. is produced much city. and green-stuff. by the river. vegetables. ancient Armida. but Turkish most in use. This bolugo baxi. traffic is all namely. Turkish. temperate. and the moderate.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO baxa is ITALY. As by for private quarrels. and pack-bullocks. 2 Kara Amid. who The folk commonly three tongues. it many in undisciplined being war-time. during two months that dwelt there. flax. The common in the environs in of camels.

and copper coin are archery and one of and two schools. Teixeira's reference in a footnote. regarding whom and his works seethe Nouvelle Biographie Generale^ Tome vi. revised edition. though there be among them none wonder other sect or law . iii. F. and that in the head of relief. The reference is to Botero's Relationi Universally Lib. by reason of the miracles that they say God wrought by his means. . however. by L J. 158 (of the second.68 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. . rest. where Teixeira may possibly have bought it during his stay there in 1605). it has plenty from Mexat Aly.and less silver- smiths. filled saw a great all on both sides by gold. and reverence him accordingly. Without the Mesopotamian quarter of the in a small building. It is it say. of salt I Though the place is far inland. [It is described. by reason. D. 152). they Jewish high priest. where are wrought things no admirof any able than costly. Moors. and many other parts. p. for that it do not know where he got observe the contrary in is I this information whereof we many places. speaking of the Jews. a tomb held in great reverence by Moors and Jews. is a copper plate." " losuah the High Priest. rests the body of a like a great chest of masonry. of the neighbourhood of its ancient site. one of musketry. in his treatise of the customs of African nations. street. says that they won entry there by means of this art. and Dr. with at Botero. struck." all They say that he was a holy saint. no more than a good ^ Giovanni Botero. F. — D.^ p. par. pubhshed in 1602 in Venice. silver. I suppose. Amongst other sights of the city.] . wherein.^ who. ill. and two within the city for the There is a mint where gold. city there is. with Hebrew : characters in is : as follows " Yehsudh Koengadoh . which I noted. Kayserling cites — . forbidden to the Moors. clt.^ Such as have written about this city of Bagdad commonly confound it with Babylon. 2 This tomb is not named on FeHx Jones's map all the named tombs on which are of Muhammadan origin. to control which there are three custom-houses one across the river for the Syrian traffic. Benjamin {pp.

421. [On the foundation of Bagdad.H. is that quarter. will relate its origin and foundation. three hundred and forty-two years present after the foundation. that is. .D. Pleased with the position.D. 395.D. for better satisfaction of the reader.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO day's to ITALY. a city of Arabia. He says Mansur settled there in 145 of the Hijra). vol. for within ^ Abu Jafar Mansur. 383. as site there. Le Strange. op. thinking the eastern bank more is. the city. 283. Le Strange. And on the other side. cit. for the Tigris that the city went gradually and helplessly to ruin . the object of a successful raid of the Caliph U mar's General Muthduna and again. 279. from baga. he founded this city on the western bank of the Tigris. iv. To see the difference. iii. and second of the Abbaside dynasty. Teixeira has the story in the Kings of Persia^ where he dates the foundation in A. came hither from Kufa. was then no town of name. above mentioned as in Mesoit So great grew that its is (as I have said) for five miles around are found ruins of great and fine buildings. 147. But. whereon yet potamia. Abujafar. (Cf. is. accord- ing to the chronicles and records of the Moors. convenient. where now the bank towards Curdestam.^ p. who succeeded in the year of the Hijra A. F. it is enough know that Babylon stood on the Euphrates. etc. meaning a garden.] ^ Teixeira states these facts in his Kings of Persia also. when it was most prosperous. there came such floods of have taken name.) D. and A. and for other reasons. and is Bagdad on the I Tigris. pp. who mentions Bagdad as an important mart. This is one of the passages showing that he had not the Kings of Persia before him when preparing this Voyage for the press. He. D. In the year 145 of the Hijra. 763. 9 et seq. son of Muhammad. cit. 763. op. vol. 2 The best old authority before me is Tabari. son of Almoktady 487. but only a few farm-houses and gardens. 1095.^ it truly it transferred the city to its Yet was much greater than now . 21st Caliph. until the Caliphate of Almostazer Bilah. then the chief place and residence of the Kalifdhs. as the site of Abu Jafar's new city (Zotenberg's translation. see G. that A. or Moorish epoch. 69 march hence. F. Bilah. — — .^ pp. 384. whence it seems to eastern Bagdad in Persia means a place of gardens. that is.^ then Kalifah.'^ In course of time.

at. three days before our arrival there. v. which he had left. bringing him the of Wazir. level plain. D. the first This description is Jones's D." instead of his usual " Baxa. the Pasha had rebelled. Maps completely borne out by Commander Felix iii. When we were now set upon our departure. G.. and a golden chain-bridle things that the : Turk is wont to send to such as he raises to the like dignity.— 70 it. and had almost annihilated a force sent against him by the Sultan. Teixeira. As for Babylon. [Cf. His office is worth yearly 200.] * Map. p. but in war-time he makes what he pleases. He was called Issuf or lugef Pasha. there came . and such was origin. a sword. who are title gate-wards of the Grand Turk. whether by accident or design. F. in time of peace. every shower makes the mud past belief The Pasha had come lately from Bagord. standing on what by nature a very and con- sisting but of the ruins of many and it great buildings.000 sequins.^ its Such then is Bagdad. between the houses and the is wall. Bernardino relates (op. this suffice in respect of the I foundation of Bagdad. and a Xerquez^ by nation. F. — — . 108) that in 1605. F. a eunuch. yet bearing that stood in the place called those nations. here Pasha " Paxa. when he was in Bagdad. or about 250. with a robe of brocade. whereof he may expend This is the value of it at most thirty or forty thousand. door-keeper." ^ * Turkish kapiji = porter. and though there be yet some traces of Let they are unimportant. but must add that I cannot remember having seen elsewhere so many and terrible mires as here and in Bagora for as there is none but loose earth.000 ducats. and vii in G. It has long been it. spells Circassian. by the desert route. de S. THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. to this Pasha fifteen capgis^ from Constantinople. so called for that Babel. memory .* Of all ^ the Pashaliks to which the Turk appoints. Le Strange's work. and continuance in his government for seven years. D. I name amongst its have already mentioned but a position. are many great mounds.

F. Knolles's Generall Histerie of the Turkes^ 4th p. which had been for three private feud. He was Governor of Shiraz in 1602. 355) states that the Persian troops were recalled from Bagdad by Shdh Abbds to reinforce D. Cairo in Egypt..^ After that the Persians made many inroads in Curdestam. — D. p. ix). For. ed. for none durst march without news from Aleppo. having had no certain news how things went for two months.. p.1 JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO and chief is ITALY. who took before the walls about three hundred soldiers in one skirmish. But it pleased God that on the 26th of November.. — — ' See Rich. whose capital is Suster. that is. xxii). I. now said to be the Sus. F. Gouvea's Relaqam . a territory very near Bagdad. These lands are parted from those of Bagdad by the river Dialah which flows southward at one day's march from Bagdad. D. But next night abandoning some of his other baggage. das guerras^ etc. months beleaguered.^ Wazir and Captain-General of Xa Habas. Gouvea visited that town (see Ant. reported as coming against as. 7 that of Mecere. as afterwards heard there from all many were people. cap. F. When we came here the city was in fear of the Persians. by reason of the Pasha within the city would not give it though he brought an order of the in that siege the city I up to the besieger. at 1 This is Sir Antony Sherley's friend " Oliver Dibeague " and " Oliver di-Can" (see his Travailes into Persia^ 1613. his army. and joins the Tigris five or six leagues below the city. in great discontent. and dreadful And endured famine sufferings.). where Ahasuerus held his court. not long before. and was no friend to the Portuguese {op. Ant.. but Bagdad. 43 etc. v. 1631. Here we were looking out for a chance of departure. he broke up thence in haste. . in order to meet the Turkish General Jdghdl-'Aghli. * Malcolm {History of Persia^ 1829. the second this of Bagdad. King of Persia. i. Liv. the third of Tabriz. it. xii. 117)..^ Meanwhile not we only. Grand Turk. and the cause of his flight was never known. p.^ caps. or Suza. vol. 1236 (see also infra. had come Ala Verdi Khan. and Esther's dealings with him and Haman came to pass. when Fa. cit.

we started the 13th. from Ogen. I got various advice. and sent to fetch our camels. three couriers together. " the head marching a league and a-half. F. The place is called Bax Dulab." whereof are several here. at nine o'clock in the morning. Anna on the When come into our start was arranged for. to Bagdad. ^ ''''Jumentos^^ perhaps including mules. This we accomplished with trouble and vexation enough. brought him peace. — D. It letters. see G. used to water some gardens.^ hundred and and seventy-five After we halted to settle the dues payable here to Mir Nacer. of such as about seemed best and 1 my conveyance. Not on any of my maps.^ that is. Our caravan was of one asses. we left Bagdad. already half hired. the same who rules Mexat Aly and Mexat Ogem. on our journey. o'clock in on Sunday. On Monday. ^t five the evening. or beginning of the water-wheels. between the houses and the rampart. where I lodged. to avoid trouble and hardship. and slept that night the fields. 2 On these water-wheels. thirty camels. and the camels were in. op. the road. 1604. daybreak. over wells of foul stinking water.72 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. but mostly. the 12th December. because of the coming winter. . and re-crossed Mesopotamia Euphrates. cit. Le Strange. there came to the house of Diego Fernandes. the German. to use camel-panniers.^ p. for thence CHAPTER How we left VII. who us.^ Before I left fit Bagdad to give I it. crossing the river in Mesopotamia. had taken counsel. 321. with advice that now the land was at may well be guessed how for that news rejoiced and we presently made ready they had to be brought. an Arab king of the tribe of Eben Emana.

And so. if found alone." — D. to take turns with the loads. beg the loan of a horse. as Diego Fernandes and I travelled . and . But all these troubles are avoided by travelling in a camel is panniers. And it is the custom. and to save we chose the panniers. as did Diego Fernandes These panniers are like cradles.^ about four and a-half palms long and two and a-halfwide. they put the always bring with panniers on another. for.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO This I ITALY. or one is counterbalanced by some other like weight. and replace such as die or go lame. and Diego de Melo. [Cf. for every ten laden. F. as happened to Diego de Melo. for his personal baggage. they want common on those ill as good as sale. by chance. trouble. For these This they do without ceremony. Hobson-Jobson^ s. is to take your their horse's barley for their own. as Diego de Melo's was by a chest. and without anxiety about of such a pannier is a horse and his food : both ever will in danger at the fancy of any Arab. ^3 approved." and explains that "they are what the name implies. because of the season. they make no account on This is the plains. Teixeira throughout calls the panniers. " Cadjowa. and if they do. if weary or lame. used commonly to hold things of value. and did so . fall killing him. so that one tered from cold and rain. one into the bargain. man can sit therein. In the seat wont to be a secret nook. cunas. The Anglo-Indian reader will recognise them as kajdwas." which it hardly does in English. In these one travels with more shelter and quiet. in Spanish. and return him or not as they please. he is all out of breath. lined hooded and . Then. if And it. for routes is none for cheap or dear. shelThey are slung in pairs.v. and travelled in them to Aleppo.] . a horse may lame. ^ Here I have had to translate far from literally. literally "cradles. that he should have. when a merchant hires camels. each forming half the camel's load. I have seen them so serve even the Turks of whom. practice. For their masters them some in reserve.

we marched north-westwards. Throughout this march we saw ruined canals. which has a great flow of water in time of rain. On Tuesday. since or at the time of their destruction.S. was told that time of to men went thereon in good-sized boats. Some such communication still exists. No. saving a small part. gazelles the 15th. * Bewsher's map shows the end of this canal. 216 etseqq. even Bagdad. which has. from which the whole district is so called. over very level plains. for their this On own support. and gazelles. or of what probably represents it. shifted its bed a good deal eastward.^ On Wednesday. identified with several ancient cities.. four in the evening. fro7n Records Bombay. Akr Kuf of Bewsher's map I . have destroyed most of these. with a dry watercourse on our right hand. some three leagues on our left. the 14th. We when we halted in a plain that the Arabs call Aflayah. 2 Felix Jones assigns these canals to the Tigris. but desolate and waste. 43. that once brought water from the river to irrigate these lands. ^ J : . just before sunrise. with a few little hills. and those of the before sunrise Euphrates.74 'THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. we marched level from the Water-wheels. which the Arabs cultivate bears abundant crops. which bands of Beduine Arabs were hunting down. there had been were in it some I whereon were in many flood herons and other fowl. which march we saw many flocks marched continually until of sheep. there As pools. The Arabs call Karkuf^ Shortly we entered upon excellent land. we entered the ruins of a great tall whereof are yet standing one monara or it alcoran^ and two fragments of a thick and strong rampart of burnt brick and mortar. N.^ the name of a town.* After marching about six leagues we drew level with a mound. At its further base. have failed in identifying this place. But its floods. wild swine. pp. rain of late. After three leagues' march city. After mid-day we marched way. whereon we saw two high monaras or ^ alcorans. where we saw some for a long and swine. heading west over good and country. and does not now irrigate the region of the present march {Selection a fine memoir).

^ is ITALY. use such names ourselves sometimes. and I have somewhere seen a very similar one assigned to Kalhdt in Om^n. but I conjecture that it represents an exclamation supposed appropriate to the place. stinking. F." and a place in Malta where beggars sat and whined " Nix Mangiare Stairs. These were dry at the time.''^ " Uyun hat" or something like it. on the same north-western course. is chiefly useful for that very purpose. but of varying quality. but I doubt it.^ we found. having come seven leagues. They appear to have been entered on the authority of Teixeira. Having gone two leagues we saw." from the scanty supply of water in the " other place. On Friday. about Possibly Kubr Mahmood of Bewsher's Map. as shown on a map of Mercator's projection." Here. was thick. as often. neighbourhood of another place. " the mother of trickling. we halted in the ravine of a water-course. so we had and bad enough. We halted a spot waterless and nameless but that. D. e. " Que es^ trae ojos. And things had been worse if the weather had been hot. [" Aoenhat" and " marked on the map (" Rough Sketch of Part of Western Asia") by Thomas Aquila Dale. ill white. On Thursday. good or bad. they All the water that call it Om Erriis. 75 a settlement of most thievish At 4 Arabs P. Arabs.— JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO towards the Euphrates." Kiepert has a " Maros. for we should have we marched found none. when we call a naval station " Haulbowline. from the . the i6th. which .g." which Errus" are both may represent this name. call it The Aohenhat. For the benefit of some readers it may be worth while to explain that a " rhumb" is an apparently ^ 2 We — 0mm Om — indeed straight course." ^ Possibly ar'rash. prefixed to his Ca^npaigns of Osman Sultans^ 1835. to seek water afar. and to taste. A. as far as this place. from other wells lying westward of us. though his name is not mentioned. would mean " Bring eyes" or " Bring wells" (or rather " springs").] * " El mismo rumbo del Norueste. Asiatics are very fond of such etymologies. we marched one hour before level dawn. over very ground. Teixeira employs the language of navigators.M.* over very good and level country. foul. a little before sunrise. and that this explanation was given to Teixeira by some of the party.. It is difficult to translate such a phrase .B. the 17th. in more than seven leagues. until four in the evening.. a pleasant place enough..^ from certain water-springs that are there in wells.

On Saturday. scaly. three leagues on our a mosque with a tall alcoran^ which the Arabs call Mexat Sandadiah. until we took its name." Perhaps the mineral indicated is mica. After five leagues we found ourselves in the ravine of a dry watercourse. brittle. t'EDRO TElXEIRA. entered the channel of a great dry watercourse. [Both these " Ogolets" are marked in Dale's 2 Map. above mentioned.7^ THE TRAVELS OF left.] * Sic. for the sake of a well of black water. F. " Munzil.^ last. " the Wells of the Dog's Leg. we marched wet enough with the heavy night's rain. call that Xeque Mahamed's shins. north-westwards over left very level and good land. after sunrise.] 2 ^Aghalat. like attincar. " Quebradiza" above translated " brittle. Arabs " call this place Ogolet Xeque Mahamed. Probably the wells were dug by some one of that name. all its This and neighbourhood were of white rock. and a pity to see it desolate and waste.^ Here we halted at three in the afternoon." after some that were more than a league thence. See Hobson-Jobson. in Latin. the water was knee-deep to a man. and very shiny." For the Arabs ogolet. " El-Meshad. It was a wonder to see how level and good was the forced soil we were hereabouts."— D. mantio. and that in these it was no more to a dog." — . from the foot up to the knee.— D. means " flexible. which has both qualities. by heavy rain to halt in a waterless place. [Dale's Map has "El Mesched.^ Presently we came to rough ground. at four o'clock in the evening. leaving not far on our wells of foul and stinking water. The is." also ^ Attincar is borax. the i8th." and Philips's Imp. and is also " very shiny. Atlas. that is. v. three whence our last manzel The Arabs call the halting-place of a cafila or company manzel^ which is. The meaning seems to be. with some wells like the Here we watered our for beasts. as thick. called by the Arabs Ogolet^ el Kelb. the leg. 1 Not identifiable. that at Shaikh Muhammad's wells. When we had marched about eight leagues. through which we marched a good way. F." D. ravines and bare stony hillocks. and made some provision of water our march. s. F.

^ rear of in About half a league in was a well of bad enough water. that. and henceforward we kept good watch. Some of these were bought of them." But I am not so sure — that it is the right translation of the Arabic. that is. D. it The Arabs Abu regemo. over uneven country. before sunrise. ^ Perhaps a derivative of sail = — . we call ^ halted in a pleasant valley. rugged and rocky like the last.. which is evidently raJ7n^ or one of several very similar words. and we hastily stood to our arms. taking us at unawares. F. " the Father of the stoned one" from a mound of stones piled up there. D. leaving their stock with others. the 19th. plains. is This day's march was of called six leagues. said they were shepherds. over plains now fertile and again stony. not on the maps. Two that of them. with some camels and eight or sheep. came to us six Arabs. about four o'clock in the evening." as well as that of lapidation. meaning " the inundation " or " overflowing. eight leagues' march. in question. in spite megme.] * " Appedreado" which does mean " stoned. we marched north- westwards. westwards." Not on any of my maps. we marched after sunrise northall shelters. ']^ and stinking as could be. who. JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO foul. F. but tolerable late.] " flowing " . ITALY. albeit dry. Sometimes we came out on great soil. and the manzel fell by the Arabs Gorain. the 20th. threw the whole cafila into confusion. That day we made about eight leagues up evening. to four o'clock in the when we it halted in a dry and rugged watercourse. who were taken and ing this ten questioned. The company had ^ Perhaps a corruption of some derivative of ghamr. a few clear After and of excellent but mostly foul and flinty. which the Arabs called Seylat. comparison with what we had drunk of Here. and others not here [" Abu Regimo" is entered in Dale's Map. all of which have the meaning of " a tomb or cairn. On Monday.^ of This night such heavy we and our baggage were all well soaked. On Sunday. who. The water there was poisonous. were pass- way to a hamlet. [Given in Dale's Map. early in the night.

and our first flesh-meal since leaving Bagdad. others for Hadyt. which shows a desert route from Bagdad to Ana. with here and there rough places and hillocks. . we marched at daybreak.^ In this bend the river runs from north-east to south-west. and this all along the road we found much wild marjoram.yS THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. [Philips's Ifnp. Here we for learnt that there was a cajila in Anna. Aleppo. or for luba. was a farm-house.] 1 . the 2ist. all and fields The Arabs Zawvhe but our halting-place and that district they call Nageria.— D. Here we saw palms and other trees for the first time since leaving Bagdad. bank of the Euphrates. Atlas marks "Zawiah" and " J. whereat we rejoiced greatly. already broken up. call it and halted it On tilled . thirty palm-trees. ' Nasariah of Kiepert's map. St. bound thinking to a sheep." northern bank of the Euphrates.^ But at this time it was dry." mentioned below. towns set on the After crossing these plains. north-westwards.^ tall and bushy. the keeping to we marched the river bank along 22nd. make the less delay there and here we killed which we had bought of those shepherds aboveregaled ourselves therewith : mentioned. On Wednesday. and may be four hundred paces wide. opposite an island." both on the ' " Ore^-anos. in Macdonald Kinneir's route map. and after passing it we proceeded over very wide and level plains of good soil. in the bottom of which runs a very deep river in time of rain. Nasariah. which shows also several nameless islands about the position of Teixeira's " Zawyhe. and of extraordinary fragrance. without a name. with some and water-wheels. we came to the bank of the Euphrates. sunrise. about two leagues. The soil on both banks is fat. On Tuesday. probably that followed during par^ of this journey. over rugged and stony ground. Our march day was six good leagues. Thomas's Day. whereof no small part was tilled and sown. some bound for Hyt. until we entered a great ravine. at four in the evening. just its before various This ravine seems to be indicated. F.

" in spite of the accent. brought it from the river against in There was no water. word meaning " city. but we water-skins." for the little space the mountains and the river. My modern dictionaries do not give me any such with this meaning of "boundary. and water-wheels. Our camping-place is. in a suitable position." but Golius at least suggests it (Leyden ed." seems that thus the limits of Anna. There is no reason for hunting up other possible meanings of "Ved Garabdh. we saw on to the other bank of the river several towns. both sides of the river hereabouts are many farm- houses. Kiepert . for that here At three o'clock in the afternoon. G^rabdh would represent ^ghdrabd^ and probably is some derivative of ^gharb. On this day we marched about seven This ^ Probably for '"^Madtt" a narrow pass. brackets. between hand. 79 windings. and must have been that of its territory. after leaving the river at some distance.'' The boundary referred to was at least five leagues from the city. we struck its course again. left "the Strait of Naceria." and it is only just necessary to observe that it certainly does not include any course. extend leagues. alone others. p. almost " all the land near the river is mountainous. and great water-wheels. has a " Wadi Sur. moved by the stream tilled watering those plains.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. by a pass which the Arabs call that is Medyk^ Na^erya. whither we were bound.- the Boundary River. mills.^ accents. palm-trees. with orchards. that far. Presently cultivation. soil. " V^d. which are carried . we came it open plains of good under Then. which are mostly and sown." dotted tentatively. is From this onward. is evidently wadi^ a waterpuzzle me. 2 which Teixeira always calls ribera^ as he does this very one a few lines above. On itself. which was on our When past this. and all). over the same plains. passed a little more of bad road. in reserve such occasions and without them let it were impossible to pass that desert. and I am inclined to trust our author a good way. the cafila halted in the bed of a dry watercourse. and continued our route to north-west and west-north-west. called by the Arabs It Ved Garabah. " Dizen los Arabes Ved G drab ah {que es) Ribera^ termino de la ciudad^parece que llega alii el de Anna hazia ado yuamos" {sic in This passage and the translation orig. According to his practice in transliteration. 1653. makes a bend. 1698).

cut away some of the ropes of Diego de Melo's tent. Immediately on our coming. until mid-day. On Thursday. and alighted from our panniers. But at night two officers of the Amir brought it over. and came back weary and ill-contented.So THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. to whom Diego Fernandes had an introduction. got by the good offices of a Jew. keeping good watch for fear of thieves. the injuries lord of of done to watch a thief but by them by his servants. Kurdish merchants. river. the night. which was wearisome enough. This half-march may have been of five When we began the descent. where they had property. when we descended high and rugged mountains feet. but we would not. They even wanted it us to cross at once. So we put the matter off until the morning. over varying country. hills. had not heart enough to give the alarm. and I took the ridge of the the better to see the position of the town. and the officers went away. now all near the We and halted on the Mesopotamian bank for that evening. complaining to the Amir. This done. I followed the caravan. he could get none. not without good pay for their undesired services. made without it. the 23rd. though he saw taken from him. to the Euphrates. but rejoicing that God in mercy had brought us so far in peace. After trouble enough. going to Anna. for which we were bound. make his way out more shortly The thief. unperceived it master. In the morning came into the midst of the company. which is very extensive. and the rest of the view thence. night there passed by us three horsemen. because was dark. we marched before dawn. and we feared some trouble or misadventure. not be my comrade crossed the which could river to procure leave for our passage over. and belonging to a stole a pack-beast its Moor of Anna. leagues. who. . Diego Fernandes the German. to and quietly. They had been that region. running at their it lies On both banks of the town of Anna. I my comrade.

leaving is. and evidently a grim conceit at the expense of the ill-conditioned Andlis." But the derivation is far-fetched. the 24th.^ 8'I we crossed. the superior delta of a great river basin.. or. behind us Mesopotamia. that the Island. as always hitherto with double-w. and of the ditioned people. is often applied to a peninsula . an island. a most people. Concerning the town of Ana. of the oddest adventures of jazira is the restriction of the local form janjira to fortified islands on the Bombay coast. * ' From this onward. according to the tradition of ^ Of December. and baggage the tents on a slightly rising ground river shore. or Euphrates. with little or no editing or correc. = tion." because it lies between the Euphrates and Tigris. .2 When we we pitched though had landed ourselves. as here. We chose the latter as shorter and safer. which the Arabs call Xam. our goods. though One some have borrowed from Persian the more accurate dudb. who vexed our traveller. * Rather "groaning. because less frequented. In the morning of Friday. Analogous applications of words properly meaning " island " occur in Indian languages. kept pretty well up to date. which they " call Jazirey. common use for Bagdad had not been which lies higher up and further north. and its special application to one oi thtst par excellence^ that of the Sidis. in pretty little.: JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. Teixeira spells Ana with one «. to the other bank of the river. that in Our is route from cafilas. Arabic means "pain" or "vexation")* It is its stands on the River Phorat. heavy rain. 1604. and longer than ours. CHAPTER Ana (whose name in VIII. ancient settlement.^ on the River Euphrates. and that he corrected his orthography as he learnt better but translated into Spanish from the original MS. to Jazira. which is also the meaning of the name Mesopo- tamia. I incline to take this as evidence that his Portuguese narrative was a real diary. by the and snatched some rest ill-con- by reason of the weather.

Anathan. one of many such up and down the stream. iii. in a bend from north-north-west to south-south-east. p.^ in I speak under correction. At the north end of this is a citadel. gardens. II. he demanded of him in his letter. Greek and Roman Geog. " Where is the King of Emath ? the King of Arphat ? the king of the city of Sepharvaim. including Bagdad. in Scripture.] cap. is an island. Delia Valle (Seventeenth Letter from Turkey. all cultivated. — ^ West-north-west to east-north-east would be a good deal nearer. hundred Turks and some guns. and a market. D. who these lands.: 82 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. p." Ta vernier {Travels in Turkey and Persia^ vol. and of Ava ? " Whence we clearly see its antiquity.'^tvjhtr\Q{Purchas his Pilgrimes^ Pt. river here runs between rugged and lofty ranges of betwixt which and the water there are. King of Assyria. changes in the Ana that stands on both banks of the Euphrates. Anah is now commonly identified with the classic Anatho. since into Sennacherib could not first freely from Assyria cities subduing these that lay between. It may be a mile about. 1616). with a garrison of a this are houses. also Gasparo Balbi. Viaggio delV Indie Orientali. though the wall has suffered from time. the nineteenth chapter of the Second and can understand Palestine without that it was pass this very city.^ Now. only from one to two hundred paces. F. loth and 23rd Decem[Cf. understanding that so long a time there must needs have been great city. towards the north. Bethauna (Beth-Ana). where bend begins. King of Jerusalem. .^ sub voce\ and so does P. It had a public bath when held all it belonged to the Cazelbax. and Zosimus's " Phatusae. in the midst of the river. would threaten Hezekiah. ii. videlicet^ in But we have a better authority Book of Kings where we read that when Sennacherib. dated Bagdad. on the Meso- potamian bank. The hills. or Persians. 1411). ber. and 1 Whether Teixeira's critical and probable identification of Sennacherib's conquest be right or not. of Ana. and without palm-orchards. 6) describes it much as our (preceding) traveller does (Smith's Diet. zxi6. and is walled around.

f. The further or Syrian quarter must be more than two leagues long.^ cannot remember having seen any other tiled roof in all those parts. square. which The air is most pure. mostly working folk.^ towards the hills on the river side. five hundred In this narrow space the city. The street runs right through the middle of the narrow houses on both sides. sloping to one side only. for these patches were clearly back-gardens^ as I have called them below. by which it is entered. one on each That of Mesopotamia." the East. and the other side. is fit or six most fruitful stems and where the plain always answer well." but the context forbids this. many and great chestnuts. externally." the West. lemon. trees. and flat-roofed except the mosque. Diet. wherein are many palms. quinces. or Syria. or stone and mortar. the virtue of the and the help of the five. and mud.] open as circumstances — . citron. and here particularly to Jazira or Mesopotamia.-Eng. as opposed generally to " Shark. no bigger than a threshing-floor. palm-stock will bear four. a blind wall. * " De una sola vertiente" or pentwise.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. bank. a sound construction for a = mosque. One . may * For its side towards Mecca should be. trees. small. perhaps two miles long. composed of but two streets. that everything grows vigorously and in plenty. and pearfigs. and especially its capital Damascus. The houses are all of stone and is plaster. And such river-water. and is the chief part of the city. with of one or two stories. " Repartimiento de tierra como exydoJ^ Stevens translates exydo " outlet. all strip of ground. Each house has its own patch of ground. which has a I tiled roof. orange-trees. they sow wheat and barley.^ from two at most. [In his Span. has not many inhabitants. as will permit. pomegranates. which ^ " Sham. as near as be. in winter catches There a good- sized ditch between the foot of the mountains and the the drainage of back-gardens. hundred to lies 83 in the quarter called Xam. D. on the west bank. Stevens explains exido as a piece of common ground. and other of our European that they is The olive-trees are so may be equalled to great soil.

albeit. ix. factions. praising his glory out of settled here all measure. vol." Fr. whereof one hundred and twenty are of Arabian Jews. and powers. who make up between the rest of the people. and are well looked upon by the lord of the land and his officers . Ahmad {vide infra." and Cesare Federici (copied by Fitch) 2 (as : . Their ancestors worshipped the and I suspect that in secret they observe that and other superstitions. his beauty. like the But they have houses and lands of Moors." which If a Prince of Wales.." Delia Valle says that this was a family surname. and further. who came often to our would always turn the conversation to the sun. For their reverence of the sun. 161 1. who was in Ana in 1580. because one. There may be. chap. see {inter alia) Layard's Nineveh and its Remains^ London. p. 1849. The king and lord of this land is an Arab. pp. Highland regiments. He was only twelve years later in Ana than Teixeira. " Questi Arabi tengono per loro signore Aborise. Pietro Delia Valle says that "Abu Rise" he spells it) means " Father of the Plume. for that several people told me as much tent. but live decently. and his Amir. 125. "Feidd Abu Rise" was probably the very " Fyad" mentioned by Teixeira as " out" against his usurping uncle.84 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. chaps. Ahmad Abu Risha. and keeps from flooding the gardens. i. are descended from the old inhabitants of the land. especially p. and in Moors name and appearance. and ask my opinion about him. city." or " Plumed one. [Gasparo Balbi. called Amir Hamed Aburixa. who are not rich. but are none the better sun. for that. For the they rate the doctrines of Mahoma at their true value. own. 12 7/) Caspar de Sao Bernardino {Itinerario da India.^ The other Moors are immigrants. viii and ix). 126) calls the lord of Ana " Burixa. in the up to four thousand houses. says {op. were to cross the desert in his proper feathers. cit. or of some allied sect. motions. These are are divided two Some rest. . by various chances and at different times. this costs their them something. or a man of one of our is possible enough. 288. he would certainly be called " Abu Rish.^ He is the most powerful in all ^ Perhaps this man was a Yazidi. to irrigate the same. and what Christians thought about him. it the slopes. as usual. In summer whole it holds the water drawn from the river with water-wheels. He was wise enough to keep a Scotch doctor.

in this.levied by the load. who saw this "king" in 1599. such as like. carried for sale to Aleppo.] ^ Balbi D. F. indigo. for security's sake. The transit dues on goods and merchandise are paid here to the Amir. swollen by the surcharges to two. It good whereof the Moors make small account. bidden by the Amir. Other provisions are not dear. which are. rice. with the extortions of the officers they to ten. reaching down to speaks of " Borise. and they are a staple food of the common people. cloths. 1387). Damascus." Sir Antony Sherley. needs is found and purchased are here about thirty great boats.^ p. Tripoli. in that there is no public market for necessaries. {pp. and some dress decentlyThey wear commonly sheepskin cloaks. and there was none of Public markets are for- that at the time of our arrival. 85 that part of Arabia. who and all other lands of that region. calls him " Aborisci" {Purchas his Pilgrimes^ Pt. except for mutton. to avoid annoyance to the folk of the city . opportunity for theft and violence. goods of value. and had a very poor opinion of him. II. 1 3) also mentions the extortions of the Andlis. but perhaps on boats.^ In this land there is great harvest of dates. on which^ are many great mills. D.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. or for come silks. are. * '^''En medio del qual" probably on islands. They and not on percentage nor ad vaload lorem. The dues on each more/^that is should be about five ducats. But there is a great inconvenience to travellers and strangers. trading up and down has plenty of the river. for the Arabs of the open country are so insolent that they fear neither God nor king when they have an So whatever any one There in private houses. and else- where from . cit. except which comes Bagdad. has granted possessions to a good many of his own folk. F. dates and other such articles pay one ducat per load. fish. p. and above them a small royalty to the Turk. and the Galls. lord of the Arabs. The people in general are fair. but. — — . yet withal subject to the Turk. spiceries.

They It is bring them across on the eve of departure. Tripoli (which they call Tarabolis). are so called from Mosul. of the size and shape of an ostrich's ^^^^ with which they will recognise the /o/i^ Afghan "postin.2 away is Mesopotamia. at the foot of a mountain range. sacks of barley meal. a part of Diarbek or Karaemit." D." Andree's Handatlas (1899) enters it as " Saline Hewa'ra. In the map appended to Lord Warkworth's Notes from a Diary in Asiatic Turkey (1898). F. which they cafilas or Wood very scarce. and to Bagdad. Sneyseleh (salt). two days' march call Sinesela. " Turkish leagues" east-south-east of Ana. One was of Kurds. had waited two months for a chance of passage to Aleppo. and other things. merchants of Mosul. with very wide in sleeves. with silks the other of Mosulis. open from the neck to the breast. which are exported from that country. who . These last had fine cloths. On our we found two companies. The people Mesopotamian are scanty." D.' . These are the chief means the custom to of transport throughout these regions. in the year." Kiepert shows " salt " in the desert. remote. to the amount of more Aleppo.v. thence to Bagora. Through cus. THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. for their supply. which is near enough to 25 be "competent false witness" in corroboration of our traveller.] ' " Muslins. which are there abundant. regions. and here are wont to send their camels into the pastures. ways by paying the dues. When rains it they turn the wool out. F.S6 their feet. and of many sorts and galls. to Damascus. [Dale's Map marks Sinesela due north of Ana. and from the it belly downwards. carry. about rather doubtful. it is shown as " L.] 1 The Anglo-Indian 2 Name — — .^ There plenty of white brought from a mine. and dangerous. wind and cold they turn This is a very is common in outer garment in those salt. in Mesopotamia. than twelve thousand camel-loads Tripoli. albeit they can find other arrival. and inside. this territory pass most of the caravans between Aleppo. for those west of the Euphrates on to India and China. cotton seed. " Muslin." if one may believe the lexicographers. [See Hobson-Jobson^ s. whereof are made for them a sort of roll. Damas- and Bagdad . on the Tigris.

Those of hot countries are more en- during than those of cold climates. they thought better to spend the worst of winter there than shelterless in the desert. which begins to grow again in in and some spring. but nowhere saw spinning-shops^ as here. who said they were going on to Aleppo. They have a hump between the shoulders. would go no further pleasure. officers of the Amir hindered For they. They are always loaded and unloaded kneeling on the it is ground and to keep them quiet at such times enough I to hobble one of the bent knees. would ^ This is a sensible description of the camels and their use. and were in when we had paid the good spirits with the hope of starting in two or three days more. may observe that this creature expresses his suffering with doleful cries and flow of tears. is of great advantage in their some lands have two. possess great speed.^ In all these lands men spin much wool with the spindle. For though they endure well the want of food and water. I and women with the wheel. They almost all lose hair every winter. . There is great difference between camels. but these are scarce.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO are fed at night. Some . S^ what they get by browsing. so many There had come with us from Bagdad certain Moorish merchants of Ana. which loading them as it . the us. forming were a saddle between them. on the 28th of December. and But they contrived that we should be detained to keep them company at their good just then. limping at every step. prompted by the Anali merchants. The strongest and soundest bear no greater burden than six hundred pounds. In conclusion. yet is not their endurance such as some writers have described. But when they had got home. dues. in addition to ITALY. ^ Or " spinning men " (" hilanderos^^). nor their power of bearing weight. and with that they can only travel for nine or ten hours. So.

supra^ to spelling.^ and a brother of his. This man was a nephew of the Amir himself. which us keep made alms come cheaper than plunder. they prayed us to await that to sixty camels gone to collect dates of the Amir's. and then we should there in in the tent of have a speedy departure. without whose favour and company I should have come very ill through this journey. the depth of winter. 84. were to be back at Ana in eight or ten days. head. 88 not let THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. fearing the more anxious watch. The worst is that they beg and take as if conferring a favour. but his uncle kept rightful heir of him out of them by usurpation. laden with ^ Sic in orig. Aleppo was again besieged. videlicet^ all Convicted of that lie they forged another. more camels from Mosul. as of right. were gone with their folk towards Egypt. which recurs have been " Fyad. rain. great or small. frost.j with the slight change in The brother's Valle's Feidd. all this there is no help but in patience and prudence fail in spite whereof annoyances do not of occurrence. name appears below (See note. for ferry They pay here twenty ducats per thousand and transit dues. Arabs' greed. no Arab. a. Seeing that for that we would take our chance.." P. when to invade the tent to eat or beg. our camels cross the in wait river. exposed to the importunity of every Beduyne that chose As to the latter. At the same time came galls. We were on the bank of the than any house river. they said. to take them Aleppo in our company. Diego Fernandes the German. These. who declared that El Dendal. crossed from While we were Jazirey to here. many Turkymanis Xam. and even to Constantinople.) . For . and the those lands. which we thought safer position in the town . has either shame or scruple. in So we must needs stay and snow. Tripoli. Delia p. with great flocks of sheep. Aleppo. which they take for sale to Damascus. pretending that El Dandal lay by the way to attack us. This falsehood we disposed of by the evidence of some lately come from those parts.

seeing us halt and pitch tents. robbers had fallen on some Turkyman shepherds. In this same place. ' camels with the Amir's dates that had been sent for/ CHAPTER How we started from Ana. . '' The Arabs spot Tel Alyud. until the cafila should pull itself together. first For these shepherds are stout and stubborn thieves. and a us. On Thursday. fed great flocks there. and that same^ " in the . and halted. the waste of our subsistence. But. where we ourselves were. their stock. fears. to and took our way through the desert Sukana. with hope deferred of departure. near the river. at this the Kurdish and Mosuli merchants. or it the Jews' Hill. that But it pleased God. having overcome hindrance. already weary of new debates and squabbles. continual cold. safer. weary of long delay. who drew around us with violence. the evening came 1 2th of January. morning. The upon occasion. little more of it had been enough to make an end of time. by land and .^ 89^ Now were we almost heartbroken with our detention." because these have their houses below the city. watchings. not more fertile. IX. This we did on Wednesday. thinking to be whence we feared some also. watch of that night sea. we agreed to bring our camels over from Jazirey to the Syrian quarter. agreed with us to march in company. at nine in the the river. here more rugged than After about level we gained more call that ground. oppressions. and ascended the lofty. and give in name to that quarter. 1605. in was mine as throughout that journey. the 13th of January. the night before.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. if mountains. despite the new objections of the Analis. Whereupon again were all violent discussions. These. we turned our backs upon a league of toilsome travel. and the extortions of the Arabs . 1605.

and our route safe.go THE I I TI^AVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. On Friday. with their stories of a second siege of Aleppo. great cities. and of the roads being closed by El Dendal and Fyad. Saturday. and assured us that Aleppo was open and in good order. and threw myself. a hundred loaded camels without mishap. called me up in haste. every night. the shepherds and others had made hue-and-cry. which passed our its way to the city. and driven them off with the his loss of one sheep only. This chest. In this affliction. the Amir's nephews. hindered by the Anales. and rough with knotted lashings. On enough. dressed and booted. at eight in the . feel still I had scarce fever lain down. seeing him in the tent-door with Thieves had attacked the flocks by gun levelled. came eighty camels more from luba and Haddyt. the 21st of January. over its whole length. and was beginning to more and headache. This was so true that eight or ten unarmed men brought hither. the 15th. departure. whereof was left us no cure but what patience. there we hoped camp on for of God and our own came that morning a cafila from Damascus. with the Amir's dates. when my I comrade. I took kept my watch it . after our failed therein. the 17th. and hoped to get away the sooner. stealth. 1605. For the others we remained here in trouble who had agreed to follow us These. town or field. and took my arms. and at the bleating of the sheep. On Monday. to go in our company and that same morning the Kurds and some of the Mosulis came out of Ana. . dissuaded the other merchants' camel-men from crossing the river. and the departure of the cafila began to be warmly pressed forward. save only in the with trouble enough from a great fever that felt come on me and on relief I took shelter. With this news we were in a little better heart. who had relieved me. on was but a cloak thrown over a its my all bed. rose.

The rest of the cafila had hindered by the customs officers. Forest Flora^ p. After about five leagues we came to a mansely where caravans used to halt. because these payments are used to be managed with least confusion in the open country. because there was no water. the cafila ITALY. the dues that . that "the Wells of rain-water." • I have translated literally from the Spanish. in a pleasant field of green grass. and some followed us. in fact. gi off.^ On Saturday.. In the midst of this plain were two high round mountains standing apart.M. the advantages of a sort of primitive system of " bond. for some had not paid. We passed it. over barren and rugged hills. These we passed. amongst the Moors." correctly rendered." . ^ 2 The practice described has. and presently came led began to move. when M}i\^ cafila and as all dues are upon the load or is ready to march bale. a milder and easier method than that in use amongst Christians in Europe. Herein we find. up to the river.^ meaning " the Two Pomegranates" : a name most fitly derived from their form. They had waited for that day. in terrible cold and tempest now over very level and good land. the 22nd. but waterless. and that next day's march might be less. " Rumdnain. they are then most easily settled. short of which we should is. where flocks of sheep many were grazing. These hills are not on my maps. We marched westwards about four leagues. . occurring early in Hebrew and Syriac (Brandis. we marched westwards. "^ At 5 P. find none. and again amongst broken glens and hills. from which all that district is called by the Arabs Rumam-hen. This manzel is called lubab. This word " Rum^n " has nothing to do with Rome. and after three leagues' further march full we halted at four in the evening. ^^lubaW probably represents something \^<tyabas = "a wet place that dries up. failed to follow us. 241). to the number of one hundred and twenty camels in all. We out on level ground with abundant pasture.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO morning.

who expected the caravan to overtake little So we got out of the watercourse.^ All along our route were many flocks of sheep at pasture. for on those ways the best security lies in meeting there with no man. We drank of it. Our maksur^ Probably it stands for traveller does not translate Mekagar. nothing at all. bottom. ^ the 24th. is hardly a name at all. we left this place marching north-westwards over varying country. I climbed one. men and and filled is our water-skins with what remained over. it fits in Arabic Aden then. the marches of our own armies in Asia and Africa. who came in search of water for their flocks. or the Two Ears": and well them. after sunrise. by the rains. we halted in a plain without water. many full made. having marched five leagues. are of the I same form and equal all height. whence could see far around^ for the land was We halted here at one o'clock in the afternoon. midst of great plains. in the two hills. white and hard as marble. We wanted the us. see. for ^ ^^^^^ Arabic. and went a further on. for hereabouts no other. = an ear. Small joy had we at the sight of them. in fact. On Sunday. which the Arabs call Mekagar lubab. fittingly described by an Irish private as "marches from nowhere to nowhere else. standing. march of eight leagues. to which they give " their name. to go on that day to the river . Scarce was this done when came two mounted Turkymanis with bows and quivers. of rain-water. was of if living rock." . its we could pot-holes. as far as until we All descended into the channel of a great dry watercourse. Not on the maps. That night all it was so cold that next morning we found frozen in the skins. the 23rd. and the name means " the rain-water pools amid the It reminds one of pasture." and. to halt at the foot of one of like the last. the water On Monday. and beasts. stout and well equipped.. we marched at dawn westwards.2 They level. 92 after a THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. and smooth as Herein were paved by hand. but one of Kurds objected. as the Arabs say.

cap. the Amir's date-laden camels. being thieves their . after at a place called Tel ul Manahyat.] 1 2 Mani which pit^ this well (amongst other meanings) is a pit or well. Kakem." in a position godfather. camels. calls it "Racalaem. which were most of our company. especially a tanseems to have resembled in quality." and describes the place as he saw it in 1523.— D. astride to their tradition. and. Itinerario. us. which they magnify with many words. and went thither to await the it main caravan. made up his mind. 93 we came to the river. Only we and the Musulys. we found them is. was of old an important of the river. in spite of the two leagues' journey. But now and two no trace of it is to be seen. they words and well nigh to blows. at a notable bend of the Euphrates. caused us to set out in search of the other party. [Ant. Musulys. the Arabs say. ITALY. with under to this place (Kahem). fearing to cross the desert. much infested with and resolved to go in search of the other party for to wait here for company's sake. the former is probably right. We had come about six leagues to this place. and rest themselves until forty it came up. had parted from road . or for. built by. according city. called in Arabic Kahem. The Musulys wanted the caravan. and not without reason. At nightfall. F.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO over country like the last. that But my came to comrade Diego Fernandes. The place is . with so few folk. that " the Well Mounds."^ Kahem in the first passage. an unlikely Kiepert marks the place "El Kajim. in who was chief of the merchants and strangers company. Iv. Kakem in the second . As each side persisted in maintaining their ill own opinion. Tenreiro. is Probably in it was some one of that name. Here is a manzel of caravans. the same as our Cayn. came on We thought an unsafe place for so few folk.^ Arabic. standing on the river bank. a little off the track from Anah to Aleppo. hours before. whose current is here very gentle. taking another their owners were householders of Sucana. agreeing with the text. Cayn is the English Cain^ son of Adam. Here. after a turret or tomb until of that name. that begins here.

in a position corresponding with would expect from the narrative. sheep. which had been possessed. the 25th. at sunrise. was on show at South Kensington some years ago." The same materials are still often used in Asia for both purposes. marked ^ that which one in Kiepert's map. so that they can be pieces. by the Arabs with their herds and households. but our need westward. Some were very clean and handsome. and carried in balanced camel-loads. They are divided into what they call tayffas^ the Arabs cahileyy and we cabilduy and the Tartars orda^ before their coming. over land of varying surface and quality. . when we entered upon great plains. came into camp when the night was well spent.^ who used those pastures. of such as came first from Turkestam. Amidst these we found about forty tents of Turkymanis. Some readers will know these people at least as well by the " Manyat " name * of "Yuriik. On Tuesday. The Musulys. entapitadas^ as " hung and carpeted. I have translated one word. These Turquymanis are true Turks.in both houses and tents and the French tapis and tapisserie indicate similar usage in mediaeval Europe. well hung and carpeted^ within. when they saw that we had really marched were They frightened. distinguishing it from the southern tents of rough blankets or cotton canvas. especially that of the Sheikh. Their inner frame is of rods or canes. and the outer covering of pieces of felt. we marched northand disgusting ." ^^MulaSy" not "jumentos" 3 This description of the felt tent of Central Asia. They taken are to all portable and divisible. sore against their will.94 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA.^ The tents are all round. full because of one there which we found foul of rain water. camels and mules. their tops like half an orange cut across. with their families and cattle. though now applied to two diflferent things. and a chiefs white felt tent ing. who wanted to make us stay by the river. which was spacious and very well ordered. until five in the evening. made it seem pure and sweet. and followed us. is interestAll have been often described. . And being content with life on the plains they remained on these.

and though they sell have so great stock. whence the French call their Algerian Highlanders " Kabyles. I When we came saw more than six hundred their lambs come out of one pen. But in the face of any special risk. strong-limbed. but the evening. they fold all the * safer day-time. and the lambs suck at their there. generally ^^ meaning "a camp. and is not specially Turkish. call our own " the Clans. sake of the manure of the . This done. plural kabdyil. sheep. thieves. as she were alone. with Diego de Melo. if them out when the flocks return Then every lamb finds out his own let mother." Cabilef is kabilah. possibly including is many tribes. While the sheep are at pasture they keep the lambs shut up under in shelter. yet never would they us a hung carcases of those dead of disease. on dairy produce. set himself up for a cha^s or special messenger of the Amir. " OrdcC' " Tartar" enough. they hobble the ewes.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. live These people sheep. It is our "horde" and the Hindustani urdu. or by We did not want these. ^ Here we were And they put me also Tdyifah=2L tribe in Arabic. and resolute in They live by their herds. or the pound."i They are stout fellows. of West India." Presumably on a very limited area as compared to that of the This is now the custom of the wandering shepherds on waste lands free from any special danger. And ground free in arable country the cultivators give them not only for that purpose. patient of toil. and him who was in charge of the dates for the Amir's servant. and meeting with the full ewes was a sight to see. plunder. and the camel-men in fear of bought them. but accident. some mischief from the illWherefore Mostafd. and they reasonably think it best for the health of the sheep. sometimes. who came disposition of that folk. but also an allowance of grain for the fold. all 95 meaning " a tribe. When these are they are penned up again." as we. and the sheep return to pasture -? which method of stock-raising seems good to me. but implies often a greater body. as of beasts. both for profit and security. may not stray. but lose no chance of action. afoot and mounted. that they ease.

their stock. to look to some things he I into their tale. call The Arabs there. like a sort of pyramid. The Arabs al place Muy Megenah. and about three leagues' march northwards we came into a very wide plain. many camels. " the " l/n hombre inteligente de medicinas" a not untruthful description D. and then we moved off. and ill-pleased were we to see their greed. F. are foremost in the dress management of skirts. almost surrounded by a ridge of earth. and there is no water after We left this place on Wednesday. short their and tight bodices. Right across the middle of or sixty paces. where Our camel-men filled the watervessels. it there ran the bed of a watercourse. There were here near the watercourse three they watered their skins and other call this cattle. could conceive fifty how fine it would look Dry when as it was. saying that them to would have them buy there. like a great rampart. and gave us some of their sheep's milk. ^ — . wells. one full. being robust. with great flocks of sheep. and other beasts. or Methenah. They have cow-hide boots. and on heads great rolled hats. the 26th. of Teixeira. that is. These all somewhat after the Galician fashion. being the Amir's goods. even though he were somewhat of an empiric. which was no small treat to us. but that they had them. this place Megendh. and were answered that these could not be given. Partly on this account they used us with some civility and respect. They were clean and well dressed. but not so manageable as the last. equally level and of very uniform width.g6 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. Their women do not hide themselves. little in their power to take for a They made no reply . but was well seen that they would take the dates and everything else. In this plain was another clan of Turkymanis. was a physician^ sent with Aleppo by the Amir. and easy-going They begged it it for dates. but.

heading north-westwards. This means " the Tent Cairn. plain of hard sand.* This day's march was seven leagues. water of Mesnah. then dry. and the Arabs call when we encamped in a very level Here were some wells of good water. called by the Arabs Tabakt suffered fearfully from thirst. Hughes's Map of Syria. and there is no use in guessing amongst the possible Arabic words. On Thursday." ^ Probably " Djub Ghanim. albeit some places. After about three leagues. and continued our march. clear. H . the place lubeba. the 28th." marked on this route as exactly four Turkish leagues (" Aghatsch ") from Wadi Suwdb. On in Friday. we halted in a very without water. Both these places are also on W. It is not on the maps. we marched at sunrise. until five o'clock in the evening. and starting many After about ten leagues' march. here or above.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.^ a common manzel Here were some wells of good water. for all Seguer. and and fertile land. mostly very fertile and level. and in a position otherwise consistent with the narrative. and marched stony northwards. sunset . which comes into use at this point of the route. just before sunset a place we without water. called by the Arabs Ragem is Kayma. nor on the maps. over very good and level land. until meeting some more herdsmen with hares. from which we partly quenched our thirst. a great herd of the after Turkyin al manis' camels at pasture rather more than halted seven leagues' march. 3 The remarkable watercourse was perhaps Kiepert's "Wadi Suwdb. we crossed the ravine and channel of a wondrous great watercourse. over level. which of caravans. the Arabs call Sehel. we started at dawn. We met with . level plain.2 Here we the water we had brought on was so foul and stinking that none would drink it." and there one ^ Teixeira does not translate Megenah. and camels. 2 Not translated."^ 97 We cattle marched over varying country. the 27th.

but that the arms of the city display five bees {abejas). to await the arrival of the main caravan at Tayba. who had his dates. cap. says that the orig^in of the name is unknown. and marched north-westwards. 1884. as a landmark. . of stones the shape of a tent. Here. in Salamanca {Espana^ Barcelona. . F. 1 This translation seems to be correct.^ We saw many hares. wherein we spared no pains.98 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. I to catch one. and but all coursed some with a dog that my comrade had with him. 5 D. has in this position " Redjm-et-Chail. 2 " Djebel Bu Schir" of Kiepert.^ mound. It is true that. a where the Amir's camel-men." or " the Cairn of the Tribe. village was over our going to Sucana. when the camels were unloaded. — D. strife between our camel-men and those of to broken heads. of this that the Arabs gave the name to Bexar in Spain whence the Duke takes called his title. The had their therein homes and meant. except. heaped up in there. having leaving the Bexar range on our right. in his account of Bejar. arose a bloody and dangerous the Musulis. none seemed to me as swift On Sunday we started half-an-hour after sunrise. as I have said above. Perhaps it was in memory In all this march we saw no hill. Jose M. more for our own sakes than for theirs. D. we halted amongst ten or twelve tents of Turquimanis. The traveller's comment is worth note. F. of saw in the world. ix). over very flat and good land. who were pasturing their cattle and camels there. when we halted. made about seven leagues. a very distant range which the Arabs call Gibel el Bexar. Quadrado. — * Arabic marzuk^\vai^'^'^^ fortunate. Kiepert. which means it in Arabic "Good Luck had never enough of hares ever as these. or "the Mount of Bexar r"^ the name of a clan that inhabits it. however. nor high land." which is also possible. another . At sunset. They came from words and we had enough ado quarrel blows and to quiet them ."* Marzoko.

through ravines and uneven ground. Sukana men. the Kiepert's map shows that the tracks to "Taijibb^h" and to "Es-Sochneh" diverge at " Djebel Serbin" a little west by north of this camp at " Ketef-el-Hel . many of their but each alone and far apart. and we is settled to accompany the date-carriers. against the will of the Musulys and our own. On Sunday.^. but and one where we came to some wells of bad water. ^ /. As it did not suit us to part them where they chose. we began fertile to descend . Turkymanis were watering their cattle and camels. the 30th. One hour and hour after it a half before sunset. or clan. which the Arabs call Naquib. we saw many hares and wild asses. The Musulys urged that we should march to Tayba without the others. and tents. company with them we had to follow faces all bloody at their parting. For it has as many as eight thousand mounted archers. ranges in sight ahead. so had provided some beforehand.^ Ours objected the danger of parting company. calling themselves Beghdely. This place called Ketef el Hel. H 2 . We saw many hares and wild of the asses. For they had promised to come with us to Tayba. In the end our men we prevailed. and Since marched north-westwards over good plain country. which alone Turkymanis using these pastures owns not the Amir's authority. wherefore they are exempt from vassalage. That day we may have made nine leagues up to this place. the middle of the previous march. village 99 on our direct route.^ In the we had high mountain plains we saw many and great herds of the Turkymanis' cattle.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.." so that the question ^ Kiepert's map shows these about Tayibe. and has no water. vious Here. had to be settled here. meaning the deputy of any master. and some firearms. and on the pregreat herds of march. These were of the tayfd. we started before sunrise. and they came to such strife that some had in those deserts.

in Here we spent the night A little above us. the abodes of Arabs and Turky- The it.^ cap. for fear of robbers." Teixeira's Sucana. F. shown on Hughes's Map of Syria as a hamlet on the south side of a great glen leading to " Es Sikhneh. and fifty houses. Kiepert has " El Chidhr " (representing nearly the same sound). passing between Damascus and Tripoli . left. Ixi) describes the place under the name pf " Cocana (for " ^ocana"). or the general name for the drainage channel. A sufficient escort brought them hither. marched north-westwards through a very wide and level valley. between mountains and lower hills. was set here in aid of the caravans. turned them over to the garrison. and small manis. cit. to a village called Sukana. khan^ gorge of two ranges.— D. yet standing amidst though bad condition. 2 Ant. to plundering raiders. famous Gadyr a ther. For the next paragraph shows that the night as much as of thieves. and not far from Hughes's " Wady es Rami. about thirty miles (English statute) E. called Httle safety and great fear. we started two hours before dawn. We under rain set in the At enough. This may contain one hundred bricks. all little and poor. or Channel). was threatening and the morning wet. or a " correct one of another place. and Bagdad and Bagora on the other as Taybdh serves those of Aleppo.2 stones. on one side.100 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. The travellers' dangers and fears were probably of floods. on our in those parts. though the night was very thick and dark. or cafilas. as a scarecrow. off Teixeira's route.^ On Monday. and took shelter It is in a ancient indeed. of unbaked mud." This Chidhr may represent a mistaken location of the same place. I remember that there was on the I fort's platform an iron falconet. but great and strong. of this place. at that time dry. The place must have been just opposite " Ghadir-et-Tair " (= the Bird's Pool. and went home again. we came nine o'clock of the morning. one hundred paces without the place. the 31st January. This arrangement has ceased altogether since the Turkish conquest of these regions. Naquib " is perhaps meant for Ndyib (="a deputy"). . by S. ^ suppose. was a watercourse. Tenreiro {pp. origin of this place in was a It fort. at our best pace.

fearing townsfolk and plain-dwellers alike. — . To conclude is the place is a very poor open hamlet. provisions scanty and bad in this . : they make their salt. as no two maps. render it alike. hot and stinking. All the people drink mostly of and bathe in men and it women a alike. ITALY. not so bad. and of another water. and."^ it. gardens and to the place . which bring Trouble and no Advantage. in his Spanish-English Dictionary^ quotes the following: Alcdlde de Aldea^ el que lo quierre^ esse lo sea : let him that desires to be Alcalde of a Village that is. rising in and a natural Thence for in it flows southwards. tradicts this. let them that are fond of foolish Honours. sore game for Diego. Everything scarce and dear. '''' . The climate I is unhealthy. with little modesty. hot. and go out of into mosque thereby. but for our earnest entreaties and Rightly derived from sakhan = " hot. For there is no village but hath its alcalde. nor clearly confirms it. which joins this from afar in a distant salt valley. Any place in that Kiepert identifies it with an antique " Adatha." desert with a strong spring must always have a settlement of some sort. for want whereof they burn dry dung of camels and other beasts. We stayed here five days. especially wood." D. F. saw town some women as beautiful as angels. ^ seems 2 Referring apparently to a Spanish proverb. Kiepert suggests (by a dotted line) that the valley drains eastwards Hughes's Map neither coninto the " Wady Suweid " and Euphrates. is lOI to the south a spring of sulfilling phurous water. and no alcalde but would be greater than the king f and in this and the like matters it is in Syria as in Spain. for all that. not without trouble from the importunity of the inhabitants. in India. This water gives "• its name Arabic sukan means this. So we kept good watches. forgetting that he But Diego de Melo. and threatened him with a sword. Pinelo. nor two dictionaries. and waters some fields thereabout.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO About two hundred paces round basin. lost his wont to heed reason but temper with a camelThis had been a man. where passion is was not little. Of what is left after watering the land. enjoy them." The vowel pronunciation to vary.

and after two more leagues of rough and perilous road. On we Saturday. once belonging was on the same site. and on higher ground of the valley. we came out into range^ for about two leagues. And other unpleasant things befell him during this journey. whence we Aleppo and how we were fallen upon by robbers. at nine left in the morning. " Sukne. There is yet standing a belfry of cut stone and mortar." Teixeira's last camp." The later authority seems preferable. The mud domes. and climbed it. started for Sucana and joined the caravan at Tayba. at the foot of a mountain rest. and " Cholle. and fifty houses stands amid the ruins of an older that once belonged to Frankish Christians. where we kept one to bring us word. which if a man cannot do. at or near the position of " Tayba." with no modern name. which serves for an alcoraUy and a dirty mosque at its foot is supported by fragments of to a church that beautiful marble columns. the 5th of February. than the rest On the north side. Kiepert makes this D'Anville (English edition.^ 1 Marked on Hughes's Map as " J. el Lebdi. 1794) puts Oriza at the ancient Oriza. he had Here we awaited news of our caravan's arrival at Taybah. a very wide valley. and we loaded up and marched forthwith. This came on the morning of the 5th of February. CHAPTER How we left X.I02 excuses. guish times and places better stay at home. and surrounded by mountains. standing apart from the a town of over two hundred city. abounding in pasture. go back to Roman and . externally pyramidal. where we had to go afoot. and marched westwards along the foot of a Then we turned north into it. ." 2 Probably before that to some pagan temple. THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. Sucana. for that he would not consider and distin.

^ — D. And for camels are taken for But the tyranny of the Subaxys. so Taybah is on the route of those of Aleppo.^ just before sunset. They call it Taybah. Sanjacado^^ ixQvci sanjak=^'' 2i banner . In both places dues are levied of fifty or sixty maravedi^ on each camel. and returned to the levy these dues. Bernardino. 2 '•'' . and the town is enclosed. which was evidently important. light .JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO There is ITALY. but much more endurable and better kept . along with a friendly Moor.^ There a perennial spring of water a little without the town. may be taken as not far wrong. The and inhabitants are Arabs. also Caspar de S. in Arabic. 26 (abridged edition of 1882)." Considering the nature of the ground. Kiepert puts the two places twenty-two English statute miles apart. and of good construction and vaulted pyramidal " . We reached Taybah after six leagues' march . They seem to have been originally waterwardens. F. excessive. loaded or sale to Aleppo. Nineveh Assyrian days. and found the cafila encamped on the plain there. and in one part of the valley are gardens. houses are of sun-dried bricks and mud." or " nice. Temples [Cf. p. of the Jews. and Fergusson. likewise in better order. The is. I did see it. ^ Hughes makes the distance twelve English statute miles "as the crow flies.] means " good. meaning *' " health.* who makes them come to much more than this. However. with square walls roofs. * Local headmen probably the same compared above to the Spanish Alcaldes. standing on the ruins of an old one of cut stone." or good condition. and live by stock-keeping agriculture. and to its holder and his district. I had scarce time to look at the town. This town and Sucana are subject to the holds them under the Turk as a Sanjdk} Amir of Ana. 2 Under eightpence (Stevens). 103 a tolerable fort of mud. . and still exist in this region. that the Healthy Place." the name came to be applied to a feudal tenure. at twenty-five Turkish leagues to a degree. op. sulphurous like that of Sucana." is for the purity of its air and climate. Vide Layard. p. 126. 146." in a general way.. Teixeira's march could not have been less than sixteen. as who by Sukana go the cafilas or caravans of Damascus and Tripoli. and Babylon^ p. which is evidently Tayib. cit." from the Arabic word tayb. which.

until sunset. op." ^ The march was of eight leagues. loth and 23rd December. about a cubit high. they rouse the game. 1616). op. In those plains the people of Taybah catch many gazelles in this wise they set up over : a wide space. and marched northwards over very level plains. liv.] . the 5th of February. 126 v. the caravan moved off one hour before sunrise. by reason of our increased company. two rows of wands. scouring and plain bands. cit. seven leagues. "the Winding Way. I cannot verify this. In this they hill make many and in great pitfalls. Tenreiro. we at started from Taybah^ sunrise. . each with a rag pennant. with hilly. and marched northwards. On Sunday. near . de S. and so. counting those of our company. some wells of very bad stinking water wherefore the Arabs called the 1 Pietro Delia Valle marched from Aleppo to " Taiba.^ p. . After that the ground was rough and At day's sunset call we Hahe halted in a waterless place. or nearly. But at " Taiba" he took another route to Ana and only crosses Teixeira's (through these regions) at Their itineraries confirm each other very that place and at Bagdad. camels. On Monday. Ixi 2 . f. cit. [See also Ant. and drive them to the hand. Bernardino. This consisted now of six hundred caravan on the plain. Here we passed the night more at ease. do their remarks about the country and people (Pietro Delia Valle. withal. for two-thirds of the day. forming a long and wide avenue. that is. in terror alike of their pursuers and of the pennants fluttering on either fall headlong into the pitfalls. rods. 161 6. Seventeenth Letter from Bagdad. the 7th. which the Arabs oie. distant mountains ever on each hand. which was of some two hundred men of various nations not enough. in September. to save us from what was to come. Then." by Teixeira's route.^ caps. of good quality and abundant pasture. These. closely . We halted at the foot of mountains.104 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. and are taken alive or dead. — D. amidst the plain. G. besides horses and other pack-beasts. over country of varying surface and quality. indeed.

So thick was the log that we peroff ceived them not. When we yelling in had gone a little over half a league. The tents and other coverings are of materials unsuited to collecting rain-water and the people lose their heads. "the Father of Bad Waters. mostly of rosemary. with great cold until the dawn.' 9th. Moors and some Armenian Christians testified to it as a certain fact. All the plains. the dawned heavy with cloud and mist. which all saw from afar." in positions corresponding to Teixeira's narrative. and we suffered from thirst. from little Taybah were full of bushes. which found us soaked." P. the caravan started after sunrise. But an illorganised Asiatic caravan can fail of water when surprised by a rainstorm. Wednesday. heavy and ceaseless fell all rain. stone crosses. about three hundred mounted Arab spearmen charged upon us. If not. This may probably seem strange to some readers.^ On Tuesday. IO5 Abumemten. Berghaus has " Bitter Wells " and " Ruins of an Ancient Greek City. from which they were presently driving 1 ''* two hundred camels : Motas pequennas de que la mayor parte era vomero. of a sudden. and fail in ^ resource. leaving afar on the left hand a range of high mountains. the 8th. and remains of buildings wonderfully the wrought. but the identification cannot be made sure of. 2 Possibly the ruins marked in Hughes's Map as " Aschika. Tents and fearfully coverings availed us not at all. wherefore the caravan did not start until nine o'clock.^ After five leagues' march. which seems unlikely. that is. we halted under compulsion of It came on in the afternoon and all that evening and throughout the night. and we marched northwards over very flat and good land. for the place was waterless. On But one of these stand yet the ruins of a great and once I Christian city." I have followed Stevens in taking the first and last words to be misprints. though not distinctly. ." to this place. they must imply some use of the plough. and assured me that there are there altars. until already amidst of the caravan. Delia Valle has ruins somewhere about here.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO place ITALY.

they drew off. and faced the robbers. more easily that these are wont to march in separate squads or parties. as all it it were at one's very hall-door. These they handed over to the Amir's servant. poor as it they were stripped naked with the utmost haste and cruelty and all this when so far on our way. who. laid the inexpressible toil and trouble But pleased God that no hands were on any of our mess. arquebus. pity to see this man robbed of his camels. It was a was. who returned with great waste. in charge of the same. the Ebenkaiz and Eben Rabydh. A servant of his. with the robbers. so that they could not again break in amongst us. . to avoid confusion. and found them The to be of two clans. . that of his goods. In haste we dismounted from our left panniers. went to the gang. on seeing him.I06 the THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. broke the others. captain of the latter was a brother-in-law of his own. used amongst the Arabs in such cases. was very sorry. made up his mind He got safe-conduct for himself and upon oath and in inviolable form. his horse. The at all Eben Rabyah were victorious. and stood each to his weapon. or sword. and took from them some lances and most of the camels. his story. them to our company. . and we remained sorrow and fear of their returning in greater force. bow. after of the journey. When in the robbers saw they could have no more booty but at their own evident in peril. and As for the dates. Speedily we had what was of the caravan formed up together. and many of their miserable apparel for. the lord of those lands above mentioned. they were out of the question. though they tried it several times. to an interview troubled at this mishap. for they had been divided instantly. . Now it chanced that amongst their spoil were most of the camels and dates of the Amir. and The other clan would have no restitution and upon that issue they came to blows. and hearing wished to return the camels.

I heard loud and sudden lamenta- tions in the rear of the camp. though the text suggests its being a foreign word. when.^ however. Wrtbch. ^ Either " Es-Seriyeh " of Hughes.-Rom. because five caravan tracks meet here and thieves like cross-roads.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. I think EsSeriyeh the more Hkely place.^ I We kept good watch. " Serdji " of Kiepert. who he made off with that. Korting's Lat. derives real — camp. Such thefts are very common. fly. regalis. v. {Real is more probably a contraction of arraidl (camp). This returned. break open On his return the galls that his load.^s. and about midnight. Two Arab merchants. The merchant woke up with an outcry. but if and take the camel. Teixeira's weather and fortunes at this place were not favourable for archaeological survey. and perhaps the source of the Spanish word (Golius. and up to some camels. to get things into some order. they leave the load.^ or caravan. they take him not. as I So we rehave said. like the adj. Berghaus . the Moor we spent the night there. and place is called Garra. or near it or perhaps the ruins noted above (p." which may be this place. its distance from Tayibe agrees best with Teixiera's itinerary. though he must needs so. in such cases. already loosed one to steal it. F. Moreover. if off loaded . which is cognate to the English array (see New Eng.] — . Teixeira may have had in his mind the Arabic rihdl^ or rahdl^ meaning the same thing. It turned out that a thief had crept into the caravan. D. which availed him very little. about 10 miles north-west of it. 959). For these robbers. had been wounded by lance-thrusts during the attack. Dict. it is of things useful to them. mained until evening . I do not find the name " Garra " on any map. or " Aines-Zerga" of the former. and. He had . as well as might be. would not do so empty-handed laying his hand on the turban of a Moorish merchant slept near. when for was on duty our mess. 'Array'). and sometimes serious. or Serige. when they take a camel. p. Pietro Delia Valle has an ancient city hereabouts called " Siria " or " Serik. Real" which is good Spanish and Portuguese for a camp. it being what they care most about. father and son. in the dark. . I07 had been scattered on the ground were collected. all which disturbed our company. real = royal. from Lat. but was perceived and. helps 2 ^^ little here. 105).

leaving them on our hand. But those bred n marshes are as sure-footed as snipe in them and I have seen them carry men across the Little Ran of Kachh at a smart trot. which retains the name. but uneven. with which we beguiled the way for awhile.^ There was no water here. that is. after eight leagues' A little before sunset. This is not to be taken for Dean William Vincent. and marched a good way. with which While we were here there lacub. the camels slip and —so we spent after the night The place is called Drahem. skirting a great lake more than thirty leagues in ^ This is a most serious danger with most camels. and marched along with us the next day. On Friday. " the Point of Civet. the caravan moved off at sunand marched all day northwards. giving us the news. without any halt. probably following D'Anville. 1828) has the same. after sunrise. He that night with our party. it march. but fall . The Arabs call it Corna Zebad. and left Presently we discovered other marched along their foot. the caravan left Drahem. over very good land. Here is commonly the mansel or or of the Civet Cat.Io8 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. Vincent's Classical Atlas (Oxford. still an ancient fortress on a hill near by. of WestJ. dark. 2 . shod or barefoot. . we halted. confirming D'Anville's. tion. ranges. and in fear enough.^ because made here. over very good land. would be very welcome here. whence he had before. began to rain — not it for the rain which was not heavy. because itself. came up an Armenian named Bagdad. whose authority. we got and quenched our thirst. till we got up with the end of a range near which we passed. Thursday. formerly started we were nigh worn out. Vincent minster. D'Anville's map shows an ancient " Derrima " in a suitable posion what authority I do not know. On rise. the nth. the loth. J. and our sore need forced us to seek it at two leagues' distance with pack-beasts But at last in the it. known halted to us in on horseback sixteen days making all haste to Aleppo. when men could scarce walk on the salt slime." halting-place of caravans.

in saline quality turns them salt. between the hills and the lake here and there so fell. and foggy. We saw on this march the ruins of some towns." and crossing the " Jebel Amiri'^ to " Hikla. and the second by its eastern end. and bad weather altogether. after passing near " Jebul. is salt who farms it out at exported to Aleppo and to many other places. and on the crest of a high mountain the foundations and remains of a great and elaborate building. they are almost made so hard that men can Hence cross it on foot and on horseback. and " Zebad (ruins) " on Teixeira's itinerary. and some houses standing empty. always in correspondence with " Shbeit " is probably some Arabic inflection or derivative of the same word. all and summer." our traveller's " Acle. rightly translated " the rary is easily verified." Hughes has the " Nahr Dheheb " as a long watercourse. feeding the salt lake " Es Sabakhah " at its north-western end. marching on to " Acle" between it and the great salt marsh. 2 Golden Fount" . and were hard to raise ." The latter evidently rounded the first range by its north-eastern side. or " the Golden Fount. " Ain Dhahab " is the lake ^ . and it was wet. which seemed to have been a church for in old times all this region was inhabited by Christians." by reason of the This is filled value of its waters.: JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. into salt." closer down upon the shore of and so have the " classic " atlases. such as " Gabbula.^ I09 by a spring rising at a town on its further side. Earlier maps have different forms of the same name. rightly translated alcalia by our author. and all this part of the itine- Berghaus's Map has a nameless ancient city here.^ in that For these unite with the rainwater which by its wide place. ." " Corna Zebad " appears on several maps. slippery from the rain that many of bur camels cold. This lake belongs to the Grand Turk. by the heat of the sun. compass.^ ^ Hughes's Map shows the modern caravan route as running southwest of the " Jebel Shbeit. " Es-Sabakhah. called Gebul. got into narrow and perilous . and probably the source of our word " civet. a great price." but not through it. Hughes's. and the spring itself is called Ahen Dahab. As we marched on we places.

or is the Arabic called mel^ for that Town of Salt. for fear of worse than themselves. Some of these were founded on wrought stones. we passed through last. ^ On most maps of large scale. the I2th. and its amid the ruins of a is greater. over very good land. at all. but well bricks. Teixeira was there Hughes does not show this place in winter. and here we halted. we set out at sunrise. above which we passed. Berghaus's Map of 1835. certainly the same place.^ standing at the foot of a pleasant hill. but does show the mountains on the left hand. though the salt lake is not shown as extending so far north-westwards. in a good meadow by the lake. of which the unmistakable caravan track is the chord. and very likely does not at time of low water. and had gone. a perennial spring of very good water. built. when was still desolate. halted not all We day." which in much salt is got here from we passed through we the lake. halted at " Melluha. forming an arc. and after wet weather. to a place two or three leagues away. after a march of six leagues. 2 Arabic inilh. One-third of a league beyond this another town. remains of a more ancient and important town. published by Justus Perthes. . small. leaving great mountains from two to four leagues on our left. " They it are called 1 Achla" of Pietro Delia Valle. There is. who are great thieves. After three leagues' march. has a " Melluhha " here . until we came at sunset to an un- inhabited hamlet called Acle. rising from two fountains. These had been deserted by their inhabitants. so as to conPietro Delia Valle firm Teixeira's statement of their varying distance. called Safyra. on the north side. On Saturday. to " judge from remains.^ After two leagues more found a little stream of clear and pure water. built like the set but better. 1616." and gives the same etymology.no THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. of perhaps a hundred and twenty houses like the last. of sun-dried pyramidal over vaults. This called Melhuah. a town of three hundred houses. It might have a hundred houses. and marched northwards along the lake shore. Gotha.

^ that is "the Thorny Hill." by reason of some that grow there. but in a position inconsistent with the narrative. not on my other maps. on for and under arms. as nearer to Aleppo than his " Djebrin. like the last. on the look-out all for our arrival by this route. Pietro Delia Valle * This it made it his may be first camp out of Aleppo in 1616. this if news.^ a large town on our route. with one consent haste to cross the fields some two leagues leaving that route to seek another. in the may have been four o'clock evening . Here we heard that in Gebrahin. arquebusiers who had deserted the Pasha of Aleppo and established themselves there. having gained the we followed it to a hamlet.* Here the caravan halted. on foot." I do not find it on my other maps. Berghaus shows this place near the route. it stands. with such as joined us. We made such march of more at sunset.. and when those of our mess considered how much daylight remained. and already in fear of observation and pursuit. to let the already outworn camels It come up. On made their latter. . we determined not to halt short of So. which extend about two leagues on speed as to enter it this side of the city. and am tempted to conjecture a mistake for Maksabat=di bed of reeds or bulrushes. Not far from this we found another village called Tal Aron. including eight armed men and six-and-twenty camels. 3 " Djebrin " of Berghaus . it." though he too far from Aleppo to suit the narrative. ^ Apparently from khar=2i thorn." by reason of one at whose foot houses. were three hundred Seghm^nes. marching hard. of us. called Tel Axarab. But. It may have five hundred but better and handsomer. our insecurity in respect of those mutineers. fearing fall some mischief for as sure to happen we should into their hands. after a day's 1 On no map of mine. I cannot verify the translation. Ill Ahen MacubV or " the Bulrush Springs. and that the city was less than three leagues distant. for especially after entering the gardens. one of many thereabouts. puts represented by Berghaus's " Scherbie. we pushed Aleppo. JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.

The goods he went in my comrade's charge were consigned to one of these. call this city The the Frank Christians Aleppo. now Soria." but there is apparently only a chance resemblance." and "Chalybes. and ancient city." near Chalybon. me room and provided with all things needful. and partly 1 "Hhaleb. loan Battista Bagozzy. like the Turks and Moors. %% 84. We passed through the city almost to its centre. "Chalus. But geographers do not allow extended so far south." and perhaps the Homeric "Alybe. this province to . and just two months out of Bagdad. birthplace of silver. F.112 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TETXEIRA." At first sight these names suggest Iliad^ " Cycnus.^ It town of Camogena.^ in Siria. Hhaleb. well furnished. up quarters with another friend of his. two days that the stayed there. but the Greeks and Armenians. Now. which is generally identified with the modern " Kuweik. of Greek and Roman Geography^ s." "Chalybon." represent some old native name. loan Domenico Ruspini. and entered a khatiy where were then two Venetian merchants. [Ant. 99) calls upon Aleppo have 2 Commagene.] pp. and Smith's Diet. hospitality And they used for me so kindly. " Calepe" and " Calepo. as to put me under a great obligation. It is in favour of the last conjecture that the " Halizones " came a long way from " Alybe. CHAPTER XL Of the City of Aleppo. off to take Having delivered these." to help Priam. all Albeit such usage of tice of those strangers is common prac- Venetian gentlemen. Tenreiro {pp. : than nine leagues a year and a day after sailing from the bar of Goa. v. Vide II. and is is Hebrews of old called it Aram Sobdh. with such I and courtesy." "Aram Sobdh" seems cit. there was a river " Chalus. giving to myself. the chief a most It stands amidst four hills."— D. But first he begged of Bagozzy that he would entertain for me until I could seek out a lodging myself a This the latter and his companion did.^ to rest tradition (?)." Teixeira's " Singa" and " Kykan. " Beroea " (the Macedonian name of the place). 856. for Alybe .

p. and has a mild climate and pure water.). Caspar de Sao Bernardino {Itinerario da India por Terra^ 161 1. Aleppo has three hundred mosques. Il. if not a little malicious. and in all twenty-five greater without. form a glad and grateful prospect. there flows around it a bend of the river Singa." below. good houses. the city to many some very finely wrought. called by the natives Kykan. it French and English Within the walls is nearly round in plan. the about with gardens and orchards over a good space. pp. but I think the plague is meant. ^'' 2 Cf.). mostly of well-wrought Many are as great. Kykanos. There are forty-five wards — twenty within the walls. — I . John Cartwright {The Preacher's Travels. fair and costly as heart could wish. that. all this. Greeks. and the plague remained forgotten. but the Jews. six thousand There may be twentystone. For . whose outskirts also are fortified in a fashion. whether it spring from the climate of the land merchants presently to be mentioned. Beside what is brought from the Euphrates by aqueducts.— 3 JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. city This lending it its aid to the natural excelfruitful. But I am inclined to think. 161 1. as soon as Teixeira had got to the mention of foreign commerce. D. of which seven are very 1 The suggestion just Landre" = 2i swollen gland or "bubo. 8). and distributed through public and private fountains. and Armenians have many fit to harbour princes. \iZ et seq. II upon them. and William Biddulph {Purchas his Pilgrimes^ Pt. and these are ancient. that the Prankish merchants might import this disease. or be imported by the —Venetians.^ Without are the much more extensive suburbs. and these. the city sometimes foreign suffers from the plague itself. built of cut stone after the Moors' fashion. and these not only of Turks and Moors. the descriptions of Aleppo by Fr. and have gates. F. lence of the is all girt soil. and by the Hebrews river. makes most Therefore. 1338 et seq. by their number and ^ variety of position. The his pen ran away with him. for a distance of two days' march. seems superfluous in respect of a city resorted to by caravans from a quarter of Western Asia. disease referred to 7mght be taken for the " Aleppo button " . pp.

Christian charity. Most of these. form of half an orange. as they came Siik a market or " bazar . note. and affirm that the patriarch Abraham dwelt its that his charity gave the place name. looks very There are in the city many khans such as I have men- where the foreign merchants shelter themselves and their goods. was founded by King David's captain-general Joab. have their roofs covered with sheet lead. and at the mosque- chains to them." a street or quarter devoted to D. city streets are all is The midst paved with marble slabs. despite the duty of succos. according to the tradition of the Moors and Jews. built of cut stone and vaulted. and. are marble fountains. The natives also warehouse merchandise in these.] trade or trades. which. in the well. buildings. enjoyment of that came regular ration at the accustomed hour. THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. all of cut stone. though do not keep up as the king would have it a failure too common in other lands. and round as a heap of wheat. For that holy to seek their man was wont who. all In the a high mound. some of which are of wonderful height. standing clear of the rest on this stands every side. well it endowed.114 Splendid. [See supra^ p. F. Some have cocks of bronze. with strong gates and great iron In the midst of some. On a fortress. There officers is a royal hospital. and almost all the alcorans. and the surplus runs off pipes underground. they awhile there. 49. very clean and well-wrought. amongst the poor. 1 = — any . by its : that no water run to waste. in to divide the milk of kine privilege. like cloisters. Moreover. strong and full of shops and workshops of various trades. or marts. as they are generally domes. though it may be supposed that it must have been somewhat improved in course of time. gates. This. with good and abundant water. because they are strong and safe tioned.^ all fair. There are many enclosed.

^ To return to the castle : the position visible. from which cry that name was given to tell and the tale as it was is me by many. commonly held by an Aga. on the authority of Bishop D. because it yeeldeth great store of Milke. with a bridge." " I This. I — F. in Syrian. This passage is somewhat obscure. and has some artillery." sure enough. their plan is very simple. each worth The and inhabitants of this land are native Moors and Turks. indeed. and English. could of The figures of revenue are clear enough. . and all around the mount is a deep wet ditch. are those use . This might be expected to affect the if not morer I 2 . notes it. 2 ^ on pages 30 and 56. up. house were in my time farmed and managed by Jews custom-house.000 sequins per thirteen reales? annum clear. but in one well rather salt than It is brackish.] : . Arabic and Turkish. and appears. The silver coins are xays^ ten to one real of eight. there live here as natives Besides the Moors and many sorts . Customs as much as the Mint. IVy Liv. have made the best I and that they were affected by the war. II " would say " Hhaleb.— 5 JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. It commands the city. and the Pasha below in the city. Turks. But the walls are not very strong . [Couto {Dec. by reason of the late war. only yielded to the king 200. V. with one comlives pany of There Janissaries. cap. in his private house. common but in trade many speak French. and the madines^ of five to one xay? This mint and the custom. cit. and some Spanish. Biddulph {loc. vii) gives the same legend. And it contains no water. by remains yet . their two tongues. Halep^ which signifieth Milke. to naturally strong. Cf. have been improved by art yet it is not as defensible as might be. meant told to Have they milked yet ? the place . in Italian. . Ambrosio. who came Wm. in Arabic but I can find no better comment on the etymology than my traveller's. former Penitentiary of Pope Julian the Third.) out to India by way of Turkey and Arabia. of Christians Halab is " to milk. supra. —D. F. is a mint for gold and silver coin in the castle. ^ says " The Turkes call Aleppo at this day." D.

and ill-built. was held.Il6 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. on account of have in those parts modern training and great number. it And any stone or marriage timber fall. Gregory St. There resides is in the city a Pasha. ward of their own. on several occasions of conversation with him. especially Segmenes. most are mercraftsmen. Janissaries. Basil. also Jews. may not be mended under pain of death. Maronites. church. was there. my concerning whom I have formerly related the case of his . by both Moors and Christians. held for The bishop. saries. somewhat overshadowed the valour This Pasha is and honour of the peace or war. or other matter. There are Armenians. their These. whose term of office Janis- not fixed. some brokers and of the or such as lapidaries. Chaldees. which they affirm to be of hundred Many of them are rich. at the time of our visit. whom which call mofty. But these are crowded if little. and seemed such to me. own poor. The kadi of our time was a most upright judge. and They have a patriarch and an Armenian bishop. like trades. answering to a bishop amongst It office is I of great esteem and authority. is They have secular priests. supreme in There is a kadi^ with civil and criminal jurisdiction. and celibate friars of the Orders of St. chants. and have every nation together. was commonly a man of holy and exemplary life. said. They have fifteen a great synagogue. but The they spiritual administration is in the hands of one us. Of the native Christians. silversmiths. there may all be fifteen hundred houses. within the years' standing. to be not only an accomplished natural philosopher. when friend. and Greeks. by a brother of that same Moor. of whom there are a thousand good houses in a walls. to whom permitted. Most of them its live without the walls. He has a garrison of three thousand and many other troops.

must have fish of some sort." The word meant fine. once to look frequent for me.) . many public baths. they were to give good dinners at all. Cant. But for all that. of Eng.—jy. with the Pashas of Tripoli and Ghasir. The people well-favoured. without distinction of persons. of Aleppo are for the most part fair and The women. p.^ ITALY. Both sexes are generally and the men go mostly on horseback. there are chances given to judge of their beauty by that of their daughters. II7 He had come he learnt of from Mexat Ogen he came at by another long before route. Lang. and showed me much affection. gauzy stuft.^ because that closely blockaded When I was there prices were high. Diet. in the city There are handsome. except I which are scarce so Yet have seen some fish Venetian gentlemen give splendid feasts of brought from Escandarona. in places where it might much me in case of need. if Teixeira was in Aleppo during Lent. so that they can see and not be seen. 45. necessaries. when the orthodox Venetians. to and ever wishing I do all he might for me. wear silken or sendaP veils in the streets. 440 : sangwin and in pers he clad was al. found in very lately the city had been long and by the same Pasha whom I command.. Lyned with taffata and with sendal. paying visits.— JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO camel's lame fore-foot. indeed. seeing to that for trifling service once rendered him had so avail great favour of him. and between them sending delicate presents. (For the history of the word. us. cit. well dressed.). " In 11. 439. who {loc. see Skeat's Etym. F. set out once See supra^ P- 7i- Knolles. Tales Prologue. very clean and all There is abundance of far inland.^ 1 He had been commissioned thither by the Ante^ Cf. 1258) that in 1605 the same Pasha. says that . 3 * Teixeira's story does not agree with that of it was the Pasha of Damascus that besieged Aleppo and he states later on (p. ^ 2 Chaucer. fish. without a cafila. either linen or silk. it Whereby do well by I might perceive what a good bargain is to one's neighbours. and reached Aleppo When my arrival.

) third version is given by George Sandys (in Purchas his Pilgrimes^ Pt. — Meaning that the Venetian sequin (the original ducat.Il8 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. or goes away. de S. 129. This Pasha was probably Nasuh. nople. videlicit That his intended successor held lands of his own near by. But the Pasha holding the town would not hand it over. Bernardino. The Venetians had. The Frank merchants here English. at the time of our fourteen merchants' houses. from that government. which come to even more. I thought. 25th October. F. (Pietro Delia Valle. and for convenience sake. II. and that it was not expedient for the Turk to give him this government close that the appointment might have been made to them upon bad information. p. and and goods. The worth from a million to a million and a-half in gold every year. paid from common visit. who serves as a chief. besides the necessary mercantile establishment. Letter stantinople. from Con- .^ So I was assured by credible persons. op. French. to keep the thread of business trade here of that nation is unbroken. but that all three were defeated by the Pasha of the latter place. Each house. has two chiefs. to settle to transact amongst themselves. either of whom acts in the absence of the other. or " duked " ?) was worth more in exchange than the Spanish ducat (see p. who was * coin put to death in 1614. (See also G. has his turgimaUy or interpreter. carrying with him. and went to Constanti- — . And there was much in what he said. hundred thousand ducats. on a second order.^ p. They live in kanes for the security of their persons are Venetians. i2i). But in the end he had to do so. who calls the Pasha of Aleppo "Ale Bassa. and needful business with the Pasha. Each of these all nations has differences its own consul. which five he held for a matter of two years. 1 331). besides their consul's. cit. in the A again to besiege Aleppo." t). Grand Turk. If the senior dies. or sequins. afterwards Grand Wazir.) No. Each funds. alleging reasons of State. on behalf of his nation. 1614. and so he would not hand over charge until the King should have better. 2. the second succeeds him : a good plan.

1607). and the pay of the who are sent monthly by Constantinople. levied also. II9 five or six thousand pieces of woollen cloth. From them I received frequent favours during my residence and so are they ever wont to use strangers. The consul is is always a noble. as cochineal. three fail. levied by Venetian consuls in the Levant. seed coin. pearls. lest one or two of To sum usual term up. with power from the Pope to grant absolution except of forged Letters or Bulls. on behalf of what they call the Cotimo} From this fund they pay the physician. Bruges. much and the rest in silver coin. Their manner of life is liberal and noble. nutmegs. mass and sermon.^ and the chaplains.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO way of imports from Venice . who are well established in a chapel in a kan^ for where they meet other captains couriers. ITALY. 284 of Calendar of State Papers Venice^ etc. But not spent without consent of all the merchants. as many to of . precious stones. in London and Bruges. many more of silk and brocade. cloves.^ vol. The same fund is charged with the cost of presents made to the pashas and . his office. cinnamon. in Constantinople. F. whom they are well assured. the consul will spend in three years. and the guardian full of the friars an ecclesiastic of authority. and their equipment not only decent but distinguished." — —D. articles. or London (see note on p. ^ Doubtless a " barber-surgeon. in all reserved cases. Francis- can friars. The French appointed for * The tax was two per cent. x. from this seventy to eighty thousand is sequins or ducats. galls. at a time. the tuvgimatCs salary. cotton and cotton yarn. . The returns are in raw silk. mace. voting by ballot in the Venetian manner. gold and many other On all this property is levied a certain percentage. Such is the custom and government of the Venetian gentlemen in Aleppo. pistachios. on goods exported by Venetian merchants . on goods imported from the Levant. 1603. indigo. barber. likewise have their consul. apothecary.

Flemings^ and men of Lucca. ^'' — — . also Early Voyages and Travels in the Levant^ p. F.. rule." (Cf. 2 William Biddulph. See Hobson-Jobson^ s. p.* other lead. has a chapel in his house. all by special privilege from the Turk. Their trade to Aleppo may be worth eight hundred thousand ducats. where Spanish subjects were then liable to be treated as enemies. F." D. over and above the Turkish videlicet. were five in is number greater but the number of them who come and go much than that of the Venetians. this enjoys the Whoever avails himself of same exemptions as the French.^ Their trade may be worth three hundred thousand ducats. Preface. tin. the protection of foreign Christians whatever. D. four per cent two to the consul and two to the ambassador of Their imports consist almost France at Constantinople. and sends hither three thousand is in a deputy. and policy of the Venetians. D. In other matters they are far from equalling the order. my time.75 ^l ^^Q'-.). He lives in France. not being of the nations admitted to a regular trade. * In this year (1605) the Turkey Company's twelve years' charter a great increase expired. The Dutch were often called " Flemings " for many years after this. 120 life THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. He. In the de Holanda^'' taking in thirteenth chapter. who visited Aleppo a year or two before Teixeira. says {Joe. and of such there are some traders. kerseys. cargo at Salinas. They import cloths. Consull for the English nation there. The French consul has. which some of them Their houses. though there is a ship. etc. and a chaplain who says mass. by their king.v. ^ That is. " Kerseymere. cit. dues. who pays him every year about too. ducats. There are three English houses.— . i n). on which they pay. there are no " Holandezes" but " Flame7tcos^^ ashore .) that he and his companions "were kindly entertayned at Cane Burgol by the worshipfull Richard Colthiirst^ Esquire. whose consul is a private merchant. X. F. liii et seq. little coin. entirely of silver bullion. and Calendar of State Papers Venice. vol. and was renewed in perpetuity by James I in trade thereupon ensued (see Causton and Keane's Early Chartered Companies^ P. — — . in attend. copper. which a kan . and the 1 These " Flemings " were very probably Hollanders. weapons. but London caryseas^ and like.

The coffeeis houses^ are well built and furnished. ^ — {Joe. which the Turks and Moors Scandarona. 34. this. in There are woven sorts . and for the practice of horsemanship. very bright and the poor use earthenware. sea-borne imports and exports use the port of call Alexandreta. to make sure of my matter. is commonly not fine. for the same custom at Basra. less. William Biddulph describes these " Coffa houses'^ and the " Coffa^^ drink. and more than twenty French bottoms. vessels of tinned copper. . but of indifferent much made in quality. or much is according as times may go. " Casas de Kaodh!^ (see supra^ p. which the neighbourhood. the Musalman sabbath. with certain gentlemen there. though they for have enough by day also. Vide supra^ p. comes to eighty thou: sand sequins. all directions. of which much made. ^ luegan las carinas" the well-known javelin-play of Oriental '''' horsemen. worth about ninety thousand ducats should doubt if I sum had not made up the account thereof minutely. D. two three English. and play with the jarid^ for pastime and practice. though a commonly which I at very reasonable rates. Aleppo many and good in silks of all and in the suburbs and greatly exported much white hard soap is made.) 2 Meaning here. but They use also glass. The ships annually t^t employed in the Aleppo trade are or usually four or five Venetians. 62). There are public places archery and musketry. The importance of these can be understood from that one year with another the hire of camels to and fro. a hundred and fifty There were also here two houses of Flemings. doing business with about thousand ducats on an average. probably.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. For every sabbath^ evening there turn out many horsemen. F. adorned with numerous lamps. for that their chief custom is at night. sometimes a thousand strong. It may and be more. This city all eighty miles from the Mediterranean Sea. cit. The people use and clean. Friday.

It was of old called Ur. whose body some think to be within it. and gives the names of the six principal ones. and there was a fine j arid-play. because the Moors say that a holy knight lies here. OF* 1>EDR0 TEIXEIRA. and the joy children. pil- and acclamation of countless men. 1 Fr. on the 4th of March. and the great men came on that escort. and great music. is the very ancient city of Orfa. women. It Damascus. for that they think they win pardons and indulgences by escorting those pilgrims who go to Meka or Medina.122 THE TRAVELS year. and there was much merchandize. grims for two miles all forth of the who escorted the city. the Moors (their Every season of the Ramedon of there leaves joins another at Aleppo a cafila for Meka. sex. But probably he was one of their own people. after fast). and around it are constantly burning lamps and candles. all shut is In one of these. George. whence they march together. D. Caspar de S* Bernardino {loc. and a great deal of money. and condition. It was a sight to see the assembly of the people. All which they did in zeal for their false religion. been eight hundred souls may have . and children way. held for such by them.) says that there were twelve gates. is a dark place fenced with gratings. which passes on to India by that The town at night.) that this was the shfihe of a naked madman named "Sheh Boubac. women. F. that is. and a great number of other pack-beasts. The Pasha and forth the Mofty. — William Biddulph says {loc. wherein in veneration a tomb held by the Moors. There were in that caravan about three thousand camels. * — . cit. — men. and of every age. One set forth during my stay. cit. of Aleppo has ten gates^ around it. many There horses. F.^ Four days' journey east of Aleppo. which is under a tower. two to the river Euphrates. and two more beyond it in Mesopotamia. The Franks calls this the Gate of St." D.

nigh all all the cargo that she was to carry to take passage in Whereupon we who meant her made left ourselves ready. because. and of courtesy. — D. when he came to seek a bride for Izach. Without that town is seen a well. which they affirm to be the same whereat Rebecca (whom they call Rafka) gave water to Abraham's servant and his camels. served under the Portuguese in India (see Sewell's A Forgotten Einpire^ p. joined company with two Venetian gentlemen.) Piero was probably a relation of Agostino dal Ponte. which does not happen every day.^ vol. . At last. and. and there the Chaldees wanted to burn Abraham. of the matters in Aleppo. the 5th of and Dominico Calegary. and held in great respect. I Aleppo on Holy Tuesday. Piero dal Ponte^ whom I received many and 1 and in the course of of Venice were a noted family of engineers.). awaiting the chance of a ship for Venice. and came to Scandarona. as they say. CHAPTER How I I XII. from special favours in Aleppo. X. F. left Aleppo. though ill-wooded. is I23 There yet a place in it known by is that name. «. fish. the spring burst forth by miracle burn to quench that holy wherein the people would the Patriarch. 63 and 1 29 of Calendar of State Papers-^ Venice^ several of The Delia Pontes whom etc. in WAS about two months Aleppo. on have dwelt at too great length. but little my folk route in the next chapter that the country is winding up with the remark its are of bad character. 364. April. the capture of whose ship by a Dutch privateer s referred to on pp. Now which I I will make an end .JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. being duly provided for the way. and resume good. They show also a fountain wherein breed good fire but to eat them held for sacrilege . 1605. we heard in well that one then loading in Scandarona had taken thence.

" The Afrin (ancient Ufrenus) is shown on most maps without a name. were short. But there was no shade. but named on Hughes's. may possibly mean "The Cross-Roads. after a march of about five hours. beside our mess. as those of all caravans not under Most of this party seem to have strict military discipline should be. It we found there. flowing from east to west. latterly in the dark. We had to cross a river of good and clear water. through rough." with a "Ruined Convent of St. and barren mountains. before dawn. and the sun beat down on us so hot as to make us move on. 2 seems." that the travellers. been on horseback. but found little accommodation. the 6th. Diego de Melo also our voyage. escorted by the whole Venetian nation. wide plain." ^ These mountains are marked on Hughes's Map " Amguli Tagh. t24 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. a hamlet. with their arrangements. called the Afrin. there came for many other Franks. It is not much to the Aleppo merchants' credit that they Our author.^ At midday we descended the range into a low. miles on the Two way is . where we saw the remains of many old towns and and of some churches. The word translated below " got to saddle " is is What meant is " caval^amos. We the city at four in the evening. came with us .2 city. to take passage Venice left in that ship. by modern custom the limit of this compliment and here we parted from them with expressions of brotherly love. and feelings of lasting grati- tude for their kindness. we got to saddle and started castles. halted for the night in one called for little Nibul. . about sixty paces wide.. and to eat a mouthful. for we had not yet broken our fast. and." which. passing We took the northern road. But at last one 1 Not on my maps. but apparently near a place marked by Hughes it as "Tokit. stony. Simeon. and by most of the French. were glad to halt.^ with more pleasure than convenience. and fordable in places so that most of us forded it on horseback. The courteous reader will have noticed that all Teixeira's previous first marches. and. where we dismounted to rest awhile. many hamlets. may be four or five leagues from the On Wednesday. arranged by competent Asiatic Kafila-Bashis. of course. had to fall in laid out their first march so ill.

but would seek occasion to add something to road best. was certainly what is called in Western India di petard. one of these. Such petards are still used for the carriage of records by district officers on tour. witnessing the distress and clamour of Diego de Melo. they were underpaid for their escort at twenty ducats. When the Segmene had got the hamper ashore. especially for Frank Now. bearing in mind how I had seen a good deal worse done. 1623). and load was soaked. and For part. jumped into the water and took some trouble with the hamper. when travelling in our own land of Spain. When this squall had blown over we marched on. laden with lost the ford. there can be no doubt of what the traveller meant. ^ my have translated canastro " hamper. And when he saw in it getting wet. It is a bamboo hamper covered with leather. 12$ my bed and all its a hamper^ of Diego de Melo's. and very durable. Hereupon arose a thousand disputes. their wage on the and so it happened that I this trouble served his turn was little surprised. though Havers seems to have bungled the translation. and. called them canestri. he said. I B^ut the thing . were of importance to him. by such as had the power. he ran loss. and closed with a short chain. He says that the Portuguese Petdrds are excellent trunks." following the dictionaries. settled in the end with cash. up storming and screamofficer . is without such unsafe in those parts. No doubt Diego de Melo's had come with him from Goa. and that he should be paid accordingly for his trouble. Later on. staple. Now Diego had in his hamper some papers. and the beast in peril of drowning. mule. when a man knows how to use it aright. which he had much better have left alone for it bred us as much vexation as up to that time we had pleasure in our journey. which is everywhere the surest and speediest cure of such ills. . Pietro Delia Valle mentions them in the 6th Letter from India (dated 9th December. which. he asserted that its owner had said it was worth ten or twelve thousand ducats. ing and bewailing their The merchants had engaged and for his brother Aleppo two Segmenes — a petty — to escort us to the gate of Scandarona escort travel Christians. and padlock. we heard that the officer had said in Aleppo that .JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY.

into marshy ground. The position of the Kara Su would suit I suspect better with the narrative but that means Black River. either of our traveller or of the maps. and one over mud and bog. " Ein Ak " is half Arabic and half Turkish.126 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. which he must have crossed. off. as the folk there- abouts do not eat them. though be less clear. may paces wide. . and both good fish are After resting here until two in the afternoon. we broke up camp two After that On hours before sunrise. and began to ascend the mountains. In many wild swine. some error. breed in we came out on another very wide plain. if this is Teixeira's place and river.^ and one as good halted for the night on a great as may be. We kept good watch until dawn. pitched by two streams.2 which the taken. where many horses were at pasture. which. made Presently where needful. to rest in the shade ot the parapet of a third. White Springs. in whose waters breed many the fields were thought unwholesome. we got fish. and marched off over very good land albeit hilly. It has a greater flow than in last. After crossing two stone bridges. live unmolested and great numbers. before taking the field. not four paces apart. very great and famous. we marched and it was half-past four when we crossed the remain- der of the plain. ^ " Hammam" 2 This "sulphurous" stream must be represented by the name on Hughes's Map. and. which therefore marks the halting- place. Ein-ak Stadt" (Ruins of the Springs). This river of the White Bridge may be Hughes's Akpunar. meadow. and as we crossed it we came in sight of a long chain of lofty mountain ranges. he has omitted all notice of the much more important Kara Su. one over good running water. we halted at mid-day. town of White . For the Turks are wont so to use them Our camp was in the spring. the 7th of April. one sulphurous. Thursday. called the This is White Bridge. and gives that name be fifty it to the river . or Berghaus calls it " R.

pines.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. and with a thousand herbs and flowers. above which their crests can be seen and amidst their hollows. several birds lakes.^ It lies supposed hill. and especially that the the range. demanded our admiraso one was spring-time the climate temperate. And the sight and smell of these lighten the toil of the ascent. wild-olives. near a on which was there. The excuse I fear. Before 1 27 proceeding with our it journey. we in them. seems to be 4584 feet. abundance of springs and streams almonds. Oliveras is the modern dictionary word. The peaks in clouds. I will observe shortly that were hard to say what was best worth note on that day's march. a wonder. the and the It cattle at pasture. once the city of Antioch. and the land good and may con- ceive our pleasure." and its elevati on on Hughes's Map. The surface and quality of the land. the and their songs. plane- trees. 2 The Lake ." The pass is that of BaiUn. the springs and rivers. — 2 " (9//z/«^/r^y'— apparently an old word. upon a map and the springs and streams that I we had passed. of Antioch. are some glens of excellent soil and pasture. whose ruins yet remain We * An unusual flight for Teixeira . and covered with laurels. for. the air fertile . Its is We is now began it which is nothing inferior to the plain. many of them very precipitous.2 fig-trees. the that passages of this nature cannot be fairly rendered from Spanish into a Northern tongue nor vice versa. all . are covered with deep white snow. the various flowers and their fragrance. and wreathed . the scenery. all we saw all if the plains that . myrtles. for the pass is lofty and the way rough. here not very clear. As we ascended had crossed. and firs. translation does little justice.i and how much we had to praise God to climb the range. it to be five or six leagues around. the old " Syrian Gates. as two rivers. pistachio-trees. to which. tion. and one is. now the " Bahr-el-Abiad . which is severe. pure. formed a lake. or of Ufrenus.

and loam in others. F.^ flat houses. for the use of ih^. ^ William Biddulph (/^r. stream. by favour of a is river that flows through it from the mountain. little Besides these. which. we began to descend the range on its northern side. separate apartments. 2 . every one of them is itself a fine stream. with their doors cleanest. all of cut stone. by the a gap through a building of public use built over has three it. range until ascended the half-past six o'clock in the evening. There was in this town a large khan. finding a convenient nook. some other public buildings. we started two hours dawn and after one hour's further ascent. and most convenient thing for the use of the Moors that ever I saw amongst them. it which enters a conduitwaste forms a falls head. clay. after a course of five or six paces. the 8th of April. and a earth. there also a coffee-house. — "Clay" and " earth" really are two different things here. which . Well mixed and wrought clay is used in some parts of such houses. With the first smile of the morning we entered a town called Bilan.cafilas when they halt . D. and the site others thereabouts.^ from which all the range It is called Gibel Bilan. built of small stones. «'/. besides an eighth. best contrived. and a mosque with an alcoran. that. well-built of cut stone and lime. we halted there On Good before Friday. over good ways and bad. is not as Yet. is There so much water. each with one story. and a court for the kady. and ruined. This town was much and half deserted. for that night. and flows from by three great pipes into a Its reservoir built all of well-cut stone. when. the crops are equal to those of the best land. there may be about four hundred room.128 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. or the Bilan Mountain. or justice. though it diverted into seven canals. stands on fertile as the sides of a great glen. .) gives the rhyming inscription on the tomb of a Henry Morison buried here. one roof.

That is. . whom by their dress and so they made us unand hail we took for Turks But they were presently known comfortable enough. The day was young a fresh breeze about half an hour. friends and cor- respondents of our comrades. Now came in view the Mediterranean Sea. But Teixeira's description is not inaccurate. we felt it not but ever beguiling our way with some new sight. lies This is at one end^ of a gulf a distance that between Comagena. over the world they are We only stayed here until our baggage-mules came up.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. 1 29 by reason of the frequent passage of the Segmenes. though all march was toilsome. curve is prolonged some way to the south-west. the old Issicus Sinus. arrival come on advice of our home. and the ships praise of their Creator. forming an outer gulf. be their discipline all and manners the best they may. and the plains and us. meaning. . to the gate of Scandarona. So is this place called by the Moors and Turks. in which was Then we continued to descend the range. As we entered the plain. soldiers come. at one heel of the horse-shoe curve of the coast. . 1 K . the in the road of Scandarona. in Syria. arousing many nightingales and other song-birds to the So. and came out upon the plain. at ranges of Caramania. for Venetian merchants of the port. which mostly marshy. forming On modern maps the the Gulf of Alexandretta. bore abroad the scent of flowers and sound of falling waters. and the lower we got the better and brighter was the land. there came out on us from an ambush five mounted lancers. we made an end of the descent. which last lay before of about ten leagues northwards. to meet and bring us alarm was changed into double joy greetings Hereupon our and after kindly is we rode all together across the plain. . and so very unhealthy. worse than soldiers called For wherever locusts.

who was there in 1599 {Early Voyages and Travels in the Levant^ Hakluyt Soc. Only three . 1330) of Tripoli. per contra^ was nothing but the port of Aleppo . X. they But. eighty miles hence. Pt. Notwithstanding. from Aleppo as Alexandretta. built all of wood. and that its business shall be removed to Tripoli in Syria. and within them the ruins of some houses of . 2 li. p. who visited the place a few years later (Purchas his Pilgrimes^ Pt. where it first was established" {Calendar of State Papers^ Venice^ etc. which authority. like construction. as more conuenient for their Trafifick with Aleppo (the principall Mart of that part of Asia for Silkes. p.^ are of cut stone and lime. Alexandreta. nor no fit place to erect is As Tripoli at least twice as far — . and the Franks had to trouble themselves with land transport of all their goods to that mart." . because inconvenient to send the goods so far by land. the descriptions of Thomas Dallam. for that divers ships have beene taken out of that Rode by Pirats. being eight from Tripoly assent to. or else thatched. p. the merchants doe offer great summes of Money to haue it restored vnto that place. and roofed with the same. p. or Little Alexandria.] Presumably " shingled. In old time it was a city. Alexandretta. where at least part of the goods could be sold off. — D. Pilgrimes. writing in 1610 (in Purchas his vol. by the port of Syria. and sundry other Commodities). Formerly passed to Aleppo. says: "Hither of late the Grand Signior hath remoued the Scale which was before at Alexandretta. in there. where are some houses of the Franks. [On February ist.130 in THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. the Venetian ambassador in Constantinople wrote to the Doge and Senate that the Turks " have decided that. F. : them ^ on. begirt with great and strong walls whereof are yet standing some of cut stone and lime fragments. II. George Sandys. . as of little value or We this rode on to the shore.^ There are here a few houses. having trouble with the pashas fifteen years ago. with terraced roofs and on one of these are two or three ^ Cf.. . it is a veritable temptation to pirates. Tripoli. the passage must mean that Tripoli was not only a port but a mart. and William Biddulph. as Alexandretta is an open roadstead.^ Of this ancient city there are told a I thousand legends. who live here to look after their trade. 1616. from thence but three daies which the Turke will not as yet iourney. omit. 30)." — D. it is withdrew hither about They are but ill pleased with the place. 318). 1337). European tongues. F. there being no Forts for protection.

This K 2 . which Aleppo. near the mouth of the Distinguish "Ayasaluk. the sea has These are on the horns of the half-moon it which the port resembled. The other. 31). The other is Greek. The far westwards .y s." ancient Aegae of Cilicia. F. is yet in good condition. xviii." the ancient Ephesus.). forming the mere harbour of the place. Dict. v. chap. 142. and we shall see more of its use before we put our traveller ashore for good. to the northward at the foot of the mountain. Inglishe. ^ "Ayas Kald. "Z" is the Italian definite article. : Of his Orlando Furioso . on the coast of Caramania. cit. for defence against some loose banditti. There are here three vice-consuls. on the south does. very ancient. belonging to by an Italian Franciscan friar. one Franche. and almost in ruins. Persia^ in a passage with which Stevens has taken considerable liberties.^ and to this day there stand is the two castles. I. and served one Latin. in one of the many editions printed He refers to Orlando in Bk. serving under the consuls at the Gulf of Laya9a.—D. Among houses there are two churches the Franks. One.2 This is Lodovico Ariosto describes in his 19th Canto. 2 " Thare ' and one is but 3 houstile [hostelries]. of his Kings of there. now stands back a little from the water's The name of Gulf of Layaga is derived from a city maritime of that name. not the " horse-shoe" of the Gulf of Alexandretta.^ 1 That is. and see also infra^ p. French and English.— D. but a lesser curve. served by a caloyro} or monk of the Greek Church." says Dallam {op. * —D. who the sometimes try to molest the : merchants. Pyramus." that It is possible Teixeira made his first acquaintance with the Orlando during his stay at Venice. che scopria L 'uno e 1' altro castel che serra il porto. sea-beaten. a caloyer (see F. still But. New Eng. as southern castle edge. I3I bronze guns. E si vicino al lito. standing opposite. or Jihun. . the 54th stanza of which commences " Nel golfo di Laiazzo in ver Soria Sopra una gran cittk si trovo sorto. is F.* side.^ p. because this thrown up new sands on the shore.— JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. also called " Layas " by the mediaeval Franks. called Castel Marquez. Venetian. one Itallian.

They come hither from Egypt.— D. Constantinople. or taken passage on a French or English ship.. celebrada con harto gusto y contentoP This is perhaps the most Christian phrase in the Voyage. no. and many other ports. port. — D. Easter. referred to in this chapter. CHAPTER How we sailed Xni. If she had sailed when due. .. who come use it many caramusales^ which are vessels very our Portuguese caravels. Cypro. the Venetian Ducal . as shall tell in the next chapter. is There there like great resort of ships to this port^ For. I For. 1605. 3 "Egypt" here means the Nile ports. already 2 vol. a citizen of Venice. as the ship waited but I we departed next day.. which made that my proper The ship was called Rizarda^ because she belonged to Franciso^ Rizardi. Rosetta and Damietta. pp. relative of Giovanni F. but that did not suit me. ^ Sic in prig. Isle of Sypro. besides regularly. And. 136. more probably than the Syrian. for us. X. Calendar of State Papers^ Venice^ etc. the nth. 137). Candia. the Venetians. had special business in Venice. delayed by reason of the wars of Aleppo. not Ayas Kala. and came to the Tuesday evening. and English. F. Turkish karamusal (cf.* which on the loth of April. and is itself little more than con* : Aqui tuuimos ventional. with merchandize and provisions. held them less safe for passengers. the I2th April.^ fell Here we kept with joy enough. we went aboard a Venetian ship which had lain ten months here. which are On always to be found here besides that I . The passage runs la Pascua de Resurrection^ que fue e7t dies de Abril.132 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. "Tripol" is the Syrtic Tripolis. Tripol. French.^ She was of over 1 Alexandretta. Rizzardo. Alexandria. from Scandarona. I must have waited some months after for another. ^^ Evidently including Easter Monday. f Possibly a Notary.

the wind heading us. until Friday morning.^^ distance.that is "the Boar's Head." which lies seventy miles. for The wind not serving us on one tack.^ We were within twenty miles of seaward. " southern " was probably Cape Kiti.* Here we got a fair wind. on her first voyage. whose hills by many races. we made a fresh beating out against light head-winds. short of the southern promontory. Then we got a little of a pretty fair east wind. The " Salt-pans " near modern Larnaka whereof more . the -port of Salinas. on Wednesday. also a very mountainous are inhabited country. five 1 33 hundred tons burden . from Scandarona. but may have Griego. But this sentence and the next seem to be corrupt. or twenty-four leagues. is about twenty-seven English statute miles. the 13th. now unim^ we went about and stood on the other. which was on our right course. so that it when ^ '' the wind shifted to we could not Madorra. We made sail at the end of the middle watch presently cast anchor again.^ Whereupon he altered the course to the southward. well ofiicered and armed. until the pilot thought that we were between Cypro and the mainland. have already spoken once great. * The 3 * Of Syria. at twenty odd Caramania. JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. The eastern point must have been Cape Andrea of our charts. and ran down the coast of Syria to Cape Canzir.^ The coast-line was all of high ranges covered with deep snow. sunrise. and on that we sailed On Wednesday morning. so the Venetians may have misinformed Teixeira. for a day and night we made the eastern point of the Isle. the 20th. : whereof portant. mounting twenty-three bronze guns but and was very handsome and roomy. It was pleasant at night to see the numerous lights about their houses.. miles' distance. The ^ been Cape presently. as the crow flies.^ After start. and ran all day down the coast of the Isle. On I that coast is the fortified city of Laya^a. on Hughes's Map. The baffling winds were evidently south-westers. . lay On our right.

and so also the English. puts it at 500 cwt. So the cotton bale of Cyprus was of about 307 /^.. roughly. and rather less than the old French livre. as 25.^ Here only does one see Christian subjects of the Turk wearing hats. we anchored where with some trouble. The nearest point of this Isle It is is two hundred miles from long.^ lies fifty Alexandretta. and have a consul There . 1571. but none of great amount. and use Greek customs. In no other province are they allowed more * This group of distances is all wrong. is some export of silk and sugar. * is It is not quite clear that these nations had consuls. The natives are Christian Greeks. with which our ship also was to complete her lading.^ five It has plenty of cotton. French. They were taking is. but has much fallen off since the Turkish conquest.? Grie^os Christianos^ pero hazen a la Griegia" Stevens takes Griegia" to mean " the Greek rite. . that of the Philippine Isles. in his time. avoirdupois." which seems likely enough. but has no important port on the The land produce all all is not very mountainous . for the sake of which the Venetians trade here. however.360 lb.* produce. every one of It twenty arrobas^ of Castille. the staple produce of the that cotton. to ^ The arroba is given in the dictionaries as of twenty-five libras^ each a little more than our pound avoirdupois. two hundred and eighty miles all and seven hundred north coast. nor at equal to what it yielded to the Venetians. Whitaker's Almanac gives one arroba of weight. and Flemings. it is and its of excellent quality. 134 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. and of some other The trade was great in former days. tian near three ships in the road. exporting more than least thousand bags a year.. about . fertile. and of cheeses. exports also three thousand bags of very fine wool. it make before eleven in the for morning of the next day want of wind. plenty of excellent wine. Two of these were Venein and one Dutch. Captain Stevens. rather obscure. Isle. it or sixty miles south of Caramania. and cannot be reduced any scale that I can think of ^ Expelled by the Turks. ^^ The passage ^ "/<.

fur. within Venetian waters.^ vol. This bottom. p. which is blue. 95. it appears that in 1603 the salt-pans were farmed by an Englishman named Pervis. and of that it.000 ducats. and that badge is restricted to them that . These are of the kin of Mahamed. usually trimmed with or a cap.^ the Turks and Moors. of the Signory a trade not permitted to any subject. The Italians. the golden cruzados are there called kobrasy. — D. and has good Isle Great ships anchor about half a league from the shore in twelve and fifteen fathoms. The has two 1 " Con el latino'' / . and red for the Armenians. like the Portuguese. or trimmed with blue. suffices any of these cannot afford a green turban. [From a curious document translated in Calendar of State Papers^ Venice^ etc. call it Cipro. in a him to wear a green patch white one. for the Greeks. I 35 than a cloth hood. granted by the Signory to any one building a ship of 500 tons or more. to one of any other power. those of the the Portuguese secular priests and these are instead of the yellow cap which they formerly wore. . Whence. though open. is good. but near the capital they have tawny or face. x. wear blue and violet bonnets. and no is other can wear green their except the soldiers.^ The freight is set off against the advance of 10. There are several ports on the southern coast that of the Salinas. so they may be known for Seydes. race. The Jews. F. Kabros. It is named from which export much salt to Venice on account . port. we came. safe. in out-of-way places. as in Latin. 2 Of Venice nor. the best it appears. the nor of them may any wear green. except the xaryfes. like which conceal the . to which its is salt-pans. whose law own good pleasure.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. If a man of any other were to wear If he would be well it punished. white turban but the Moors and Turks None may wear .] . red. : To return to Cipro the natives call it in their tongue Chipro.

Nicosia former selves. his own company to return forced him the aboard ship that same day.^ I could come ashore. for fear of the fleets and Maltese then in those seas. the their capitals. by his bearing. It was not but strong. and with them Diego de Melo. built of stone and mud. with its and cells. the Venetian gentlemen went ashore. draw and breed them some trouble more . . to say. as the Pasha was on the cared for what ashore but after two days the I He went no more Venetians sent me a note spot. When they do. turned into a Turkish barrack. and Famagosta. Turkish conquest. building a sea-fort. held it safer to stay aboard . known and accused of some Least of all is it safe for such.— 136 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. In short. It may have three hundred houses. Opposite the remains of the magistrate's palace are yet to be seen. it is fear. About a league inland is the town of Arniqua. But.^ where dwell the local Frank merchants. that they be not treason. and with precaution. that. notice. ^ become It part of represents ^ We shall see below that there was dearth in the Isle. poor and small. there stands yet a square stone now used convent. to the port of Salinas. when they got ashore. and well planned for the defence of the port. lest he should. like that hidalgo^ as know not how to serve the time. pillars this. When we came Isle Pasha of the Spanish great. ancient Citium. with terraced roofs. if little was there to be had. in proof of its importance before the belfry. for they were looking out for me on the Now Larnaka^ the Italian definite article having the name. On I our arrival. was there. as an alcoran^ but once belonging to a Franciscan One side of the cloister also survives. for Spanish subjects canwith not there trust themselves freely amongst the Turks without imprudence. as we saw in the older case of Layasa. now not a shadow of There are many towns and hamlets.

which to my mind showed him ill-disposed enough. and when we embarked he presented me with some holy relics. who was walking on I the wall of his fort under construction. and says nothing of madder. I red. F.^ The Venetian gentlemen had chaplain a Franciscan friar : there a chapel. Without any desert of mine. I I3i? did so at once. and for its a good monk. which is dug in some was told that the Flemish ships carry it to Flanders as dye-stuff. when he saw Pedro " taking good note" new fort. of which Cyprus used to 1 of his : grow and export a large quantity. and went with in them to Harniqua. and of the Pasha's conversation. They had assembled to address the Pasha. green. monk told it to me.^ saw here on the beach some heaps of a very : fine earth.] . and the Cypriots had every reason for saying and doing nothing about it while the Turks were not likely to find anything for themselves. and that very pure gold could be extracted from it in a reasonable proportion. In the course of our various conversations. of various colours grey. and some provisions out of a garden that he tilled with his own hand. and that the Turks had no knowledge of nor would the natives tell them of it. and saw and took good note of the work. he showed me a thousand favours while I was there . — D.^ Small blame to the Pasha. All which I bebecause that lieve. ^ There is nothing improbable in the story. he told that me upon information from some of the natives he had more than once taken earth from a certain part of the Isle and assayed it.JOtJRNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. The mineral wealth of Cyprus is of old fame. parts of the and dark or bright Isle. who could get nothing by doing I so. monk. who used us nobly. a friend of theirs. He told me this on his credit as a it. to judge by his answers. went with them. as his conduct showed. where wc took shelter the house of Juan Battista de Francisco. beach. though he knew him not for an enemy's subject. from pure kindness. 2 " Para tintas" [It is curious that Teixeira speaks of an " earth" for dyeing.

{Pharmacographia^ s. ^ Two agarics were used in old practice {a) the white.495)' 3 Liquidambar orientalis^ of the Hamamelidese. such beliefs about this plant. our ship had taken for sea. When her.) ^ Sic in orig. The Vene- tian gentlemen would not let me do so but in their com- * " Mastic. say that the touch of hands or tools enfeebles the plants. yields liquid storax. P.^ and saffron. Something of the sort is said to be done respect of charas (the gum-resin of hemp) in Central Asia in (Fliickiger and Hanbury. But perhaps a misprint for " calamita" an inferior storax produced by some reed {calamus)^ whence this name. is high prices. Although plentiful this isle is by nature fertile. Pharmacographia^ 1874. in the cargo that was here for and was ready we went aboard. v.^ and much very pure ladanum is obtained from certain bushes like wild sage.^ all calaminta. and are yet. : . agaric.— 138 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. by reason of a murrain amongst which had hindered ploughing. The other is good Greek kala minthe. The bintine land bears terebinths. and the sun dangerous to men unused to that climate. or amadon. the mainland of Caramania. XIV. befel us until and what we came to the Isle of Zante. and such ways of collecting the gum. we found here nothing but dearth and cattle. and all things and cheap. gum-resin of Cistus ladanifera. which produces them of the best and in plenty. a tree of Asia Minor. emetic and purgative staunch wounds by mechanical action (Littre). and makes them infertile: which has probably been learnt brought from by experience.* opium. In the summer it very hot. 2 Gum cistus. There have been from ancient times." the gum-resin of certain PistacicB. VxohdihXy Mentha sylvestre. which yield the perfect tere. used to agaric." a resin.^ It is collected by running For they over these a taut rope. or larch {b) the oak agaric. to which the gum sticks. There is here also a good trade in storax. or styrax or " Rose Malloes. CHAPTER How we sailed from Cipro. . These are so little used now that they are not in the Pharmacographia. .

plenty of ammunition and firearms. although our captain knew them for galleys of Malta. see Calendar of State ' ' " On Papers^ Venice ^ * etc. It is not in the middle of the Gulf of Adalia. F. Dos canones gruesos de seys que traya porpopa. Sin razones^" a favourite phrase of our traveller's. long. knowing from close. being up with the Isle of Rhodes. we sighted four galleys. in the We were then off Castel Rosso.^ With ^ the wind rose. E. when we saw all north the high mountains of Caramania. we made the morning watch. and 30 deg. 10. formed by Cyprus on the east. the ist of May. and sail in on Monday. he did not want them to knowing of the unjustifiable doings^ of Christian ships and galleys upon Venetian ships from Syria. N. Rhodes.3 They made signal of safe-conduct. the 2nd. This. a place middle of the Gulf 1 That day we ran westwards. —D. or Western Taurus. and. by making a certain smoke. and the ship was somewhere near 35 deg. like ours. having good guns and gunners.^ So they chased us . and the ship answered them with nightfall her two six- pounder stern-chasers.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO pany. sail. Maltese and other privateers (including English). " " " Humo" A signal is smoke • '^ dictionary very ancient En alar But the meaning is " black gauze.* without effect. « « Croxia" French coursier.* But our people.^ vol. which abounded in the Mediterranean at this period. The ship was cleared for action. .000 feet high. a corrupt Levanname. covered with snow. and they were changeable in the until the morning of the nth. Carpathus. our right course. but in that of a great bight. lat. is the " Kastelorizo" of our charts. until. and Crete on the west. and lasted all the night tine I think. kept aloof from them." and widespread. their formation that they meant all mischief. We had baffling winds at first. The mountains were probably the Ak Digh. about five in the evening. the nearest shown on modern maps. before a good east wind. the rest of that day under in so short engaging us astern and a time they fired twenty-four shot at us from their bow-chasers. namely. The galleys were soon near us. \^ passim. I39 This was on Sunday evening. ITALY.

• " And for this relief much thanks. is a royal letter of 28th March 1613. dated Brussels. which the ship answered.^ the commodore was content." referred to in Very probably a letter from Don Pedro de Valdes to the King of Spain. but from contemporary official documents. miles. not only from what Teixeira tells us. Order. and the flagship's pilot. speech of their chief captain. who had come so her in now some discontent. saying that they had not stratagems. That Diogo de Mello was an arrant swashbuckler is evident. such as they carry in those He went and fear excused himself. asked leave to come aboard They wanted the clerk^ to come with them. which we made about eighty But though it was until strong. . Diego de Melo. and took passage with the galleys. one would have expected from a less philosophical writer than our placid Pedro. With and with a not very costly present of pistachios and soap.^ Turkish corsairs are wont to use (and this. p. but he could not. and warned us against and especially of one certain corsairs cruising on that sea great ship. " Francisco Spinola. * vol. i." or some such sentiment. for of wiles and which the Moorish and that's true). F. 598. and the sea ran high. with a Knight of Malta." but " supercargo would be 2 .^ a Knight of Malta.140 in THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. and had orders to trust none. which they had not done all night.^ torn." better. recognised the galleys. being sick. They took in sail. * Author's brackets. and it fell calm. z'n Stevens translates " purser. Rem. iv. .^ 1 " Escrtvano. 29th March. wherein was a Genoese named Spindola [szc]. . ^ —D. to have morning. 1593. ^ Xabonetes. On better advice. the Genoese. and so sent an ships. who came alongside and which given.^ in disobedience to his far in the ship. they now sent us a boat. translated in Spanish State Papers^ Brackets orig. In Doc. ships who had fitted out in Sicily (whence commonly left sail for plunder). the galleys chased us At sunrise they were close aboard. they did so. assistant clerk. and made another signal.

the 13th. Theodoro..100 ft. ^ Carpathus. 2 . I cannot say nor do I know his subsequent history. until the 23rd of May. D.. to Malacca]. 161 2.. the Latin names are most generally convenient. It is clear that he knew little about Crete.100 ft. from a number of persons. which follows the English (Hydrographic Office) work of Spratt and other officers of our Navy). and others no is less lofty." as the Colonel said on the Examining Board. for English use. F. the first mentioned being this very man. we learn from the Archivo Portuguez. Cape Probably some point near Cape Plaka of our charts. who maintain here a strong dealing with petitions.. Isle The but chiefly on the northern. with a declaration that for the services that he might there perform he should ask for no reward nor satisfaction wherefore I enjoin on you and charge you positively that in no case whatsoever shall you pardon him the said two years of deportation. and I thought well to commute it to two years in Ceylon. bearing this in mind. so that thus it may be carried out and observed. 1877. . etc. But. and the use of language is to be understood. * The southern ports are now insignificant.Oriental. 8.080 ft. so long prevalent in the Levant. covered with snow. to two years at the conquest of Ceylon. and you shall cause that he proceed to serve them on arriving in India. fasc. we cleared We saw well the famous Mount all Ida. isle.TOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. .. Psiloriti (Ida)..^ miles from the western point of the along the southern coast at whereof we sailed about twenty miles off shore.e. which lay off our traveller's southern course.^ This is counted to be four hundred panto. in Sphakia. when it. 8. and not Sidero. Berlin.* subject to The people are Greeks. Whether Diogo de Mello had returned to India after his parting from Teixeira. where is recorded an " alvara [royal decree] of His Majesty's commuting to Diogo de Mello de Sampayo. the Venetians. 2nd August. the four that he had been ordered to serve in the south. The Venetian corruptions of old names. are now slowly giving way to the classic Greek names. Apheute Christo (?). 6. . survived on the spot in many cases." This decree.. came to this kingdom to ask for satisfaction of his services and commutation of his banishment to the south [i. we had sight of the Isle of Scar- and next day of the eastern headland of Candia sixty miles from it. 7. by reason of the pardon that was granted to him for the riot and death of Diogo Machado Carneiro.^ great as Cyprus.:. which have.. We read " Diogo de Mello de Sampaio. is dated Lisbon. which I have commuted for him to Ceylon. with baffling winds. indeed. fidalgo of my household. ^ Mt. and has many about as harbours on both shores. . : . and many less lofty (Dietrich Reimer's Kriegsschauplatz. — . of which only the last part is extant. " and not to show how clever one is. ." What Diogo de Mello's offence was. 141 On Friday.

familiar to Peninsular and Oriental passengers vid Brindisi. 2 By Cape Teraki. * — — .] (Letter I. It may for is be five miles about. 1614). the ancient Strophades. but cattle.^ the Isle of Zante. who own the there at all Isle. and is flat and uninhabited. olive groves. which the Turks of them.^ the port. 23rd August. [Dallam {pp. from Constantinople. are Greek island " Travallie. whence. which on the were a This Isle of Zante is sixty miles about. on Saturday. and corn- These last yield only four months' supply. and for the rest of the year the island depends on imported grain. a monastery of with some There good water. amidst which spacious plain. in the morning watch. have found the millets the best of famine grains. Byron's caloyers.142 garrison. But as to the little vineyards and olive orchards. the produce of so land This is the larger of the Strovathi Isles. full lies of vineyards. [See also supra^ p. Pietro Delia Valle's notice corresponds with Teixeira's D.] monks KaXoyepot. In India I ^ Probably as a cheap grain. and continued our voyage it thither. for fear of such another misfortune as that of Cyprus. and as it fenced around with high mountains. 131. keep times a great store of millet. F. 26) calls the The " caloiros^^ of course. «. cit. THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. Wherefore the Signory of Venice. and are ever fortifying the Isle. * Really north-eastern. After three days on this course. We rounded by the in and at six in the is evening we cast anchor northern coast. fields. which stands keeping. the 28th.* so that in case of urgent need they can help the people. won The wind.^ frequent Presently. we made an caloiros islet called Strival." D. .^ p. which we were bound. to make a landfall. as the light grew. It has now an important lighthouse. baffling winds and the current forced us off our course almost to Barbary . F. for we saw east. for which both Christian and Turkish galleys it. with a strong west we shaped our course northwards. and is as good a landfall as could be made on the course indicated.

besides others in the towns and hamlets. whereon is a citadel. is On there this account the Isle English. pp. Ixiv et seq. see Calendar of State Papers^ Venice^ etc. x. In and about the city there it is plenty of water. vol. who visited it in 1599 {Early Voyages and Travels in the Levant^ Hakluyt Soc. passim. passim. (Regarding Maffio Michiel. the town of the It may have This three thousand houses of cut stone and lime. but in I scarce and was told by credible in persons —though I saw it not myself they sometimes knead their water. etc.) D. x. F.^ to I43 for of dried Corinthian one year with another. and other ships.). some places bread with wine. Isle. p. the "hanging Governor. whereof the Isle has several. 3 Maffio Michiel was Governor of Zante at the end of 1604." 2 See the description of Zante by Thomas Dallam. and provided with its needful for defence. Preface. with tiled roofs. and of honey. grapes. at the foot of a high mountain. fish. On the troubles of English merchants over the Zante currant trade. thirty and there are amongst them in city or forty houses of Jewish merchants. or fragrant. The climate is indifferent. I was invited * Our grocers' " currants. the better in the north. for want of where is —that There are two chief ports. or Cornaro. they gather from fifteen twenty thousand arrobas. ITALY. called Gayetan.. well position and fortificaall else armed and garrisoned. — D. and \fXX^x%." see Calendar of State Papers^ Venice. F. and there the rest of the Isle is no great plenty of is . of flowers.. vol. but But wood is plenty of good fruit and herbs. The the natives are Greeks. and eighteen thousand and the hundred pipes..* impregnable by tion. — . olive oil to over five Their wine comes to between sixteen pipes.^ is much frequented by French. but was succeeded some time in 1605 by Girolamo (or Giacomo) Corner. and must be imported. its is the residence of the Governor. to one of these. 18. of the best quality.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO seems past belief. et seq. useful scarce.

Those who come here for trade export. Salt also is made in the Isle.^ p. or at quintan" {op. hides. games in honour of a Greek saint's feast. which is nothing but staves to Rvne at the Ringe. besides local produce. and other goods. p. who says that on that day there met " at the toune of Zante all the able men of the Greeks with their best horsis and artillerie. to the music of their own voices. 1 599. the old Peloponnese. [The "jousts" were probably similar to the " traverses or sportes " witnessed on May Day. As soon great as we got into the town. commonly Venetian called " Castel Torneze. There here a town of the same name. 26). or Kieri. by the is level way through the valley above mentioned.^ lies five away from this. and near it a pond. imported in great abundance from only ten miles the Morea. only to see certain three miles away. cit.] ^ : '"'' * Modern Chieri." marked on our Admiralty Charts as " Cape Trepito. other port on the southern coast miles is called Chery. lies east of the Isle. These were attended by most of the folk of the city. After that they had jousts. hill thereof one can see a fine All this was it." It is just possible that the castle referred to may ."^ lately but now the Turks possess Justus" What these were is not clear perhaps some sort of wrestling. Apparently the ancient " Chelonites. and danced together. enough for its own needs. castle." but by D'Anville and Bartholomew as 2 Qape Tornese. the guests from the city and from other towns joined those of the village in messes. galls. After that. for the purchase in the streets fires at found and entertainment of the visitors. having a precentor to whom The and the rest answered. from within which arises constantly and abundantly a black and fine bitumen like tar. "Jousts" on horseback were not very likely to come off well on a Venetian-Greek island. but the bitumen springs identify the place.^ and other very pleasant pastimes.144 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. we which were roasted whole from three hundred to four hundred sheep. wax. and some is exported. 392). silk. F. saffron. The distance from Zante seems to be Edward underrated. This.. by Dallam. and on a territory.— D. Giffard makes them ten English miles from Zante {Ionian Isles^ etc.

subject to military it execution. on the next headland northwards. in flight. if found therein. 1604. them. ." [On November 25th.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO The ITALY. F. wherein the Signory are most vigilant. — . our coming into port all and went ashore in had clean bills of health great we stayed aboard for the the morning. By the terms existing between may enter the ports or waters of express permission prize. these are and their companies. no Turkish galleys the Signory without their fair and.^ bound for Constantinople on a summons from the Grand Turk. and on special interest made. be that of Chiarenza or Clarenza." ^ The potentate best known in English as "the Dey of Algiers. But most men thought this was but a pretence. joined Upon the Turkish galley's entrance. accompanied by the Viceroy of Algiers. After that term they may . . inquest was speedily made as to the rights and wrongs of her case and after much debate they let her go free. detained in a warehouse whilst the health officers took counsel how to deal with us. Upon night.] Ismail on the throne. Though we difficulties were made about we were granting pratique. provided that be done within twenty-four hours of capture. as they said. who held a commission from the Sultan to place D. having on board Ismail. and three more there seven. As a great favour. condition of instant departure. neither be slain nor held captive. finding that she had aboard the King of Argel. Next morning belonging to the Signory of came in Venice. a son of the late King of Morocco. to which a legend quoted by Giffard attributes the origin of our English title " Duke of Clarence. from two Christian galleys that had chased her. but must be set free and he who should trangress these rules would be subject to severe punishment. 145 night after our arrival a Turkish galley entered the port. on them later on. the Governor of Zante wrote to the Doge and Senate that on the i8th had arrived an English ship. if they resist.

There able. xvii). F. and The Governor. Calegary and myself to visit the proveditor" of the squad- and there to the used him with citadel to whom it.146 THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA. or perhaps a port admiral. which is. eating day to say nothing of plenty that was given to our guards. I take the proveditore to have been an officer of rank.^ On ron. our release. they could for o'clock us. cit. some others already loading all the For it is the law.. at the During delay and confinement. on their return thither. like an admiral. ctt. — Sic in orig. in ports of the Signory.. "had proticke. as the practice here. much honour and Her The rest of our time we spent in seeing whatever was worth arrival while our ship took in cargo. wondered yet all abundance of presents and refreshments sent to Piero dal Ponte. the proveedor^ of the squadron. We were about forty in and drinking of number the same is . though my dictionboth ItaHan and Spanish. D... D. Piero dal Ponte carried Domenico the Governor. 89). ^ ^'' proveedor" of the last . release is until three of the afternoon so strictly the this business managed amongst those I nations. from which it appears that the Governor was also the proveditore. Piero dal Ponte. translate "purveyor.] The words translated "distinguished friends' are ''''personages ^ I aries. pp. Yet we could get no . [It was only after six days that Thomas Dallam and his companions. superintendent. varying from the Spanish reference to this officer. F. [See Dallam's narrative. is in this port a fishery which I noted as remarkto this In July and August there come and other have here used the original word. Leve to com a shore " while. whether Antwerp or Spain is doubtful. — amigosP * '"^Acd" . p. on their first visit to Zante.^ chap.] . 18." etc. that no other ship is may take in cargo while a Venetian bottom available. did all other distinguished friends of our comrade. both of favour. but probably TeiThe quarantine arrangements of Zante were a marvel of rigour until 1837 (Giffard. op. because. xeira meant Spain. they only got out of the lazaretto after ten days' confinement {op. was inconin venient enough to port. 19. though these were not paid at our cost. we never stopped .

resort to her at once. which has been in some cases literally translated into English. great shoals of savalos} Of these the fishermen picket a living female to a stake or cane. and the men strike them without intermission. which we call a " knot. seeing the decoy. and it is actually used in German to mean a German mile of 1 5 to the degree. this port is the Isle of and at twenty miles to Scorso- some islets called where was the sea-fight between the Turk and the Sefior League. Clupea alosa and C. wherein the captain-general. They salt the flesh and roe. But mere sociability or curiosity will constantly lead free fishes to the side of a captive. of course. bottom with good scope of horse- The male fish. where a shad is called " sable-fish. whom were brought direct from Africa but most by the English." Two species.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. as all mWts must be " geographical " . finta^ occur in the Gulf of Venice. set in the harbour hair line. the women of this Isle are mostly good- looking. and ride in men's fashion when they go into the 1 Savalos are shad. some of . with many such decoys. regions. I saw in this Isle great use of negro slaves. Yet the heat of desire will allow no warning way into their silly brains and so.^ Don John of Austria was To conclude. It has to be noted thatTeixeira does not here speak as an eye-witness. Twelve land miles^ north-west of Safalonya." " ^ The fight of Lepanto. who had got them in past years by plundering the Portu- guese ships from Guynea and Angola." The latter term is objectionable. also Venetian territory the northward are clearly seen lary. the sexual passion described is very improbable. isles. which last are called butargas^ and much esteemed in all those . the men take innumerable fish. and this word (originally Barbaresque Arabic) has become " chee-chee" English in Madras. I47 from the archipelago. The distance from the port of Zante to the south point of Cephalonia is about 10 " knots. As these are never " ripe " for spawning in salt water. L 2 . ." or " geographical mile. 2 " Millas de tierraP It is impossible to know what is Teixeira's inilla" But in this case he guards himself from being supposed to use the Italian or navigator's mile of sixty to the degree on the Equator.

On us. and sing. Pope Paul the Fifth.148 country. also bound for Venice." V 2 Murad Reis (see supra. born [8th April] 1605 . and of the creation of the Holy Father. — D. is ill to count on what may chance 1 Philip IV. and Paul (Camillo Borghese). . I never left port withfair out being forced so to put back. homeward bound from Cypro. from Harmuz to this place. amongst other news. F. which lose we would not when we got But it it. and as the 5th of June. and committed to a friend of mine.^ The same day we had word that the corsair Murat Arrays^ was in the Gulf of Venice with seven galleys. sailing at noon on Sunday. 2//^^ Leo XI. and came We stayed here eight days for want of a wind. headed us in the evening. of which we were all glad. we could not clear the sound betwixt Zante and Safalonya. a packet of papers at for Venice. Tuesday. to Venice. make no The wind that drove us back brought into port a ship of Venice from Naples. we must needs put back into port. p. One of these was a Venetian. thought that as she was lighter and swifter. and dance very much our Portuguese of the province 'twixt Duero and Minho. 16). and the I other a little English ship. THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA Both men and and women like live. It is difficult to acquit elected i6th May of that year. that of the birth of our Lord the Prince of Spain. CHAPTER How we sailed from Zante XV. who took passage aboard But it her. she might make a better voyage. of Zante. the wind began to favour sailed again with and we two other ships. the 8th of June. our author of malice in associating these events so closely with the cruise of " Murat Arrays. It is worth consideration that. bringing. and could start.

by the ancients Dalmacia. on Thursday. ourselves. sailing with that favouring wind. got into Venice twenty days later than we did. against head winds. made but twelve miles through the Sound. the old We passed Cataro. and being forced into Corfu to water. It is to be noted that makes the Gulf of Venice begin here. the we saw Corfu far in the north. and drove us back. more often than we would. and after three days' beating i6th of the month. who appoint islets its governor once a month.^ and Gulf of Venice. the favouring wind shifted some days we had trouble enough. pleased God that the contrary wind died away . beating up from between shore and shore. a republic that exists by paying tribute both to the Turk and sailed to the Venetians. we sent our boat ashore for water at one of these called Lecena. we followed our course along Macedonia. not far from which stands Castel Nuevo. We On by many isles and that lie there along the coast of Esclavonia. For the wind headed port. I49 and this ship. . sea ." was now for the second time embittering the end of his voyage. We out of us.JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ITALY. and for it. after suffering much trouble. at the entrance of the When we had got twelve miles within against us. and measuring. ^ 2 Probably Lesina. possibly Lussin. lands of Apulia in Italy. so that his old bugbear. presently were up with that of Otranto. Isle Without returning into we rounded the southwards. a fortress thereon of the Signory of Venice. and presently follows Raguzea. and could not get it with our best endeavour. with some puffs of a better. ourselves within fifteen Next morning we found miles of Cape Santa Maria.^ Next day she returned Teixeira Santa Maria di Leuca of our charts. and. which may It be seventy miles. called the 30th of June isles. the width of the strait. the coast of Valona. " Murat Arrays.

were it not that it is not quite clear which is represented by Teixeira's = Our author's contemporary. After a whole night spent in suffering and fear. the 9th of July. which he was pleased to bestow upon them. that no man there hoped to get this place. sent in his name and by his command to hand over to the Signory of Venice certain lands in Dalmacia. Chawush and kawds are now well-known words in Europe. or some other place near the point of the [Or possibly Istrian peninsula. which had headed us sighted the mountains of again. Our comrades brought off a bark. ckaus. came down upon us so frequent and fierce north-easterly squalls' of wind and rain. which in their harbour Venice . and started in high spirits. at four in the afternoon. The ^'' Chawush^ moreover. fruit. At that time there were in the island a chaus and a saniaco^ of the Turk. near its base. THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO TEIXEIRA." . Istria. Piero dal Ponte and the rest of the passengers went ashore in the boat. that Teixeira's ship anchored. and so did we. and hence an officer entitled to colours. and his charge. but the small craft have a shorter course from So it is the custom. records (in The Alchemist) how one of these gentlemen introduced a new word for cheating into the English language. in Porto Quieto. to take passages in small craft to Venice. and we went aboard her on SunBut that night day. is the other's superior in rank and roguery less of an orderly and more of a bailiff yet not of such rank that his mission to the Signory was any better than one of the covert insults dear to the Asian diplomatist. For the great ships is must go about to get to Malamocco. we Ancona . F.] 2 ^^ Borrascas.^ we came to When we were near the shore. to leave them and make the passage of a hundred miles to Venice in these barks. and not Capo d' Istria. the loth. but I am inclined to think that must have been Pola. it was at Cittanuova. and here means the officer in charge of one. and on Satur- day. and vegetables. when the ships come to Istria. off with his life.— 150 with it. and 1 Sanjdk a banner. and with plenty of bread. * it D. Still beating up against the wind. Probably it is the former. and would need little remark here. — — It is not clear what port is meant. so that the word has come to mean a district." Ben Jonson.

. it ITALY. O Reader this short story of I my journey. the i ith. 151 pleased God that the weather mended a little. of which a wise man has wisely is an impossible work in an impossible place. we got health And on Monday. at eight in the morning. whence France. whence offer to thee. Then I visited I no small part of Italy. END OF THE VOYAGE. and saw Savoy to these States. to whom be gratitude and glory and ever. and this city of crossed the Alps. health. that it of that city. Amen I ! rested a while in Venice. which might have been it. and saw somewhat of the many wonders said. having passed the to Venice. who had brought us so far in peace and in for ever praising God. and came to Pied. office.! JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ceaseless tempest. mont.^ I I crossed came settled at last in Antwerp. we made every man for his own quarters. By eleven o'clock. longer had not been careful to abridge ^ The Spanish Netherlands.

.

Yule spells the name "Tiiran Shdh.] But our charts have "Turumbagh" for Teixeira's " Torunpaque. however. .2 then. ii. as may be of most use. Sir Henry Yule.. 236. APPENDIX A ^ A. In Nieuhof's Travels {ChurchilVs Collection. infra. Gray calls a later prince of this family. and of its Kings down to its Conquest by the Portuguese.^'' " Lo que mas what follows with the commencement of the Dominican friar's version given in Appendix D. and Mr. he leaves every reader free to choose that which best may square with his humour. and started Xa noma. F. the number of its kings. 9th ed. p. with the foundation of that kingdom. that is. But I will abridge. who came to a bad end in Goa. his predecessors. and as much more touching the same. ii. and may not be omitted.. et seq. extracted from King of the same. detail. 2 vol. and relate." on the site of the old royal gardens mentioned by Teixeira. upon a few pages. King of Harmuz. their succession in due order. Torunxa gives two very different accounts of the foundation of And that realm of Harmuz. " the History of the King. and of the rise of its first king. what he wrote with Adam. [In his article " Ormus" in the Encycl. which is here much fuller in ' Cf. or Kings" ." D. in the notes and index of his Marco Polo. Brit. in no small volume. was pleased to deal. if stray we must. 243. with my wonted brevity. Short Narrative of the Origin of the Kingdom of Harmuz.APPENDICES. and the He called his book the doings of the kings. that there was an Arab prince called Mahamed Teixeira has several forms of this name.^ He says. in Persian prose and verse. " Turun Shah" {vide his ^ — Pyrard. le quadrare." and he is good company to go astray in.). its History^ written by Torunxa} ToRUNXA. spells it " Thuran Shah. the origin of the kingdom. p. vol.

copied (though not acknowledged) from Teixeira. which is a province of Arabia. Cape. required. After counsel taken. which is that narrow sea which we now call in Portuguese the Strait of far. then much frequented . Jasques. near the Cape of Rocolgat. Dalb.] — Jashk of the Persian Gulf Pilot. vol.* a port of Arabia in the Persian Gulf. 37. i. iii. been taken by Siir. See also Imams oj ^Omdn^ p. forming what we now call the " Sea of Omdn. et seq. It is now only " a little village. wishing to increase his realm (as is the usual desire of rulers).." [In 1587. for.^ This is a port of Arabia on the same strait. Dram Ku. which should have more fame and trade than Soar." D. — D. whereof she was queen who came to see Solomon. F. 2 F. descended by old and direct succession from the kings of Sabah. ii. "J ask. marched out of his own territory. as I saw them. . plenty of water. F. and what they lasques. [See description of Kalhdt in Coimnent. It has now 4. not ceasing until he came to the shore of the Persian Gulf.^ bear witness that it was once an important Harmuz. 91-92. This prince. p. and a bold and enterprising people.. Cf. of Af.^ Having got so city. doubtless. spelt list of the Kings of Hormuz. and though it be now brought to Httle by wear of Time. . so that the exact meaning of the above passage is somewhat ^ The doubtful. a port.v. whence they took ship to the coast of Persia. 449.) — particular waters meant are not the Persian Gulf in general. according to the Dominican friar's version. But this part of the coast of Oman. 66. and overran and possessed those of his neighbours . at and eastward of Hormuz. p. p. with a good position. pp. — D.skat for Hormuz (see Introduction)." [It is more probable that the Gulf of Omdn is meant . F.^ a well-known port on is given a slightly abridged version of Turdn Shah's history. F. D. with all and made his passage to his followers. Thence he embarked.] Y tal me pares cio a my. p.154 APPENDIX A.000 inhabitants {Persian GulfPilot). Sir Thos. i. has always been more important than it looks on a map. This is also stated below in Teixeira's account . he and all his people went to Kalayat. Muhammad and his company marched to Kalhdt. of Af Dalb. 231) gives a very incorrectlyD. 1677. also 3 Imams of ^Omdn. the eastern point of Arabia. Md. he persuaded his folk to follow him across the sea.— D. with the promise of good luck on the Persian shore..] ^ — [See Hobson-Jobson^s. also apparently taken from Teixeira.] Sohdr. that is.000 to 5. but its narrow entrance. p. n. a little north-west of Ras-al-Had. Valentyn also {Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indien^ deel v. Herbert {Travels^ 4th ed. 108) gives a very brief summary of the history of Hormuz. Yule's Marco Polo^ vol.] " after leaving * Kalhat. [See description in Comment. yet still do the site and ruins. F.^ vol. where he was minded to found a bandel." with reported "anchorage Its place has for small craft quite close in" {Persian Gulf Pilot). n.

and allowing to each of his predecessors an average reign of thirteen years.! another port of the same shore. wise wazir. in. 700 as the date of the founder Muhammad. gives A. 155 .* He had with him a son of his. F. [See also Yule's article on " Ormus. standing almost on its ruins (vide Persian Gulf Pilot^ s. of English trans." and J. Yule {ubi supra) places the founding somewhat earlier and Valentyn [ubi supra). Turonxa's alternative story of the rise of this kingdom of Harmuz is as follows. that. ^ No Hormuz . named Soleyman. and struck money. [See infra. accepted by Sir Henry Yule.— KINGS OF HORMUZ. Thence coasting northwards.). who. he entered the Persian coast. he disembarked his men.] 2 The site of Old Hormuz has been for some time assigned to Khor Minaw (=Minaw Creek). i. 423. "Ormus . and by reason of his high character. F. he might here have safe harbour and passage. misquotes Teixeira as saying that Mahmud founded the city of Hormuz on the zV/^. wisdom. and valour. D. with a should have ill success over sea. on the authority of Sir Lewis Pelly. ^ 425. Now. vol. iioo.D. the governors of Xyraz and Kermon.v. v. this was an assertion of independent sovereignty.] dates are given in connection with the first eleven rulers of but assuming as correct the date (1278) given for the death of the twelfth. Appendix D. s. D. ix. Appendix D.— D.. — . was held in close alliance by his neighbours. F. whence he had the surname of Dramku. and Yule's Marco Polo). on what authority I know not. * The D. and HobsonJobson. ther on there lay a place called Harmuz." in Encyclopcedia Britannica.^ very fit for his enterOn examination he approved prise. 13 of Bk. Preece's "Journey from Shiraz to Jashk. laid out and founded a city. The port was later on represented by " Gombroon. 36) calls it See also infra.D. 1 " Goxtaque. by whose endeavours the city grew and prospered notably. of Mandelslo's Travels (see p. and established himself there . The etymology given is correct. to his son Soleyman. was beaten in battle and fled and because he held himself in peril in Arabia." as that is now by Bandar Abbas. . greatly increased. in peace and with justice.* and left it. he passed over Kohistug and Kuhistak of modern maps. if he had left in Kalayat a son of his. F. which was ill-peopled. and Hearing that fursought a convenient place for his settlement. [Barbosa (p./^ afterwards called by that name.3 allotted the land. When he had come to Kostek. Adam — possession of a mint and special coinage being a royal privilege throughout the East.] Olearius." in Royal Geographical Society s Supplementary Papers. the foundation of the kingdom of Hormuz would fall in A. And Xa Mahamed dwelt and ruled there. Xa Mahamed Kostek. he went thither with his force. of the site. He died some years after the foundation of Harmuz. warring on another." — pp. D. R. in one of his annotations to chap. The father of Xa Mahamed was a king in Arabia. at his discretion. F.

Now the ruler of that land was a tyrannous lord in all his 2 doings Xa Mahamed Dramkii. of course. fell not away from the virtue of his fathers. landed in Mogostam. He was good and just. Kaykobad. and had many children. He encouraged them to till the fields. his son. succeeded on his father's He was a good prince. was kindly. for peace and safety's sake. And so this Mamud held his nephew. inherited the state on his father's death. With the foregoing tyrant. son of Soleymon. son of I94. which Teixeira always gives doubly at the end of each king's reign. protected the poor. in the lands of Brahemy and Mogostam. son of Iga. The kingdom of Harmuz throve greatly in his day. make him king. second of that name.* district of Persia east of the Strait of Hormuz. Now the kings of Harmuz. with bounty and favour. and there they dwelt. and prosperity. dying there. He had. first king of Harmuz. the Persian Gulf. I take the liberty of curtailing the mention of each succession. He guese. so that he much increased his dominion. and at the start of his successor's. wherein he died some years later. left his son in possession. it is unnecessary to consider the choice so naively offered by Thuran Shah and Teixeira. Mir Xabadin Molongh. unless upon other command of the king.156 ^ APPENDIX A." The prince disguises himself as a bride. and in his time his folk had peace death. who might pretend to the throne. which the kings of Harmuz yet hold in Persia. In gratitude whereof they did often risk life and goods in his service . succeeded his father as fourth king. succeeded I^a his son. and sixth of the dynasty. who had come with him. He did justice. and so much beloved of his people. he handed over the kingdom and retired into seclusion. for his virtue and justice .^ 19a. which is in Persia. and beloved of whereby his fame and state were He much died after a long and peaceful reign.^ a part of Persia. and from this onward. Mamud. Laxkary. subject to the Portuincreased. This king was warlike. and plant palm orchards. On Kaykobad's death. for his princely qualities. and stabs the vicious The people. and settled there with Mahamed. in the fortress of Gat. * " Brahemy" may be represented by Bandar Ibrahim of some maps. ^ Mogistan. a son named Kaykobad. his son. and. a protector of the poor. the third king. and repressed the pride of the nobles. and undertook several wars which he brought to good end. very probable narrative before us. the 2 Here Here. to whom. were wont to keep all of their blood royal. amongst others. He was a good prince. son of Laxkary. Khor Minaw of our charts and Pilots on the Persian mainland east of ^ : . with many others. in separate places and fortresses. was succeeded on his all death by Soleymon. the fifth king. follows the widespread folk-tale of the " Mercheta mulierum.

in marriage to Amir Seyfadin Aben Azar. Set Alkatun Xabadin. and in the end he beat them outright. 1 I do not know what " doubtless 2 Mongol hordes. . and then great all his efforts. The captain there word of this. and gave orders to confine him. his son Xaxanxa succeeded him. " —D. albeit much outMirxabadin Molongh." and " Seugon" {infra) may be taken to be " Sekui. But as that relationship is impossible text. more of it presently. But not long {pp.^ p. The " great hosts" were " Tz'*? = usually "uncle. 157 Now Mamud had warning that his nephew plotted his death. It is the " Kais" of our charts and The Persian We Gulf Pilot. who bore him a son called Nocerat Requebdar." upon any construction of the foregoing vaguer term.KINGS OF HORMUZ. and kept up the pursuit of Molongh. daughter called Setalkatun (daughter of) Xabadin. took Seyfadin for king. He gave his daughter. 36) [Barbosa perhaps "Gatan" or " Gez. lands would be those about Minaw. hearing of his kinsman's^ numbered. about three degrees west of Hormuz Island. Hyr" represents. and returned to Harmuz. and Xabadin Molongh presently hailed king in his place. F. cit. of his father-in-law. hosts out of the land of Hyr^ invaded Harmuz and its territories. son of Aly his Shortly after this marriage brother. where he ruled with great success. and the men of Keys.] "Gat" is al-Kiih. wherein Xaxanxa was slain. One cannot be sure of the exact relationship.^ Aly died." — D. This king prosecuted the war against the men of Hyr." all on the Royal Geographical Society's Map. and gave him to wife a daughter of his own. of the king of Harmuz. called him up to his own side. a little to the north of RasIf so. but could not lay hold on him with In this way passed several years. getting treason should be proven. I have preferred the 2 " i7i?rM<2«^ " = brother. viz. shall hear a good deal and half a degree south of its latitude. its Hormuz. Mamud died in Harmuz. and marched to reinforce the king. and a Meanwhile. has "Ebrahemi. thought the time fit to make his peace. and Xaxanx^ marched out to fight them. to whom he submitted. So they joined battle with the enemy. but this construction is rendered likely by the Musalman custom of giving a girl to her father's brother's son. and lies within the Persian Gulf. and followed him with his men. fled to the used and served him well. at Abadin's instance..' king of the Isle of Keys. fort of Seugon. On Mamud's death. who went thither with his wife. gathered what force he could. F. * " Keys " is marked " Kenn " on some modern maps. But Xaxanxa. meaning to slay him if that But Mir Xabadin Molongh. with many tokens of his affection. So he took leave peril. if possible and convenient.

^ — D. StifFe's view of Hormuz." and so it is called Thence he went to Harmuz. and a certain Rex^ Xarear. Harmuz. that is " Dead Men's Hill. invaded their isle. or sell his life dear. as no doubt any good Persian The likeliest word seems to be k/iasrdn = " perishing. it will be observed. be correct.— 158 "^ APPENDIX A. and carried away captive some of their chiefs.D.] first This. is the mention of the Insular Hormuz in the story.* life in peace. 232) says that on the top of this hill the Portuguese built a chapel called " Our Lady of the Rock. half-way through Clarence Strait." The hill is shown in Capt. where he slew his prisoners on a hill. had peace in his realm during his lifetime. ^usk^drdn=:s\a. victories. and bade every man shift for himself. F. Xabadin Mamud. not forgetting how the men of Keys had used marriage. But he and they were all slain. He kept son of Hamed. succeeded him. called thence Kuy Kostaron. with whom he won some great Amir Seyfadin and he. was to give three daughters of Rex Xarear to three chief men of his court in Then. infra). [More probably Pers. and Amir Seyfadin remained in possession of the kingdom. aV. — D. It has a big fort. and Xabadin Mamud. 1243. who held it with ten of his kinsmen." This is entered in the plan in Astley's Collection as " N. him. When the men of Keys heard of Molongh's death and Xarear's doings. I " Sobrino" possibly a lated literally. second of his name. — In A. He anchored at the Isle of Gerun. as in the abolished " Raisships " of Sind. son of Iga. . took arms.. south-east of Minab * (Old Hormuz) * is the place meant. he made war upon them. The first thing that the new king Seyfadin did. and eleventh king. they dethroned fled from that isle to The usurper Xarear was then in the fortress of Kaream. and the date of the death F. where all men made him welcome. F. assumed the kingdom.^ then a desert. died. so have trans- . de la Pena. fearing for his Hfe.' whither Seyfadin marched. ^ For " Rais. Nieuhof (oJ>. *"Kuy" certainly represents the Persian ICok-i = "Hi\\ of" " Kostaron " I cannot clearly identify. This title has now come down in the world. S. [Or perhaps Karian. and the ruins of the chapel are marked in his plan D. in whose time Harmuz throve greatly. as given below. mere matter of seniority amongst the Amirs. beat them with great slaughter. if the length of the reign of his successor." a captain or who Possibly represented by Khamir. or one takes precedence amongst men of practically equal rank. on the Persian shore. a little port. his nephew. many and good soldiers.^ Amir Roknadin Mahmud. in civil life a ruler. and spent the rest of his to-day. 164. On his death^ succeeded his nephew." scholar could.] (see note p. king of Harmuz. Xarear.ughtered ones. \ afterwards Mir Xabadin Molongh. his wazir. which now we call Harmuz. ® nephew of his predecessor. p. and a trade in brimstone and millstones. commander.

D. nearly due north of Hormuz Island and " Komzara" is.^ with a certain Malek Seyfadin Abubakra Hhaony. is on the Isle of Kishm. to fly the kingdom. was his mother. but he got Amir Moehzadin Fulad into his hands. " Ormuz. two more of his brothers. sub vv. and fought with Noceret in Demi. and was easily accessible from Kumzar (vide Persian Gulf Pilot." the latter appellation meaning "powerful" or "intrepid. to Lapht. to Kishm.") I cannot identify "Zafar. succession was opposed by two of his brothers. a. and the citizens and soldiers in disgust recalled and reinstated Amir Seyfadin Nocerat. and died in a. that is. His brothers ceased not yet from disturbing him. marched on Harmuz. and thence in a tarranquyf or light bark. and died in the year of the Hyxara 676. V/. on the coast. passim) I .] * As is mentioned in a footnote further on. and supplied troops. Amir Kodbadin Most of the Thahantan and Amir Moehzadin Fulad. son of Roknadin Mamud. and we are getting near the time of Marco Polo's visit or visits. Unfortunately. whose " inhabitants are fishermen. * F. or to what king. 1278. that Malek Seyfadin slew Kodbadin.] p. which is just opposite to Lapht. [" Denu" is probably Deh Na of the Indian Survey Map of Persia. and thirBut his teenth of his line. * I cannot identify " Denu" the most tempting names on the maps are probably mere misspellings. I think. But " Komzara. See infra." It maybe Dhofar. spells the word tarranquim cannot trace the origin of the name. or Pulad. a seaport in the Isle of Broct. which isle we Portuguese call commonly Queixome. then governed by a Sulton Gelaladin Suraget Mex. Amir Masaud and Amir Turkonxa. and possess fifty or sixty boats of difi"erent They take salt-fish. the two allies agreed so ill. Mir Kodbadin Tahamtan. Bibi Banek. although it is not Kishm.d. He fled to Komzara. ^ Amir Seyfadin Nocerat. his remarks Vide Yule's Marco Polo.^^ Now Laft. forced him and his mother. Couto {Dec.. v. — — . [Ibn Batuta calls Dhofar "Zafar. with which place sizes. is still that of a port. and terranquim. Khamir (referred to in the note on D." and " Thuran refer. She may have had a .h. a little above. is called by that traveller " Kutbuddin Tahamtan. 1291. " Kumzdr. the ruler of Hormuz." a rather recognisable name. now the southwest boundary of Maskat. at the time of Ibn Batuta's visit.d. F. But the other." — D. they have inuch intercourse. ( Shah. he not prevail over his brothers. 1 59 and new dominions as far as Zafar. slew him by treason. Bibi Banek went to Kermon." near Ras Musand^m. He had reigned twelve years."— D. He reigned thirty-five years. After Nocerat's restoration. ^ Bibi Banek. F.KINGS OF HORMUZ. yet could who ^ This the first date in the Kings of Hormuz. etc. and cast Malek forth of the kingdom. by whose aid Seyfadin Nocerat was reinstated in his kingdom. He received her with much honour. soldiers favoured Nocerat. it cannot be certainly known to what period. on the mainland.). with his sisters. Bibi Banek^ and Bibi Neyty. s. a. F. shark-fins. inherited the kingdom from his father. and beat him. and put him to death. 1 58).* After his flight. 689.

D. having slain his brother. is meant Masaud. but it is quite as likely that there is some mistake. . Soc. " Masaud. seized and beheaded them. as might be easily inferred. and not Ruknuddm Mahmud. p. Royal As. p. the governor of Hormus. and that the mother is the lady meant here. i. under the rule of the Salghur Atabegs of Fars.Purgstall {Geschichte der Ilchane^ bd. an alternative name of Kerman. possessed the kingdom. but so cruel and ill-conditioned that he presently found himself abhorred of all men. is Masdud. plotting his restoration. and thence to Syrion. is — names in addition to the was by these that he was This stands for Sirj^n. both gentle and simple . He now.D. Seyfin. having beaten Masaud. 92) . where the mufti Dschemaleddin of Fars received him with open arms. the capital of the province (see Yule's Marco Polo^ vol. but not without further opposition. with which he passed the Persian Gulf. 2 ^ Hammer. the former slave of Mir Seyfadin Nocerat. Masaud fled to Kermon. who had such trust in him as to make him wazir of Kalayat. It ^ . After he had defeated Mesud. ^ He was warlike and bold." in modern scientific transliteration. in fear of whose hatred he slew many. possessed himself of the realm. Melik Behaeddin Ajas. He was assisted by Dschelaleddin Sijurghutmisch. which fell little more peace.^ where he died years afterwards. Mir Turkon Xa and Mir Saliuk. and granted him from the Crown revenues twelve thousand pieces of gold yearly for the maintenance of the army. 492). Journ. raised an army to avenge the death of his mistress. 50) says. there came out of Turkestam great hordes of Turks. and levied more than two hundred tomdns in gold and silver and rich stuffs. went to Hormus. For two brothers of the exiled Masaud. vol. quite possible that Masaud had several single one that Teixeira records. xiii. p. in 1302 many Mir Bahadin Ayaz daughter or step-daughter of her name. and caused state prayers to be offered in the name of Fachreddin Ahmed ben Ibrahim Et-thaibi. Ayaz heard of this.^ A. raised a force. The mufti : — . a trisyllable. one of her Mameluks. on the authority of Abdul Wassdf " Hormus was.. feeling for the troubles and miseries of Harmuz. the Arabian port mentioned above. having reigned but three. ii. and the most and the best betook themselves to Amir Bahadin Ayaz Seyfin. N. a governorship of the latter's . This man had been a slave of the late King Nocerat. after which he had a But in the year 700 of the Moors. took possession of the island for himself. S. His son Nussret put to death his brother Rokneddin Mesud." the name he gives to the then reigning sovereign. corresponded with him.l60 APPENDIX A. the ruler of Kerman but Behaeddin fled to the island of Kisch... attacked Amir Masaud. F. and beat him in fight. after the fall of this famous dynasty Mahmud Kalhati. and that it known to Marco Polo. and the latter's wife. he proceeded to the islands of Larek and Dscherun. Masaud. and proceeded to reduce it to order. that Yule thinks that it was on his return journey (probably in 1492) Marco Polo visited Hormuz and that therefore by " Ruomedan Ahomet.

1302." consequent on the raids {vide Yule's Marco Polo. especially because the time of the monsoon was at hand. parted from it by a narrow sound." For. should arrive. and they obeyed him willingly bringing with them all that remained to them. Behaeddin Ajas pursued the warships of the King of Islam. ^i6n). landed on the island of Kis or Kisch. most of the tribes attached to it were Turkish. 700. . the lord of the island. — total. as we go on. which had to be decided by arms. 125 see also vol. — These invaders were certainly subjects of the Mongol " Ilkhan " dynasty. In the following year [the date "15 July 1296" is given in the margin]. . when Dschemaleddin acquired the farm-general of Fars and all the coasts and islands appertaining thereto. he went at the head of an army to Hormus. i. where dissensions arose between him and Fachreddin. though the dynasty was Mongol. l6l and conquered many lands in Persia. and wasted it all and well if the mischief had stopped at that. 19." Yule. p. of which Ghazan Khdn and. who justly terms the above account " frightfully confused. saved from the force and . after him.^ The Isle of Queixome. that the Mongol raids should be spread over several years previous to A.^ the West. A. ii. unable to withstand such troubles. F. Dschemaleddin of Schiras. son of Abaka. and so they did. or Broct. D.] ^ It will be seen that the abandonment was not * See p.D. D. vol. and that that was the date of the settlement of " Harmuz. F. — M . son of Haldku. in which the ships from the Indian coast. defeated them. . supra. Behaeddin Ajas proved himself not ungrateful towards his former benefactor. s. 1302. with the mandate that Bahaeddin should vacate the island. For the wealth that they had found in those lands induced them to return so often. F. and next that of Harmuz. which had approached the island. and after the latter had een defeated in an engagement with Fachreddin. p. But we cannot assume Thuran Shah's dates to be very precise. which is called Maaber^ i. son of Tuli. with his. It will be evident. Behaeddin facilitated his flight from the island. his brother Uljaitu (sons of Arghun. and from two to three wide. [In his Kings of Persia Teixeira says nothing of any ^ Turkish invasion in A. i. made up their minds to abandon their lands. He therefore sent to Behaeddin Ajas. Thuran Shah and Teixeira are probably right in calling them " Turks. that the Harmuzis. and I would refer the reader to his note on the subject {Marco Polo. and sacked it the King of Islam (Dschemaleddin) was uneasy over the consequences of his loss by land and sea. and he supported this demand with an army.^ the mufti farmer-general. It is five-and-twenty leagues long.e. It is not unnatural that they should have been some time about working their way down to the hot south coast. and by his means concluded a treaty with Fachreddin et-Thaibi. Rukneddin Mesud had won to his interest the King of Islam. v. betook himself to Hormus. D.e. son of Chinghiz) were the heads at that time.KINGS OF HORMUZ. lies along the Persian coast.^ Ayaz ordered the Harmuzis to cross into this isle.D. " Ormuz"). who has already been referred to above as the farmer-general of Fars.H.^ They attacked the kingdom of Kermon." has attempted to explain some of the statements therein.

once or twice." and date the migration of the Hormuzis from the mainland in A. but all that is lost in the wars. so called of it. 185). to show our author's methods of spelling. two breeds of pirates that ever infest that sea. who lived by fishing. cap. F. receiving in exchange rice. Dalb. with. D. for fear of the Noutaqui and Nicheld robbers. and is now a prosperous little island enough. Liv. there had put in a Mulah. i) both ascribe the founding of the kingdom of Hormuz in the island of Jarun to " Gordunxa " or " Groduxl. though by no means metropolitan. says that the island was called " Jarun. and I have transcribed them and translated the passage literally. This Gerun. within one paragraph oi t\\Q editw princeps. II.^ It had once that sea-borne trade that Harmuz now has. cloth.'' ruled also over Gerun. called Xeque Ismael. Ayaz set forth. after fury of the Turks. and not Ismail. ^ Regarding whom. for that he would find none so Ayaz surveyed it. of Af." — on account of its desert condition. being content therefit for his purpose. p. proceeded to ask for it from the king of Keys. and other food and apparel. it will be seen. during Ayaz's visit. and all the other isles in the Persian Gulf. says that he could not learn the history of the foundation of Hormuz (vol. the Arabs and Persians." The author of the Comment. or from Keys^ to India. below.) also speaks of this old man "Gerun": but the Dominican. in search of an isle. find again this name of " Neym" in connection with " Keys. and sold his catch to the ships bound from India to Queis. He came to one that was desert. and was of old the chief place of a kingdom but now desolate since the loss of its trade.^ some days' rest therein. ^ That is. From the authorities there quoted it would appear that the Shaikh's name was Ddnidl. — — "^ — .l62 APPENDIX A. Kais is far from the middle. F." And it is worth while to remember that the " Banu Naim" are still a great clan on the Persian Gulf ^ For the name of this " village near Lara " see next note. whose version of Tur^n Shdh is given respectively. D. attributes the transference to "Cabadim.^ a 1 Barros {Dec. as here given. 2 Barros {u. The reader will have noted above that the dynasties of Kais and ot the continental Hormuz were closely related. cap. amongst several thereabout. D. hearing from Ayaz to what end he sought the isle. f. and scarce can it keep its own name. Neyn. 3 These two names undoubtedly refer to the same island. pp. gave him counsel to come thither. . il.^ with his wife. 20. to which it belongs. see supra. s. When they had got shelter in the island. who was then king of Keys. F. 1273 and cz'rca 1250 The Dominican.^ It is well watered and wooded. and. the inner or proper Gulf west of Hormuz. x. or man of Queixome . 21. a native of a village near Lara. V. to which. two leagues from that of on a point whereof dwelt an old man called Gerun. in Appendix D. near the Persian coast. but by the Portuguese Quays. Liv. iv. D.* is a little isle in the midst of the Strait of Basora. We shall. religion. ii) and Couto {Dec. * A third spelling. who owned Keys.D. wherein he and his folk might settle.

having conversed with him and for the poor of his town.. after an angry altercation with his queen. it remained the custom of the kings of Harmuz to pay yearly to the descendants of that Mulah a certain fee. on tour amongst those isles. cap. yet he In memory of this service. city of Persia. and says not a word of any intermediary. which Couto {Dec. F. the island of Gerum to Gordunxd. — D. In connection with what Barros says of "Xeque Doniar. i. 46 and notes.^ Ayaz. Liv. i) records the transaction briefly. ascribes the opposition to the inother of Malec Caez. whom we wished to visit. and gave it the unforgotten name of his own land. no small part jn the transaction. for which I have myself seen them come more than once. son of Tiiran Shah. the saint Dd^nid. See supra^ p. This sepulchre is surmounted by a high cupola.— KINGS OF HORMUZ. Indian navigators are wont to divide the Persian Gulf into two parts. 11^ Liv. to beg alms for himself. adds that. Barros. " which alms the kings of Ormuz who succeeded to this Gordunxd at this present day pay to a mosque that this caciz built in a district called Hongez of Xeque Doniar.!. the friend of God. is found the tomb of the pious shaikh. He promised the Mulah a good fee for his trouble. It is there that the shaikh In his hermitage Abu Dolaf dwells. so that himself and his folk might go thither. monastery -f * See Linschoten. tom. near the city of Lara. represent Persian pahlaw = 2 saint. and the latter managed so well that he obtained the isle . 241-242) " left Lar for the town of Khonjopdl the khd of this word is sometimes replaced by a hd (Honjopdl). proceeded to settle there with his people. ^ Barros {Dec. X. 11. through the intervention of a caciz (priest) named Xeque Doniar. who states that bribes played let Gordunxa have the island. Malec Caez. thought fit to employ him to obtain that island from the king of Keys. p." The name of the place seems to : : We : . erected by the sultan Kutbuddin Tamahtan (Tahamtan). namely.. the caciz was granted by Gordunxd a perpetual alms for a house of prayer on the island. vol. khdnaga F. These objections led to strained relations but. at his own request. whether by gift or by sale. nor has the ancient Harmuz^ on the mainland lost its name. found him capable. on the ground that the island was the key to the Strait. and Ayaz. and especially his queen." cap. —D. the Strait of Harmuz. and who enjoyed a high rank among contemplatives. ii. 155. whose name is famous in this country. having obtained possession of the Isle of Gerun. that is Harmuz." I quote as follows from Ibn Batuta's narrative {op.. or hangdh = dervish F. M 2 . 163 This man was wont to come annually at a certain season. and though it was offered as a free gift. The Dominican's account {infra. D) is silent regarding any negotiations whatsoever in connection with the migration to Jarun. but retains it to this day. pp. ^ But the Persians and Arabs yet commonly call it Gerun . cit. but that several of his courtiers. strongly opposed the sale. ii) gives a somewhat different version He says that the King of Caez was willing to sell of the transaction. beginning between Guadel in would not take it but on fair purchase for cash. App. will be some forty leagues from Ormuz.

the last being largely copied from Garcia de Silva y Figueroa (see L^ Ambassade de D. X. whereof I shall briefly relate a few." " of to-day are the narrows. In the Lembranqa de Cousas da India o emxofre d'orumuz" is given as one of the articles of trade at Cambay. 41. Persia and Cape Rozalgate in Arabia . dosar. on which coast the fairway is not as good for great ships as on the Persian shore. south of. 330. 31-46). Delia Valle ( Viaggi. Stifife's account.' Now betwixt these though not fairly in their midst. ii. pp.* and nine leagues from Arabia. between Hormuz ^ The and R^s Mu- sanddm.— D. of Sciences ed. Wm." Couto (Dec. i. Ormuz Yet we still talk of ships "Straits employed of * at Mdskatas on service "in the Persian Gulf. and Nieuhof {Churchill s Voyages." Modern "Persian Gulf. infra. and Mr. 211. chap. ii.). F. from Dogar. iv) has " Ducar" (for " Du^ar"). Further on " Dogar" is described as "a stream." and Barros (Dec. p. p. F. from Harmuz or Gerun inwards to Basora^ itself. (vol. It has a lofty range of hills running east and west from the sea to sea. chap. 11. D F. iv. there is nothing but lesser ranges. Dalb. for the reader's pleasure. 46) " — . of Dalb. standing at its head. Liv. April. 188) also mention the sulphur mines. and those of Barbosa (pp. Barbosa. During the rains. It is some six or seven miles about . during my stay. A . 298 . of Af. vol. . cap. The Comment. III^ Liv. — ^ I. for the first is about a hundred leagues long. there were found mines. that is. pp. in the Geographical Magazine.. 232 et j<?^. (Lisbon Acad. vi) Pyrard (vol. * The central peak is 690 feet high {Persian Gulf Pilot). and the other two hundred this Isle of Harmuz or Gerun stands like a gate-post or beacon. Foster's " View of Ormus in 1627 " (with curious sketch by David Davies) in Geographical Journal. Af . there is a less rugged plain. and much got out of them. W.^ and the Strait of Basora. p. where it receives the united flood of the historic Tigris and Euphrates.e.. . VI. whereon stands the fortified city. for which reason it remains so rugged as to amaze the explorer of its interior. li. See also Capt. p. separate hills. D. Garcias de Silva Figueroa. 41-46) . There is plenty of good rock-salt. Aug. 524 et seg. p. xviii) Comment. (vol. the storm-water from the hills flows over the plain around — — 1 '^ The modern " Gulf of Om^n. xii) mentions " Do^ar. and a rugged wilderness. ^ With the description that follows compare that of the Dominican writer given in Appendix D. cap.) . Linschoten (vol. This little isle contains some things worthy of note. ^he Shat-al-Arab. xliii) P.164 APPENDIX A. vol. and very pure sulphur f whereof. A. with map and plans.^ This Isle of Gerun was of old volcanic. ii.^ From the foot of this to the northern promontory. . p.. 1874 . i. * Cf. chap. But beyond^ the main range. five miles from the nearest place in Persia. i. vol." It is not on modern maps but Valentyn's map of Persia has a " B. Pt. but yet navigable." proper. which are very heavy. 1894 and the plan and views in Danvers's Portuguese in India.

like those used on board ship. or Harmuz. i. but not when Teixeira was there. p. the water yet flowing below. Filippe de Brito reported. vol. And this salt gathers and hardens so under the sun. nor at this day. and thereof is made much salt. On this spot dwelt the old man Gerun. the eastern and western. * Middle Kingdom. lat. And this would seem to be the reason why most of the hams which the Portuguese bring thence are cured with alum. Mathias de Albuquerque. 52. scattered over the island. is very medicinal.^ in a sandy point.^ which are of great relief to the poor in summer. which. D. take it in as ballast. s. to hold water (Couto. For the rock-salt is so strong that. Liv. but rainwater caught and stored in many cisterns." A letter. ^ See the plans of Hormuz referred to in the note on p. Dec. as well as the rock-salt. There is no fresh water. see Hunter's Imperial Gazetteer of India. that though this isle stands in 27J1 deg. they were united by an artificial cut in later years. and in plan and construction.' Now we will drop the salt. ^''Juntas" As a matter of fact. which is very great there. The remains of the water-cisterns are still to be found. 164. or any other provisions on which it may be strewn. All this salt." D. The Isle of Gerun. vi.^ There must be a like dearth of salt in many provinces of China. — D. F. 1610. In 1583 the captain of Hormuz. as not necessary to our narrative.KINGS OF HORMUZ. A large revenue is still obtained from the gabel (see Wells Williams's ^ 2 — . that I have often ridden over it. N. dated 29th Dec. 443). nor when his book was printed. is a thing worth wonder. — . fearing that in a siege the water-cisterns in the fort might be breached. vol. the water by the sun's help is used in victuals and condiments. and a summary of its history since the sixteenth century. Linschoten. whence flow three streams of clean and clear water. F. and such as only on trial could well be believed. in different places at the foot of the hills. but in the Isle of Sundiva alone. Nevertheless some ships. from whom the isle has its name. so hollowed out of the coast that their heads He close together. — ^ Cf. but as salt as the sea. "Sandwip. There are in the isle three perennial springs. ^ Rock-salt has not been found in China alum is abundant. it wastes the same. For a description of this island. and might become considerable. by the mere operation of And it nature and the heat of the sun. where it furnishes the chief of the royal customs. 1898 {Persian Gulf Pilot). X. where scarcity gives it a value. pp. For in all the lands thereabouts is no salt made. F. Sic in orig. D. x). has two bandels^ or bays. F. where now stands the Portuguese fortress/ one of the finest in all the East in importance. which is clearly seen to But only that won from increase like the rest. from the Viceroy of India replying to one from the King of Spain. and specially those from Cochin. caused to be made twenty-seven large " tanks " of teak. instead of preserving meat. and carry it to Bengal. i. its summer heat is almost past bearing. refers to the revenue from salt in Sundiva. 165 the city. cap. "was of importance. V. 308.

and also Appendix B. Near this Torunpaque. was no laggard. London. see Comment. Probably the original name of the garden was "Turan Bd. 11. except that on the plain there are some thorny evergreens called conar^ which bear a berry like the jujube. 1686. but not for all that did he get hold of the money. This she thought impossible.. to put that idea out of his head. i. p. nor do its wells and But. abundant in . F. F.gh. But." and charts. on the east point of the isle.^ In these all plants of those parts grow in perfection. (Vide Persian Gulf Pilot^ sub voce " Hormuz. But it C. there is one well which the king and the wazir use to water their gardens there. the lote-fruit.) [On "Turumbaque" and its wells.^ Of this salt mud they make water-vessels on the spot. Torunpaque " can hardly be said to survive. with a description and drawing. 11. and the king proposed marriage to her. The " Sena Maky''"' was probably Cassia halo sericca^ which grows even on the barren rock of Aden.^ vol. an old lady. F. this very region of Persia. Liv. F ^ Cf. Ferragut Xa. I cannot find the name in either dictionaries or botanical books.— D. cit.] D.^ the then king.^ who had been wazir of Mogostam on the Persian mainland. D. She was said to be very rich. 233). Pt. X. At least. * ^ See Introduction. as the hills above this part of the shore are the only hills ^ " gardens." Indianized by Hindus into sonainukhi [Johnson's Persian. told him that he might do so when he had made a new garden in Turunpaque. But she. which they call senna of Mecca. on the island that are not salt. infra. and his tree was pretty surely Zizyphus Spina Christi (Lovell's translation. Dalb. when I happened to be at Harmuz. 175-178 also Nieuhof's description of the place as he saw it in 1662 {pp. and found a good sweet spring . F.* a pretty old man. the widow of one of his subjects called Rex Bradadin. — — — . and on the ground a few little mallows may be seen in spring time. And there is purgative senna. D. cap. among some rocks not far from the sea. Only in Torunpaque. But Thevenot gives it as the name of a tree." which is the fruit oi Zizyphus lotus^ and the supposed food of the Lotophagi." which can hardly represent any other place than this the less so. doubtless spurred by his greed. 138-140.. p. fell in love with the cash of one Bi Fatima. pp. our charts show " Turumbagh (Ruins).English Dictionary has kundr. And I remember now that in 1596. which. xi). quaintly " golden-face. This is probably the " Rax Lardadi" (read " Bardadi") mentioned by Couto {Dec.Arabic. See note at end of this Appendix.] ^ The ^^ conar^' certainly was a jujube {Zizyphus).: l66 APPENDIX A. contrariwise. angustifolia^ which also bears that name. keep the water cool and pure. one would like to think so. in all the rest of the isle is no tree or plant to be seen. may have been = '''' — D. but the old man. which is a patch of salt white soil on the point of the isle. He planted a new garden better than his old one." and indicates its plantation or renewal by the royal historian. when once sweetened. of Af. 1 17). and found a new freshwater spring. as one of that genus of plants.

quant.^ The city is not now very great. as here unknown. and around it stand seven or eight it on a hard Arabs. that is to It is very purgative. [Adibe = Arabic ad. enough to say that the creatures mentioned are by no means impossible inhabitants of Hormuz. 164. is made of white gypsum.KINGS OF HORMUZ. chap. and at a certain many come here and drink it. according to the dictionaries. and best The cement endures the earthquakes from which the isle suffers. it This stuff is especially proof against goes bad.^ ently good stone. 2 It is — D. they make a mound of them. drink. The adibes. They take the upper stuff off this. suff. = cement or mortar. and burn them for a while. quarried on the island. and dry them in the sun. " the medicinal water. and of that fished out of the sea. Probably sarugh = cement (Persian).'^ 1 From ab = " water " and ddru = " medicine. Persian. red. of an indifferin front of the fortress. and make cakes of it." from ztb. and is useless. from one up to a settled number. which they They call gueche^^ and of a local sort. p. There is not space here for an essay on the desert fauna of Persia."^ water. striking all together. When they are quite dry. woU. should have been either wolves or hysenas. every one with a staff in hand. and resists it for many years. turtle-doves.dib'^^^ the wolf.^ which is light. There is plenty of game taken on the isle. and And it is matter of marvel what these creatures can other birds.] 3 * ^ * ' Cf. Km^s of Persia. F. In the (see infra. for if it be left to cool. and others tell other equally ill-founded stories. men of that trade. they eat a little of an orange or lemon. they think the cure complete. partridges. — D. adibes (which are a sort of foxes). as has been related already. and kept over a day. But the most and best part of it was removed to clear a great esplanade The houses are well built. f. though it has been.^ and it describe briefly. who set to work to thresh it. seeing that there is no fresh water in the isle but what I have mentioned. the plans referred in the note on I. which I will They call it charu." The spelling is evidently corrupt. Bk. the rest answering at each stroke in the same tone. And so it is brought to perfection. Some pretend that they drink salt water. If they pass the pips presently. and go to dinner. and not so good. abundant on the mainland. and lay clean place . and keep the remaining ash. use another cement for buildings set in the water. but were probably jackals. and used up at once . is 167 a spring which the native Harmuzis call Abdarmon. Of this they take a certain quantity. And one of them sings out. say. And when they season feel relieved. xxxiii Gach. is made of the oldest and best cured dung collected on the middens. Appendix B) The mixture of good ashes with cement is well known throughout . namely gazelles.

the women good-looking. more or less " bonded.d. " Con el nombre del antiguo. cap. Gerun is a place ^f general resort and open mart'^ for all the world . which happened.] The people of Harmuz the men courteous. To conclude." which is a very old institution in the East. when it received the name of the ancient city. A " Bangasdly " would be a warehouseman. who follow Mahamed. Although the isle produces nothing of its own. F. in the year 700 of the Moors' calendar. and others Sunys. vol. whereupon it began to decline. the manufacture of which was apparently a trade secret. Appendix B. D. But in autumn one pays for any irregularities of the summer. F. Armenians.i6S Appendix a. of which last is the king. and Asiatic masons love to mix in it ingredients dictated by fancy or tradition. which we call " Cambay. 10). The derivation of the word seems a little doubtful. 1302. and well-conditioned. The climate and air are healthy. but only an " open door. and it is probably a slip for " Bangdlys . A merchant called loghea Bangsaly is mentioned below." at least there is some confusion. so that it dominated the most part of Arabia. but return to my narrative of its foundation. Besides these there are many Christians. And so it lasted until its conquest by the Portuguese." ' This must not be taken to mean that it was a " free port " in the modern English sense. and everything fetches a fair price. Liv. se llama." i.^ and about a hundred and fifty houses of Jews. such as galls and sugar. and disease is rare in summer. como oy . brought from many lands by merchants of various nations . Georgians. and much of Persia. as has been said. ii. They all speak Persian. Castanheda. and all the natives are Moors. 41 ^ . and is sold by weight. — D. p. Linschoten. some Xyays who follow Aly. but it survives in Calcutta as "Bankshall" {vide Hobson-Jobson under that word). and there are exchanged all sorts of goods." ^ Cf. though not of the best.^ of which matters I will treat no more in particular. being a. Jacobites. and Cambayatys. p. to a trade guild. which it keeps to this day. The Banians (properly Wd. vol. or the superintendent of a government warehouse. Portuguese. and all the Persian seas as far as Ba^ora. all supplies are imported in abundance. Bangasalys. 239. p. because the terrible heat and profuse sweat dispose of all ill-humours. iii. But I think that something more than ashes must have been used in the cement described. and 1 — These are all Indian. [A very similar description of a building material used at Gombroon is given by Mandelslo {Travels^ Bk. Cambayatys are men of Khambayat. and Nestorians. 58 . are well known. ll.<?..^ It throve exceedingly for the next two hundred years. confined to " Arabes que son offlciales de aquello" /. infra Barbosa. Pyrard. and many heathen.nis) of Gujarat " Bangasalys " is not the name of any race or sect. and as much of them as any could wish. the r3ominican's account in Appendix D. p. 47 . ^ . Baneanes. are mostly white the East.

4 who detained at Harmuz the ships of India bound for him with many and good troops. where. Ant. [As mentioned above. in Arabia. infra. lator in * 2 kingdom of Hormuz. which He is an isle four leagues south of Harmuz. D. 416. F. ii. or Bassadore. and second of the New. Couto. he handed it over to Amir things in order Ayzadin Gordonxa.] Cf. 296. finding him bent upon some change. a. 169 by reason of the oppression and violence of the Portuguese captain and his officers. and carried them The governor of Xyraz joined and they sailed together for This seems to be pretty plain speaking. lying too far away from such as might have amended the same. cit. D. The title " Bibi. 15) speaks in similar terms regarding the malpractices of the captains of Hormuz. Cf. also Pyrard. D. it entitles him to the more credence when he gives a good character to Diego Munis Barreto. captain in 1604 {Voyag-e. However. and raised troops for an invasion. that Neim. of whom Ayaz had had the island.^D. [See supra^ p.and would probably have got the writer into trouble had he written in his own country and language.] ^ — ^ tories p. king of Keys. with intent to hinder them from watering.?.] what follows with the details given by the Dominican transAppendix D. of various causes of quarrel by him set forth. 13 12. 241 . — Imams of ^O^ndn^ p. Here he heard that ten laden ships of India. of Insular Hormuz never quite relinquished their terrion the Persian and Arabian mainlands. 19. Barros and Couto ascribe to this man the founding of The kings the island Cf. and returned to his wazirate of Calayat. engaged and took them. Harmuz. using the aid of Malek Ayzadin. F. supra^ p. were in the channel between Harmuz and Larek. F. p. and some 1 1 that time. chap. bound for Keys.^ a place in the isle of Broct or Queixome. ^ — — .^ in Ayaz Ceyfin reigned ten years say that he died at the end of Hyxara. in the year 7 of the Others relate that when he had set all in that new dominion. towards Arabia. the chief was that his customs were wrongfully diminished by Gordonxa. F. vol.^ p. [But see my note thereon. but dealt in such conditions and reserves. and awaited them at Sirmion. and descended of the ancient kings. Correa.d.ICINGS OF HORMUZ. whence Gordonxa came forth with his people. or Harmuz." Amir Ayzadin Gordon Xa. governor of Xyraz. D. and Whiteway's Rise of Portuguese Power in India^ p. sixteenth on the Hst of kings of Old Harmuz. F. son of Salhor and Biby Zeyneb. . determined to anticipate him." which I have mentioned several times. Gouvea {pp. 162.^ proceeded on his accession to confirm his peace and amity with Neim.^ Now. sailed out with his fleet. Gerun. Keys. after a while. So he sent ambassadors thither. details of which will be found in Barros. is Persian for " Lady. &c. ii). 19. he died. This port of Sermion seems to be represented by the modern Basidu.

But in the year of the Hyxara 714." p. is the F. 22. See supra^ p. This beach is mentioned again further on. he landed his men. con animo de d la noche siguiente passar he should land his men in one island.^ about a thousand paces from the city. F. is at least thirty-five miles by land. fittest for the enemy's but were beaten off with off seaward. so nothing was to be gained by a land march.^ a little island which lies close against that of Broct. Meanwhile the forces of Keys and Xyraz. '''Lapoca que les quedo. Here the king of Keys heard that Gordonxa had made prize of the India ships. who took to flight when they heard of his intent. extending along the 232) says Sea shoar. heavy loss of ships and men. X. cit. Perhaps they only landed for refreshments. with what few ships remained to them. And Gordonxa. iii) spells the name " Chauru. were caught. Liv." D. yet not so timely landing. 1315. and laid in so much provision that there was no dearth. : — = . is call'd Karu. in order Harinuz. hearing of this. and forms a safe and spacious harbour. advised by Sangor Roknadin. such as are common in that strait. and the men of Keys made overtures of peace. [" Ten" should. meaning to pass over into Harmuz the next night. of course. but the Harmuzis would have none of them. that is in a. near Sirmion. they invaded Harmuz again. is not clear. Couto {Dec. supra^ * — D. his chief captain. n. nor any rise in prices. F. and the commanders. [Cf. made ready with his men. They drew but that the Harmuzis made a great slaughter of them \ and after this defeat they returned to Keys. a Harmuz. D. in a Their fleet was terrible storm. so straitly that Gordonxa must have surrendered. and posted the best of them^ on a beach called Karii. 19." which I give as a sample of the misprints in his translation. broken up. " The Western part of the Island. and blockaded the isle for four months. where you see a few houses scattered up and down belonging to the Moors. determined to attack his unwary enemies. subject is an Arab militia of the 14th. and " to stretch their legs " for a few hours. " Karii" shore. which is the nearest point of the island to Hormuz. be "few.I/O into APPENDIX A. where Mountains end. cap.] modern " Henjam" {Persian Gulf Pilot). with many more men and ships. " Echo su gente en tierra.^ took shelter at Angam.. if he had not foreseen the case. ^ when the Nieuhof {op.^ full of men and well fitted out. F/. And there they attempted it. by which news aroused. perhaps twelve thousand. ^ " El mejor tercioT There is evidently no use in arguing about Why the Spanish military slang of the i6th and 17th centuries.^^ en The distance to take them to another the next night.] 1 — 2 — 3 "Angam" p.d. hundred and twenty terradas (which are vessels of moderate size)." Stevens has " the ten ships that escaped .* Gordonxa. from Angam (Henjam) to Kishm. F. is apparently connected with Persian kardn D.

to assume the government of the land." D. . A. and leapt ashore. and carried him aboard the boat. and was received in peace . which lasted thirty years. in the year of the Moors 717. wherefore he fled from the isle to Makron. and most of the ships were lost. named from some blue-tiled building. Barros and Couto {ubi supra) record very brieflythe conflict between the kings of Hormuz and Kais. They record no events in his reign. But Malek Guayacadin Dinar. whither came a multitude of people. Possibly only the Glazed or or blue water. Xa Kodbadin. After five months. and found that all men were deserting himself for Gordonxa. and was seventeenth king of Harmuz. 1 318. and dwelt in the fortress of Minab.2 His son. Amir Ayzadin Gordonxa came to the Isle of Harmuz. and when the king of Harmuz came to embrace him. being a mighty man. before the Harmuzis could do anything to hinder it \ and so carried him off to Keys. not feeling safe there. there fell on them so fierce a storm that the fleet was scattered. knew what happened. would not obey Gordonxa. therein or thereabouts. 2 Barros and Couto {itbi by his eldest son " Torunxd.D. went the same night to the Persian mainland. and brought Gordonxa with him. Amir Mobarezadin Baharon Xa. who by this time took on himself the state of a king. They add that the latter became a vassal to the king of Persia. son of her brother Xanxa. confined aboard a terrada. When Bibi Sultan. and that he enjoyed peace for the rest of his reign. But the troops in garrison of the mainland chose for king a brother of his. resulting in the defeat of the latter and the annexation of Kais by Gordun Shah. Messages were exchanged. he betook himself to making the peace. and brought him into the city with acclamation. The king of Keys came thither in a boat. 171 When the king of Keys saw how Httle he could do. F. a kingdom lying between Persia and Send. who therefore took shelter in the house of one Koaia Mamud Kateb. but with ill design.KINGS OF HORMUZ.^ succeeded him. 2 — supra) say that Gordun Shah was succeeded who reigned thirty-four years (Couto has "twenty-four" by a lapsus pennce). D. F. That in which was Gordonxa was driven ashore on the beach of Harmuz. and two years later he died there. But when they had come more than half-way. which name means " the Blue Fort. and. he took Gordonxa up in his arms." — . and ^ Presumably the Blue Fort. Enamelled Fort but even in that case probably owing its name to blue glazed tiles. and it was agreed that the two kings should meet on the beach. the king of Keys came once more against Harmuz."^ Dinar feared his return. she called on Malek Guayacadin Dinar. and then into his own terrada^ and set sail with all his squadron. his own secretary . It will be seen from the footnote further on that Ibn Batiita describes Kutbuddin as son of " Turan Shdh. wife of Gordonxa.

finding that Mir to help Mirxa Kodbadin. returned to Harmuz with a strong force. who yet troubled him. F. Polo^ vol. and formerly defeated by him on the mainland. brother of the captive king. but had no better luck than before. giving out that he came But on his arrival. They grew to be very jealous about his favour. Malek Dinar. His chief captains were Mir Xabadin Isuf and Mir Taiadin Zanguyxa. D. F. one that followed Mir Xabadin Isuf. imprisoned captains. with some horse and the night. Now the king wanted to make an end of the business of his brothers." the events of whose reign of twenty-nine years they pass over in silence. who had lately been reconciled to him. one by sea and the other ashore. and called him out. and went home again for At midnight Mir Xabadin Isuf.] Barros and Couto {ubi supra) state that "Torunxd" was succeeded by his younger brother " Mahamed Xa. 2 — 3 to See Marco Polo's statement as to the rulers of Hormuz escaping Kalhdt when any trouble arose. Xakodbadin went over to Kalayat. to Minab. Birket Bandar and Birket Mirzai being the nearest to Hormuz.d. whom he found with Malek Nazomadin. and after him his mother. and went forth against them. Baharonxa. the wife of Mir But Xabadin Isuf. above mentioned as having fled to Makron. Just then the men of Keys invaded Harmuz. Mir Xabadin Isuf took them and cast them into prison. made ready and went in search of him. he could not set sail. foot. and the other that of Mir Kodbadin. the sister of Dinar. and his brother.^ with Bibi Mariam. to make king. Xabadin Isufs side prevailed. Bibi Sultan. and returned victorious to Harmuz. [The Survey of India Map of Persia marks a number of " Birkets " on the mainland north of Kishm. and much disturbed the kingdom wherefore the king arrested both of them. and Bibi Nazmalek. and his brother Nazomadin Agem Xa. But Mir Xabadin Ysuf resented his usage and sought vengeance. 448. and proclaimed himself king in the year of the Hyxara 718. himself safe. as the wind was against him. But. he made friends with him. came to the king's gates. wherefore he embarked with his people for the mainland. brought him from the fort of Barkamin. united their efforts for this reconciliation. APPENDIX A.^ where he then was. At this time Xabadin Isuf heard that the men of But Keys were invading him. saying that Bibi Sultan Salgor had invaded the isle in arms which he believing came forth.— 172 . and Yule's note thereon {Marco ii. 449). : 1 I cannot identify this fort. engaged them. — D. . D. wife of Ayaz Ceyfin. another brother . a. cut the heads off the imprisoned Xabadin. beat them. hearing of this.^ Now there arose two factions in Harmuz. and On this occasion the king set free the two retreated in disgust. 1319. F. his mother. pp.

2 ^ F. and made Mir Xabadin Isuf prisoner. Gemaladin Neym was sought to take them. Liv. (vol. see Palgrave's Central and Eastern Arabia. invaded Keys. [See supra. xiv. p. S. and shortly fitted out a fleet. Cf. it will be proper to give some short account. 173 post on their route.^ world-renowned for the precious pearls of its sea. And he had surely taken it but for the defence of Mahamed Sorkab and Ebrahem Salgor. whom afterwards he put to death. cit. xii. et seq. who had established Xa Kodbadin in his kingdom. Xakodbadin came from Kalayat. —D. west of Kais. which is insupportable in the isle. Mir Xakodbadin. on the mainland. years. of Af. p. when he had taken a . drowned at sea. and on his way back to Harmuz he conquered the Isle of Barhen. iv) Com7nent. p.] Kutbuddin did not take the shortest way home. while Kodbadin was in Mogostam. and Hormuz about 2J deg. p. plotted He heard of it and to slay him and keep it for themselves. vi. descriptions in Barros {Dec. roughly speaking. 243). F.^ presently did slay Mir Xabadin Isuf. and Amir Agen. having possessed himself of the isle and kingdom of Harmuz. home again But after one year.. chap. Now the old king of Keys was dead. Soc. Jour. iv.^ It was not long before Malek Gelaladin Queyzy. and took it by surprise. for the hot weather. He left a strong garrison in Keys. This king invaded Harmuz with a good fleet. — . — D. who were confined in the fort of Gat. and for the perennial springs of fresh water at the bottom of the same of all which. east. Kodbadin's captains of the gates. since we are come to the said island. 187) Nieuhof (op. 157. vol. The direction is. N. His ally took refuge in Keys..* : ^ Barros and Couto {ubi supra) say that to " Mahamed Xa " succeeded his son " Cobadim " or " Cobadixa." who reigned thirty years. cap. with a small following. from west and by south to east and by north. F. his wife Bibi Nazmalek. and Kodbadin and his kingdom enjoyed peace for ten . but they fled. see Royal As. Bahrein is about 3 deg. On the antiquities of the place. son of Gordonxa. and Malek Guayagadin had succeeded him. . to whom he had committed the guard of it. he took fright and came nor did they do any more than on former occasions.. D. Ill. Mir Emadadin Ogen. and Koaia Gemaladin Neym. Perhaps Gez or Gatan of the Royal Geographical Society's maps. and capture of King Guayacadin and some of his kindred. his two sons. For a modern account of Bahrein.. These drove away their enemy much discouraged.. with Malek surprised and Gelaladin Queyzy and Koaja lamaladin Neym seized Harmuz. * . Dalb. 189. And when Xakodbadin heard of it he came to the isle. n.KINGS OF HORMUZ. with great slaughter of the Keysis.

cap. governor of Shiraz. the latest printed one (in Doc. a letter of 25th Feb. except only the fishing of pearls. ii). Persia some six years past" {Calendar of State Papers^ Colonial Series^ vol. 2 . dispatched a fleet under D. says Gouvea. the guazil of Hormuz being sent with a large force to besiege it by land. No. This island the king of Perscia took from the Portingals and keepeth a garrison of 800 horse therein. and seized the territories of the King of Hormuz. iv) being of date 21st March. 307. 1609. vol. Ant. sent an army under Adam Sultan to lay siege to Gombroon. who was in Hormuz shortly after the seizure of Bahrein by the Persians. Thereupon. Alaverdi Khan again beseiged Gombroon.174 APPENDIX A. i. The It people are Arabs. F.^ torn. 1602 the King of Persia has possessed it by treason. was in turn assassinated by the Moor's brother. Sir the : — Thos. D. but ever since a. . the Portuguese would have recaptured the latter place. if the place be not restored by the Persians. as well as to the enemy's being reinforced. between that port and the Isle of Gerun.d.)— D. 99. — . With the loss of Hormuz. It lies close against the Arabian shore. which are esteemed to be the richest and best in the world. Nevertheless. in the province of Lacah. i. opposite the port of Katifa. D. This place is environed with shoals in such sort that small fustoes very often run aground and is not navigable with vessels of burden" (see also Letters Received^ vol. . sequent letters the King continues to urge the matter on the attention of successive Viceroys. 1614 (printed in Letters Received by East India Company^ vol." dated Oct. refers to "the Barren. no profit for commodity. Aires de Saldanha. 446). misled by certain persons. Pedro Coutinho. Alaverdi Khan. The captain of Hormuz.^ belongs to the kingdom of Harmuz. on a rumour that D. By command of the Shdh. excepting a Persian wazir and garrison. he retired once more to Shiraz. and commands the Viceroy. p. the efforts of Caspar de Mello de Sampaio to retake Bahrein were of no avail. or Harmuz. observed from Robert Sherley. 1617. Boys. Francisco de Sotomayor to retake the place. and about a hundred leagues distant from each of these. one of the Turkish possessions in that region. writing to Lord Salisbury from "Spahune" on taken by the King of loth June. i. xxii Gouvea relates how. Gouvea. Jorge de Castelbranco was coming with a fleet from India against Bahrein. . replaced Pedro Coutinho by Diogo Moniz Barreto. Rein. who then seized the fort for the Persians. in 1622. ^ The soil is good and Thos Keridge. says " Bareyne is an island upon It yields the coast of Arrabya. disappeared Portugal's hopes of regaining Bahrein. in 1603. to make war on it by sea and In subland. the King of Spain expresses his fear lest Bahrein be occupied by the Turks. p. death a wealthy Moor whose pearls he coveted. v. and Bahrein was ordered to In be restored to the Portuguese but this order was never fulfilled. 40 leagues off the coast of Perscia. F^ . The Isle of Barhen stands within the narrow sea of Bacora. owing to whose illness and the sickness among the Portuguese. ii. in order to divert the Portuguese from Bahrein. and also to bribe the captain of the fort to give it up. in "A note of the ports of Perscia. gives details of the occurrence The guazil of Bahrein.. having put to in his Relaqam^ Liv. had not the Viceroy of India. In cap. 1605.

Tutan Kory. and near it. Close to it lies Arad. from the Cape Cory. the staple food after dates. And I think it likely that from this the isle took the name of Barhen. Choromandel. but some : ^ All this description is and modern. for that much is exported thence. the ancient Tylus and modern Awal. subject. The The next is that got from the bottom of the sea. viz. ancient for an article on so considerable a p. as we see at this day. — D. lies the object of much solicitude. as follows. but more wheat. mologies in this passage are out of favour now (vide Hobson-Jobson. or more properly. name of certain very deep wells in the centre of the isle. F. this of Barhen. or Choro Bandell. which in Arabic means " the Two Seas " from bar^ meaning sea. derived from two abundant watercourses which run across the island. There is water in plenty. seems to have firstly and rightly belonged to the neighbouring peninsula. are several There are great springs of fresh. which is to say the Port of Rice. naturally. and that of Manar. vv.e. and wholesome water. i. The best is that of Nanyah. Manama. is brought from India through Harmuz. but the first derivation sounds more probable. chief town of the isle. * append the following recent report on " The Bahrein " In the centre of the broad V-shaped bay that Pearl Fisheries" ^ I (d.] The name. confirmed by many other writers. is our Tuticorin. the rather brackish than sweet. the salt and the fresh." 3 " AljofarP The quaint etyI. which they do very cleverly and easily. Rice. is on the sea shore. where it bubbles up.). fruitful. and hen^ Yet it might be that is two. The fishery of Barhen^ begins in some years in June. with whom I spoke of this. Bahrein. 2 But this is no place vol. further into the Bay of Bengal. 52. famous throughout the world for . but by us PortuInwards.KINGS OF HORMUZ. waters. and afterwards been applied to this island. but the sea broke in and overflowed them. fisheries of pearls and seed-pearls. great in the Persian Gulf. told me that these springs were once far inland . ^ Certain of the oldest Moors of the isle. There is barley. [See Linschoten.. The latter is in India.) : — separates El Katr from Turkish El Katif. men who make their living by bringing it up from below in some waterskins. clear. in the depth of three or three and a-half fathoms. Tutan Kory. and sell it cheap. the Island of Bahrein.^ northwards. which matter I There are in the East two shall touch on briefly. the " Bahrein" certainly does mean " two seas" or " two classic Aradus. especially little 175 of dates. in the sea between the Isle of Seylan and that part of the continent which we call Tuto Kory. s. as well known.* this coast is continuous with that of guese Comory. F.^ This Isle of Barhen is famous for the number and quality of the pearls fished up in its sea and thereabouts. which are most abundant. namely.^ namely. so-called by the natives.

the assorted pearls are then sold to the pearl merchant upon an intricate scale of values. whence a great many go back again to Arabia and Persia. specific gravity. They — to fish at Katar. [See infra. They carry from five to fourteen men each. colour. depending upon the shape. Like most of the gulf ports and trading settlements. Julfar . and it is pursued not only at Bahrein. of two pearls.000.' while the resulting contents of the third sieve are known as ' Dzel. xxvii). failing supply. and goes on during that month and August. but are larger and more regular in shape while they are said to retain The Ceylon banks require to be caretheir lustre for a longer period. alike in size and shape.— ^ a 176 usually in July. leagues are. The pearls that are unable to pass through the largest sieve are called Ras. which rank with those of Ceylon. fully watched. stretching for a length of four to five coast. one of the greatest picturesqueness and animation. APPENDIX A. the Bahrein pearls are not so white as Ceylon pearls. i. it was taken early in the sixteenth century by the Portuguese. according to an Indian report. is writer's) present some confusion here between the past and (the or the captain must have managed to bargain for . ten leagues south of the Isle of Barhen. to ensure a monopoly of the pearl trade. the Gulf banks give no indication of a periods.500 boats of every size and rig may be seen. The merchant rearranges them in small packets and despatches them to the Indian market. from June to October. all busily employed. fifty from Nihhelu. more or less hundred from Barhen. At the season of the fisheries some 4. and the The scene is total number of hands engaged is said to be 30. thousand ducats a year to the captain of Harmuz. who established a station there and at El When the pearls have Katif. commonly go The island is pearl fisheries. and from six to nine miles broad. who proceeds to sort them by the manipulation of a triple set of brass sieves. it is presently opened. because. The pearl fishing at Bahrein lasts. its thirty miles long. and size. Appendix B. When the oyster is fished up. ' ' . F. A fleet is formed of about two hundred terradas. D. however. 1901. exclusive of the profits of offices therein. Teixeira says elsewhere that it was an Arabian port {Kings of Persia^ Bk. Generally speaking.' Made up into separate batches. to say nothing of a hundred thousand more which may represent those smuggled away. one of Barhen will always outweigh one from elsewhere. they are handed to the master of the boat. in pearls and seed pearls. fifty from Julfar. but along the entire Arabian The Bahrein banks. chap. been picked out of the shells. for fear of the wazir's The farm of this land is worth more than four extortions. I cannot identify name of the whole peninsula east of Bahrein." Journal of the Society of Arts March 15.] 1 There is now no — 2 Either there . and fishing is only permitted by Government at various On the other hand. ^ But it is the port called Katar on our charts. The pearls of that sea exceed all others in quality and weight.^ a port of Arabia. is five hundred thousand ducats . The known value of the yearly trade of the isle. according to their classification. and the seed pearls are taken out.' the residue of the second sieve are Batin. pierced with holes of different diameter. I say in weight. the richest and most certain.

F. etc.^ a month. in Hob son-Jobson. N.* which is that spoken in the Island. (see Hobson-Jobson. Teixeira makes the same statement — — ® Manar lat. who in Dec. in September. Liv. which appears to be derived from saldva = ^dAy. four quilates} The Barhenis fish with a diving stone. because of the great poverty into which the Paravas had fallen. cap. jaldvar/a). for they made no profit for want of accommodation and of boats. abas. " Arabic kirdt. i. It is carried on in April. — ^ '^ I. D. as captain-general." D. and Julfar. though sometimes important enough to such as undertake them. The Tamil word sald^am^" pearl fishery" seems to be a corruption of Sa. mentions that no pearl fishery had taken place off the Ceylon coast for six years.nsk. Liv. earlier than that of Barhen. each bearing The second farm with the Persians a thing not improbable in 1610. Chilaw It is is about forty-eight miles north of Colombo. 2 A royal letter of February 20th. For that is about the difference of time in the approach of the sun. ^ g«z7«/^ = " carat. each of twentyThe small pearls are classed for sale as of 20. vi).^ " Chilao " means " fishery " in the Chingala tongue.— D. 161 8. F. the diving.. and sometimes two. and Rogalgate.e. and early in May. fishery at Katar.. 30. Matical" = PiXdh miskal (prothis ^'' — perly 7nithkal). diving. 40. Joao Rodriguez de Sa e Menezes. i of his almost as erroneous as that of Barros. in his Rebelion de Ceylan (cap. of which three make a quirate. Rem. and the summer beginning earlier f and at that time the sea is most calm. Barhen. ^ A fuller description of the Ceylon pearl fishery is given by Ribeiro (^Fatalidade Historica da Ilka de Ceildo. says. Persia. says that Chilaw " is a corruption of the Tamil salabhain. V. says that Chilao means " perils or loss of the Chijs [Chinese]. 1610. —about 73 gr. xxii)." The Sinhalese name is HaMvata or Salavata (the " Bandar vSalawat " of Ibn Batuta)." Yule.KINGS OF HORMUZ." D. F. all within the narrow sea of Harmuz. xxxv of Bk. Constantino de Sa. that when his father. Ill. in Doc. lies in 9 deg. an Arabian weight s. as Mand^r. and the centre of Bahrein Island in 26 deg. II. took place formerly^ in a port of that name in the isle of because it And this port is so called because Seylan. and others at Mascate. during the season mentioned above.. 1/7 In the sale and weighing of pearls Lhey use querates^ or quilafes. the pearl fisheries "for many years had become extinct. there are separate fisheries in September at Nihhelu. fishery that I have mentioned is called that of Chilao. " Miscall"). N . owing to the tyrannous Nayak of Madura's preventing the divers (Catholics) from coming. J a/evd/ia = ^^ diver.. The fleet is of four hundred to five hundred boats. Teve. when the Portuguese were still in power on the Persian seas. cap. in the same region. F. Kings of in chap. whirlpool (Ssinsk. and itiaticals. to the matical Besides the general in from twelve to fifteen fathoms of water. arrived in Ceylon. this place being nearer the Equator. I. But these last are not very productive.

as one hundred. whence the fishermen come." which was the one that engaged in diving. kdrdva (pi. The fishermen or divers are regularly paid. F. and at the end of each week. It is Javanese /^/^a. one being "a compartment or subdivision in the hold of a ship" (Crawford's Malay Diet. D. ^ " Peat" the temporary settlement on the beach. they allow half a balyo more. p. those on the mainland. D. Nelson's The Madura Country. two to each diver. the word as meaning the room in a junk.—D. F. ^ Aquellas tierras de su habitacion.v.^ after the fishery is over.''^ one that draws up the divers" (Winslow's Ta7n. ^ H — '"'' — care of the inhabitants of the north-western coast or Ceylon. Vieira's Dice.^ wherein every diver throws his catch of oysters separately. 177. and the rents of certain towns therein. 82-86.^ who manage everything here. One and the rest are called ^ Sinh. 55 et seq. ^ I cannot explain balyo. a Portuguese officer in charge of that sea. When two balyos are not enough. p. F. at his choice . Diet. which has various meanings. This is generally of two balyos. the claims of the Ndyak of Madura and others formed the subject of much dispute and correspondence for many years. supra. see J. «/. They reckon up every day's catch. explains of the durian were c^Wedi peitacas. A. ^° The spiritual ^ . F. days two hundred.. ill. They call the oyster chipo. who is the lord of their land..178 from sixty to ninety APPENDIX men./^. — — — ob son-Jobs on ^ s.). F. H. For they wish to keep the production pretty close to a mean. unless (as Mr. save that every day they must give one dive each to the owner of the boat. Ft. p. H. mandecas^ and attend them.*^ receives the whole fishery of one day in the season.— D. represents Sanskrit /^/<2 = a turn of work. ^drdvd) = ^^ a man of the fisher caste. from which the Ceylon pearl fishery is conducted. and have also their own catch . sippi—h\w2i\wQ. D. The boats are all divided into certain compartments called pettacas.^ They may not open these until the day fixed by the officers of the camp. F. ^ After the Dutch had ousted the Portuguese from Ceylon. in order to know when there has been fishing enough. Ant. Beveridge suggests) it D. lest they cheapen the pearls. shell-fish or shell (see " Chipe"). or a thousand oysters of each boat. separately." The " lands " referred to are [See foot-note. third of them are karoas^ that is. were allotted to the The Jesuits. Port. Tarn.. F. Gouvea (op.^ Another used to be given to shoe the wife of the captain of Manar.] On the Nayaks of Madura. ^ G. 2 Tamil mandakkan^ inandakdl^-=. and Caldwell's History of Tinnevelly. The Nayque of Madureh. But this has been put a stop to by the good order of the Fathers of the Company. or even a whole one.).^^ The fishing takes place in from six to eight divers. D. de Orta (f 223 v) says that at Malacca the spaces in the interior Dom. one whole day's fishing. 13 v) applies the term cored to a diver of Maskat. pp.^ of eight working each.

— . proclamation this may be opened. with due respect to all writers on the subject. I must say that it seems to me easily and honestly. cit. where there is a fair which begins in the middle of June. 1 79 fathoms of water. but not of the highest value. and fishermen. but now in one. with some difficulty. by reason of the Malabars. Port. Nieuhof's 2 I Tamil dyatturai : cannot explain this word. — it is intended to represent F. Yet. unless = " custom-house. fit for pendants. . may be fifty to sixty thousand in number. F. they were permitted (much against the wishes of the Franciscans) to establish a regular mission in Ceylon.* which we call here topos f by the exportation of which to India the Portuguese have more than once made fortunes. Vieira's Dice. " the reckoning and weight is by chegos. There are usually two Portuguese galeots to convoy the fleet. Of these is formed a camp. is made that the oysters has been done. F. where it may be conveFor that is not always in the same place nient to the fishery. who have sometimes plundered or injured the fishermen. explains chego by quilate = carat. September. ']^ et seq.. p. But Teixeira constantly uses aljofar as meaning full-sized pearls. within which he may cancel the bargain if he repent of it which is done When the fishery is over. by means of brokers appointed by the Nayque." D. and lasts through July. easy [Stevens has 'very easy' !] but very subtle and ingenious. "tops. From contemporary official documents. except those of unusual form.. and I have had to translate according to the context. and sometimes all October. D. The latter has forty-eight hours' time allowed him. 1 Cf Caldwell's History of Tinnevelly^ Travels. ^ There are pearls in China also. Lit. When : There is much trade in smuggled pearls outside of the patare^ free from such hindrances as customs or return of the goods. D. merchants. KINGS OF HORMUZ. The people who resort to the fishery." — D. F. F. but very cleverly and closely. it appears that the captain of Manar was guilty of levying blackmail from the natives hence the loss of his wife's privileges referred to. Aljofar^^ with the usual distinction. the people go over to Tutan Cory. and the pearls extracted. " Perlas y N 2 . August. — * ^ 6 " Barrocos" including drop-formed pearls. op. D. but nothing from the buyer. at the beginning of the seventeenth century. . They balance their accounts by numbers and weight. — p. and again in another and the trade comes probably to more than a million and a half in gold every year. the flesh removed." Dom. ^ All dealings take place in t\\Q paiare^'^ which is a building Uke a custom-house. He levies four per cent from the seller. and diving stones are used. by a method not 5 Lit. Jesuits when. public and private servants. So much has been written about pearls and seed-pearls^ that nothing remains to say. 295 et seq.

^ Yet I wonder subject always to correction of better judgment. and yet remained united to the oyster-shell. 2 On the vexed question of the origin of pearls see the Paper by O. well skilled in pearls. we know by experience that the deeper the water where the oyster is obtained. Now it would not be thus if they came of the dewdrops." and the discussion D. and their error is For they cannot be acquitted on the plea of embodied by Moore it 1 A very old *' belief. that whatever oyster contains observed pearls has the flesh unsound and almost rotten in those parts where the greater and less pearls are produced. fleshed. polished. pearls. at those doctors^ who even now prescribe pierced or entire pearls in their recipes. still less can it reach him Morepure at the bottom through so much of salt water. they were formed. making much of the difference.. cannot come to the surface to receive the dewdrop . had not come to perfection. which is heavy and clumsy. or from defective arrangement of their material. Wherefore I hold it for certain that pearls are born and formed since this is of the very matter of the shell. and tried. they looked as if they had been born apart like the perfect pearls.^ that the oyster itself. over. and be most influenced by the sun. in number and in size. that we took out of the oyster-shells. and small as not to be worth reckoning. for those oysters nearest the surface would get most and purest dew. — " Sefiores Dotores. or from any natural or other cause. l80 APPENDIX A. pearls and These. with tools made for that purpose. inexcusable." — F. and heathen. and of nothing else And very likely and the objections to the other opinion so great." . in proportion to And those oysters that have no pearls. And my opinion is favoured by what I have often seen the case. F. . are sound and cleanAnd this is no weak argument in favour of my opinion. it is a thing oyster-shell in substance and colour. this is supported by the great resemblance of the pearl and the Further. Collett on "Pearl Oysters and Pearl Fisheries. D. drops. and well vouched for. Moors. or so few their quantity. the more and finer are the pearls and seed- and those of the shallows less. acting more strongly on what But the contrary is is nearest him than on more distant objects. whether seed-pearls produced by the shells themselves. thereon. of whose substance But when they had been detached. both by myself and in company of Christians. That is. for want of time. in his Lalla Rookh And precious their tears as Which turns into pearls as that rain from the sky. and set in order. in Wx't Jourjial of the Ceylon Asiatic Society for 1900.^' But one cannot describe a sixteenth-century very modern a phrase as " medical gentledoctor of physic by so ^ man. unreasonable to assert that pearls are engendered of dewTo this there are a thousand objections . for instance. and fetched very good prices. falls in the sea.

himself and his company. nor Docar. for none are naturally perforated. * Compare what (p. Nazomadin and his fellows. F. and mastered all the shores both Persian and Arabian. 140. still less to the Red Sea. * A good example of our author's occasional style. in embarked terranques. by a similar dynasty. though there can be little doubt as to where the latter was. not admissible in this matter. which Here he hes opposite Gerun. having taken possession of the Isle of Har- ^ Cf. [See supra^ p. a stream of the mainland. necessarily.^ And now we will go on with Xa Kodbadin. When Xakodbadin heard what road his brother Nazomadin had taken. nor on that of precedent. who were awaiting him. D.^ whence every year he drew great tribute. his brother had reached the isle. F.^ Kodbadin went to the mainland to hunt. This happened in the year of the Hyxaray 745 a. as we have said. But by the time he got to As he the beach of Dosar. r. As all the chief of the people were away in the king's company. 164 n. when he had : taken Barhen. on Shur I — the mainland north-east of Hormuz Island. cannot find Moridon. acting from a similar base. calling for men and aid against his brother. =: " Salt River. and went to the beach of Docar. or Harmuz. or Dosar. could do nothing else at once. behind where salt marshes of later growth now lie opposite Hormuz. l8l ignorance. took also Katifa. and passed over to the isle.d. given in 183). He. and Derab. Garcia de Orta. he followed him at full speed. — D.* and being in the Rudxur^ for that purpose. . that his power extended even to Aden. whom he loved and honoured greatly. it was easily subdued. Xa Kodbadin had a brother named Nazomadin. under pretence of chasing a hare towards Moridon. whether entire or drilled through. he remained on the mainland." Probably this is the " Rudkhaneh-i- of the Royal Geographical Society's Map. which is inequitable knowing that all pearls are of the same medicinal value. and when he had won it he called himself king. left the king. a note infra ^ " Rudxur " " follows with the account by Ibn Batuta. But the modern history of the Imams of Maskat shows that such a maritime empire was easily established over a very much greater extent of the coasts of the Indian Ocean. translated ver- bathn. seems to be an isle at the eastern mouth of the Shat-al-Arab.] ^ This is evidently the " Kulaghan" of the Survey of India Map. and secured himself in Kolongon. Derab Katifa and Karga (Karak) retain the same or similar names.KINGS OF HORMUZ. : 1345- Malek Nazomadin.^ whence he sent out posts with letters to all his territories. Karga. 2 This should not be taken to mean. only five miles away. F. Colloquios^ f. in return for which the other plotted his murder.— D. — D. near Bandar Abbas.

and Homer Soiadin. His vessels were shattered he thereupon abandoned the siege of the If this incident actually town. 2 ." who reigned twenty years. But none of these accepted his promises. but probably they were on the Persian mainland. son of Turan Shah. F.). and deliver to him the kingdom. D. proclaimed himself king/ and sent speedy notice of his accession to all its dependencies. Xambe and Xadi. D. made up his own to pass over to the mainland. and made peace with its king. calling on the wazirs and governors to acknowledge him. D.^ and that in his will he had strictly ordered the elder of his two sons. so that they could not gather in their dates. a place on the Persian shore. sent to ask for troops to defend their palm-orchards against Kodbadin's men. Thence he crossed the narrow sea to Arabia. it may have taken place at the time when Kutbuddin was staying at Kalhdt.^. with the most and best of his troops. and first he tempted all the wazirs and chiefs who were with Kodbadin.' 1 82 APPENDIX A. once attacked it by land and sea but that God most high unchained against him a violent wind. Xa Kodbadin. as related by Ibn Batiita {infra^ p. F.^ When Nazomadin had secured this officer in his interest. they fought a drawn battle. forty leagues from where he had lost the battle. and promising them his gratitude for their homage.2 who received his message. lord of Hormuz. muz. ^ Nothing is said here of the poisoning of Niz^muddm. retreated towards lasquez. 200) says that when he was at Dhofar he was told " that the Sultan Kutbuddin Tamahtan (Tahamtan). p. seeing this. and landed in Kalayate. to go presently to Kalayate. chief gateward. and west or north of Jask. — — . F. who harassed them. advised of their mind. as his by right. where he stayed for a year. ^ According to Barros and Couto (^ubi supra\ " Cobadim" or " Cobadixa " was succeeded on his death by his elder son " Ceifadim" or " Ceifadixa. and one of Kodbadin's commanders. went over to Nazomadin. the staple food of those lands." occurred. cit. and the port gained much by his presence. And even these. except one Homer Soiadin. But the young men did much the contrary. Kodbadin marched to meet him . * Ibn Batiita {op. If the latter's story be true. Kutbuddin's expressions of sorrow must have been mere hypocrisy. And they gave him warning that if he made any delay they must needs submit to Kodbadin. except some towns of Hirahistan. but the sequel shows his importance. submit to Xa Kodbadin. ii. But none came into him. for he detained there the ships bound from India to Harmuz. as above mentioned. 3 " Maestre de campo" The translation may seem to exaggerate this officer's rank. 184. Nazomadin.* Here he received news of the death of Nazomadin. . — There seems to be little evidence as to these towns. in the summer. he crossed over to Persia and marched towards Kolongon.^ tom. east or north of the Strait of Hormuz.

* Ibn Batiita. who calls the Sultan of Hormuz Kutbuddin Tamahtan (Tahemtan). when he knew of this. Kodbadin showed much grief at his brother's death. is still Jaguin. See note on p. that their follies and When were a scandal to the whole kingdom. the brothers Xambe and Xady had gone to Barhen. who had come from Old Harmuz with a considerable reinforcement for his expedition. son of 'Ali.* On arrival at Keys. till then scarce and dear. his kadi. embarked and went against them. f. went down. and dirtily clad. found him prepared but very pious. whence came out to meet him Amir Aieb Xamgadin. they used influential mediators and put themselves in their uncle's hands. a beach of that isle. Nizdmuddin. d. were reinstated in their houses and property. or Gerun. After this victory he sailed to Costek. 1 83 and cele- brated funeral rites^ very handsomely after their fashion. But they paid no attention to him. but it certainly was not at Kalhdt. Every night he made ready for battle. supra. a few miles east of Jask. made ready to invade Kodbadin understood them ill-disposed. he . or Jegin. a town and port on the Persian coast. says " When we entered his island. — — ^ Nizamuddm was 2 3 These. Thence he sailed for Harmuz. a captain of his own. The king agreed to this. With Kodbadin's return matters were greatly mended in Gerun. Here he was opposed by the very numerous and wellappointed fleet of his nephews. son of Tiirdn Shah. nephews most affectionate letters of condolence. Those who had been banished by order of the tyrants. which he engaged and destroyed. When his nephews saw that they were ruined. which had been in great misery and vexation under the rule of the brothers. asking only that some convenient arrangement might be made for their living. 170. with all the force he could muster. offering to hold them as his own sons. King Kodbadin. where Xady then was. Meanwhile. and government in such fashion. The peace was kept. Imdduddin Achchewankari. and could neither fight nor fly. putting And he wrote to his himself and all his people into mourning. and sailed with his fleet to laguin. like many others thereabouts. and once there for they could not be quiet set about raising men and ships to invade Harmuz. His wazir. ^ then inhabited by Arabs. on our maps. we for war. managed their oppressions with great slaughter of the crews. or had fled for fear of them. and gave them the Isle of Barhen for a residence for themselves and their dependents.KINGS OF HORMUZ. in which he was engaged against the two sons of his brother. were only ceremonial. although scarcity reigned in the isle. It does not appear where buried. and anchored off Karu. Shamsuddin Muhammad.^ on which he landed and took possession of it by force of arms. and justice administered and the price of provisions. he them." and describes him as an old man. of course. : — .

He stayed there several months. apparently. The above." After describing his interviews with the king. thinking to recover it. 'Ali Shah.e. the traveller says "This is the motive of the war that existed between the Sultan and his two nephews. seeing that he was gone. if we could rely on the dates he gives. the traveller says It is true that he left Yaman for Mecca in a. — . went over to Barhen. : . From themselves to intercept the road to those of the inhabitants of India and Sind who were going towards the island. but met with some resistance.. The inhabitants of the latter engaged him. 233 et seq. and the king's men impatient that these held out so long.t. who thought it not safe to await him there. Xady. The distance that separates these two cities by sea is three parasangs. F. equipped vessels. and led them against Keys. When The king came soldiers the to Keys. that he visited Hormuz some years later (on his way home from China). But they. torn. he returned to the attack on Keys. and . The former embarked one day on the sea.1 84 APPENDIX A. Then. He. took it easily enough. accepted it. the Sultan proceeded once more against the island. at the new city. and arrogated to himself the power. to go on a pleasure trip to Old Hormuz and its gardens. 1347 but of his three days' stay there on this second occasion he gives no details {op. son of Jalaluddin Alkiji. came to visit us. offered battle.h. Some of the men. iv.y tom. p. The king. and embarked for the town of Kalhat.). with the remnant. The usurper being dead.D. agrees to a great extent with Teixeira's version and. p. to Xady. where his brother Xambe was. a little later. meaning presently to go against his nephews in Barhen.D. and obliged him to flee to Kalhd. cit. he returned to Harmuz. cz't. Ibn Batuta's visit must have taken place in 1346 or 1347. with the treasures. this place they set where are the pearl fisheries [sic]. to make incursions into the districts of the littoral. as we have said above. of which I have spoken above. He renewed the same attempt on many occasions but he had no success until he had recourse to the stratagem of sending to one of the wives of his brother an emissary. and his sister's son. 1332. thinking to make an end of the business. 732. leaving a strong garrison. so that the greater part were devastated" {op. and set sail towards the island. in A. 311). to the island of Kais. and which forms part of his dominions. without orders. troops. and excused themselves on account of the occupations in which the war involved them.. the goods. who persuaded her to poison him. A. Kutbuddin entertained fears for his safety. as also the troops. in concert with his brother. The inhabitants of the island took the oath of allegiance to him. the king got his forces into proper order again. But. many distinguished men. Nizamuddin. The men of the island were now hard pressed. landed his men. D. seeing his advantage. The Sultan's brother. raised what forces they could. embarked in disorder. and beat the Harmuzis with great slaughter. it will be seen. revolted against him. and allowed his sack of it. ii. and the matter promised to be tedious. from his own statement. We passed sixteen days amongst them. and at once made sail for Harmuz. i. . and the into it. and made his entry His two nephews fled.

and fell on at break of But the king's men beat them off handsomely. with his weak force." the sixteenth king. Mir Tagah. when they were half way across. so on both were they broken. and Naceradin Moceleh. 2 Laft and Darguwin still keep their places on our chart. So they stood to arms through the night. and settled near Xyraz. F.* This is the place of origin of all the wazirs and ruling men of the kingdom of Harmuz. had sent his forces into Broct. and would have slain him . in the Isle of Broct or Queixome. and retired to Barhen with no light loss.^ The governor invited of Xiraz heard of Xambe's being in Fal." are rulers of almost any sort or size. . These. 1 85 However. should be suddenly attacked by the brothers. for each laid their illsuccess at the other's door. the brothers were at discord. This can hardly be the man described by Ibn Batuta as KutbiidD. They are ports of the Isle of Kishm. The king. but their mother hindered him. has " Fal.'' — D. probably represents Badr-ud-din. Sailing next to Lapht. Amongst these were Xamcadin Mamud. I suspect them to have been. " Reizes. This I take to mean that the kings of Harmuz chose most of their higher servants out of a clan or family of Persian khwajas.] "Ayzadin Gordonxa. in a village called Fal. Xambe and Xady would not give up their enterprise for the But. names of [" Bradadin" (cf. When they had landed on that isle." as we say " Raises. and went over to the king. most of their captains and soldiers deserted them. and had Xambe released. — . 166) more religious or legal dignitaries. they came to Lapht. once free. supra. had attacked by sea and by land. of the coming of the brothers. and determined to attack them. and keeping up a connection with that place. and Bradadins. Johnson's Persian Dictionary. they took him on with them to Harmuz lest he. F. who encamped at Dargahon.KINGS OF HORMUZ. passing by Keys. in this case. " Xarafos " were probably treasurers. Reizes. but there is a Falman a little to the north-east of that town. He. where they were not allowed into port. D. warned the king's governor. And the matter went so far that Xady threw Xambe into prison. Noradins. all chiefs of note. and come to some misfortune.^ where the brothers heard of their arrival. near to Lapht. and who he was . name of a place in Persia. din^s wazir (see note supra). ^ F.^ and as they day." which are often personal names. desertion of their captains and soldiers. sailing past Keys. Xarafos. originally resident in Fal.^'' * I cannot find on the maps any place of this name near Shiraz. The two last words seem to represent " Nur-ud-din " and " Burhan-iid-din. 1 — 2 " Gallardamente. on Clarence Strait. left Barhen. and went to the Persian mainland. may probably have been of this family by one side. p. forewarned of their arrival. where Mir Sabekadin was in garrison.^ however.^ Kamaladin Ismael.

of Turon Xa. Travels^ op. but in a great volume. captured him when defenceless.l86 APPENDIX to his presence. a little more or less" ! —D. in prose and verse whence I have extracted this short narrative.s. the summer came on. " Tuxura" (for " Turuxa"). of sight. before and since that time. of the kings of Persia and of Harmuz. The method was this they took a brass basin. one Mamud Homer. Harmuz by : — : ^ Barros and Couto {u. who came well knowing what to do. a man of courage and experience. when they would assure themselves against those whom they might fear..) state that "Ceifadin" or "Ceifadixa" was succeeded by his younger brother "Torunxa. though knowing him for a good captain. F. and a few days later he fell sick and died. and the king Xa Kodbadin chose to pass it in Nakelstam. as hot as fire could make it. lix) speaks of this king. Xady. yet desisted not from his design of invading Keys. historian of Hormuz. and passed it several And so. the ruins of certain towers. who were commonly At this day there are seen in Harmuz. he bargained secretly with a kinsskirmishes and man of Mamud Homer's for his betrayal at the first opportunity. Mamud Homer agreed too easily and trustfully. on a their own kindred. and desired an interview. cit. but says nothing of the length of his reign. ^ See the plan of Hormuz in Astley's Collection^ u. hill near the Hermitage of Santa Lucia. He was a good king.D. — and Nieuhofs . not briefly. 232. infra) calls the royal historian " Pachaturunxa. without any other intimes before the victim's eyes. Xady. A. and deprived him of his eyes or rather. cool and full of good water and fruit. as thirty years. in the year of the Hyxara 747. This was a common practice. as I do. succeeded to the kingdom of the death of his father. 1347. p. credits him with having reigned " three hundred years. F. This agreed on.^ He it was who wrote in Persian the lives and doings of the kings that went before him. by a curious slip." whose reign lasted Castanheda (Liv. ^ rather over a mile from the city. D. liberally. beloved and much honoured by his people." and. and the meeting took place. When he got there. So he and his court went there. son Xa Kodbadin. managed to separate Mamud from his followers. s. as governor to the Isle of Keys. after some small success. Meanwhile.. which are not in Harmuz. him for the sake of and used him very honourably and an old friendship with his family. None of these writers mentions the fact of this king's being the The Dominican translator (see Appendix D. Xady made pretence of a wish for some reasonable peace. cap. On his accession he sent. and A. a district of Mogostam on the Persian mainland. wherein the kings used to keep relatives so blinded. who was in Barhen. ll.

stormed and sacked Xambe's house. for the . his and many fled in terror from the isle. to the fortress of Katifa. p. Pyrard. I like using hard words about " Xady. vol. the eyes remaining as clear After the bUnding of Mamud Homer. But there was one Mir Ageb. a minor. ii.'^ to Lapht. have some authority with alarm and despite * ^ " Cosas dispuestas.^ Mir Ageb proposed. in search of him. who ill endured such tyranny and insolence and he. "a hero. but could not. who was now Mahamed Palaon. over to the mainland of Arabia. I — D. p. Dalb. a chief. although the The news came to Xady had early advice Xady remained master of Turonxa.^ vol. rate. went at once aboard the iarranguy^ and sailed for Barhen with such expedition that. . He." who is no favourite of mine. who mentions this See also Varthema. ^ The above passage is quoted by Lord Stanley of Alderley in a footnote on p. one very cloudy night. and went to At any the Devil. the very same night " (Peacock. Xady. 242 and note . whose flight to Xyraz we have mentioned. with the help of his own family and some other followers. De pura passion?^ " Gwenwynwyn fell sick rendering: Died. He would not give it.* and took cruel vengeance on all who had taken sides against him in his former disputes with Xady.^ leaving a son. Xady's companions and anchored at Dargahon.KINGS OF HORMUZ. But Xambe. the sight 1 87 was destroyed by the effect optic nerves. to whom King Turonxa gave his father's office. p. pursued him. soon died of pure despite. 96 . iv. 1 79. taking nephew . of Af. 45 of his translation of Barbosa. jury." " Palaon " probably represents " Pahlwdn. in the island of Queixome. 46 and custom. Linschoten. supra. and of the fire on the bright as before. left him to himself. fly of this. . when he reached Barhen. F. in its highest sense. Here he found the state of affairs in his favour. it was not so strict but that Xady managed to get away. with this man's support. Many of these he slew." meaning. the deceased Xady's brother. vol. and wanted to from the isle. who had early news of this. note . Crochet Castle). betook himself in all haste to Barhen. But it was winter. near Lapht. who at once sailed king without delay sent vessels in chase of him. but passed to usurp the lordship of the isle. 2 3 —D. and slew Xambe himself. p. and betook themselves to the king. The king..^ the Isle of Keys. He had lately confined one Aly a captain of importance." though often applied to a mere athlete or wrestler. F. presently set free. so close was the blockade. i. heard of it. his brother. See note on '•'• p. Co?nment. finding himself deserted. and though the king's men kept good watch by sea. they did not catch him. in a light tarranquin. not sparing even the child. having heard of his brother's death. 159.

the chief port of the isle.^ 1 as Manama " yi las espaldas" meaning probably in the south of the island is at the northern end. an Arab of the tribe of Ben Izafaf. and thence to Gerun. and sent them. but its reliability must be Thuran wShah's and if any critic thinks his statements unreliable. gave them in charge of a captain named Aly Maxady. and thought rather of punishing him. left Manama. The matter-of-fact style of this fragment must be Teixeira's. Abd-er-Razzak. taking them with him. a. Mir Ageb asked him for the lordship of the isle. he returned to Barhen. He went there with his people. or else the names of some of his successors must have been omitted. After his death in 1378. . Xeque Maged was then captain of Katifa. who spent two months in Hormuz in the early part of 1442. not only refused their request. after a reign of thirty years. To this point our authority is Turonxa himself. it is clear that the death of Turan Shah must here be antedated by nearly a century (the preceding dates being thereby affected). called Xeque Hamed Raxet. wherewith to make head against Mir Ageb. During this period. Turonxa wished to see Katifa. 2 From the statements that follow. five kings. we are told. and Palaon begged troops of him. The king refused it. On his arrival. The latter seems the more probable. which seems unlikely in every way. in the year of the Hyxara 779. who had his head cut off.^ who had peace for the rest of his days. and taken a few days' pleasure in it. Unfortunately.^ called Thiar. of only two generations. and not the royal chronicler. sailed for Barhen.d. to Turonxa. The two prisoners he set free and rewarded. When the affairs of Barhen were settled. 1378. as he found that their arrest was undeserved. He. we may well assume that it was this Fakhr al-Din Turd. and took refuge in another on the further side of it. p. hearing this. Ageb. but seized them. we have no means of ascertaining the length of this king's rule but if his son " Massud" . When he had seen the land. with him another captain.l88 APPENDIX A.n Shah. which lies on the shore of the Arabian mainland over against that isle. as this cannot possibly have been the historian king (presuming that the dates given above for his reign be correct). Now. 5). were busy doing nothing. But Maged. to Harmuz. and died. in reward for his alleged service rendered in the killing of Xambe. divided from it by a narrow sound. he has only to study the modern history of Maskat and Zanzibar for a . or Harmuz. and was well received and served by Xeque Maged. suspecting that they wanted to take Barhen themselves. who was the father of the four sons whose reigns are recorded below. calls the "prince" of the island " Melik-FakrEddin-Touranschah" (Major's India in the Fifteenth Ce?ttury. we have not a date until Albuquerque's invasion in 1507. Hakluyt Soc. with all due care. We parallel. Here the king's men sought him out and took him to their master. when informed of what had happened. 2 miss Thuran Shah at once.

the close of Fakhr al-Dm Turan Shdh's reign would fall in 1455. in which position he lived thirty years. of whom we have spoken in the narrative of the Kings of Persia. we may fix his reign at about 1465. was governor of Kalhat when his younger brother usurped the throne whereupon he fled to " Lasah. cap. it is evident that Barbaro's If "Xabadin" reigned eleven years. while . — * In his Kings of Persia. died in 1478. I. 2 Barros {u. He names only " Corgol. lix) has a similar account. Couto {u. and overran it as far as reigned ten years. because his brother rose against him. and his defeat and death in 1493. who was the elder. . " being young. p. Then Xabadin. Magcudxa. F. with the help of that king." he also states that " Ormuos" " yeldeth tribute to the King Assambei" ( Travels in Tana ajid Persia. Barros asserts (see infra)." and says he was the eldest son of " Tuxura. and was succeeded by his brother " Xabadin" in 1465 (as suggested in the note infra). ^ . Castanheda (Li v. . and Xavez. Xabadi eleven. remaining as king. after explaining how Shaikh Haidar and Shaikh Ismail came to be called "Sufi. and dethroned him. : "A 1493). in describing the reign of " Baysangor Mirzah" (a. Ivii. Hakluyt Soc. The third son was Salgor Xa. and Xaues. . soon settled.). except the eldest Magcudxa." D." Again. Magdfud. Xargol. Xabadi. II. and all reigned. who was the last. chap." and later. the eldest. 11.KINGS OF HORMUZ. Appendix B infra). 1492our author says that the king. but confused and erroneous in details. in First. Bk. Xabadim. whom for the same reason they called Sufy Hhalila. as visit took place circa 1475. — says that at his death " Torunxa left these sons. with the assistance of " Raez Nordim" and " Raez Carnal" of " Xilau. s. was under the tutelage and governance of Sufy Kalil Musulii. Massud. the Venetian.* He possessed all that country. who possessed it in order as follows peace all his life.1476. F. as "Assambei" (Uzun Hasan Bey Ak-Koyunlu). the second eleven. 1 89 Turonxa's sons succeeded him in the kingdom of Harmuz. Now. Teixeira. D." whom he promptly blinded. and took the kingdom from him and from there. F." who. one of his captains . says that "Torunxa" left "four sons." Barros gives full details of the doings of " Xargol.i the second son. But it is plain that the figures given by Barros cannot be relied on as entirely accurate. the Turkman ruler of Persia. all of whom reigned by violence. came against his brother. each in default of sons of the others the first ten years.D. D.^ in whose time arose in Persia the Suphy Hhalila. who reigned ten years. Sargol. xiv (cf." and goes on to describe various battles in which " Sufy Kalil" commanded the king's troops." succeeded in defeating " Xaues. which cannot be very far out. had fled to Lasac. he says. and Xaues." adds little before him had risen up in Persia Hhalila. s. in whose time : were some unimportant disturbances. the third one year and a half" {sic).) : . more intelligibly. chap. one year and a half as Xargol. — It must have been during this man's reign that Josafa Barbaro. I am doubtful if the same person is referred to in these two passages and it is curious that in the first passage Teixeira states that the Sufi rose up "a little before" the time of Shclh Ismail. 79). in Bk. visited Hormuz for he says " The Lorde" of the island "is called Sultan Sabadin .

A = is . It is said that. D. the King of Spain." But Salgor Shdh had the start of him. and 15th March. and which we usually call " kaybobs. Rem.^ But I know not if hence sprang the tale of Amadis of Gaul. ^ Couto {Dec." Which " is as much as to say : me girt Mine enemy's heart is hot within him. il. cap. xi) describes the " Amadizes" as " a Magostao. the lately published Don Quixote when this was written. who knew of Hhalila's trouble and fury. Liv. A somewhat macaronic translation would run " My foeman's heart is broiled for me." as prepared to assist Of the " Gaules" I can find no mention elsewhere. or Harmuz. though not with the free sovereignty of old times. And there is a story that Salgor. iii) explains " inocarrarias'^ as certain sums paid annually by the King of Hormuz to the rulers of Persia and other countries of the continent as far as " Moscovia. and the rendering as close as English can be got to Castilian.— 190 — A. in Indian revenue business. warlike and formidable tribes. [Couto {Dec.* should be noted lived long here he emphasises the fact that " Sophy Hhalila before Ismael Sophy. x. as here translated.). the Amadizes and Gaules. But the Spanish world was alive with not very obvious joke." In two letters. F. cap. — distich is in Teixeira's phrase and spelling (though both be open to question)." The first of the two statements appears to be the correct one. brave and determined men. and The passage is obscure but makarar applied. Ke aguerd Aguerd man dariah hast.^ For these territories the kings of Harmuz pay to the King of Persia a It cer- tain tribute." So the late Prince Bismarck is said to have condemned his foes to " simmer in their own juice. he wanted to level the mountains to fill up the sea. and have yet. went about the isle and city. Sophy Hhalila went away without doing any harm but on the mainland. " fixed " in Arabic. in his mad rage. and was very desirous to pass over to it. singing at the top of his voice some Persian verses . and all the terriIn their dominions are tories for twenty-eight leagues landwards. in the enterprise. refers to " the Amadazes of Catifa. tribe that live in —D. who were always loyal to my service. F. of 13th February. as sometimes happens with tributes. ^ : The Persian Liv." funny (and excellent) little bits of broiled goat which are " common objects" of most Eastern cities. called mokararias^ because they are not let run into arrear. writing to the Viceroy of India regarding the proposed re-capture of Bahrein. 161 1 (printed in Doc. where the kings of Harmuz had possessions. because he about by the sea." to ensure safe transit . but could not for want of vessels." ^ sees In the end. X. "Dele Duzman baraman Kabab hast. 1610. APPENDIX the shore opposite Gerun. 2 * F. Who stand encircled by the The point or joke lies in comparing the enemy's heart to the sea. They hold the Gulf coast for seventy leagues.

" Xargol" then reigning thirty years. 127). refer to these mo carrarias which are there explained as " a certain pension that was paid from the customs [at Hormuz] to the kings of Lara for franking the cafilasP The word miikarrari^ meaning a fixed rent or revenue. 1507. however (in 1622). Salgor had no other war of importance to wage. — : poison. On Salg6r's death. lived long before Ismael Sophy. Barros states. in 1507)." " ^afardim. in the year 15 14 took that kingdom. that this I9I Sophy Hhalila. p. the details quoted in a previous note regarding " Xargol. F. cap.^ which they hold to this day. F. with the unusual " w. in fact).^ tom. in describing the first visit of the Portuguese to Hormuz. who was then a The latter was reigning when Affonso de youth of ten years. '• they chose as king Ceifadim. of Af Dalb. This king died without leaving sons. iv.2 Seyfadin. who was King of Persia when the Portuguese went to Harmuz. 1608 or 1609. a son of his brother Xavez.). Rem. His relation to Salgor is not stated. in the absence of " Xargol. — D.e. 109) to have died by . does not give the king's name. The statements over. and left the kingdom to his brother. state that " Ceifadim" was the son of " Xavez. after giving there" (that is. s. vol. which throve greatly in his days. these statements differ entirely from those of Barros and Couto. enjoying peace. sixteen years old at the time of his accession." In the Comment. being captainmajor of that Strait.) says that on the death of " Xargol.d. A few years later. Castanheda. Correa (tom. who say that on the death of " Xabadim" (who. Comment. and he was king in a. i. i. etc. under Alfonso de Albuquerque. Seyfadin. * I. but says (Liv. lix) that he was Later on (Liv. cap." D.." was. Ixxxviii) he calls this king " Raix Cafardim. on the decease of Xawes. D. when the Portuguese. ^'' Several royal letters in Doc. the island . and ended his reign in peace." probably Shah Wais. 836. 1 is 2 As will be seen by the note above. took possession of that kingdom. v. ^ Barros {u. and Whitworth's Anglo-Indian Dictionary. of Castanheda {u.). v. was murdered by some Abyssinian slaves in the island of Kishm) his youngest brother. Alboquerque. s." and is said (vol. arrived at Ormuz in the year 1507. inherited the throne of Harmuz. being Governor of India.. he p. morehalf. li.. " Xavez" or " Xaues.KINGS OF HORMUZ. p. and the people chose as king Ceifadim. f.^ And though it was won and of merchants and goods through their territories (blackmail. He had no trouble in all his reign. of Af Dalb. Xawes^ succeeded him in the kingdom. and made him a vassal to the King of Portugal. s." raised to the throne from which he was ousted by the latter after a reign of only a year and aBoth these writers. i. is still in use in India (see Wilson's Glossary of Judicial Terms. Couto {u. s) are here again evidently erroneous.] '"'' — The name represented Sic in orig. who was a youth of twelve years at the time that Affonso dAlboquerque came On the other hand." continues " The latter was reigning when Affonso de Alboquerque." Here Couto seems to be in error (cf. son of Xaues (the one whom his brother dethroned). whom we have mentioned." who left no son.) calls him is called " Ceifadin.

* But if any inquirer. i-iv. see. which they call Maland. p. held by better right than some other kingdoms in the world. iv). duction.^ So I do not undertake it. — 1 " Nos. 362 . Capt. Mag. vol. with Christian scrupulosity. D. — 1576 (see Hakluyt Soc. 457 et seq. . Garcias de Silva Figueroa. torn. p. not only in the Commentaries of Alfonso de Albuquerque. passim. Purehas his Pilgrimes^ force. XIII.1624.^ This puzzled me for awhile. but does not now let them go. whereas they once enjoyed free and : independent sovereignty. vol. to this very day. D... vol. Ixv-lxix April 1874. P. F. Herewith I hope that the friendly reader will be content. PP. — For the later history of Hormuz. 1787 et seq. * — — . supra. and use that when they mention his transactions..1^9 ^t seq. was captured from the Portuguese by a combined Persian and English Ai7ibassade and the glory of Hormuz came to an end (see de D. i. Yule's art. F. 2 Cf. until I understood that he had that name because he sailed thither from Melinde. ii. For they know him by let him ask the Moors about Malandy. but with this difference that. There rule is not^ absolute. p.. Barros's Dec. V . F. and even in that case there are limits to it. 2 The first i. iv. Ill. Couto's Decs.. . making allowance that for Now my deficiencies. vol. except in respect of the Moors. F. Stiffe's paper in Geog. and a man or thing coming thence Malandy. cannot leave the isle without permission of the Portuguese captain. " Ormus. whereby he allows of their succession in that kingdom.. and Preface. yet our kings. edition of which appeared in Introduction. they now hold under written grant of our Lord the King. pp. all happened since in that kingdom has been written at large.. 9th ed. 1622." in Encycl.15) 16 Malcolm's History of Persia. Ser. Col. p. F. East Indies^ etc.192 is APPENDIX A. Sir T.. should wish to ask about the deeds of Alfonso de Albuquerque (which indeed were and are worthy of perpetual memory). Burton's Camoens : Life and Lusiads..^^ a misprint. D. END OF THE KINGS OF HORMUZ.^ but in the second book of the Second Decade of luan de Bayrros. do not fail to maintain undisputed therein the legitimate succession of the native kings And the sons succeed their fathers as of old. no other name. after IntroD. and Doc. Teixeira's introductory note to the reader.. Calendar of State Papers^ . IV-XII. tion that follows seems rather far-fetched. who used to grant it in former years. . 508). in addition to the works mentioned by Teixeira.. xvii . . Herbert's Travels^ 1677. p. Brit. trans. They their subjects.. ^ I have found no confirmation of this statement and the explanaD. Rem. finding himself at Harmuz. vol. Bocarro's so-called Dec.

" It was in 151 5.. vill. Couto states that the two princes deported by Nuno da Cunha (as mentioned above) were the father of " Torunxa" and the latter's uncle. and kept him in Cochin. 160. . (vol. p. after a reign of nearly twenty years. s. v. " Rayx Ale. iii. p. was sent from Goa to succeed him (Couto." by poison. his position (Correa. however. however. son of Torunxd^^ who was the one that Nuno da Cunha ordered to be deported from Ormuz to avoid divisions in the kingdom. tom. by whom he had a son. F. tom. x). x. p. who reigned nine years. being the next heir." After an exile of " nearly forty years" (really thirty-three). cap. X. that this change of rulers took place and Correa (tom. and in his place the Portuguese captains at Hormuz elected a son of his. at such an . pp. 460).) says that on the death of " Ceifadim" there succeeded " Xargol Xd. According to Couto {Dec." was deported to Goa on an accusation of plotting to poison Muhammad Shah (Castanheda. F. ff. speaks of two sons of "Ceifadin. who reigned nine years. Couto {u. His son. named " Rayx Ale" or " Rexealle. Dec. : In 1532 a brother of the king's.) ." {The Comment. a youth of eighteen." says he was then twentytwo years of age. " Babuxa. Pedro de Sousa." the last of whom married in Goa a Moor woman of Dabul. Correa. vil. 109) calls him "Terunxa. " Ferragoxa.. of Af. vii. iv. only eight years of age. The Comment. iii). succeeded to the throne But in 1541 the latter was again (Castanheda. Dalb. cap. 699). apparently. s. who was going thither as From captain in 1 562. son of the late King Ceifadim" (Barros Castanheda calls him " Patx^ Mahmetxd"). KINGS OF HORMUZ. s. 193 [Though after the capture of Hormuz by the Portuguese its " kings" became mere puppets in their hands. 338). was poisoned soon after by order of his uncle at Goa. ii. by an Abyssinian mother named Bibigazela. u. p. This took place in the early part of 1522." who in 15 15 were boys of eight or nine. by name Mahamud X^. ii. Owing to the loss of Couto's Eighth. this "king" was poisoned by his wazir. Liv. obtained leave to accompany D." wishing to lay his bones in his native island. and Correa (tom. In Dec. Liv. IX. cap. who calls the new king " Turuxa. 174. xlix Correa.)." a boy of twelve. " Ceifadim reigned ten years. Castanheda (Liv. cap. and that his mother was an Abyssinian. III. tom. where he had a son named Torunxa. cap. Liv.) . Couto {u. it is evident that soon afterwards (probably in 1563) " Turuxa" died. and arrived in Hormuz in March 1544 (Couto. until the final ejection of the Portuguese by the Persians in 1622. He. and was succeeded by his brother Torunx^. and was son of succeeded Ceifadim. " Babuxa.) simply says that to " Torunx^" " Mahamed Xa. iv. iv. the dates of the accessions of the succeeding rulers are somewhat difficult to ascertain. 210. Dalb. Liv. Ninth. viil. Ixxvi). 190. what Couto says. and the aged " Babuxa" was elected to succeed him. p.. says Correa (tom. iv. and to take his son " Ferragoxa" with him. Naturally. pp." According to Barros {Dec. u. but two years later he was restored to He did not long survive. cap. 270. and being ninety years old and decrepit. VII. iv. Liv. 420). The latter died in 1534. because they say she had eyes like a gazelle's. it may be useful to give the names of those who bore nominal rule. vol. v). and Eleventh Decades. This Xargol was afterwards sent by Nuno da Cunha to succeed to the throne. who substituted in his place " a youth of some thirteen years. "Torunxa. of Af. Ixxxviii). cap. s." who. on his receiving news of the death of King Ceifadim He died in the past November of 1543. deported to Goa on charges of madness and drunkenness (Correa. p. 399). Liv.

841)." who is called " Miramofalisxd" and '• Miramofles. p. and the elevation . pp. Rem. 1571. 1163).'' but they do not appear to have laid any claim to the throne. embodying the translation of a farmdn of 8th April. ii. wished to abdicate in favour of his second son. advanced age his reign could not be a long one and in 1 564 or 1565." had executed a deed whereby he constituted their eldest son his heir." whose mother was a sister of the wazir. and he issued a decree granting to the two sons of " Turruxd" authority to prosecute their father's claim to the throne {Doc. when he married the daughter of " Raix Nordim. iv.). XII." This " Faragoxd" reigned for many years. we find that " Farracoxd" left two other sons by the sister of the wazir " Rais Nordim." 1569. This. tom. . ii. Rem. For some reason. cap. on his death. 6. granting to King " Faragoxd. i. tom." in February. Portuguez-Oriental^ fasc. tom. p. From this and other letters (tom. and that he was to try and arrange a marriage between this son and a daughter of the wazir.". 4). Couto. This "Turruxd. and that his father. 363. it would appear that the old king continued to govern until his death. Fr. 6. 758-760 of the same fasciculus is another alvard^ dated loth February.. 406 Archivo Portuguez-Oriental."). fasc. however. gives the name of the king as " Siafirusia Gielaledi" ( Viaggio delF htdie Oriental^ p. who.. 91. From pp. ." the rights accorded to " Turuxd. li. tells us that at the beginning of 1598 " Ferugoxa. 148. on the grounds that he was a bastard. his son. Aleixo de Menezes. 11 19. 53. and professed a leaning to Christianity. p. Fredericke^ p. 383 . issued by " Faroquoxd." who was residing at Goa. 382). vol. printed in Doc. 38." who refers to his father " Mamuxd" and cousin " Turux^. 428 . however {Doc. and the old king was informed that he must allow his elder son " Feruxa" to reign in his stead. etc. Cesare Federici was present at the ceremony. Rem. pp." succeeded to the throne. tom. i informs us of the death of "Ferruxd. tom. ii (pp. the elevation to the throne of " Mamede X^" did not meet with the approval of the King of Spain.. 166. i. vol. . ii (p. a letter in Doc. 382) 1609. and the matter was referred to the high court but in 1606 or 1607. who visited Hormuz in 1580. apparently at the end of 1601. Gasparo Balbi.being old and decrepit. Liv. however. " Mamedexa. i. One of those ." their names being given as " Mir Farracoxd" and " Mir Samgolx^ . pp. 148. was not permitted by the Viceroy in Council. 80. pp. ii. on the death of " Farracoxd" and the proclamation as his successor of " Mir Firruxd. 53. dated i8th March. . to the throne of a brother of his. From other documents. 406 . it seems that the eldest son of " Farracox^. 388. 360). 406). and letters (p. 1565. which he describes In \\\^ Archivo (Vojya£-e and Trauaile \of M. Teixeira refers to him as "Ferragut Xd. 14. during the governorship of the Archbishop D." had been passed over in the succession. Rem. fasc. 356. we learn no more of this matter but from royal letters to the Viceroys of India. 243-244). The second part of this Decade never having been written.. petitioned the King of Spain. pp. 365 tom. we learn from later letters in tom. p. C. (pp. and infra^ Appendix B). the prince was convicted of sodomy and burnt at the stake (see Pyrard.194 APPENDIX A." the right of the latter to the throne was challenged by his younger brother " Mirturuxd" (called also " Turruxd. " Ferragoxa. iii. when " Mir Firruxa" was appointed to succeed him." and " Ferrogotxa" (see supra^ p. 693. is an alvard. and on pp. in Dec. ii.. Archivo Poriuguez-Oriental. was named " Mamede X^. 38. 16. 5. 47). tom. it seems that." evidently the same as the one referred to by Couto above. 381. pp. .

" or " Coje Zoete. dated February 12th.. which he had renounced in order to enter the Church. The King of Hormuz all his suite were deported to the mainland as captives by the Persians {L Ambassade de G. printed in Arch. however. 1625-1629. and also against that king himself. complaining of the misdeeds of the Captain of Hormuz. 1802. 9. p.) termination of the Hormuz dynasty of kings. at the same time bringing serious accusations against the wife of " Mamede Xd. 3.KINGS OF HORMUZ. I cannot All these claims. in his Re/a^am^ Pt. as stated above. f. East Indies. need not concern us and . etc. fasc. 212." are referred to in several royal letters to the Viceroys of India. Whether this were so or the " kingdom" of Hormuz had gone for not. " Mamede Xa" was still " reigning" when that event took place . 1621." (who was the widow of " Torruxa" and " Ferrux^"). Port. Gouvea. he put I95 in a claim to the sovereignty. vol. (Ant. I. speaks of a "Dom Hieronymo Joete" as a grandson of " Turuxk" and the rightful heir to the throne.— D. and in Purchas his Pilgrimes. de Silva Figueroa. p.] 2 . 470) but in 1624 the king was reported to be " still living at Ormuz" {^Calendar of State Papers. 678. p. on the capture of the island in 1622 by the Anglo-Persian force. 586. pp." " Xeque Joette. Or. were solved by the identify this man. p. will be found the translation of a letter from him to the King of Spain. 60).. 482. " Xeque Yoette. : ever. 172. This "Dom Jeronimo" and his father. ii.

or " the House of Fire. still called Nar Kuh. so that in more than three thousand five hundred years it has not been extinct for an instant. though there are several elsewhere. a city in Persia. I have thought well to note briefly the subjects of those omitted.worshippers. * . and have not yet chosen to receive the creeds either of Mahamed or of Ally. Relation of the Kings of Persia''^ BOOK I.] Here our author seems to have got well outside of his own observation.500 ft. [Cf. which they preserve with great care.. 2 tinction is either the Sunni or the Shiah form ot Islam. Teixeira digresses on the subject of the Persian tage^ or cap. F. and fire. therefore. Then. high. supra^ 51. [In connection with the election of " Kayumarras" as first King of Persia." viz.] APPENDIX Extracts frojn the " B. [Then follow remarks concerning cow. or Gabr Yazdy^ whereof the last is most common. For the paragraphs within square brackets and in smaller type. and to be ill-informed the rest of the account of the Zoroastrians is little better than mere Persian gossip a little malicious. and also Atex quedah. But at about one hundred English miles.— CHAPTER I. which may be Teixeira's pp. F. wherein and dwell those Persians who follow their ancient national religion. is. but Teixeira always uses it. Maurigy.— D. having referred to an error held by " the gentiles of Persia.' They serve the sun. — .] chiefly survive and explana- Yazdy means of Yazd. south and by east from that city. Mayucy. tions of Gao^ Gabr^ etc. 1 As Mr. This is on a mountain one day's march from Yazd. called Albors Kuyh.* Sinclair has translated only portions of Teixeira's digressions. our author says : — In Persian they call these gentiles^ by one of three names. or Mount Albors. 47." And there are always many people attending on it. D. or " Fire Mountain" (?). our maps show a mountain 9. There is now no " Elburj" near Yazd on the maps. The disnot very accurate. numerous — ^ The That surviving Zoroastrians of Persia. it must be understood that I am responsible. that Kayumarras was identical with Adam.

Herbert's Travels^ p. and is fit for use " At^x quedah.^ The second is made by infusion of dried grapes in cold water. I think. In Harmuz and Mogostam. which ferments of itself. our author proceeds to describe the practices of the Hindus on the Ganges. there are two liquors made. the Indians on the Malabar coast. for all which it finds some notable drinkers. lofty building like one." . 1 — D. The first is distilled chiefly of dates and liquorice leaves. stouter than a mindr. our author proceeds and the universality of — In Persia there is much good wine made of grapes. Tabriz. 61). and the inhabitants of certain islands between the Nicobars and Tenasserim. capital. Chapter V has some its Arab names for the Devil of Aderbaion. [After referring to the antiquity of wine. who died in 1595. and contain no digressions. it in bottles.] KINGS OF PERSIA. and smuggle much of xarab. or possibly Visvandtha II. use." His translation is correct. F. Burj \s a tower or any [On " Albors" and its fire-temple. [In Chapter II Teixeira discourses on the burning of the dead . and in this connection describes (not from personal observation. Chapters III and IV are both very short. and used to imply its high quahty. I97 [From the Zoroastrians' method of disposing of their dead. and interjected remarks on the Persian and also a brief reference to the province . which event took place while our author was in India. packed in cases under the name of rose-water. in proper proportion. and has become a common name Arak throughout the East for distilled spirits in general. whose death seems to have occurred a little earlier (see Sewell's Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India^ p. 1 It is called arequy^ from areca^ a Persian word meaning This is the strongest sweat. Arabic for sweat. called The Persians use it immoderately. have been Krishnappa." as we have shardb in " rum Hojas de is regalis^ 2 shrub. In English we have it in " arrack" and " rack punch.] CHAPTER its : VI. see Sir T.] probably meaning the roots.] CHAPTERS II-V. and on all the Arabian shore of the Persian Gulf. in the Grand Mogol's country. 197. and most dreadful drink that ever was invented. apparently) the human holocaust that followed the death of the Nayak of Madura. This must. the Japanese. to Labor.

197. This is distilled like the last. which seems to be a sort of beer. i. and the Phelipines or Manilla. * Nipa fruticans it of our botanists. and said to be very wholesome. The date-tree itself and many other sweet saps (toddy). ^ With the foregoing compare Garcia de Orta. ." f. transparent as pure water. In Cafraria. A ^ Probably the pombe of modern travellers. p. vol. not good in Western India {^Nepheliu7n Litchi^ nat. Tanasarim. 8. ^- 198 APPENDIX it B. — 67 .^ and it is of two sorts. That of Tanasarim is much the best of all. p. a fruit very like that of the Arbutus^ but larger. in . made wine or spirit is said to be the Mediterranean. The best is that made of lechyas. Arbutus unedo^ Sp. by fire throw dried grapes. Arros podre^ probably meaning only that it was fermented. still who now It separate it from the supra. great deal of it is made and shipped in Pegii. 103 . Colloquios. which are fermented and sometimes ^ palms yield distilled. from this sura^ and The other. Sura is that kind which is got raw. F. which takes off its roughness and sweetens it and it improves with age. vol. and the tropical regions eastward . p.'^ where they have many sorts of wines. D. which may have suggested the comparison Lechyas are lichis^ an excellent fruit of Bengal. and Cf. wine is made of millet. f.— D. the land of the negros about Mozambique.^ In Orracam and Pegii there is made of rotten^ rice a certain drink CdiWtd pamp lis. Orracam has here nothing to do with arak^ but represents our modern ^ province of Arakan. Malaca. [See F. but is softer and sweeter. This is also used in Manilla and in China. ord. 49. It is thought very good and wholeit in use in Syria. The sura is "fresh toddy. of this fruit too. 2 Arak. Linschoten. produces toddy. which D. under a ^ I ^'' variety of * names. madrofio.^'' Rice wine and rice spirit are in common use throughout a great part of Eastern Asia. and I have seen In India wine is made of the substance of the tree which bears the cocos^ called palm. vol. ii.— d. but none made of grapes. grows in tidal waters. This is distinguished as " mandarin's wine. p. dropping of itself into vessels set to distilled is very strong.. which is not the case with that made of receive it. and called huyenbe^ or penibe!^ In Bengal. that Other wine is made A Date-palm. some. true palms. F. from Bengal eastwards. vide supra^ p. note. 49. SapindacecE). called araca^ is Into this they dried grapes and water. because it is like the true palm.^ of another palm called nipa'^ growing in watery places.] ^ superficially resembles. cannot trace the word pamplis. — Linschoten." from the common term for the magistrates of China. when has settled down. ii.

there is made another sort of wine of rice. vol. The nut. is brought to Europe as a vermifuge. Areca catechu. is found. = intoxicant. The fermented juice of Agave Los angeles lo beben en el pulque^ liquor divino. 3 These " Indians" were probably American. : betle^'' used through all Malabar. not Malay of the Peninsula and Eastern Isles. some form of the Sanskrit D. would come very . p. is. generally called in India pophal. but the Portuguese and Spaniards have carried it round the world in the warm regions. v. s. — Teixeira says. day and night. The genus is American. .KINGS OF PERSIA. guvaka. It is now cultivated in all warm countries. and there is a Sanskrit name. respectively Malayalam vettila^ Hindustani pdn^ Persian-Arabic tambz'cl. p. ^ Cf.* A case in point that is the name in dialects of India. " Betel. Malay sirih (which name the Dutch have adopted). is pinang. and there is a spirit distilled from this. as is the yucca. 199 the lands watered by the Ganges." " Tembool").'' This they chew. hard upon them. The name areca is Malayalam of Malabar. And besides these they use other things the failure of which. vv. Soc. 62. of all sorts of men. also Morga's Philippine Islands. 280). Natural order. serend^ (!). but greater and coarser and other Indians^ make it of the yuca.) the last Teixeira doubtless picked up on his visit to Manila in 1600 (see supra. F. D. are smaller and slimy. with a fruit called areca^ and in Persian and It is Ax2ih\cfufeX and a little mild lime made of oyster-shells. from It is served to welcome the coming princes to poor sailors. 6). tambul^ in Malay siri^ and in Manilla buyo. as known in English by the name of " aloe.. the betel-nut palm. the betel-leaf ^ vine. from Sanskrit tdmbula (see Hobson -Jobson^ s. and I have seen it in bloom in the open air in the county Donegal. by reason of their long use and wont. the common European plantain. and Tagal buyo (see Noceda and Sanlucar's Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala. " Canary " is of course Kanara.— D. ^ . spirituous liquor. and it is generally The true aloes. in It that language. in the common use." " Pawn. Liliacece. * " Seria jnuy doftosa" for " dafiosa" an odd misprint. and the nut supdri. but in Canary the East. ^ The names for betel mentioned by Teixeira are. what follows with Garcia de Orta's Colloquio^ " Do Betre^^ and Linschoten. and herva babosa is a Portu- guese name for is '"'' them even now. the wines and drinks of various nations are almost countless. The first four names are given by Garcia de Orta {u.F. Americana — : .^ The leaf is well known. F. ii. whose leaf has a sort of superficial resemblance to that of Piper betle. s. and known by In Persian and Arabic it is called and Guzarate as pam.^ Hak. In fine. and not unlike that of a plantain. called mo do} In Mexico wine is made of maguey^ a plant much like the slimy plant which produces the aloe or azivar. et seq." ^ In all the Aryan w<2rt?<3. ed. p. 2 The maguey is Agave Americana^ of the order Amaryllidece. Plantago fnajor.

Many of them were little more than preparations of opium. casti^o). According to Wolf (see Life and — C. 45. and called yundnt. pp. Poor people use the husks. 1874). applied by the Dutch in the East to a certain class of the population. belongs to the class called Pustiz . the strongest. Next comes opium. soon followed their example. The word presently came to antidotes against poisons in general. It is ((papfiaica) antidotes against injuries caused by especially venomous reptiles. " the best sorts" (of opium) " were flavoured with nutmeg.^ The Persians hold that the use of this gum was discovered by princes and great captains. pp. " Castees. Pyrard. Teriak-i-Arabistdni.") D. 183-184 . APPENDIX and in farewell at his going. B. in some places. and needs no mixture or preparation. commonly called afion by Orientals. the use whereof is most common amongst Mahometans. vol. Pharmacographia^ Greek words. in the eighteenth century. in Ceylon. and lovers of their affection." and he places the order thus European. cinnamon and mace. On the other hand. 267). Some of these were made even in Europe under this name. 41. F. ed. or simply with saffron and ambergris. mesties. 38 . those who do so go by the name of pustys^ as men who use opium are called c^ony^ which. include applied 6r\piaKa = ^ Persian past=\oWj mean. which drops naturally from the stem of the poppy plant. are very p. and may still be. (On mestiz and castiz see Linschoten. kasties^poesties^ topaz^ and black Portuguese. " a child whose father and mother are both Europeans. . vile. who ever strive to copy these. and a decoction thereof. Haafner. Wolf p. They describe the modern Persian drug as of varying quality and value . well into the nineteenth century. 46). ^ Gr. and so the drug their favour. — Fliickiger and Hanbury suggest that opium-eating originated in Persia. and as the husks are called pust. writing of Batavia at the same period. vol. : : Adventures of J. who used it to obtain the sleep of which their many cares deprived them." and he puts the castiz and mestiz next in order. and still later was to nostrums of professed universal virtue. HobsonJobson^ s» V.^ So great is the value they set upon that gum. when used in anger. casties Portuguese mestizo. p. are terms of reproach and insult. The Persians distinguish it especially as teriaca. For these and many other virtues it is highly valued." and called Theriaka (Fliickiger and Hanbury. animals. instead of opium. ii. strengthens and preserves the teeth and gums. in the seventeenth century. says {Lotgevallen en Vroegere Zeereizen^ p* 179) " The Poestieses so called are those that are born of a European and a Kasties woman . cardamom. and exported to the lands where it does not grow. more or less disguised. etc. and in Persia. i.^ The people.200 guest. This can scarcely be the origin of the term piisties (formed on the analogy of mesties. commonly in use amongst Oriental druggists and physicians. being produced ^ in Irak {Pharmacographia. and sweetens the breath. Princes make it the sign of good against all disorders of the stomach arising from cold.

made of the kakao^ a fruit not unlike kaoah.^ In the kingdom of Guzarate and Cambaya the natives use to flavour all their food with ingu. Cf. p. F. f. These they take into their that may hold four or five ounces. vol. i. 21 v. p. vol. 157. which was shown to me in Malaca. that is. and stimulates the appetite. a certain plant brought from Tartary. The remarks which follow are part of the evidence suggesting that Teixeira had not visited China or Japan. If it has any flavour this inclines to bitterness.] Tea.] — This statement would seem to show that seen the fruit of the cacao. Col. what follows with Garcia . ii. 112. nearly black. 62). and is brought from Arabia. insipid. Persia. in which case it is a deadly poison. D.^ No savoury dish finds favour with them without that gum. and kept for the purpose. D. I have seen men die in various places for want of opium. F. In chap. of which I shall say more hereafter. proclaimed to be very beneficial. F. Those who are blowing on it and sipping. which is : Cairo in Egypt. F. p. and service of coffee have changed a good deal since this was written. hands.^ There is another beverage called kaoah^ much used in all Turkey. made in Malue. and others from taking more than they were used to. It is a seed. ^ follows is practically a repetition of the details the author's Voyage (see supra^ p. There are two chief sorts of opium in the East malwy. even in the East. [Cf. All those who want it assemble in these houses. prevents flatulence and piles. The decoction is thick. Linschoten.— D. and there are few who do not eat it. 201 was introduced. It is But. and Syria. with Teixeira's description the note by Paludanus in Linschoten. pp. xxii (see infra. and mecery^ brought from Mecere. Arabia. assafoetida. and they rub the inside of their cooking ^ Cf. [Cf. probably with increase of supply and improvement of science.114. ^ Coffee. Nor is there any great difference between these and the chocolate of New Spain. 209). but very little. Garcia D.^ After the same fashion is the Chinese cha^^ and is taken in the same way. * i. * The 157.— KINGS OF PERSIA. where they are served with it very hot in Chinese porcelain cups. — D. XLlj Linschoten. F. except that cha is the leaf of a little herb. and prophylactic of those disorders which Chinese gluttony might provoke. use. [What vi of given in chap. d. de Orta. — Teixeira had never * de Orta. f. because it was dry.] — preparation. and sit accustomed to drink it say that it is good for the stomach. vol. It had been for little over half a century in use in Constantinople in our author's time. I could not well judge of its form. very like little It is prepared in houses dry beans.

F. . meaning black. pots therewith. — D.] = Brava is modern Somali-land. f. — Homceopathists' globules are coarse to them. 12 v). The whale is in process of extinction. [See Hobson-Jobson. but far more from the coast of Melinde. That employed in Indian cookery is of very fine quality. At Brava. and the smell a dreadful stench. whither it is brought from India. i. been found in masses of more than a few pounds.] . as on the coast of Choromandel and in China. s. F. But masses of ambergris expressible in terms of hundredweights have several times been recorded. and seems to have been first misapplied to fossil amber by the Latin races. for more about this drug. as of a thing very important to their health.— D. Garcia de Orta. p. and the genuine drug of disappearance. vol.^ The Portuguese corrupt this into Zanzibar. D. especially in the pdpadams or wafers used with curry and rice. 157.^ a port of that coast.) —D." a confusion between bar. and they feel the want of it much. The quantities used are almost microscopic. The common Indian name is hing [see Hobson-Jobson. I think. a region. The name belongs of right to it. The in "negro-land. the fragrant secretion of the sperm whale. 2 ^ Vide Pharinacographia^ Cf. F. 13 7/. [It looks as if Teixeira wanted to " go one better " than the piece weighing fifty quintals. and used in tiny quantities. where they have certain vessels of tin. the sea. even by themselves. 93. sub voce. * Here there dakr ^ = is SL sea. vol. Ambergris is said to have been used in giving bouquet to claret and I have known Europeans to like it in sherbet.^ mastaquy^ and perfume with it their drinking water.].202 APPENDIX B. There is rather a curious trade in the drug. This they call Zanguybar or Black Men's Sea. teste Garcia de Orta (f. v. especially in Persia. or the camel short-legged. with cases and cloth wrappings.^ it Others they call commonly chew mastic. This perfume (Arabic anbar) is the " ambergris " of Europe. Linschoten. during the Musalman ascendency in the Mediterranean. where ^ Only a few Europeans know how much assafoetida is used in Western India. yet has it a pleasant flavour to men who have learnt its use. —D. A great deal of this is used in Persia and Arabia. The rich for this purpose use ambar.^ which they call by the same name. F. that a man on one side of it could not see a camel standing on the other. and Zang-bar means [Cf. F.] The man was perhaps short-sighted. and bar. wherein the water remains hot all day and longer. found near Cape Comorin in 1555. And though to those unused it is distasteful. who find an article so light in proportion to its price easy to carry. from zanguy. Fossil amber has not. s. there was found in the year 1593 a mass of ambar so great. (See ^ also Linschoten. and that of the African negroes on the Indian Ocean. and " Zanguy " is right enough. v.^ Others habitually drink hot water. or barr. p. ii. conducted by Afghan pedlars on foot.

and of the tree that yields it. 132 et seq. F. p.KINGS OF PERSIA. The is probably tree here in question. called. now on different maps. See infra^ Appendix C. Mexico. and many other parts of the world. Teixeira mentions it again in his list of provinces as a city of " Karason" " Hrey. The ruins are a short way south by east of Tehran.* There is also plenty of it in another city of Persia. Mana is called in Persian xir quests that is. — ^ Cf. . It is very like dry coriander seed. 100. as the best and purest yet known. f. one of many that khisht." [See infra^ Appendix C. identity of that country with Parthia . but not so good. for their pleasure . [Digressing on the subject of sashes and girdles as badges of honour. called toraniabin^ is found in many parts of Persia. am not aware that have been a recogit was ever so called in English. Manilla. produce " mannas. ^ It is taken hence in great quantity to Harmuz. of Shiraz and its inhabitants . and go on daily inventing. and of the productions and exports of Shiraz. Rhe. and is xir^ which is quests the name 1 « Yerva santa seca.) This city of Hrey^ is famous. is free of this fault . as much for its size as for some things found therein. what follows with Garcia de Orta. 203 In Santo Domingo. it would be hard to reckon up all the meats and drinks that people have invented. ii. of the three dialects of Persian . indeed. " milk of the quest tree. {Pharmacographia. {Parenthesis^ serving as we use a note. albeit she hath others even less endurable. Our own Spain. vol. letters of the " Sher does mean a lion. tobacco is much in use. This is the dried herb a sanda^ whereof some are found to praise and approve the smoke. milk and the actual . Ancient Rhagae.] . F. called Rey Xarear. Peru. Rhey. F. and a modern village amidst them is called Shah-x\bdul Azim.] Tehran may be said almost to represent Rhagae. which produces much and good mana whose walls the cool river Habin bathes. Teixeira flies off to China.] CHAPTER VII. D. and exported thence to all the East. and the [In another digression Teixeira treats of the name of Persia. of which I will mention only the mana.-^ Another sort of mana." " Herba sancta " seems But I to nized 2 name for the plant. and relates two stories to show how justice was done in that country ultimately returning to the subject of girdles. without all which life might be better spent. the scene of Tobias's remarkable courtship. Rai. in France and England. and words are identical." from Persian for milk (though it also means a lion). D. — . Cotoneaster nummularia shir^ p. and more safely. To conclude. Linschoten. : . 372). Re. * — D.

in grains like those of incense^ or mastic. there are two islands called Aniza and Querinba. On the African coast of the Indian sea. much used in the preparation of ceremonial incense. As to their producing manna. . taranjubin (Pers. a substance then. if the position of the places entered in the map could be depended upon as correct (which it certainly cannot). D. * There seems to be now no city Mazandaran. well is The Camel-thorn. the ancient capital of the province (see Curzon's Persia^ vol. The It city referred to may probably have been Sari. et cetera^ are inventions. as now. F.d.204 APPENDIX B. p. ^arangubzn) manna. and a safe drug." hung up wet to keep tents cool. [Chapter VIII contains a digression on the origin of the Turks names Rumy and Frangue. D. Herbert's map of " The Persian Empire" (p. near Mozambique.] — . or based on bad evidence. possibly Balfarush. 153 of his Travels) shows both " Barfrush" and " Mazendram . produced on certain herbs like wild thistles. and mild. . CHAPTERS the VIII-XIII. F. packed in leather sacks. splintery. There is also brought from Basora a sort of mana. a city of fifty thousand inhabitants. soft. but of comparatively the lowest quality." Sir T. I city Mazandaron* . 379)..^ wherein much mana is obtained. 67') that = — — the capital of the province of Mazandaran was "Mazandaran. and the passage omitted does not matter at all. and the stories of its coming of dew. i.^ It is very delicate. at the mouth of the Babil river. says (f. that " Mazandaran" was an alternative name for Sari.] * Amiza (not "Aniza") or Wamisi Island lies a little to the south of Cape Delgado. F. I am not aware that manna got from it in India. does not much matter. like other gums. Alhagi maurorum^ a little shiny leguminous known in India as jawdsa^ and used in making rough " tatties. I think. [" Toraniabin^^ represents Arab. wherefore the Persians used to give it to children and pregnant women. when found myself plant. of which Querimba Island itself. 1597. All mana is gum produced by one tree or another. [Don Juan de Persia (Ulugh Beg). etc. . sweet. although by no means inert. But there can be little doubt. ^ " Ena'ensw" meaning probably olibanum.] CHAPTER This ^ XIV.. of a grayish-red colour. looking like coarse honey. and likely to be familiar to many of Teixeira's readers. in double the dose used of the other sort. I can add nothing D. if ever there was. But that of the isles is hard. " Mazendram" should represent Mashad-i-Sar on the Caspian Sea. . and is one of the most northerly of the chain of coral islands known under the name of Querimba. to Teixeira's statement. In a. forms one of the southernmost. Chapters IX-XIII contain no digressions. in his Relaciones. of pungent taste. For that of Persia is white. and less laxative." and. lying off the mouth of the Mtepwesi River.

. and the people are now used to see races of Upper India quite equal in that to the average of Europeans. Teixeira would appear to have made a stay in Cochin during the years 1590 and 1 591 (see infra^ chap. this citizen had orders not to travel in those lands without special permission. 189. tion of supernatural quality to human beings. D. the provinces of GiMn and Mazandaran having only a few years previously been conquered by Shah Abbas (see infra^ p. He had one arm notably longer than the other. and the gentiles of Choromandel. as being out of the common. of March 3rd. F. that the belief is not necessarily a compliment to the manners or morals of the gentleman so revered. 208). Malik Sultan Muhammad. or an oddly-shaped stone. killing most of his men. born in the city of Santo Thome. 1594. including European officers. But a hump-back. And about that time he showed a good sample of his spirit. did him reverence. —D. For a two-headed ox. or Aidavil. It could hardly have any connection with the invasion of Khorasan by the Uzbegs under Talim Kh^n. as he made tour of his lands.^] ^ As mentioned in the Introduction. a Persian of uncommon might in war. and explains the origin and meaning of Sufy. 346 Markham's History of Persia^ p. or one long arm. and to give them the less excuse. p. I have found no other reference to the long-armed governor. with whom I have often spoken. as I saw in Goa.siipra^^. F.KINGS OF PERSIA. Mere stature makes little impression. : this reason. The long-armed citizen. 608). .^ whose right arm was very much the longer. D. For. Teixeira seems to have made a journey in the early part of 1597 from Hormuz to the north of Persia (with what object he does not say). Port.^ [In a later digression Teixeira refers to the province of Ardabel. 447. there came against him an enemy with seven thousand men. For the eastern gentiles are wont to venerate as supernatural everything beyond the usual limits of nature such as trees of unusual size. there. 3. — ^ There is a good deal of this feeling in Western India still. The engagement he speaks of was probably the suppression of a local rising. of whom he here speaks. near Herat.-Or. from which it seems that he had petitioned the King to confer on him the " habit of Christ" in reward for his many services {see Arch. but resident in Cochin) referred to in royal letters to the Viceroy of India. — 2 As mentioned in the Introduction. pp. insomuch that it reached below his knee. in 1597 (see Malcolm's History of Persia^ vol. 1596. engaged and beat him . xxxiii). may possibly be the Matheus Vaz (a native of Sao Thome. I remember that there dwelt in the city of Cochim a citizen. who were entirely defeated by Shd. n. * Ci. and March 8th. In connection with this matter.^ fasc. whom he faced with three hundred forced him into the field.h Abbds. i. F. 274).^ the 205 governor of the city and province was one Malek Sultan Mahamed. is still something more than human It must be remembered in considering all cases of attributo many. whereof he was a native.

EuphorbiacecB). [It is given in Johnson's Pers. which has one in every district. F. D.. a variant of the Marathi name bheda. are (i) Terminalia Chebula (nat. when Hormuz. Lokman. The three principal myrobalan trees. whence several Indian vernacular names. p. seen King Ferrogotxa^ and his nobles on several occasions engage in jousts on horseback. which is evidently Teixeira's ^'"arare. the belleric myrobalan. In Chapter XVII. hirda in Marathi. our author parenthetically compares certain Persian books with the Orlando epic. as all the myrobalans are Indian. D. Combretacece). with that of the Uzbegs. as above mentioned. all well known to me as forest ^ — 2 — — trees. F.— 206 ] APPENDIX B. sub voce) . for which Brandis rather vaguely gives a name " Balra. Hind. Brandis gives a Hindustani name. and then proceeds : — From this city [of medicinal fruit called Kabul] comes the name of one sort of that myrobalan.^ In a longer digression Teixeira treats of Kabul." though I do not find it in dictionaries. (2) T. whom [At the end of Chapter identifies with Aesop. Further on. harara. 131. Halilah zard in Persian would mean " Yellow myrobalan.-Arab. ord. Diet. the chebulic myrobalan. and infra^ chap. xxxv. This is by far the most important of all. [Teixeira mentions in a brief digression the fact of the Persians' possessing the works of various Greek writers on philosophy and medicine. Teixeira speaks of In Chapter XVI. ord. our author indulges in a short etymological disquisition in connection with Aderbaion and other place-names. even into war.^^ This is a . bellerica. XV. and eventually our " emblica. the emblic myrobalan. See supra. arare. F." But.Eng. (3) Phyllanthus emblica (nat. he contrasts the habit of the Persians of carrying their jewels with them everywhere. the Arabic amlah. which the Arabs and Persians call generally alildh^^ and the natives of India corrupt this (as See supra^ p. i66. and the fruit is often allowed to rot in heaps under the tree. ' Halilah^ one of several Arabic and Persian names for myrobalans. and the Persian and Arabic derivatives. This nut is of no great value. n.] CHAPTER XVIII." in what language is not clear {Forest Flora. An Arabic name is balilah. Sanskrit dmalaka. the Indian names are the originals. he parenthetically mentions that he had. D. perhaps.] Teixeira's word for "yellow" is citrina^ which is now the " specific" name of a Bengal variety (?). but it is. In another short digression. CHAPTERS he in XV-XVII.

" Bankshall"). — . in the possession of a gentile merchant named loghea Bangasaly. D. ." where " Tamil" is an error also Linschoten.^ But he did not know one variety of those Kebulos. As to the myrobalans of twelve and sixteen ounces weight. and above. F. but further. who are called maynatos f and a little further on gives the etymology of Darab. 25). —D. vocabulary. rather than to Kabul. would be a very remarkable specimen indeed.Gn^Yo\.] fruit.] is — 1 In his Colloquio 126). much smaller . p. they would purge the bowels. as I am witness. This I tried. p. For I saw. parenthetically. 340). 2 loghek Bangasaly was probably either a Bengali or a warehouseman. v. The Portuguese adopted the word into their «. n. v. 168. CHAPTERS XIX-XX. The Doctor Garcia Dorta deals sufficiently with these and all the rest. as a draught. F. They would have me believe of these large specimens. p. Such a fruit. i.KINGS OF PERSIA. but certain that they were not the fruit of any Terminalia or Phyllanthus. 20/ Thus the bitter or they treat many other names) to arare. and the pulpy besides its uses as an astringent. v. he says. So much for the Kebulos. it is difficult to imagine what they were. who inclined to trace it to an old name of the modern Chaul (ancient Semylla).. * Malayalam maindttu = washerman (see Hobson-Jobson. of great size. and found it untrue . as the English have adopted dhobi. but in size only. D. very different plant from the others. "Myrobalan. s. pp. Upon the derivation of " chebulica" see an interesting note of Sir James McNab Campbell's (in Bombay Gazetteer. 260. and vol. yellow myrobalans are called alildh zard^ and those from Kabul kabuly^ which our doctors call Kebulos. xi. when dry. s. ii. vol. [In Hobson-Jobson.^ a myrobalan weighing sixteen ounces." will be found a mass of valuable and interesting details. that in the East the washing of clothes is done by men. that an infusion or decoction of the the same. which name. s. and very useful against fevers and dysentery. 123- F. nor was there any difference between these and the common Kebulos. that if one would only hold them tight in one's hand for a little while. [In Chapter XIX. was aperient. Teixeira explains. Teixeira's confusion of bangasdla (= a warehouse) with Bangala has been noticed by Yule and Burnell {Hobson-Jobson. weighing even an ounce avoirdupois. Chapter XX contains no digressions. is pickled and eaten. XXXVII {sQGi 2i\sohmsc\iO\. the Latins turned into Darius. ii. " mainato. p. and in that of a Portuguese hidalgo one of twelve ounces . vol.

" I think " this " refers to the Kings of Persia. for the same reason as the rest. ^ is called after . 345) capture of Tabriz by Selim II (1566-74) during the reign of Shdh Tamasp (1525-76) is referred to by Teixeira in chap. 400. i. the first its chief town. with whom dwelt his eleven brothers. and notes). Kudam. vol. 372). with twenty thousand horse. in alliance with some of these governments of Gueylon. in the year 1593. and its lord and governor was Khan Hamed. when I made this note. 198 et seq. CHAPTER [Teixeira digresses first XXI. Roe. cal Society's These. was held by Komron Mirza. and Kudum. which also is the name of its capital . a man of great endowments and courage. from its chief city. whom the Turk Selim made prisoner when he won Tabriz. — D. Raxt. The fourth province or government. especihow he passed a river at the head of his horsemen. by Teixeira I have found no mention in any of the works that I have ally of \ .) Sir T. 1392 etseq. Lenkoran. and he. then governed by one Syauex. called. on the subject of Cairo and Damascus. which.] . The p. Persia and afterwards he again digresses regarding Gueylon in after some introductory remarks proceeds : — the five governments^ contained in Gueylon [Gilan]. [On the reduction of Gilan and Mazandaran see Sir Anthony Sherley in Purchas {Pilgrimes. all knights of fame. . Next comes Mazandaron already mentioned. Pt. and put in ward at Bagdad. The second is named from the city Gaxkhar. Curzon {Persia and the Persian Question. p. and indeed the passage already extracted is chiefly interesting because its dates give some chance of checking other accounts of these transactions. F. In 1595.) Malcolm {History of Persia. The fifth government. It is not de visu.nd's work. F. Herbert {Travels. to reduce them.] ^ — * Quando esto iua escriuiendo. 356. ll. consulted. Here comes an account of the Shah's victorious campaign. marched hastily against them in 1594. D. [See infra. or rather their chief towns. " when I was writing this. rebelled against Xa Abaz. v of the First Book of his Kings of Persia j and its recovery by Shdh Abb^s is mentioned at the end of same work (cf Embassy of Sir T. Lahijan. * — D. during his stay in Hormuz (see Introduction). A Of little . vol. Keshkan. Of the governors of the five places named pp. i.] 208 APPENDIX B. 1892. as Resht. . was then governed by Amir Amza Khan. p. and both of these were chiefs of great account. appear on the Royal GeographiMap. . p. which Teixeira translated and condensed from Mir Khwd. F. Appendix C. King of Persia. The third is called Laion. 2 the Governor was lamxed Khan. called Langar Kanon.

four roots Duzgun.] Yams. which is the immediately preceding town (cf. " Lasan" for Al Hasa. D. a place about half-way between Bandar Abbas and Lar by the coast road. between Komron and Lara. Jaxartes. both on the route from " Komron " (" Gombroon" or Bandar Abbas) to Lar. in the same land of Persia. Most of the gum^ is collected at the end of There comes call : also Assa autumn ynnnames^ ^ that I obtained from that had in Harmuz. " Asafoetida" and ''Hing" respectively.^ from Utrad^ the perfect tngo. a town near Lastan. covering twenty-four pages of the original. as I have said. One is a tall shrub with small leaves. and then enumerParticularising ates various kingdoms in the north-west of India. conlengthy digressions. For many interesting details. He then adds : — fetida. Cf. " Lastan" I cannot identify.] See i7ifra. which our This gum is obtained from three physicians sources the best. . unless it represent Bandar Hasan. Collo- 2 See supra^ quio VII. somewhat like those of rue. and Bastak. [This chapter. and elsewhere they grow wild. on the p. F. first Teixeira's excursion (a short one) is in regard to Hyerak. Engelbert Kampfer saw the gum collected near Disgun. vv. D. [See also * ^ — — supra. or were when the Phar?nacographia was published in 1874. In some places the plants are cultivated. ittfra) Teixeira does not mention " Duzgun. 29). unless the latter is represented on the Royal Geographical Society's Map by Latitun or Raristan. very pure and least bitter. with leaves much like those of the castor-oil plant. from Utrad. F. Utrad. Appendix C. [" Duzgun" must be the " Pashgun" of the Survey of India Map. 20g CHAPTER sists chiefly of XXII. p. he mentions that thence come rock-salt and spikenard. 201.* The plants producing this gum are of two sorts. supra. and so strong was their smell I " Otrar " of modern maps.^ The third comes from the province of Kara9on. or Duzgun. Then follows a very long digression on India. which sends up tall and tender shoots. The second sort is collected in Duzgun. 71. loving mountams and rugged places.] KINGS OF PERSIA. ^ Duzgun and Lastan are not now to be found. The other is a root like a radish. a city about thirty leagues from Harmuz. Jena. — D. and Hobsonfobson. in which the writer first refers to the Indus and its affluents." but names " Lastam" as yielding the ingo. The third " n " is probably a misprint. s. In his Brief Account of the Provinces of Persia (Appendix C. — D. 202. F. via Khamir. see that work. what follows with Garcia de Orta's F. and produces little. in 1687. which route is clearly marked. and his specimens are in the British Museum. • p. They were very like the great come from Guyne . which is a later publication. in the year 1596. in Persia.

fursiy kadim = " ancient Persian"). vill. vol. in the Ressende MS. p. In Faria y Sousa's Asia Portuguesa. Dec. he saw. he was told. 1588. xvi (see also Dec. . Across a river. The Baneanes of Cambaya call that of Utrad inguh.^ see the Portuguese fortress. vegetable. also Linschoten. this leads sonal experience. March. 66 . Valentyn {Malabar. especially as regards the taking of life. Faria y Sousa's statements (see next note) regarding the republic of " Chatins" at Barcelor are copied (abbreviated) from Couto. Teixeira digresses to speak of the Brahmans and him to treat of the calenders and jogis. products Then come references to the kingdoms Kan {sic)^ and Canara of the Chatins. as follows : — In the year 1588 I was bound from the Isle of Seylan to Goa. He succeeded Dom Duarte de Menezes as Governor (not Viceroy) on the 4th of May (see Introduction). F. the inhabitants of the latter kingdom. and their animal. Manoel de Sousa Coutinho. with description. is a plan of the Portuguese fort of " Barcalor . s. nor lost any of their fragrance. and that of Persia ingdra. 11. cap. or arm of the sea. is shown the town of " Cambolim" (? Kumbla). named Ralu. was '"''/org kadin^ of the old style" (? Arab.) — D. and mineral and deals at some length with the religious beliefs of . (Cf. D. returning from the relief of Columbo. and the Persians call it inghza." drawn in 1686. 6) gives a plan of the Dutch logie at " Barsaloor. H. who lived in a cave for ten days and nights without food. months that I kept haltit^ In eight was none who could abide it them they decayed not. p. which they call Upper Barselor. see Lieut. There is also a plan of the fort. and the city of the same name. in the British Museum {Sloane 197. which may represent the temple spoken of by Teixeira. p. i. The Arabs [Teixeira then proceeds to speak of the kingdoms of Cache (Kacch) and Cambaya. one of whom. f.y Upper Barcelor. 82.e. Liv. cap. Brown's Handbook to the Ports 07i the Coast of India. vv. 1897. Ill. the capital of Canara. S. Regarding the situation of the place. X. 158. D." ^ On Barcelor see Hobson-Jobson. ^ — 2 — '"'' p. Liv. but which. F. the chief are call this gum by several names.^ of De Kan {sic\ Cun In another digression." and at a little distance is shown a bit of " Barcalor de sima. He proceeds to describe more fully another per. Further on. iv). VI. " Bacanore and Barcelore. the supersession of the old Persian characters by the Arabic is mentioned . and of the king- See foot-note infra. and the writer states that he had often seen metal plates with writing on them which none could read.] 210 that in all the house APPENDIX B." i. 284). of which samaktre^ hhilhheis^ zdefa . p. This digression ends with the citation of a number of Arabic words adopted into Spanish and Portuguese. Barbosa. F. 476. tom. and a mesquita^'' (mosque) within walls. in the company of one^ who soon after became Viceroy of I wanted to India. and our fleet cast anchor before Barselor.

90).^ I obtained leave and went ashore. like a cloister of one There was a sort of oratory just within the of our monasteries. or dipinal. girt with a wall and ditch proIt is well placed. 211 dom of the Chatins above mentioned. Hist. ^^ pedestal piraprobable that "pillar or obelisk" would have expressed P 2 . 2 The sort of litter used to carry meant is that the little ^ " Pedestal^'' in original. The thing meant is evidently a dipdan. The city is a league and a half by a pleasant road from the fortress of good size. extending a little way But the "commonwealth" is also mentioned by outside the gates." " a : — . The houses are of well-wrought timber. . or perhaps like a chariot {ratha\ both very common forms for such buildings. about thirty palms high. The South Kanara District Manual^ 1895. stone or brickwork. that the city had a strong municipal administration. on a plentiful river of vided with artillery. the Six or seven paces without priests and servants of the temple." lit up at festivals. 1 In the passage referred to. Faria y Sousa at least he is quoted to that effect. a very common object throughout India.400 feet high. and opposite to it. with rather less probability. The greatest of these is in the midst of the city. and. I suppose I have seen a thousand such dipmals^ down. magnificent sugar-loaf peak. or " spans. doubtless. but the translator is not at liberty to amend a clear text. as governing Canara as a Republic. of the Marathas. with niches or brackets for countless lamps. edition of 1873. wherein lodge the Bamanes. and sacked by Raja Sivaji in 1665 (Grant Duff. the modern " chetties'' of the Madras Presidency . which would make the height of the pillar about 22^ ft. of about 9 ins. the gate. gate. in the form of a charola^ with an idol therein. each. to 19 ins. a very common height. which is impossible. puts the matter right and the true name of the latter is given as " Kadachadri. The truth was. or Bragmanes. " Chatin" is mentioned as a style of certain merchant? or tradesmen. there stood in a level place a square The pedestal^ of cut stone masonry. : images in procession. on what is now called the Kundapur (or Kandapur ?) river a conclusion which the present writer had arrived But the district officer is now the only at before seeing that work. and often a very beautiful one. and is square. in such places as It is a pillar of cut that described. with passages and sleeping-rooms or cells around it. place in the position of Kolur. as Pietro Delia Valle was at least forty hours in getting from one to the other.." or " Kollur. a little lower 7nide" It is the facts of the case better. in both editions of Both of these put that the Imperial Gazetteer let him verify who list. to be I take the " palmas''' to be great palms. where maps are bad. and the fresh water. and built All the rest was a square. What is shrine was shaped like the god's palanquins." 4. and they are described. 1 89 1. real authority on such points. p. apparently somewhere near the " Barkalur Nagar or Kollur" of Bartholomew's Map of This place is too far inland to be the town visited by Teixeira. and expressible in Hindu cubits of 18 ins. numerous temples of cut stone and mortar.KINGS OF PERSIA.

The magistrate suddenly stepped forward. about eighteen inches. pedestal.^ ashes. were his chelas. and saw at the foot of that a man of great stature. to put the lights in that they burn there by night. and at the top was a very great and well-wrought metal lamp-stand. and was told that it was and that neither sun nor rain could drive him away .^ great in those countries. and sometimes of metal. ^ It who came appears that the first " loguy to him and brought him " fuel." ^ I have frequently been assured by respectable Jogis and Gosais ''^ — that wood ashes are very comfortable wear. A man of Ahmadabad. but never stumpy enough to be called in English " pedestals " or "pyramids. four sides of this were full of niches. a loguy seated on the ground. I relate what I . and strewed them on their heads. and came back at noon. to which the crutch-head formed a haft. ." much less offensive to the " Europe nose " than the vegetable oils used by many natives. as quiet and patient as if he had been in a very cool After sunset shady house. as of a swordcane. Then. They are often of very curious form. came before a magistrate with a petition. there came lit a fire of branches that these had brought. some years long he had been there. though not universal.^ 1 came into the city at dawn. whom he arose to receive. or pyramid. 2 Crutches like this are in common use. — — stick two palms long. and found the loguy in the blazing sunshine. and he returned to his post. certainly not what we now call a " chandelier. very various in plan and proportion." ^ " Candelero" probably a brass stand for many small lamps. calling himself a fakir (with doubtful claim). which confirms my conjecture that Teixeira's pahno " was of about nine our " span. I went to look at the rest of the city. and ugly He had in his hand a forked dirty little rag by way of fig-leaf. over a foot long. but well known as a bad character. robust. nor would he leave that spot but on his natural occasions. on which he rested now one arm and then He was all covered with the other. and that the others. already very When I had observed this. and there he stayed until evening. holding a steel crutch in a manner that attracted attention. and sometimes his legs." Hindu sacristans do not even yet like candles. was the chief. amongst Hindu and Musalman ascetics in India. made new ashes. which he took now and then in his hand and strewed on This was in the end of March. and went I asked how every one his own way. or disciples. they saluted each other. and (I am told) amongst Western dervishes. having offered up a certain prayer.212 APPENDIX B. stark-naked but for a black. and pictures of as many more. facing westward. They others* to join him. like The whole length of the crutch is usually that of a Malay kris. natural or artificial. and not a little antiseptic. and drew from it a very effective blade. when the heat is his head. Good ascetics are usually healthy. They are certainly {as properly preparedfor thatpwpose) "very clean dirt .

" to distinguish it from that collected in Persia and Karason. But they are wrong. loi. are very damp and. who have never been members of any regular 1 . means and the f. This they call reuandaspy. It produces. that this drug is naturally inferior. He then proceeds : — best of the rhubarb^ comes from Gax Khar. "a perennial plant resembling the common garden rhubarb. however short be its time there. a province near Kethao Kothan . what follows with Garcia de Orta's Colloquio ii. 5 ''Boletos. and still sound and good" {ibidem). The rhubarb plant is like a turnip. nor does it keep good so long. which are the lumps^ brought hither to us. ^ p. '^ Cf. These are strung up on threads through the regions. for the truth is." . Linschoten. some little leaves near the ground.^ .* It is dug up when ripe. Hanbury's notice of specimens "eighty years old. they call it reuandchiny. The Portuguese also bring it from China. and . that is.] KINGS OF PERSIA. and to the use of their profession. but of larger size" {Phannacographia. — D. This is " Gax Khar" the modern Kashgar in Turkistan . or "horse rhubarb. order whatever. it comes from China by sea to India. a city caused by the Chinese boiling it. and cut in pieces. by no of " Gueylon" mentioned above (p. and even of learning. etc. . to use the decoction themselves. whose where dwell the Portuguese. perforce it suffers. It is clear that he had not seen anything but the prepared form of Rheum offici?tale. by common criminals. according to and this is as true of Hindus as of Musaimans.^ or of Usbek. while we trouble ourselves so little to win heaven. * " Hojas menudas y poco lleva?itados" Perhaps Teixeira had not seen even the Persian plant in leaf. Their general ill-repute amongst Englishmen is due partly to our prejudice against asceticism in general.. XL VIII. 208). from a short stem. the East (Tartary. but not equal to the other. name Chin (China) for the countries to [In another digression Teixeira says that the was used by the Persians. as a disguise. Some say that its inferior quality and durability are The most and Kax Ghar. and partly to the extravagances and insolence of some of their number but most of all to the criminal habits of their worst specimens." because they doctor horses with it. Moreover.). "rhubarb of China. in a general way. and I have seen some of this very good.. and what pains they take to go to hell. But the stress which he lays upon the durability of rhubarb brought overland ironx Northern Asia is justified by Mr. vol. Some their lights are men of ability and energy.. and loses much of its quality and effect. 213 saw as an instance of the usual practice of those poor wretches. sub voce). before re-export to Portugal. especially those of It is only fair to the Indian ascetics to observe that a good many them are men of genuine piety and decent habits. Garden rhubarb is Rheum rhaponticum.

* \ a sound scientific observation. 95. Nunez (printed in Siibsidios para a Historia da India Portugueza. F. and the others are very little rats. 2 ' That is. ff. .e. large animals like a sort of deer. Some one has written that the people string them so as to hang them round their cattle's necks. is better [than the Chinese]. making (according to Nunez) 2 lb.] most of the almiscar. nor ever was . and there is such plenty of rhubarb where it is collected that one man. maunds with a tare or allowance). 1 — Mush. vol. D. Linschoten.] ] 214 APPENDIX B. for it is not forbidden now. as computed by the editor. a weight of about thirty-six ounces. ii. by Ant. — D. (see pp. etc. which the Arabs and Persians call jnexk. 1868). 184 v. nearly 15 reis (say 3 farthings). mesk. mushchah. 74. J. and the writer — It is a wonderful thing that in one trunk of one tree'^ are found very often the calanbd and the aguyla. de Lima Felner. practically the same word as the Latin 77tus.] Aquilaria agallocha. But he was ill-informed. R. A rat.. where. middle. and says : .. ccerulea) will scarcely be echoed by the Anglo-Indian public. For these last are gazelles. : — Also there is brought thence [from Western China.J — well worth cosa en su F. pureza. etc. and C. that is. Pegu. and so smuggle them from one kingdom to another. [Cf. or additional allowance. our mouse. and another From the Lyvro dos Pesos da Ymdia. and other occasional sources. who smell most sweetly of musk. According to the same authority (see pp.^^ cuyo ani77to no sufre dexar alguna Garcia de Orta. whose spirit suffers them not to let anything pass them in its purity. 63). Teixeira very critically proceeds to point out that we must not confuse mice and rats. i j 7nat. p. or mosk.^ But this is not because the perfumed rats of India.. the export being forbidden. we learn that at Hormuz (in 1554) rhubarb was sold by indos da tara {i. F. 52)." with musk deer. particularly " musk-rats. or in modern Portuguese currency. the Hormuz gadi was worth 100 dinars.^ [Then follow says the writer. just half a real. Lisbon. marking our rendering. 25. D. 5 oz. like those that we call musaraneus? All the musk brought from places outside China. Mongolia. some more remarks on much pure gold is the Tartar Empire. and put to dry in the open air. are any kin of the animals which produce the same. as from Bengal. 12. [Cf. by whom the flavour is found a trifle too strong.* [The Mongol peoples are then referred to mentions the calanbd (calumba). or lign aloes. Crocidura inurina. A rather : lame but literal The original is giving ^ " Chinas. The reason is that it has not come into the hands of the Chinamen. is called moxk in Persian. is commonly worth a sady. each mdo having a picota. too. Sr. of 28 Hormuz maticals. His compliment to the rats (which are shrews. He continues found. shrew mice author as a naturalist.

that is " sea-apple. as he says. pp.^ as I frequently found by proof. though it is the same plant. Zizyphus jujuba^^ ^ . 2 and footnotes." both which names are Malay. but having had just about Teixeira's chances. p. This is no separate species. of the neighbouring kingdom of Pan. is ness of the inhabitants of Timor. Malay. [Johnson's Pers. var. F.^ whereof the white is of no less virtue than the yellow. but the good This wood is found also in the forests of Malaca. or widara (Jav. 122. the correct speUing being widara putih and widara laut {^'' lahor" being a misprint for " lahot^' and the h being silent as in ''Uaheis^" infra. or lign aloes. wood different from both. i. has " P. nor ill-educated. Linschoten. D. And now that I have briefly and the kalambd kalumbuk.) as "name of an Dictionary explains bidara and ''^bidara lahut" as "name of esculent fruit. Such are viddre pute^ less thought of. Represented by modern Pahang. kalambak^ Ud means lign aloes in all of them. Diet. The reason is. F. and remains. '' Sic : a misprint for ckandana. or rather Javanese. meaning " white apple. I cannot find kalumbuk^ or anything like it.^ dealt with this precious wood. when those trees are cut they are thrown into the mud by the rivers. 102-105. A Persian. only the white turned a It is got in Thimor. and the plants very medicinal.^ The Arabs and Persians call the aguila. that Teixeira knew little or nothing about the sandalwood of Peninsular India. XXX \ Linschoten. what follows with Garcia de Orta's Colloquio ii. in or Hindustani.) that the Malays call them vidaras. F. which the Portuguese call Pao. He goes on to tell second-hand yarns about the sandalwood trade in Timor.-Arab. vol.] — 21$ KINGS OF PERSIA.^ And in 1 1 See Garcia de Orta's Colloquio 50. (Malay). wherein the useless wood rots away. 226). Garcia de Orta (f. —D. [Then follows a description of how the trees grow and the wood obtained and some stories are told to exemplify the guileless. and is called in the Thimor language chandaua^ which the Persians and Arabs corrupt a little to sandal^ and the Latins after them to sandalo. which is the Sanskrit name. an little bitter by some cause or chance. I will digress just a little* about sandalwood. « pp.-Eng. . — D.^ island five hundred miles from Malaca. One thing clear is. vol. 33) says of the ber or bor fruits (fruits of Zizyphus jujuba.— D. ud. The names mentioned by Teixeira are. The whole of this passage might be written to-day by people not stupid. Arabic.] ^ * ^ " Dire sin mucho errorJ^ Cf." and viddre lahor. as not articles of trade. Crawfurd's Malay His translation of the names is correct. XLIX^ and F. fragrant kind of wood. The writer proceeds : — but There are in this isle [Thimor] other woods of much virtue.

. after a Mahometan who discovered is just like cobbler's wax. A detailed description of Solor and Timor." In' Forbes's Archipelago^ pp. but it is curious that in Malaysia one of the commonest names for beeswax. Hemidesmus indicus. 656). stuk ii.'] XXIII-XXVI and the only digression Naturalists Wanderings in the Eastern a plant. and mad (maund). Probably two of these are to be identified with the " white " and " sea " jujubes of Teixeira. a neighbouring island. and must not be confounded with the island of Salayar off the south-west arm of Celebes (see Linschoten's " Map of the Eastern Seas " in The Voyage of John Saris and the footnotes on pp. F.. vv. that they may be identical with the following Cocculus Strychnos coluacuminatus. — D. D. will be found in Valentyn's Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indien^ deel III. 497-523. of the Indian Jslands^ s. 368. 37). p. timoriensis^ DC. however. pp. which has always formed a chief This. P- 415 ^l ^^Q-'j A. the latter of which is. a wood which we .^ [Then come some more remarks on the habits of the people of Timor.. i/\i et seq. Linn. when he wrote his work (1685).jujuba^ Lam. R. 1 J . call in Portuit.. 104)..] . no less efficient and an antidote against It poisons. i. may article of export from Timor. pelago. For further information on the two islands. pp. ii." I doubt the existence of Teixeira's alleged : . Solor. Ball says " The identity of these : is It is possible. and he couples it with Timor as producing sandal. Hist. the same as the pao da cobra" (snake-wood) of which Garcia de Orta treats in his Colloquio XLII (see also Linschoten. de Ceildo. XXV. celtidifolius^ DC. with a prefix. A — Solor is the small island between Timor and Flores. .. Ribeiro {Fatal. R. called belyla. of Royal Irish Acad. see Crawfurd's Diet. and Z. 232) gives a very brief description of the island. Forbes's A Naturalists Wanderings in the Eastern Archi369 ff. . p. and of which he mentions three kinds. F. vol. 3rd ser. erroneous). V. I cannot identify ^^belyla". believe. are very short (the first occupying only is a small one in Chapter explanatory of the title Babakhon." (Proc. guese " Solor wood " . Z. Australasia. be the origin of " belyla. vol. vol. Prof. The ''^ '"'' pao de Solor" (Solor wood) was. D'C. I p. and events in their history down to 1721.. very doubtful. 11 and 205 of that book. p. and on the sandalwood trade the digression ending with an explanation of dibd (a rich kind of silk). Z.— 2l6 APPENDIX is B. is Malay lilin.. the Portuguese still had a footing. as the descriptions are rather vague. I think. Wallace's Malay Archipelago. CHAPTERS XXIII-XXVL [Chapters eight lines). 502) that Timor possesses three varieties of Zizyphus^ viz. will be found a pretty full Prodrojnus Florce Timorensis^ from which it appears (p. ii. Brown brina. in which. 120-127 (see also map at p. and much valued. Muhammadan discoverer. .\ Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel.

" . F. like velvet. 93. of Imams of Oman. i. n. because seed-pearls are chiefly fished on the coast of lulfar. I cannot find this port on any modern map or chart. " of lulfar" and we corrupt this a little into aljofar. goes on to say : — of Al Catifa. for which reason they are easily spoiled. in great best quantities. ^ . D. Dalb.] Yox jawhar is Arabic for a pearl. ^ El Hasa. the Inferior sorts are made in is distilled in Xyraz and Yazd.^<?/ " Jim. arose before the kings of Harmuz settled in the isle of Gerun. F. Kermon and Duzgun/ by infusion and decoction. et seq. which was half the strength of the Bahrein squadron. F. a port on the Arabian mainland. Varthema. in connection with which the writer says — In four parts of Persia there is much [rose-water] made . " sweat of The decocted roses. n. However. and call it after their ancient seat. as Julfar is.. 174. D.. 209.] ] KINGS OF PERSIA. beginning with a reference to Kerman. they came to be called Al lulfar that is. de Orta. p. . and when asked whence they brought these. The carpets were among the chief articles of this trade. 246. 29. [It is copied from G. D. 176). p. See supra. they would say "Al Catifa. op.] pp. p." a name fit enough for the distilled sorts.^ and opposite the Isle of Barhen. 322. and quite as near the Portuguese aljofar. as I have said in treating of Harmuz."^ that is. n. It sent fifty boats to the pearl fishery in Teixeira's time (see above. 34 and Map of Arabia at p. The etymological reader can form his own opinion. * This derivation seems doubtful. some [Teixeira then takes up the subject of carpets. 2\J CHAPTER : XXVII. So. that Teixeira's mitial I probably represents the Arabic " Ya. of Af. p. it is called either gulab^ which means simply " rose-water. " from Catifa. where now they dwell. Comment. of different maps. sorts are exported from Kermon yearly to all the East. El Ahsa.^ The name — — " Duzgun. and. [See supra. D. n. [This chapter consists chiefly of a lengthy digression. after giving facts thereanent. In Persian.] ^ ^ On — — — — . and carried their goods thence to various parts. in the province of Lasah. 80 Hist.^ The Arab merchants who frequented it came and went by Katifa. see Barbosa. and equal to that of Bandar Nakhalu. vol. a port in Arabia in the same Persian Gulf. which we give in Portuguese [to carpets]." see supra^ p." and hence the name would seem to have stuck to them. in some cases of silk." or areka gul^ that is. * An ingenious and not unscientific bit of etymology. It is to be remembered here. F. p. 162. The fairs and trade that are now there were then managed on another isle named Keis. and Persian carpets have a pile. f 1387/. I am inclined to conjecture that it may have been on the coast near Ras-al-Khaima. — . katifa is now Arabic for velvet. cit. p." [Regarding Julfar..

. p. distant from the city about twelve farsanghes. xiii. It is found in that province alone. " The name Tutia for collyrium is not now used in Kermdn says The lampblack used as collyrium is always called Surmah. A. cannot verify this in the dictionaries. Pistacia vera. These are sold separately. 2l8 APPENDIX also produces tutia} B. . Khinjak. by the description. as an eye-salve. i. tallow. and strip them. vol. whence it is exported to all the world in great quantities. or as dust. N. should be the pistachio. Those who buy it class it as stone tutia. a species of Astragalus. in Proc. I think. Dr. Tutid. . Persian for smokes. covered with a green and yellow skin. The sulphate may have been collected as an efflorescence from rocks in Persia. 678. " Tutty " does not seem now to be the name of any ore of zinc. or mixed with It is occasionally collected on iron gratings. says that tutia is made of the ashes of a tree and fruit called gune? There is indeed a fruit in Persia which they call gaon^^ of the size and shape of cherrystones. and the oxide prepared from it by roasting. was an impure oxide of zinc. ^ G. as it is known to be in Afghanistan now. Houtumit may be a local name for P. from it also exudes the is on those mountains very fat and succulent Tragacanth gum. regions Schindler. vol.. 130 and Royal Asiatic Society'' s Journal N. They say that its effect is very different ^ Yule's 2 Cf what follows with G. six-and-thirty miles. which is afterwards carried in boxes to Harmuz. Teixeira's Tuti^ is the Arabicised word dudha. into cakes * I : : — . who. . for sale. Ball. says. draw them out when well baked. de Orta {pp. — D. .." in the Royal Asiatic Society s Journal. which the natives eat as Kermon we do pine seeds. but both are used and both effective. V. vol. In this passage I take " calamine stone. . perhaps the above-mentioned Tutia-i-safid (white Tutia. p. i. It is made by kneading up the earth of the mountain with pure water. which the Persians in their own language call tutyah.^ The Doctor Garcia Dorta was ill-informed. 497. baked it was probably the East India Company's Lapis Tutid. . but Brandis has " Gewaun " as a vernacular name for P.^ 3rd Series. de Orta's Colloquio LVI. The root is used dry. F." D.. . that is. " Its preparation from the referring to Garcia de Orta's statement ashes of wood is absurd. It it to be either " blende " or is not now. in his " Notes on Marco Polo's Itinerary in Southern Persia. and there only in one mountain-range. Surmah is the root of the In the high mountains of the province Gavan plant (Garcia's goan). . as an eye-powder. a closely-allied tree of the same vera. [Mr. 216) spells the word goan."— d. 497. p. . iii. . but of a by-product of the brass-foundries. S. f. F. apparently an argillaceous zinc ore). Next they bake these in furnaces like a potter's. also called Tutty. . S.. What is stripped off is the tutia." probably the latter. This plant. . cit. of the Royal Irish Acad. : — — This. f. exported from Karman by sea. See also Marco Polo^ vol. in his Dialogues about the simples of India. whereof much is brought.] . p. and covering therewith certain clay moulds. .

and one of a good . Teixeira then proceeds : — surmah^ which is a certain stone. or " southernwood. Did. black sprinkled with black sand." " Crimson. s." The restriction of this drug to Karman is very odd. or worms.^ The Arabs. ^ ^ Sic^ for lombrigueira. Coaia Yafez. wormwood. For he said to her. chap. Did. " Alkermes." D. F. see New Eng. [See also infra. which is the best and most esteemed . mixed with other simples . xxxi. that is. who saw his dear with her eyes so painted no doubt fine dark eyes. — D. in which the word kermon is played on. For dram nah is the proper name of that drug.— ] KTNGS OF PERSIA.] The surma in question is the black antimony used throughout the East as an application to (or rather around) the and Teixeira's remark about Queen Jezebel is quite sound. as the genus and several efficient species are very widely distributed. Bk. to which they apply it. and Indians all use this surmdh much against diseases of the eyes. and another called moky^ as coming from Meka or Moka.) does mean a worm or maggot." " Cramoisy. f." and " Kermes. Persians. d.. The " grain " in question is the little round lump produced on Quercus cocci/era by the insect. But not such was the opinion of a Persian lover. as nearly all Persians have them." " Grain. This I cannot verify. . meaning either the kingdom of that name. from that of above said. told by a famous Persian poet. as — 1 Some species of Artemisia. one brought from Kermon and Karazon. and also for mere ornament. There are two and sorts.] — of these two very distinct and distant cities is rather many bits of evidence that one cannot depend much on Teixeira but as an eye-witness. but karm (Pers. though he does not notice the etymology. and eyes has been echoed by a good many who did not owe their opinions to him. call a dye kermezy^ because of the worms make [Here follows a story of a prince and a skull. ll. " Ches7n Siah dary Surrnah che also produces if Kermon translucid. men and women. both men and women. F. tutia^ 219 in which is produced and prepared Kermon as Kermon produces another thing no less useful. vv. meaning both a medicine of Kermon and a medicine against worms.^ which we call in Portuguese lonbriquera^ and the Persians in their tongue dram nah Kermony. and they think themselves to look the better for it. * The confusion is odd. and found in no other country. gives dir7Jiana^w or xnvjoodi. [Johnson's Pers. The Spanish word that he uses for " painted " {alcaholadas) is itself derived from an Arabic word for the same drug.^ and Kermon is equivocal. As regards the dye. and Teixeira's derivation of kermes (a red dye) is one generally admitted. amongst other compliments. that Hence we the grain. in the Red Sea.

The which can only mean here that they are not forked. They have here. The first. or tame leopards.] CHAPTER XXIX. when she showed herself at the window with her eyes^ painted. and not " ounces" proper. were chitas {CyncBlurus jubatus). and some remarks on the word gur. : hounds. From the mention of their having been carried on the horses' backs I suppose some to have been lynxes {Felis Both are Caracal)^ lighter beasts. 2 These. natives of Persia. XXVIII contains no digression." "eyes" in the Revised. " What dost thou with surmak. deer. a very lengthy one. perches on its head between the horns. Those of gazelles are lyrate. and so fitter for that position. is the use of birds and four-footed beasts. whose as it were black eyes ne6d none?" This must have been the cosmetic used by the perverse lesabel. on steel plates. as here. such as more slender. gazelles. horses' croups. as here. which really has spiral horns. in Persia and other parts of the East. . it. to please the captain who bade slay her : V CHAPTER [Chapter XXVIII. but ^ "Face" in our English "Authorised Version. or other bird of prey.^ but twisted like a screw. European men are not easily reconciled to this but. so that their claws may not hurt They have also many very good and swift greythe horses. usual meaning of " straight " is forbidden by the context. of course. worrying and delaying it until the greyhounds come up and catch And with beasts they have several ways. With the birds they pursue other birds. the same game as These are a sort of horns are sharp. Teixeira's "gazelle" probably stands for several species that he must have seen. hares. including perhaps the Indian black buck. and pecks at its eyes. it is neither very ugly nor very sort of ornament dangerous. after all. a trained falcon. and also other creatures. and untrue to nature. and some different. They have gazelles. cast off after such a creature.^ which they take with them in their following Private men carry them on their in carts for that purpose. commences with a reference to the practice of hunting in Persia. more ^ " Derechos^'' . They have onsas. etc.] 220 tacony APPENDIX B. Their not forked. The writer then continues : — The commonest form of the chase. such And the way of it is this that as deer. the wife of Achab. [This chapter contains two digressions.

D. wander always in rugged places. and This is a proreaching back so far as to cover their haunches. 193. and are not very unlike our common sheep. 2 Cf. like the gazelles. infra^ chap. which he drew without difficulty. ^ See Hobson-Jobson^ s. wonderful strength. The flesh is very wholesome. . T. told in many lands about many sheep and But we goats. the screw. Teixeira then proceeds : . F. thick. I do not find ^^ pagen^'' in dictionaries. See footnote. that he conquers These seen one to flee from the very sight of an elephant. he says that they are like a gazd/'s. until 1590. when Joao Correa de Brito was captain of the fortress of Columbo in Ceylon. ' This is a very old story. F. : — we call bada^ in Portuthe elephant. Capra CEgagrus). ^ Cf. It is not true of the rhinoceros. the last heathen king of that island. roll over them.^ for I have several times guese. and few authorities venture altogether to discredit it. D. this and what follows with Garcia de Orta. D. and of I saw one harnessed to a bronze demi-falcon.^ flavour. describes the method of catching them. 89. [See also Eastern Persia^ vol. p. 88 v and 128 .] 1 Cf. and of good There are some wild sheep. — D.* a female elephant at Seitavaca. 8-1 1. pp. F. but pdsang is a long-known Persian name of this ibex. who has made them so that when chased by men and dogs they can safely jump down from cliff or crag. ii (by W. seeking And so they jump down horns foremost. supra^ p. ii. vision of Nature. F. may be allowed to suppose that even the most acrobatic of goats would go rather on his heels than on his head. which may have suggested the idea of G. p. and see next footnote. which the Persians call pdgenPThese. D. " Abada. and when a Persian boasts the bright eyes of a lady. T. vol.ja Sinha I).* [The hunting of deer with deer is then described wild cows are mentioned. but bigger and stouter. ever the most perilous. F. ff. and relates other particulars concerning them. from whose tails are made combalas {chdmaras or chowries) then the writer passes to elephants. developed a pair of tusks.] * He was appointed to this post in 1581. ii (by W.^ the court of Raiu. xxxv. subgutturosa is the Persian species par excelle?ice. F.] KINGS OF PERSIA. and escape in safety from their pursuers. when he was — — — succeeded by Simao de Brito.— D. [See Eastern Persia^ vol. Blanford). F. Blanford). 221 great eyes. '^ — — — and Linschoten. successive attacks of" Raju" (Rd. F. which the monarch regarded as a great token of luck. Appendix C. wonderfully expressive . which or less. but ringed with ridges. for so they call the creature. but each as great as half the hoop of a wine pipe. v. D. but did not take it up until He defended Columbo successfully against the the end of 1583. 91. stating that in 1590." D. and Blanford gives pdchin as a Baluch synonym {Fauna of India^ Mammalia. They have horns like our sheep.

They are now known by the name of <?r<i. The " Cellates " of Barros. [Then come some observations on tigers in Malabar. — D..^ which are a certain people that are born. Liv. and. and the bride and bridegroom being placed therem. Their horns are really of great virtue against poisons and other ills/ and especially those of animals killed in Bengala. II. give her as a dowry one of those little boats. after which comes the — is In the Bay of Mascate there is great plenty of fish. and Malacca. These Seletes. no tigers in any part of Ceylon.). and Siam. the Seletes. Orracam.. Gulf. F. on the Arabian coast. language as that of Teixeira {Dec. •^ s. as a note left by him shows. bred. or sdlata7i south." 58 deg. (There are. The fish are ^ See Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe (Hakluyt Soc). they continue to follow the waves until they pitch upon a free spot. cap.] ] 222 APPENDIX B. p. 36 min. The same is said to take place in China. when they give a daughter in marriage. though greater. I am responsible for the translation of this paragraph. which Mr. Those of Africa. supra). if it be not occupied by others. and there where they touch is the place of their habitation when they are on land that is. at Canton. which if it is. with a Portuguese fortress. lat. southern. by which they let themselves be carried until they come to land . and live on the sea in very little boats. they commit them to the current of the tide. 2 — D. Ion. Our author then proceeds . and is " the bench mark. Bengal. having settled the price.^ p. Not quite " Fisher's Rock " is in 23 deg. the same Our author The name = Islands. Malaca and : [Fishing in Japan following : is then referred to . 3. with two oars and a gaff. that is. appears to be derived from Malay sdlat^=sX. refers to these sea-dwellers in his Voyage (p. N. get it out and deliver it to the buyer. gaining their living sometimes by fishing and at others by robbing . 3.Y2L\t.) Fishing is the next subject dealt with and the methods of catching fish and waterfowl on the River Indus are described.. within the Persian latitude. as a fact. — 3 * See supra." or " sea people" (see Crawford's Dictionary of the Ind. F. : — In^ the strait of Sincapura and Romanya. — : D. are not held as good. 290 and foot- F. v. being so dexterous and sure thereat that they never miss. Sinclair intended to insert here. animals are sometimes hunted in the East. This place an Arab settlement. 38 min. who describes them in much i). note. off Ceylon. F. toward the south. standing in 23 J degrees north right under the Tropic of Cancer. E. sell the fish that go swimming under the water . with a description of how they were killed in the island of Mannar. D. . vi.^ which is between lor.2^-/<3:2^/="men of the sea.

where the translator of 1601 and the editor of 1862 have conspired to misinterpret ludicrously the original). 102. and pulled out the fish. and satisfies her appetite.] . the truth of which he vouches He confor from his personal inquiries when in those parts. . I wondered. with no which they dipped in the water.^ I many drugs of admir- 1 As to how he came there. see Introduction. p. To make sure. much valued in India because they are said to But I for many be of great virtue in checking any flow of blood. especially if we remember that they must have been negroes or Asiatics. and s. a " horned v.^ There are in the East the hypopothamos. years made careful trial of this. the pigfish. I doubt the F. the ox-fish. ^ Miskat has always been famous for the multitude of its sea-fish. rings. ^ Antonio Galvao makes the same assertion (see Hakluyt Soc. The story of the galley-slaves is probable enough. '"'' . p. found the more credible from what befell myself in that very bay in I happened to see the year 1587. As for the cats. D. the galley-slaves fishing. and on asking I learnt that they tied a little bit of fish within the thumb. 43. but Galvao. with a whisk of her tail she lays of it. [Cf." " Cow-fish"). rosaries. I know that fish are sometimes foolish enough for this story to — Teixeira visited be true. but less so if one considers what curious means of providing for And this may be themselves many animals have discovered. and still exports a good deal.. D. and one called the woman-fish.] The pig-fish may be supposed to be Of these notice. and mostly of maritime races. I have myself seen and done such things. but the fish caught were mere fry. * — D. F.This seems strange. Diet. ed. — D. commonly. for that it much resembles one in the shape of the sexual organ. that often a hungry cat will 22$ and so abundant and easy to catch to the beach and lay her tail in the water. 18). and caught several. and so were seized in the hand and pulled out. and of other things that the Indian people put forth as miraculous. KINGS OF PERSIA. four " fishes " the hippopotamus requires no I cannot identify the possibly pesce biiey^'' or ox-fish [Perhaps Osiracion quadricome (see New Eng. — a porpoise. p. 1 did so myself. and other trinkets.] cat's being clever enough. to which the little fishes come and take hold When she feels them fast. Ant.. ray. F. . which the fishes came to nibble at. ^ more tackle than their hands. them high and dry. dried and sent over all India. and had no profit of it Of though confess that there are in the East able virtue and strange properties.^ tinues : — the bones of this fish they make. come down [Teixeira then refers to the abominable use of this fish by certain Moors on the coast of Melinde. F. of Discoveries of the World. Maskat again in 1604 (see supra. when I was there in a fleet.

" by it force. once bring a young crocodile before myself. with more words. p.^ . i. and carries him off without anyone being able to interfere. are constantly in it to wash themselves. v. For the Gentiles there are wont to carry through the streets and houses bewitched serpents. But there is no kind of humbug that people will not practice and believe about such matters. and laid him dead on the spot. 5. vol.] And the woman-fish must be the dugong {Halicore). and make it " saMm. and lead them off through the city. ." D. x. A few crocodiles are caught sometimes. F. Diet. not speak as an eye-witness. some of them very great and dreadful. besides his word for this. and This he did several they went away harmlessly and quietly. . and repeat certain words. vol. put ropes about their When they had come necks. ii. countries. of Af. s. or mystic " hocus-pocus. times but at last he probably made some mistake in his incantaFor. a half-mad fakir did to the growth of the stories." about which Asiatics are Vide usually very shy of talking to Englishmen. 224 There are many and APPENDIX terrible B. with a lot of similar kabala. absurd as It will be noticed that Teixeira does appears in its present dress. but in no proportion to their great number. Then. or a little earlier. " Hog-fish. of a pair that he had tion. 4. we see them commonly in India. 62. crocodiles in various Eastern and many others and much more and greater in Malaca. 3 There is probably some foundation of fact for this story.— D. Linschoten. that bathes the walls of the city. 2 He held the post from 1580. iii. and no limit As a matter of fact. . and turned them loose. upon which the crocodiles came to him. 93 . until December. and to the Captain's house he bade them salute. vol. These they make dance to the sound of a flute. as he turned loose a crocodile. * In Psalm Iviii. he would take one or two of them. was Governor of that fortress of Malaca. 1582. our own Comment.. — D. When Don luan de Gama. the crocodile comes quietly. in Pegu and Tanasarin .. F. because the victim is dragged under water. as in Africa in the rivers of Cuama in the Ganges in Bengal. The royal Prophet^ assures us that such witchcrafts are possible and. it took leave of him with a stroke of its tail over the head. 15. 1 Cf. and they did so then he took them back to the river.^ For as the natives use the river much. brother of the Count of Vedigueyra. or for other purposes.. where there is scarce a day that they do not carry off people in the river.^ there was there a native of that country who would sometimes betake himself to the river San Geronimo. brought down to the river. pp. The belief that various bones and — stones can prevent bleeding is still current in the East. p. for another etymology. F. Dalb. . and no more seen of hini. and catches his man by the legs. and coil them [See New En^. for fear of mockery.

for that it is true. And though some say that this is because the snakes have no fangs. ^ "* Liv. " Comae. the extraction does not make the snake " safe" to handle. II. and such accidents as Teixeira mentions. Francisco de Silva de Menezes. which lies between Comboia and 1 In India.^ sent to Don Francisco Tello de Menezes. But at last he held the crocodile down.^ 1 found myself in that very place. more or less. is on modern maps. . ^ . until." probably refers to the fact that part of the coast. which at the reader's pleasure may pass with the rest.KINGS OF PERSIA. do what he might. I. XII^ Manila in 1598.— D. handling them unhurt. n. xvi and From a royal letter of 1605 (in Doc.v. F. or not fully bound by the spell. and went to drink at the river of Parannaque. D. The Burmese snake-charmers are said never to meddle with the fangs . who was Captain and Governor of Malaca. torn. the performing snakes' fangs are usually drawn. worth knowing. ^ Parannaque The ® See Introduction. when provoked. 41). in June. and the ordinary teeth can scratch. and dragged him ashore.^a present whereof one item was a little young elephant with his cornaqua^^ that is. and quartered him.. . Dec. When he went into the water. when he was succeeded. around their 225 necks. I. " Isle of Manilla. cap. few days after this own A happened. and do other posturings with them. but grow again and as the poison is always there. su^ra). F. though uncommon. F.. 1600.. there came a crocodile. by Martin Affonso de Mello (see Couto. p. that with all his strength. apparently. experience shows the contrary. XII Li v. are still quite possible. it appears that he got into trouble for not looking after the China fleet on the voyage from Malacca. and took him by one fore-foot so tight. Rem.^ Having said so much about the crocodiles. cap. and about the crocodile. they have been known to do much harm amongst the spectators. as a southern suburb of Manilaexpression. pulling off the legs with his trunk. the elephant could not get rid of him . p. 2 To the beginning of 1599. there occurs to me the case of one.^ which was near. in great pain and wrath. river of Parannaque. is isolated by creeks. which are drawn while they are young. west of the Ganges. with one fore-foot on his breast. he put his trunk under water. F. including Paranaque. the Indian who managed him. where he had enough to do with him.. I." — D. xi) mentions him as Governor of See Hobso7i-Jobson^ s. on the [The author adds that he had been told of another fight between a tiger and a crocodile in the river of Cuama. — Couto {Dec. This elephant out at pasture in the Isle of Manilla felt thirsty. Governor of the Felipinas. For several times.] In the kingdom of Champa. — D.

" D. but simply a writer's " Champa. F. and for the little adventure {China Sea Directory^ vol. Cochin China. 5J min. hatch out chickens in a few days. The usual Portuguese plural form of iael is h does not taeis . 100 deg. F. and as the traveller (who was better informed on the subject than many great The edible naturalists of later days) clearly meant to state them. D. For they say that they are very good for the brain and belly . F. It is " precipitous. when dry. 3 and 7). not unlike swallows. and stopping short. F." and in a general way just the island for the birds. with no help but of their making and ^ " The text runs " Comboia y Cochin China en el mar del sur de la India por toda la costa del Mardel^'' etc. p. and they lay their eggs in it. of the shape of a great ladle.] or printer's error. and to Malaca. taught by provident Nature. Chinese of Fuh-kien (see supra. and saw and noted.. ^ That is. 4th ed. These nests are so abundant that there are gathered of them yearly many picos. to be a nest. to the China Seas. near the middle of Malacca Strait. Nor can I think less wonderful the matter of some hens. and all along the coast of the Indian South Sea. 1896). called Pulo larra. whereof. v. and hatch their young." and Champa was the region between Saigon and Cochin China. and during their nuptials cast forth from their bills a sticky saUva . and some Portuguese who have eaten of the same do not speak ill of them. or quintals. The passage as rendered states the facts as they are. they make nests on the steep rocks and crags. with wonderful skill. in 3 deg. and they are built as he — describes the process. Their lovetheir nest are finished at about the same time. i. nests are found on the whole Southern coast of the East Indies. long. that is. but praise them highly. note on See Introduction. " Comboia" is " Cambodia. which are exported to China. s. ^ Japanese ? [Rather. casting it one after the other until it comes. wooded. if set in a box or closed place. whose eggs. lat. the Isle of larra. in the parts of Maluco. The birds are species of Collocalia. at fifty taheis^'^ which make about one hundred ducats for the quintal. * Probably Pulo Jarak. p.^ who valued them much.226 APPENDIX B. Teixeira's interjected D.^ in the waters whereof we experienced great calms. but the French have probably rechristened it. when I was sailing from Goa to Malaca.* I landed there.. 166. pp. which breed at a certain season. thickly 59 min. where I gave them to the Chincheos. In the year 1597. beginning to repeat " mar del sur^^ etc. [See Hobson-Jobson.^'' — D. taels. Of these last I brought away a good lot to the ship. 3 — Stevens has " Chineses. with unusually high sides. amongst other things. north of Goa. 215. where the Chinamen buy them to eat. " Mardel " is no place at all.^ there are bred certain birds. — alter the pronunciation (cf. I wished to see an islet to which we lay near.] . N. from British India. or more than that. these birds and their nests. E. supra).

loban laoy Benioyn. Hist. possibly The name he mentions. " Benjamin. The subject is too big for a note. however.] But the incense comes only from Arabia.^ This is found in various places. in There is no want of it on the coast of Ethiopia of Africa. de Ceildo. — — ^ — : . natural virtue.^ when their place [Teixeira then returns to his history but after a few pages again digresses on the subject of Arabia. like a turtle. de Orta's Colloquio L F. 159. n. I.^'' The substance referred to by Ribeiro is the dtmimala^ or resin of Ceylon. But it seems to be based on some observation of the eggs of a megapode. as I have often hatched out turtles' eggs. 72. where the Javans do a great trade in it. ^ See Hobson-Jobson^ s. * Probably the modern Dhofar.] KINGS OF PERSIA. probably Megacephalon maleo. This derivation is in modern dictionaries. D. which they call " incense of laoa" is.^ most of it is collected on the other side of the Red Sea.] There is now more got from Somaliland. This bird lays its eggs in the sand of the shore. called sandaroz. Q2 . \^^^ supra p. in Sunda. and Dofar^ is the district where it is best and most plentiful. the coast of Melinde there is got a gum yery On Arabia produces some myrrh. what follows with G. and throughout the whole of India it fetches a good price. F. and we corruptly that. this last name comes that of Benioyn. Siam and Camboia. and It is a very fit name. ^ Garcia de Orta (f. and has been amply treated of by others. with slight alteration from Teixeira's statement. as Pegu. in the kingdom of Olanion. Melinde. the most valuable product of which he speaks of as follows . and physicians xarabe^ both rough and made up. 2 Cf.^ which the Persians call kondoruch^ and Arabs loban. very clear and transparent. and Linschoten. 43) speaks of " a gum called cha7nderros^ which resembles crude amber ." D. is 227 to. There is also carried by the Red Sea from Arabia to India and the East much of that gum which we call amber. chap. and the Guzurates of From — — 1 This is rather an odd story. where it is very white. of the colour of amber the natives use it in many medicaments. and highly valued . where it is abundant and of good quality. [and it might be gathered in the forests of Malaca if they looked for it. : — Incense. and doubtless they could be hatched as described. F. the south-western extremity of the State of M^skat. The last name is taken from the Arabic karobahf and that from kaf^ meaning straw. where they call it commonly bolo. xi) says lands. D. ^ Kdhrabd. v. since there is no lack of it there. F. of which that dug out of the earth. and in Samatra. though like this. Liv. for the amber has robah^ to lift or attract. that power. The amber was probably of northern origin. " There is another [resin] that is produced in the low cap. And fly opened they if they are not looked away. and the traveller is justified in his wonder. where they call it chandarrus." and Ribeiro {Fatal.

Linschoten. but a common word meaning they have given it The Persians call it. [Then come some facts regarding Arabia. "bitters. and consequently afflicted with leprosy and the statement that Arabia produces an incredible quantity of dates and very fine horses. but Chapter XXXIII consists of little else." I need only add." D.] : . 99. the dry. B. F. f. including Gujarati. is Arabic and Hindustani sindarus^ sandaros^ sundaros^ and is known in Europe as " gum sandarach. good against the windy colic. living on dried fish. the remainder is Throughout Arabia is found that fertile and well supplied. ii. 2 This derivation is so far supported by modern Arabic dictionaries Compare Hebrew Mara. and of the absurdities (many due to the printers) that are found in his " Tho' a translation. that jnurr does mean bitter. aware.^ Our common people is. G. f. ^ Possibly this represents " Raghat" or rakhta^ that is " bloody.] Garcia de Orta and Teixeira give variants. : — — of course. or Meka Straw. and every where abounds in that famous Medicine. Andropogon laniger. F. much morro not a proper Because myrrh is so that name. and the grass is forage for camels. Cambay The Arabs naaie. hot wind called surinty that in summer blows on the coast opposite to Persia the inhabitants on the sea coast. and long used in even European pharmacy.228 APPENDIX regata^ bolo. The history is then resumed. — D. our Physicians call Schenu Anthos^ and vulgarly Squinend^ or Camels Meat. for Meka is in Arabia. and found in several Indian languages. de Orta. because the Camels feed on it. . 197. I quote his version of the above paragraph great Part of Arabia be barren." or " red. [Cf.]. as growing about Mecca in Arabia. p.] famous medicine which physicians call schenu anthos. which the Latins have call it : bitter. 3 All these words mean Egyptian mummy. F. de Orta. ." a fact of which Captain Stevens was. in dressings.^ so. [The facts given by Teixeira are virtually copied Mum A from G. * pungent grass. CHAPTERS XXX-XXXII.] ^ As a specimen of the liberties taken by Stevens with his original. and in modern Indian languages." and such substances. 214 — — D. vol.* Either name suits it well. and the Spaniards give it the name of Paja Mecca Straw. and we Camel's Straw. dates and lime juice. D." Bol is still Persian. Chapters XXX-XXXII contain no digressions." confuse myrrh with Momia. morrobad^ that fitted to their own language . a miserably poor people. . growing throughout the northern sub-tropical region of the old world. Persian. F. and the chapter ends. or rather its drugs and probably means " wax. that paja is the Spanish for " straw. but the Arabs and Persians make the the Arabs call Momia mumyah^ and the proper distinction Persians momnahy? [Although a great part of Arabia is sterile. all the rest is fertil and plentiful.

the West African coast. There is in the province of Pare or Persia^ a well-known district called Sthabanon. The town lies in about 54 deg.] ^ J. King of Persia. they suffer and are sluggish. 225 ?y Linschoten. Celloquio XLV^ and f. The province and town in question are entered in the Survey of India Map as " vSavonat" and " Savonat or Istabonat" respectively. a cure. and it is known when they bear the stones. ii. to the southeast of Lake Niris. of course. D. ^ usually called " Fars. 29 N. F. but or intakes its place. [The first diversion is on the province of Nixabur." its pagens'^ and bald inhabitants. because.." 2 Cf. In Arabic there is no letter/*.e. according to the number and size of these. infra. there are some also in ^ Hajar : the pronunciation of Teixeira's ager" would be the same in his phonetic system. to secure for himself all above a certain size. is a crocus. which we corrupt a little more into bezar. meaning "an antidote against poison. or are active.] KINGS OF PERSIA.^ Its pastures abound in a plant like saffron. poison.] * Not now identifiable. and feed many sheep. and the Arabs ager} But the Persians distinguish the bezarstone^ as /a zahar. where it characterises the "aggry bead. three days' march from Lara. what follows with G. F." [See p. xxiv.^ when not suffering from the stone. See also Baldaeus. I cannot find any confirmation of the statements our author makes in connection with this province.. and /a. D. vol. from a city of that name therein. so pazahar becomes bazahar. and the Arabic in a rather odd place. E. — Now — ^'' — . The saffron plant. 229 CHAPTER XXXIII. keeps guards there. by obtaining the royal permission to levy a poll-tax on every bald pate. as the King of Pegu doth in his land in respect of gems. pp. The B [Then comes a statement that all the inhabitants of the province of Sthabanon are bald-headed of which fact a servant of Shah Abbas took advantage. chap. the mention of which leads our author to speak of bezoar stones." from zahar. in whose stomachs these stones are produced. Malabar and Coromandel. These sheep are somewhat different from ours. D. and is about 100 miles in a direct line north-west of Ldr (rather more by the road via Darab). producing the Turkish stones (turquoises). and not that the stones are sold in the bazar or market. They are the best of all. 142-145. de Orta.] : Besides those Persian bezar stones. are again mentioned by Teixeira in his Brief Account of the Provinces of Persia (see infra^ Appendix C). because they never are sold there.^ The chief cause of the stones is that pasture. which are stone breastworks. The Persian word appears in the ever^'' lasting sa7tgas^^ of Indian border war. '''' . This is the real meaning. He says : — Persians call any stone sangh. [" Sthabanon. and of such cost that Xa Abas. F. for the same sheep do not bear them on other lands. 240.

or gains counterfeit.^ The goats. The horse-breeding experiment begun by the Portuguese on this island. Ceylon are liable to such Baldasus {u. Persians take it as a preventative. and weigh it again. 169 v^ 225 v. 'Y\i^ it is If it keeps its seven hours.230 India. there was a terrible sea-flood all along the coast. from Malaca. after a long period of neglect. Here in this isle it was well seen that the pasture is the cause of the stones. and I have seen wonders wrought with them in cases of . For when. in March. and in short against all ills. the salt wasted away. Pam Macem is — . vol. and continued by the Dutch and British. The third quality of these stones includes those from the south.) records one that occurred in 1658. but if it breaks up. Sunda. Pam. and sometimes there are as many as thirteen in one goat. that Isle of Cows was drowned outright. or Delft (as the Dutch named it). F. pazar stone is used with good effect in all cases of internal poisoning and of poisoned wounds. I have found no other reference to the overflow mentioned by Teixeira. 4. and those not very small. and the stone is not The second test is better and surer. Malabar and Coroinandel^ chap. and they produced stones as before. by either of two tests. The first is to take in one's hand a little lime worked up with water. leave it there six or form and weight. See Baldseus. is. 1 The off The Ilha das Vacas referred to (not to be confused with the one Cambay) is Neduntivu. take it out. iii)." with variations. and good pasture sprang up the goats came back to the isle. celebrated by Mr. or Flight. near Manar. and if the lime turns yellow. between Seylan and the coast of Choromandel. ff. [See supra^ p. F. or melts. but it is easy to know them. '' is now Pahang. in 1585 a. in which the year is so short that any given festival works steadily backwards on our calendars. xliv (of English translation in Churchill's Collection. that is. poisoning. Maniar Macem. * This is quite independent of the religious chronology of Islam starting from the Hijra. 2 — D.^ et cetera^ where they abound." ^ F.^ These are produced in goats. and sprinkle the stone therewith.. beginning on the which they call NeM Rus.* 20th.]. that wasted. Ceylon^ chap. Patane. because their I have seen many bezares solar year is counted from that day. These stones are sometimes counterfeited. Clifford. it is good. xxiv . put it into a vessel of water. it is genuine. meaning New Day. to weigh the stone. But the best are the Persian. has. also Garcia de Orta. been recently revived by the Ceylon Government. . produced no more stones but after some years the soil recovered its quality. D.d. Borneo. carried elsewhere to graze. weight. and the second best are those of the Isle of Cows. off the north-west of These islands — D. APPENDIX B. and Maniar generally called on our maps "Banjarmasin. and the pastures ruined by its remaining water-logged with salt water. inundations. s.

caps. which the Indians call morxy. they would be almost priceless.^ Many complaint."^ the fruit of that bush on which the cochenilla is bred. Regarding the pedra do porco. F. is mentioned. from for its healing properties. Or. weighed seventeen meticals and a half. a little more or less. F. cap. lost). cap. If so. fasc. very like the pazar. and so of no value. as of the Viceroy Mathias de Albuquerque. Linschoten. F. If these were of quality equal to their size. this can find no reference in any of the contemporary documents to epidemic (Couto's Decade covering this period is. the Captain of Cochin. [Teixeira then says that from a mountain in the province of Sthabanon issued a liquid called by the Persians momnahy kony. — ° I — D. Li v. D. vii. Malabar and Coro225 V mandel. p. ii. p. li. D. xii . iv-vi Dom . having seen its effect at different times and in various places. D. spongy and fibrous within. and rather bitter. viz. Jeronimo Mascarenhas. Dec. chap. working wonders against a disease more dangerous and violent than the plague. as big as a tennis-ball. — ''''el governador que alii erd^ ("the Governor who There was only one " Governor'' in India at the time. but they are all nearly inert. and our author continues : — other medicinal stones are produced in the bellies of beasts. vol. see Garcia de Orta. Masulipatam. pazar khony. 172). nephew of a former Viceroy.^ which grows in his belly. which is brought from Solor. or hogstone. I think. — f. as that of monkey. 144 . Whereof I am a good witness. 3. in the years 1590 and 1591." and highly prized Another antidote. . Port. The holder of that important post at the period mentioned was.. Manoel de Sousa Coutinho. and This was a choleraic carried people off in four or five hours. so. xi Liv. or two ounces and a half. apparently. 1591. and especially in the city of Cochin. . whose history reveals him as a man of a violent temper. xxiv. and arrogant of his rank (see Couto. which the natives call Tenus Titian. Baldseus. there is the stone of the porcupine. which lasted for two whole years. p. X. in this place by "Governor" he means * The original has was there"). 210). cf. " PelotaflamencaP I have followed Stevens's translation. Francisco Mascarenhas (see Arch.. unhappily. who vacated the office on the arrival But. in the city of 23 Mexico in America. Tunas. of such excellent virtue that only such as have tried it can believe it without a doubt. Teixeira wrongly describes Manoel de Sousa Coutinho as " Viceroy" (see supra. or "precious mummy produced by the earth. 261). on May 15th. F. iv. the incident recorded of him by Teixeira is in pleasing contrast to the picture drawn by Couto. also Linschoten. Liv. Above all.] 1 KINGS OF PERSIA. ii. The largest perfect pazar stone. that of the deer. vol.^ crusty and scaly without. meaning " the city of prickly pears. p. and the Portuguese ^ ^ ^ Original. D. . The Governor^ there used up two such stones in the service of the poor. of many that I saw in Persia.

v. cristata ^ ^ ' See supra. 210). I cannot identify —D. . where the fine rota (rattan) and the pure camphor are Then other precious stones are spoken of. cat's-eyes. F. 5. infusion of this stone in water safely given in all." or " of Cananor. the stone is reduced to dust so easily as not to hurt the teeth. and coco-stones. is here spoken of. a little weed of no esteem that grows in the streets.^ each of three-sixteenths of an ounce. a realm very near that of Malaca ^ and are sold.^ is diamonds. but black and hairy. and February. in whose case some inconvenience may result from its extreme bitterness. describing the method of obtaining them in the kingdom of Lave (in Borneo). In order to see whether the beasts which produce these stones agreed with their name. These stones are produced in Syaka. which. be chewed after it. and by means of others which surely should make us all praise the Creator. that if good care were not taken to remove it from I . p." 2 In Linschoten's Map of the Eastern Seas. and any stone. Such was its effect in facilitating childbirth. If its tender roots be chewed. It may well have been more abundant in Spain in Teixeira's day than now. D. this " weed.] 232 mordexim} APPENDIX An may be B. F. Teixeira says. referred to above (p. or do any harm as proved many times in my own person. so that the teeth remain moist with its juice. on the coast of Choromandel. The captain of Columbo. ness of diamonds. F. is effective in all except to pregnant women. Teixeira says : [Another medicinal stone. by mazes. and in Malaca. According to Teixeira's own statement further on. lo7igicauda. "Siaqa" is shown on the east coast of Sumatra. however hard. whose wife — . " Mort-de-chien. F. have happened between October. islands. as we have seen It must." — D. a grain or so more or less.^ No less wonderful is another plant. like pazars of those parts. F. opposite to Malacca. The Malacca species is now distinguished as H. 1588. 1588. was probably Joao Correa de Brito. Barros calls it " Cidca. — The m&sd Hystrix or mdshd is of India. who has granted such power to a weed. D. maladies.^ In connection with the hardrubies. 1 — D. (p. and just like the common sort." He then speaks of called " of the — remember.'^ barley. and found it to be a porcupine. therefore. the European and North African porcupine. . including found. 1587. I procured one from Syaka while I was in Malaca. occurred at the end of February. 221)." It is the Malay state of Siyak.] [See Hobson-Jobson^ s. the incident here recorded took place before his visit to Ceylon. ^ * Asiatic cholera. which was given in the Isle It was like an ear of of Seylan to a Captain of Columbo's wife.

some other grain and there is no reason to doubt the truth of . I'enfant tomberoit par morceaux. la fait accoucher aussi-tot & il ajoute que si on I'y laissoit trop long-tems. with such a flow of blood as could not be checked. if thrown into a vessel of water. 642. happened in Goa. and though I made inquiry afterwards when I was in Seylan. ou qu'on tache d'elever dans le Jardin de Leyde. near the Isle of Gerun or Harmuz. Possibly that in question was a salep." It will be noticed that Le Grand does not quote Teixeira His reference. and The bleeding ceased at once. though the conclusion is a funny abuse of the " post hoc ergo propter hoc. with even forty parts of water.. They thought that its power might have been such as to affect the patient. of Ribeiro's History of Ceylon^ says " Texeira \sic\ dit qu'il croit dans I'Isle de Ceylan une herbe qui porte un epi semblabe \sic\ a I'epi d'orge. Lugdtino-Batav. Hermann's Hortus Acad. 1 Muslo. and the herb found in it. none could tell me about it. as foreign to the matter in hand. curdles it f and yet more of wonderful qualities. 233 the thigh^ at the moment of birth. The virtue attributed by Hermann to Adhatoda vasica is imaginary. Feu Monsieur Hermans \sic\ Docteur en Medecine. i. iii." ^ This property of some drugs is known to modern chemists. in his Addition to chap. . KINGS OF PERSIA. and the took it to another house. she got it back from a borrower and put it in a It happened box. and are still great favourites in the East. this narrative. . something was wanted out of that box. These form a thick jelly. que les Chingulais appellent Adhaioda. was with child. and prayed for the sacrament. found in the East. as he shows in a footnote. herbes & fleurs que Ton cultive.] . which was opened. [The lapis judaicus and the and the writer proceeds : lapis lazuli are then spoken of — In the Gulf of Persia. Bk. & qui a son retour de Ceylan a donne au public une description exacte des plantes. — ' or " Yo me halle prezenteT The thing was probably ergot of rye. because the first has none.^ I have not named these herbs. I pass by another which. D. 2 The Abbe Le Grand. This lady was cured completely without any return of it. : — . a fait graver une plante. & qu'il pretend etre VEcbolium des Grecs laquelle a presque la meme vertu que Texeira \sic\ attribue a cette herbe qu'il ne nomme point. qui etant applique sur le ventre d'une femme grosse. and she was like to die. which her slave put under the lady's bed. p. and I was present. and the possessor of the other knew none for it . 2 This has been proven a thousand times . the bowels would follow the babe. is to quite correctly. mais plus noir & plus barbu. and I am When she witness of the case of that very lady who owned it. In preparation for this. F. & que la femme auroit une parte de sang que rien ne pourroit guerir. that she miscarried.

perfumed pastile. . D. the Portuguese use it. four things worth noting.' because it grows at the bottom of the sea. 26 of his Colloquies. on f.^ : : relates [Teixeira here harks back to the hog-stone.* and pricked it with a hot needle .] 234 APPENDIX B. — * "a ^ According to Johnson's Pers. or sometimes a date-stone. I would like to mention three or The first is of a monkey that I saw. Pers. of another plant.] 1 See supra. much stone is quarried from under sea/ which the inhabitants They call it sangh use in building. weed. in the north of Ceylon. it split in two. pazar stone. that is a natural ball of it. fish stone. into leaf and it comes much English "hog-plum. and in the middle I found a little bird's beak and some which amazed not only me. and in connection with the second says : — In all India there its fruit and it and but one tree that are called ambareS* is is leafless in the rains. [Garcia de Orta. and is light. [The Dutch fort at Jaffna. A similar case was that when in Harmuz I would examine a xamama of amber." that perhaps Teixeira's drug was ambergris.. where there are few corals." D. [Chapter XXXIV p. rightly translated.-Arab. where fast as quarried. and on breaking up this. — D. apropos of which he two more of his " medical " stories.^ may. but says nothing of the tree. F. that is. in whose thigh was found 2. 167. and none massive. because it is very Ught. but the Portu- guese used the produce of reef-building annelides in the same way on the Thana coast. which they report to be very good. contains no digressions. 2 Or "free in working (" livianaparafabriccH''). F. less as building stone than to make lime. is built of coral stones. sometimes called the for West Indian name it." ' Sang inaht. describes the under the name of ambares. like the Portuguese one D. such as a straw. Spondias mangifera. But the wonder about it is that it grows again as The same is found in the Sea of Malaca. sha7ndma = This is a remembered ^ It has to be little beyond a mere "fly in amber. for all those to see its centre or nucleus. an iron arrow-head stones are built up around some central object. CHAPTER XXXIV. twig." is a Marathi name later in the rains than other in Ambdra trees. and fragments of shells others of much experience in such matters. " F. — Diet.Stevens translates " soft.] that preceded it.-Eng. Presumably coral.] — fruit . Before I close this chapter. but feathers. F.

F.^ and an inferior sort from that of Cochin. XV. other lands. and of very various quality within the isle itself.* Next comes what the Portuguese the same isle. treats of Teymur Langh.^ The ports of Gale. beginning by repeating the old fable about the Chinese colonization of Ceylon. vol. with its pearl fishery. p. [Chapter XXXV contains a number of digressions. Cf. which is Avicena's ^ufel . whence the white sandalwood is brought . D. as to native or imported. but now mostly possessed by That of the forests of Candia. Chylao. and much areka. far excelling that of stones. He tinues : — silver. White's " Sitdvaka and its Vicinity. and in the Isle of Mindanao. Our author then speaks of Boaly or Avicenna and this leads him to the subject of physicians in the East. whence comes the eaglewood . p. nor precious and a few rubies. has disappeared from the maps and all that remains of its former grandeur are some ruins. F. but is chiefly famous for its cinnamon. but presently goes off on the subSelandyve or Ceylon. The first. or Tamerlane. nor any valuable metal. and the scene of many a contest between the Sinhalese and Portuguese.^ are mentioned and the writer con.).— D. near the Malucos [(where all The ^ ^ * See Barros. * ii.* best is that of the jungles of Columbo and Seytavaca. See foot-note supra. in connection with Samarkand. pp. . 5 p. in Cochin China. F. fraternity. Dec. i. 221. III^ Liv. 11. is worth less." in the Orientalist. 221. supra. of whom he writes as if himself one of the . which have recently been cleared by the Ceylon Archaeological Commissioner (see his Report o?i the Kegalla District. D. and the Grand Mogul. D. Sitawaka the legendary jungle fastness to which the ravished Sita was conveyed by Rd^vana the royal city of the latter half of the sixteenth century. It has which it is doubtful whether they be ivory. There is also cinnamon in the Isle of Thimor. a kingdom of the Portuguese. whose fort the Portuguese had bravely defended against the native kings. great cardamoms. Canela do niato. ii. — D. F. 62-65 and H. 1892. 76-78. F. a name adopted by the Dutch as a commercial term from the Portuguese. except the very finest cat's-eyes Seylan bears no gold. ^ 33 ff. ject of then resumes his history.] KINGS OF PERSIA. call the jungle cinnamon.^ the best of which comes from that of Coulan. pp. Cf. and Columbo. vol. — ^ Quilon. 235 CHAPTER XXXV. and the origin of the Chingalas. — D. cap. what follows with Garcia de Orta's Colloquio — — schoten. a principal seat of the old native kings. — — . and Lin- F.

as Teixeira for the wild sorts of his day (p.. "China root. especially in the Bombay Presidency the jnahwa and hirda {Bassia lon^ifolia and Termi7talia chebula). 464. They call our jungle cinnamon kerfah. nearly — : . which took place in given by Morga {Philippine Islands. and some palms. and liquorice kayo maniz Chin." that of Cinfta^nomum cassia. D. writes. the mango. The regular cultivation cum) dates from 1770. ed.] And he expressly states that all his sorts came from jungles (" inatos'''). [There is some doubt as to the exact date. 472). iv. p. /F. and to Persia. sweetness. and maniz. for that it comes to Malaca from China. they call cinnamon kayo maniz Selan^ as brought thence. Z']). And because hamama. and excellence of This to Couto's Dec. sweet." because. quantities" in 2 Mindanao. when the Chinamen sailed those seas. who died in its conquest. While their I was in Malaca. Guille^ The reference is Decade was published mard (in Stanford's ii. and held that trade. PP. Some of his specimens may have been what we now call "cassia bark. resembling a laurel in form. But it still is the custom in India for people to protect and even plant valuable trees in the forests. Travel. for. leaf.^ no Cotto Spaniards so many lives. and it may be and that this arises from their being less skilfully collected cultivated. vol. that is. vol. ^ is description of this disastrous expedition. vii. in 1602. Australprobable that gold exists in tolerable (See also Gemelli Careri in ChurchilVs F. but only arms. was a medicine highly esteemed for : its virtue. or dove'sfoot. cap. Oddly enough. F. that they thought well to abandon it^)]. which I saw afterwards in the Phelipinas.) — D. viii. To prevent mistakes. I will say that the Malays call liquorice and cinnamon by one name. and Persians and Arabs call the cinnamon of Seylan dar Chtny Seylany^ that is. except that of Mindanao. the Persians call chub Chiny^ that is. Liv. I expressly procured all these sorts from countries. of Ceylon cinnamon {Cinnamonum zeylanitwo centuries after Teixeira's observation of the plant.236 is APPENDIX gold. F. Teixeira's contradiction of Couto's statement appears to be unwarranted." though lately they have begun to adopt from the Portuguese the The term China Pao. the Pharinacographia suggests the same explanations of the differences in quality of modern cultivated cinnamons. according to Dr.^ is all one.53-54). A 1596. as B. Hakluyt Soc. To clear up what the Doctor Garcya d'Orta has written rather confusedly about cinnamon. they brought it from Seylan to Harmuz or Keis. Compendium of Geography and "it is asia. All of them are much inferior to that own of Seylan . which is the amomum. and what we call China wood. which cost the together with that of Esteval Rodrigues de Figueiroa. the Portuguese governor.— 15. Collection. For the shrub berry. p. kayo maniz^ meaning " sweet wood" from kayo^ wood. "wood of the Chinamen of Seylan. considering the fragrance.

that. degraded. XIT. all that follows I am — D. . and . * Doubtless when he accompanied IVIanoel de Sousa Coutinho's expedition for the relief of Columbo in 1588 (see Introduction. . Of this They are called Mocegueios. David. to the Vedd^s of Ceylon and their well-known custom (see Royal Asiatic Society s Journal^ 1899. 121). as a testimony of their valour and thereupon they are rewarded with cattle and lands. p.^ 1 in all modern times has meant cardamoms. perform. fierce people.B. Dec." ^ is mentioned.] ^ ] .] [Teixeira then proceeds to describe how the Pachas. : publicly. vi-xi. by a European writer. The name seems to be from Sinh. I remember a very pleasant custom of certain blacks. also. : — In this connection. Couto. in the and continue I would say that they are which they have performed. caps. 210). some of which I saw. " ten or twelve years ago. vol. cap.' the food of the Arabs already described islanders the eating of human flesh by the Javanese. See also Theal's Be- Amomum We — XI ginning of South African History. from the 1589. when he was in India. . of one sort What spice the Greeks and Romans called by that name or another. including the siege of 1586-88. The Pachas are frequently referred to by Couto and other writers as a degraded. Dec. apparently. responsible. 269. the Portuguese in the defence of Columbo on several occasions. p. Liv. whose disastrous expedition. v). Dec. until they have presented to the king one or more genital members of enemies whom they have slain. Ethiopia Oriental of Joao dos Santos) are given in the makeshift Decada (Couto's being lost). i.* I was an eye-witness. 5 Circa 1596 (see Couto. to naturally incHned to arms.. XI^ p. f. ' This is the earliest reference I know of. Sinclair's translation ends. 133). d.jzJ(2. is not settled {Phannacographia^ sub voce). ix. Dec. they called this Chin hamama^ or Chinese amomum. 3 It was really in Details (taken. For F. —At this point Mr. and the him of the story of Saul. KINGS OF PERSIA. 274. reminds Philistines. of which the Latins made cinamomum and that explains what Doctor Dorta said of the cinnamon. F. and by the Zinbas of Africa. when Teixeira probably met them (cf. Liv. 237 cinnamon. a wild people in Ceylon. says Teixeira. — supra^ p.^ He then goes on — To conclude with the Chingalas. following the exercise of arms. D. XIIT.'<3:= low-caste. p. incredible feats. natives of those parts. cap. cannot be made knights after their manner. * Cf. . preserve flesh by putting it in honey in hollow He next refers to the eating of raw fish by the Nicobar trees. v Bocarro. \^N. who. 94 Linschoten. p. v. He adds. Our author then says . that Pachas were employed by the forests of Ceylon. living in find. the people of Pegu were reduced by famine to selling human flesh [This. X.

Muata. prince Mani is a corruption. "^ And I a pleasant matter. and shows a blindtruly of tears and pity. our author presently enters upon a digression that lasts to the end of the chapter. of Andrew Battell (Hakluyt Soc.) synonyms are Muene. the prayer)." "Bolay" I cannot explain. one Mongana Bolay Agy he was of royal family.] . relying on his pilgrimage. " Hadgee"). if he believed this. * * Book of his Kings oj Persia^ Teixeira See supra^ pp. son . and amongst others one. 194." supra^ "Agy" or " Agi " = Arab. . judging by the names of the pieces. that those of them who go on pilgrimage to their house of Medina. he still wearied certain. mwana. relate the following. Teixeira are thus ex204) to Ravenstein's Strange Adventures " Mwana. the original home of which he thinks. Taking up the thread of his history again. to have been Persia. but soon breaks off to speak of the game of chess. as Agi it is is as much as " sanctified. 122). become sanctified and safe. was his proper name. 238 APPENDIX skilfully in ivory B. Arab. and therefore was called Mongana Bolay other is The Mongana. and fasting during their He replied.v. of which the island produces some. holding his salvation for I asked him why. 166. ness worthy of laughter. s. " Boaly. And such they are wont to name Agy. 5 In chap. and troubled himself. The "Bo" may perhaps represent Arab. The first of these is Muiie. . xxxi of the Second discourses on this subject. the princes are called by one of two common names. and many and very neat firelocks. and that to reach Paradise they have no need to take any more pains. lived very contentedly. 206. as a certain and indubitable fact. performing the sa/d^ and namaz (that is. . and is very like that in use in Congo and Angola. hdjji (see Hobson-Jobson. or as we say to Meka. vol. that for himself he could well omit it ramedon." O knew in those when going through them. a ntinu. Linschoten. a number of which he explains. p. His subject is the titles of Eastern potentates. : Pers. 81. or more 1 2 Cf. All the Moors hold and believe. p. He concludes his remarks thus : — In that part of Africa which the Portuguese in India call Cafrarya.^ and are present at that solemnity which is celebrated in September. i. {a)bu = " father of" (cf. a title. in Kongo.^ [Teixeira then resumes his history of Persia. and I recollect that I parts. many of whom I knew. whatever they may be. 235). by going to the mosque. where they say to their prince " Lord Manni. who.^ called Amir Hamed Agy. : plained in the Glossary — . 193. They work most and crystal. a gate-keeper of the King Ferragut Xa. j'<a!/i/= prayer the fast season of Ramadan (cf supra. p. /2<a:M<i2' = prayers Arab. ra7nazdn-=' . The "two common names" mentoned by (p. Ngana.

In the Second Book of his History of the Kings of Persia^ Teixeira rarely digresses (for the reason given in his Prefatory Note). vol. VII. 219). he says. 145. however. In Chapter I occurs a short parenthetical explanation of the title kalefdh. vol. Chapters XXXVIII-XLVII. nor had acquired that merit. XXXVI there is a short digression regarding Nineveh XXXVII . pp. but in Chapter XXXV is a short digression regarding the famous Black Stone of Mecca. contain no digressions. i. in 1560." Chapters XXXII-XXXIV are free from interruptions. which latter place. Constantino de Braganga. I^g but that he did it for others who had not the same privilege as he. BOOK II.^ times.^ KINGS OF PERSIA. In Chapter XVI a short account of the province of Khordsan is interpolated but the succeeding fourteen chapters run on almost un. in Ceylon. is on the shore of the Red Sea. the infernal instrument. confuses it with Mocha. the Second Book ends) are confined entirely to the historical narrative. . " and not on the Persian Gulf. Liv. also footnote). a longer one respecting " Mahamed. but in the next fourteen chapters he sticks to his text. Chapters XLI-LIX (with which This is Teixeira's last digression . xvii Linschoten. and (cf. Dec. ix. cap. [In Chapter CHAPTERS XXXVI-XLVII. Chapters XXXVI-XXXIX are occupied solely with the history but in Chapter XL the record of the ransoming of the Black Stone tempts our author to describe the destruction at Goa of the socalled tooth of Buddha. from Jaffna. Pyrard. as writes a grave historian of our He himself.] 1 2 As he had previously done (see supra^ p. In Chapter XXXI Teixeira offers some observations on Medina and Mecca. As narrated by Couto." as also an explanation of the Persian word xerin and in Chapter [shirin — sweet). which conclude the First Book. . p. Such are the darkness and obscurity in which those wretches live. 292-294 . interruptedly. carried off by D. ii.

comprising sometimes more and sometimes less kingdoms and provinces.' because that j/ at the end is a preposition \sic^ signifying of. cannot be described with certain boundaries." and says of it . Short Account of the Most Notable Provinces and those that have continued longest under the dominion of Persia} Persia. and so do the Arabs. and of those the chief towns only. vi of Bk. ii. p. Of these I shall mention briefly those that have continued longest under this rule and have suffered less change . yet. leaving a description of their situation to the professors of cosmography. Par9 is which a province not of the largest of that kingdom. which they lack.^ the capital of is Xyraz. and as the whole account is very brief. 67. 65. I of his Kings of Persia (see supra^ p. It abounds in provisions — D. vi. on account of the varying extent of its territory. Sic in orig. ^ : ^ In chap. and advancing the theory that " Persia" and " Parthia" were identical. 51. * Fdrs for a description of which see Curzon's Persia^ vol.^ a misprint for "Parcy" or "Parsy." Then. and of such fame and note." — : APPENDIX A C. 64-66. 203). embraced what are now the provinces of Farsist^n and L^ristan. 356. as some of the statements are based on Teixeira's own observation. I have thought well to give a translation of it. Teixeira records the founding of Shiraz by " lambxed. 2 1 Although the greater part of this short account of Persia was written evidently from second-hand information. Teixeira says " The natives call this kingdom Par^. vi of Bk.^ a large and noble city. which means 'of Persia.' Cf supra^ pp. 203).' as one would say of : : — — ' ' Spain. for the sake of clearness ." In chap. he adds " However it be. On the meaning and use of the words ajam^ ajami^ see Notes and Queries^ 9th Ser. save that for the letter P. they put i% and say Farp. I of his Kings of Persia (cf supra^ p. It will be noticed that in Teixeira's time this province pp. F. after stating that he had been unable to trace the origin of the name. vol.. the kingdom is called Parg. being one of the great monarchies of the world. and a person or anything else thereof Pargy. which the natives thereof call Parg or Agem (whence the inhabitants are commonly called Pary^ or Agemy^).

In it are manufactured silks from that which is produced in the neighbourhood. who was in Lar in 1602." 2 Ant. Gouvea's Relaqam^ Liv. and great plenty I say distilled." Teixeira here says nothing of the manufacture of silk in Shirdz. vii). v. v. see Sir T. woollens. being pure silver but shaped like a Date-stone. the metropolis of Aderbajon. p. cap. n. has much rose-water and plenty of and a great commerce with all the kingdoms subject to Persia. . seems to have disappeared. and fruits. 24I flesh. .. vii At the end of his Kings of Sir T. which they call kost xerin \kust shirin\ which is sweet. p. Thos. 120) " Near this Buzzar the Larrees are coyned . cap. if it ever existed With regard to the rosein that city. supra. in distinction of the most perfect distilled rose-water from that which is obtained and made by decoction and the quantity is so great that from Persia the whole of the East is supplied therewith in abundance. or some in our Money sentence out of the Alcoran being stamp'd upon it : . in distinction from the other ordinary kind brought from India. 162. Gouvea. that is. 209. in the month of September. cap. 30. does not mention this But Sir Thomas earthquake (see his Relaqajn. R . of which The inhabitants of Shiraz are a white people. i. Herbert. 1 See Hobson-Jobson^ s. 217. l. For descriptions of Ldr. Herbert's Travels^ Ant. I.PROVINCES UNDER THE DOMINION OF PERSIA. . For more detailed accounts of Shirdz. see Ant. Herbert's Travels^ p. very well-known and current throughout all the East. I have spoken above. a famous sort of Money. 229. of bread. the of which is given to all the others that are subject to it It has a circuit of twelve. and for the most part handsome. hides. 2 Cf. ix p.^ whence are called the laris^ a money of the finest silver. and there are found the best bows for In the year of human redempshooting in the whole of Persia. commonly say kost talk [kust tatk/i]. there was in this city an earthquake that destroyed more than 1200 houses. hides. though much more so is Tabriz. In Xyraz is found that second variety of bitter costus And the Persians and Arabs that the Persians and Arabs call kost. in describing Lar. Gouvea's Relaqam^ Liv. s." and cf supra^ pp. Herbert's Travels^ p. farsanghes^ edich farsanghe containing three thousand paces. " Larin.^ It is the capital of a kingdom. says {Travels. tion 1593. ii. an industry which. and ruined the greater part of the walls and many cisterns (for that country has no water beside what is collected in these from the rain) . " This name — . It is cold. 127 et seq. Persia Teixeira mentions the destruction by Shah Abbas of the kingdom of Ldr and the slaying of its king. and of graceful proportion and figure From Xyraz are carried to other parts provisions.. and Curzon's Persia^ vol. on account of being far to the north. water. Liv. and three thousand persons died. it values ten pence. " because of the robberies and violence to which he subjected the caravans of merchants that passed by there" (see also Sir T.^ is the capital of the kingdom that is properly called Persia. 93 et seg. or Lara as we Portuguese pronounce it. 119 et seq. see supra^ p. and see Hobson-Jobson. p." Sir . the King's name. and other things in which it abounds. bitter costus. 119). There is also the city of Lar. " Lari (c).

^ Its metropolis is Hisphabn. 209. In Bk. vii]. Lastam.! — places of less account. west of Shiraz. and now that of Bagdad in its place. between Bandar Abbas and Furg Jahrum. p. I. as I have already said [in chap. : : . and not a Httle rose-water f and many other Kazrrii. 229. that is. * The modern Irdk Ajami. from which are wrought excellent arms and very curious things . many kingdoms and principalities subjected to it in which also is the province properly called Hyerak. i. * * See supra^ pp. . the metropolis of which. got the best Assafoetida through all the Orient The tree p. says that it was "overturned by many dreadful Earthquakes. groaned in a like afirighting downfall" ^ These three places are Tarun. the mountains of which abound in mines of iron and fine steel. celebrated for abundance of provisions and fresh and dried fruits. who visited the place in 1628. resources of this region. iii). a very populous city. 2 See supra^ is Whormoot where and footnote. Persian Hyerak. assafoetida f Stahabanon. and Darab or Darabjird. " Neriz" is Niriz. xxii. p. the seat at times of Herbert. see Yule's Marco Polo. that is. is the famous city of Hisphaon . Herbert says " Near Hormuz] are Duzgun^ Laztan-de. 201. to the south-east of Shir^z and Kazran.* Pagah and Dar-Aguerd. situated not very far from where that Starting therefrom it extends towards Persia. 221. vol. 118). situated respectively south and south-east of Lake Niriz (see Curzon's Persia^ vol. also in this province of Parg Tarom. Sir T. the inhabitants of which are all bald-headed f Neriz. and this part they commonly call Hyerak Agemy. 209. laharom. 209. . or Kazerun. 120). * " Pagdh" and " Dar-Aguerd" are Fasa or Pasa. to which they give as a terminus and boundary the city Babilonia in ancient times. when five hundred houses tumbled down. 93. {Travels^ p. pp. the town at the south-eastern extremity of Lake With respect to Teixeira's statement regarding the mineral Niriz.242 There are APPENDIX C. Hyerak is another of the provinces of Persia. chap. Anno 1 593 (of their account but that very year the 973) she boasted of five thousand houses earth swelled with such a tympany. but the leaves resemble Rose-leaves. that in venting it self all Larr was forced to quake. of his Kings oj Persia (cf. the root the Radish" {Travels^ p. large and important. which includes stood. ii. and would not be suppressed but by the weight of . which grows the ingo. Anno Domini 1400 it shook terribly. where graze the pagens that produce the pazar stones. and other Towns. supra) Teixeira says " The Arabs and Persians assign this name of Hyerak to two regions. : \sic for : exceeds not our Briar in height. three thousand houses turned topsie-turvy with the death of three thousand of the Inhabitants The old Castle on the East side of the : Town (which owes its foundation to Gorgean Melee) though built upon the top of a solid rock. Z7.

vol. Bengala. and most perfect. ' Hyerakas. p. and for the fertility of its soil in every kind of fruit. : Kiim This . et seq. 160 et seq. 38 Ant. Herbert {Travels. see Sir T. Curzon's Persia^ vol. is Curzon's Persia. 218) describes it under the name of " Saway." PROVINCES UNDER THE DOMINION OF PERSIA. 252). Travels. and for the many and rich carpets made there. in speaking of alcatifa of Yazd. vol. on account of its workmanship and perfection. xxi Sir T. And the two together. I. and Cambaya. also much silk. 217. but not fine ones. Kashan is still noted for its silks. This province also contains Yazd. since the last loss of name Bagdad. see Ant. and at present the court of the kings of Persia. a famous city. Sir T. 243 the Persian kings. noted not for its size but for its pleasantness. two prehending both countries. which see Sir T. . p. with their fire-altars and Towers of Silence (see supra. p. the richest and finest and most esteemed in Yazd. ^ It has a large trade. 7 et seq. for description of . which in Portuguese we call alcatijas. and excellent rose-water. . chap. Teixeira says {Kings of Persia. 196. I. velvets and brocades . its Parsi community. ii.2oet seq. Liv. vol. xi . satins. The other.\ Curzon's Persia^ vQ\.i^. Gouvea's Relaxant.* Saoah f Kazvin. the whole of which includes. see Curzon's Persia. from which place I saw some. comand this is called Hyerak Araby. and is well supplied with every necessary. cap. Herbert's Travels^ See supra. the third from Karason 2 : . but of its quinces I find no mention. which are the best in the whole world . p. Kermon. each of which. Gouvea's Relaqam^ Liv. Sawah. they call Hyerakhen. 222-223 3 \ p. p.^ p.' 1 For descriptions of Isfahan. is understood the best. ii. finest. For a description of the place. Marco Polo's " Saba" (see Curzon's Persia. As regards the carpets of Yazd. For descriptions of the town. which in Portuguese we corruptly call dodiaz. p. and to whom is largely due the magnificence described by travellers of the seventeenth century. and the Persians call kalichey [kdlicka]. Herbert's Travels. I. cap. p. The second best are those from the kingdom of they are also made in Agrk. starting from Babilonia or it Arabia. ^ Kaxon is famous for the great plenty of silks of every sort that are manufactured there. extends towards and Egypt and other provinces.\\. of which the quinces are particularly celebrated by the of Kaxon. and infra.^ There are also Kom. et seq." R 2 . Bk. 6. * 17. pp. that is. 219 et 5 seq. xxvii) " In three parts of Persia are manufactured carpets.z." The silk industry of Yazd Yazd is also noted for is referred to by Marco Polo and other writers. Herbert's ii. It was Sh^h Abbds the Great (i 585-1628) who raised Isfahan to the position of capital of the kingdom. p. ii. was valued at more than a thousand ducats and thus.).

or.' and fire is called attex. of his Kings of Persia (cf. 203. west of Kum and Kashan. situated on the "cool Mr. perhaps represent Tusirkd." which also produced manna. p. 35 et seq. regarding which see Curzon's Persia. 566 et seq. of his Embassy. Tehran. as being formerly in the province of Azarbaij^n. i. (cf. the modern capital of Persia. C. p. which see Curzon's Persia. which in the Calange language. p. the reasons for which I give in the footnote on " Hrey. producing the best and purest manna.244 Tabriz . p. described briefly under the name of " Tyroan" by Sir T. but I have. ^ See supra. " Targazin" may i. supra. i.^ APPENDIX Amedom. which is that of that region. 248. and in detail by Curzon {Persia. p. Damaoand. 196)." hdzar — " thousand. arrived at a different conclusion. ed. p. Here our author repeats this statement regarding " Rey Xarear. but not the purest . But then comes the question of the identity of " Hrey. chap. and many other places of less note. 203. 514 In Bk. But dzar or dzur also = " fire . means province of fire .). " gall-bladder. supra. Herbert's Travels. and is mentioned by Teixeira in Bk. says above to the city of Tabriz. gathered Targazin. happening to speak of " the sect of Zarduxt. but not so good." As a fact. T^ 22ci). p. = . p. vol. as I have said. for an account of vol. as others have it. east of Tehran. differs greatly in particulars) means 'money." infra. in the general Persian language (which. after some little trouble. of his Kings of Persia." which. et seq. ii. 209 Curzon's Persia. 349). 2 "Amedom" is Hamadan (ancient Ecbatana). Azarbaij^n. see . 245).' and zahar'' poison' or gall. p. which means 'friend of fire :' although zar. p. that it is the capital of the province of Aderbajon. vol. Sinclair has. Aderbaion or Azarbaion is another large province/ the chief city of which Tabriz. p. called Rey Xarear. 99) there cannot be the least doubt (see also Curzon's Persia. which is that of " Referring fire" (of course Zarathushtra or Zoroaster is meant). and to him that follows it that of Zarduxt. 300 et seq. i." zahr = " poison" (cf. and 2'<3:^r<3. " Taharon" is. vol. i. p. vol. the which gave its name to the district." the identity of the two places. chap. 206) Teixeira." That " Rey Xarear" is identical with the " Xaharihrey" |(misprinted " Xahariprey") of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo (see Hakluyt Soc. 207). of course." which he classes among the cities of the province of " Hyerak. assumed river Habin. it was here that this sect had its origin.n. the court of the kings of Persia before it is came the famous into the et seq. mentioned in the note on p. p.' and azar 'a thousand. i. is classed by Teixeira as a city of Khor^san. "The last loss of Tabriz" was in 1515 (see supra. as has already been mentioned. Herbert {Travels." and Azarbaij^n * : ' ' . 208. " Damaoand" is Damdvand." while dtisk means fire" supra. Taharon f Rey Xarear.^ where is much manna. without giving any reason. It will be noticed that in the passage there given Teixeira refers to " Hrey" as a city great and famous. zar in Persian does mean " gold" or " money. Sir T. xvii. I said. I. p. and then mentions "another city of Persia. and footnote infra.' and. Azarbajon. ^ For descriptions of Kasvin.

in 151 5. lix) Shah Ismail. . who. 9. which is generally accepted as an old Persian patois. and all parts of Persia. Bd. lix. Curzon's Persia. " Kalang"). though strictly prohibited by the Government. j. Herbert. judging by the fact that the Persians celebrate his great wisdom in natural sciences and his long life. 551) says Kurds is Kurmanju (sometimes called Kirdasi). 208. "Zoroaster"). Beveridge suggests) be for Persian khalanj =^\Aco\oYtd. 11. as stated inadvertently in the footnote on p. supra). Polonya. chap. "The language spoken by the majority of the vol. even if incorrect. 244. The inhabitants of Azarbaijan are mostly Kurds. 157) language. however. Sircasya. chap. is said to mean " the guardian of fire." The explanation of " Zarduxt" (Persian Zardusht = Zoroaster) given by Teixeira. «. after chronicling the reign of the cruel usurper Zohak. i. chap." Curiously enough. cap. Teixeira's " Calange" may possibly (as Mr. Brit. V. I." Teixeira's " Calange" may. vol." * ii. p. H. however (though it 514. see Curzon's Persia. of the Kings of Persia^ Teixeira. : vol. V. Some silver is mined there and a great quantity of alum. Nothing is there said of silver.^ The inhabitants are called by the common name of Calanges. Liv. ll. may be considered to have been Zoroastes. supra. According to Teixeira {Kings of as also note on Kasvin above. is more poetical than that suggested by Dr. 524 the writer says " The introduction of aniline dyes.. in his article on " Kurdistan" in the "The present Kurdish Encycl. the mineral resources of Azarbaijan. : — : — — — ." : ^ For descriptions of Tabriz see Sir T.y s. On p. 518 ^/ seq." And Sir Henry Rawlinson. 245 power of the Turk. Karl Geldner {Encycl. Gurgestam. intermixed to the north with Chaldean words. intermingled with alien words. 208 . but gives no date it actually took place in 1603 (see Ant." . which is called Kermdnji a title difficult to explain is an old Persian patois. i. Teixeira speaks of Tabriz as having been captured by Salim from Tdhtnasp. and Bk. of native vegetable hues. and by the resemblance of the name. v.^ . see Sir T. and in some cases even the loss.. piebald perhaps applied as a term of contempt by the Persians to these "mongrels" (cf. for an account of the reduction). vol. the year after the birth of Shah Tahmasp. xiv. chaps. note 4 on p. of course. Brit.— PROVINCES UNDER THE DOMINION OF PERSIA. Gouvea's Relagam. and is well supplied with every necessary. But this is not surprising for on p. captured Tabriz from the Turks. 1 1. says (p. retook it under Salim I {not Salim II. Meyer's Konversations-Lexikon. may. Moscovya. cit.^ This region is full of many objects of note. and to the south with a certain Turanian element. Ivii.. Bk. which may not improbably have come down from Babylonian times. and madder for dyeing. Persia. s. It has a great commerce with Rusia. therefore. vii. Both in Bk. : : 3 Cf. p.. Herbert's Travels. u. With respect to the conquest of Tabriz by the Turks. p. 9th ed. in 1502. I. who says that the name seems to mean " possessor of old camels. exist) nor is the cultivation of madder mentioned by Curzon. says " Zoahk. in Bk. 208. but it seems evident that the conquest in 15 15 is meant.. Our author also mentions the recapture of the city by Shah Abbas. p. has had a lamentable effect in causing the neglect. possibly represent " Kermanji. But Curzon {op. v. and cf.

who ruled Persia when the Portuguese began their trade and conquests there. p. cool. 11. and not a town.rbakar. Nakxoan. It is of an oval shape. Gueylon is commonly called End-safet." enumeration of the five governments translated on p. and the natives also call it Endsafet [Arab. : . another of the provinces subject to Persia. father of Xeque or Xa Ismael Suphy. because it is a It confines with Moscovia. lix. that is. and. p. for it is called xiv (cf. at the foot of Mount Bahistun. and thus the Persians call it Darii Gueylany. all subThe Persians call it by the general and ject to that of Persia. think. I. and Shah Ismail in Ardabil. chap. see Curzon's Persia. the Persians call Moscau. chap. and Kudam. which pleasant. however. It borders on the and contains many very large districts. supra.^ Xyrvan. and fertile land. supra. I with the province of Shirvan. where it is stated that Haidar was born in Diyd. five governments. It suffers from violent storms. Sea It is salt. : " Halkhan" Khalkhal. Hind safid\ which means White India. i. and is navigated in large but flat-bottomed * : ' . that is nine hundred miles in length. outside Persian territory. White India. " Ardabel." At the end of the chapter. and is divided into five governments. in contrast with the proper and true and so they are wont to apply by India. GUEYLON OR GUYLAN. which takes its name therefrom. not large. the capitals of which are the cities of Raxt. in 1488. a few days' journeys distant from Tabriz. I. 205) he says by either of these names. Teixeira con" Gueylon lies along the Caspian Sea. through some confusion " Nakxoan" and " Hordobat" are Nakjivdn or Nakchivan. or Ardavil.^ Ardavel or and many others. ocean. Langarkanon. but now is reduced to a province.246 There are also APPENDIX C. ii. Hordobat. Ardevil. that is. is a city in Persia in the province of Aderbajon.A farsangues. On Ardabil. Caspian Sea. Khalkh^n is a village in Kurdestan. 208 supra. Laion. 3 = In Bk.^ Halkhan. p. of his Kings of Persia (cf." In chap. common name of Gueylan or Guylon. as our poets do of Tartary. which is a district. and is reckoned at somewhat over three \i\xvi^xt. is very extensive. These three places are now 2 In Bk. which they consider dreary metaphor the name India to any place that they wish to represent as Then comes the dreary and dark. xxi. he says that Ardabil was the birthplace of Ismail Sufi himself. chap. 208). vol. and this is confirmed by his account in Bk. but well known from being the birthplace of Xeque Aydar. for the Persians It is divided into call it Daryah Gueylany (Sea of Gueylon).* ^ " Xyrvan" represents. of the Kings of Persia^ Teixeira enumerates " Ardavel" among the places founded by " Kayumarras. but has no navigable communication with the of Gueylan. and Ordabad.' because it is pleasant and agreeable. Teixeira says " Gueylon was of old a great kingdom. Erivan. which takes its name tinues therefrom. 531. after describing the campaign of Sh^h Abbds in 1594. Gaxkhar.

I. 384.. 229. in which there is great of merchandise such as that of Kefah. xxxv cf. which with other mighty ones flows into it. but now reduced to single governments of Persia. vol. and I hold it for a fact. All are very populous cities. vol. supra. see Curzon's Persia." By the Tartar "port" and city of " Kefah. p. In no province of Persia are there found precious stones (in spite of what some have written). i. or White River. Sinclair. vol. p. In winter a great part of it is frozen. unless we choose to give that name to these Turkish ones. all in former times capitals of kingdoms and provinces. Regarding Rasht. near the Caspian Sea. : — ' For a description of Astrabad. that they are in continual motion. 204. a very important port and city of the Tartars. (the : — . see p. xxxiii. i. 261 famous turquoise mines being treated of at p. a great territory and full of great deserts and sandy wastes. 354 et seq. p. It has ports in various kingdoms. ries of Gueylon towards the north. see Curzon's Persia. . as if boiling. chap. situated between Karason." ® et seq. i.PROVINCES UNDER THE DOMINION OF PERSIA. of which it is asserted." but the principal river that runs through GiMn is the Safid Riid.* Strabat. In Bk.* Sabzabah f Nyxabur. to the King of Persia. see Curzon's Persia. chap. In the passage omitted by Mr. 268. traffic : 1 The places mentioned are not it. vol." we are probably to understand Khiva. i. of whom I shall speak in another place [Bk. a Moscovite town. . and are reckoned among the Persians. see Curzon's Persia^ vol. of his Kings of Persia Ccf p. which the Persians value. considering how cruel he is said to have been. vessels. which are called Turkish \turquezas\ and not without cause. The natives are a strong and warlike people. 283. p. but not much. see Curzon's Persia. In this province of Nixibur are produced those green \verdes'\ stones that are set in rings. * ^ On On Boston. vol. It is recorded in the Persian histories that in this province Teymurlangh. which produces turquoises f and others. caused to be slain four hundred thousand persons in one day nor is it much to be wondered at. supra) Teixeira " Nixabur is one of the provinces subject to the kingdom of says Persia. p. For a description of Nishapur. 264). because Nixabur is a region confining with Turkestam. i. The " river of Astrakkm" is the Volga. p. Teixeira says " This city Mazandaron is one It is situated beyond the territoof the famous ones of those parts. 235 suprd\. I. subject." some Our author had evidently never 2 On the " city " of Mazandaran. Much fish is caught in it. Sabzawar. p. i." On the province of Mazandaran. being a long distance from visited these. like the rest.. running along by the Caspian Sea 247 '? — Mazandaron. There follow. and the river of Astrakkm. see Curzon's Persia. I have found no confirmation of the statement as ^to Gilan being called "Hind Safid . . 356 et seq. Uzbek and Tatar. all "by the Caspian Sea.^ Bostam.

^ and others well enough known. C. riches. The mention of " Hrey '^ p. i. a big city producing many fine silks in great abundance. " Karason. 148 et seq. Between this province of Karason and those of and warlike Turon and Turkestam flows the famous river Jehun and that which lies on the other side of it is called in Persian Maurenahar." Now. 200 Eastern Persia^ vol. : — .' and lies to the northward. description is given in the previous note. But it is equally evident that the " Hrey " said by our author to be situated on "the cool river Habin" cannot possibly be " Rey Xarear" Teixeira. of much note.^ This province also contains Thun." (On " Maurenahar" and "the famous river Jehun. 239. and p. i. Gouvea's Relaqain^ Liv. fertile in saffron f Hrey. 177 et seq. 203. and on the way occupied the city of Hrey. and one of the most famous of Persia. Teixeira says that " Kaoh.) 1 p. n. * For descriptions of Mashad see Ant. is another of the provinces subject to Persia/ and contains cities and towns of much importance. * For descriptions of Kain see Curzon's Persia^ vol. Teixeira's own brief cap. chap. with three hundred towers round about it. n. of his Kings of Persia (of. i. xiii . adjoining that of Karason. Curzon's Persia^ vol. that the "Hrey" here spoken of is identical with Teixeira's " Rey Xarear" is evident. Tabas. handsome.248 APPENDIX Karason.^. is a very notable province." see infra^ p. 11. adopts a (Rai. Herat.^ Kahem. and whose walls are washed by the cool river Habin f Marw6. at a distance of a musket shot the one from the other. . The people are white. commonly called by us Portuguese Corason. Regarding the province of Khorasan see Curzon's Persia^ vol. p. for its size. where Xa Ismael Suphy and his successors are buried. ^ See supra. Of the chief is Mexed. p. where the Persian kings since Xa Ismael Sufy have been buried. i." " marched towards Damaoand. both from his description of it. 203 supra. . It contains many and very important cities. (where it is stated that " the cultivation of wheat has everywhere superseded that of saffron"). in enumerating the cities of Persia. p. the court and residence of Zoahk. diately preceding the passage translated on p. formerly capital of the kingdom of the same name. 340 et seq. It is very fertile and well suppHed. i. the chief of which is one called Mexad. Rhagae).. a large and populous city. xvi. which means 'beyond the river. 3 Ttin and Tabas appear to be of little importance now. supra) Teixeira says monly call Cora9on or Corasone. entirely surrounded by a very strong wall." after repeatedly defeating the forces of the usurper " Zoahk. and opulence. among . where is gathered much and perfect manna. In the sentence immethe cities of Khordsan is puzzling. 253. which the Portuguese comp. In Bk. 244. and from the fact that the latter place would lie on the road taken by an army marching on Damdvand from the parts about Isfahan (whence " Zoahk" came).

which is simply the Arabic for "springs. vol. i. see Sir H. Yule's article in the Encycl. see footnote supra. (It is true that in Bk. However. and that Obeh on the Hari Rud is the place he means. In 1532 Shah Ismail "was engaged in an indecisive war chap. is apparently a misreading for ayin.^ and other things. the province of Khurisan was subjected to periodical invasions from the Uzbegs and Turkmans" {op. 233. 204) this appears in the following form :. seeing them occupied in the wars with the Turks. Sultan of Turkey. Regarding the carpets of Khordsan. 713). xxii. pp. succeeded in capturing Herat. having " Hrey" in his head as a manna-yielding place. who had sacked Herat and Mash-had. and took possession of many which they now hold. 271" After punishing the Uzbegs under 'Abdu-'l-Mumin Khan in 272). of the Kings of Persia. During the whole of the reign of Tabmasp. From this 249 province are also brought carpets. Brit. chap. I. the other Raz Habin . On the surma of Khorasan.a city called Marwoh. "This Turkish war over. has here reversed the names of the city and river. 253. p. with an army of Uzbegs. having always belonged to the Persian kings. surma. .. 9th ed. accurate geographical or topographical sequence . 219 supra." it would be easy to locate " Hrey"... Tabas." therefore. If we could identify the " river Habin.") As to the manna of Afghanistan. 9th ed. supra. Teixeira tells us that King " Bazab " " brought into Persia for the convenience thereof two rivers drawn from a great distance the one is called Habyn. fairly . p. is now in great part subject to the Uzbekes. X. in Karacon another named Herat.PROVINCES UNDER THE DOMINION OF PERSIA.— " He [Zaub] also conducted into Irdk the two streams called Aeen and Azaeen. and Kain. It has abundance of provisions and. and we have therefore to look for " Hrey " somewhere east of Tun. vol. and that of Samarkand in Uzbek. p. p. 'Abbas again attacked the Uzbegs under Talim Khan. but further westward. the mention of the next two cities solves the difficulty. fountains. From that time Khorasan had a respite from these incessant inroads until after the death of 'Abbas" {ib. Brit." Teixeira's " Habin. xi. Rawlinson's description in Encycl. 273). see p. 274). the young Shdh [Abbds] was engaged in a war with the Turks in Georgia" {ib. see Markham's History of Persia. 243. 1587... p. The latter place is of considerable importance (see Sir H. In Bk. p. m ® Marwa and Herat are.. and in 1534 'Obaid Khan. with Sulaiman." see footnote infra. invaded their territories. xii. like Obeh. I. who.^ . see p. " but Shea's translation of Mir Khwand (p. ^ On the wars between the Uzbegs and the Persians under Shah Ismdil and Shah Abbas. chap. situated on the Hari Rud. ^ As to its asafoetida. of the Kings of Persia. Teixeira states that Alexander the Great "founded on the river Jehun . 209. and entirely defeated them near Herat in 1597. asafoetida. but the maps contain no river of any such name in those parts. cit." On the river "Jehun. and shows us that Teixeira..

I. xxvii. of Persia — 2 On the rose-water. xviii..-Eng.3 Tabarstam. vi he tells us that Jamshid " resided most of the time in the province and city of Sagistam. '^ In Bk. ix." and in chap. ii.^ — Sis- Nim-Ruz. carpets. Curzon's Persia. p. ii." Regarding the province and city of Karmdn. and surmdhP' Persia has these provinces also Sagistam. which. Johnson's Pers. chap. vol. ii. vol. Land of the South' {media dia.^ Stha-Hor. supra^ p.^." Johnson's Pers. I. 14. 136 by Jamshid.217 etseq. 9th ed. of Persia.: " 250 APPENDIX C. 2 In Bk. of his Kings : supra^ p. much used by the Persians for burning. according to Markham {Hist. I. by some to be derived from the saghes wood. Kaiomurs founded . we are informed that ii. xxi. 217) Teixeira says " Kermon is a large province. n. 243 et seq. chap. of the Kings of Persia^ Teixeira says that Kayumarras (Kaiomurs) founded " Sagiston. tutia^ worm-seed and surma of Karman. otherwise Persepolis.. of the Kings of Persia. " Kabulstan" : is mentioned as one of the places founded by Kaiomurs.. (cf. Teixeira says that Manucher (Menucheher) appointed Zal governor of " the territories of Nim rues. was founded For descriptions see Sir T. chap.* Kablestam. chap. of the Kings of Persia." The place referred to is Istakhr. .. Kermon is a province in Persia. the ^ In Bk. Teixeira says " Kabul is a kingdom that in former times was subject to that of Persia it confines with the territories of India. of which I shall make brief mention. " mid-day"). Diet. Herbert's Travels. It has a city of the same name. that is." On the kingdom of Kabul see — . see supra^ P. p. 1 Sirjan with Karman. chap. it produces rose-water. of the province of Sistan. which also served him as court.-Eng.) — * Tabaristan is the old ancient Hyrcania. 624. p. i. a kingdom to the east of Persia (the ancient Drangiana). p. (the statement in which. ii. footnotes infra. or Istakar. chap. which gives it to the whole province. and is celebrated throughout the East for some special things that are obtained thence." Markham {Hist. see supra^ p. In Bk. et seq. Name ' Kings of Persia. and its true etymology is the country of the Sagan or Sacse. of the " Stahhar. Diet. 60. name of the of the Elburj region of Persia. has " Sijistan.-Arab. Regarding its carpets. n. 6). In Bk. but not of much importance. as to the identity of is incorrect). see Curzon's Persia^ vol.-Arab. and takes its name from a chief city of the same.^ It has many other towns. p. I. lit. of Persia. lying between it and Karason. 228 . however. chap. lying between it and the lands of Karagon. It was formerly called Saghestan. ^ i. 243. and one of the principal in Persia. tutia^ wormseed. iv.) says: "The name of Sistan \s S3\6. explains nim-roz by " Mid-day. vol.^ ^ Cf." (Cf. Brit. I. Yule's articles in Encycl." In Bk. As I have already said. Kings oj Persia.

the one called Kelilah.^ and many others not so noteworthy. Morts-Aly. Persians are much addicted to the reading of books. 47. i. p. In Bk. a title applied to Ali. bows. to whose rule Siston is subject. and at the end of the same chapter he says that the Persians have written many books in prose and verse extolling the deeds of Alexander in chap. fresh and dried fruit (both those of Europe and other kinds). 1 In Bk. The people are fair. approved). Democritus. and on the other the kingdom of Macron [Makran]. Galen. and these. coats of mail. and maces . Socrates. . xviii he states that they possess and prize the works of Hypocrates. and ride In with short stirrups." From the footnotes above it will be seen that Teixeira. and the other Wademana " (a curiously incorrect description of the Kalilah . i.* They generally fight on horseback. scimitars. p. vol. They they had and have distinguished men and erudite works. : " The province 2 ^ * On On Kurdistan see Curzon's Persia^ vol. which I do not mention. in ignorance. provinces. mentions the province of Sistan under three different names as three separate On Sistan see Eastern Persia. he mentions the fables of " Lokmon " (Lukman) as current amongst the Persians in chap. PROVINCES UNDER THE DOMINION OF PERSIA. " All the sects of the Moors. and of polite disposition They follow the sect of their garb is very like the Turkish.— 1. and very dogged therein. See supra. of the Kings oj Persia^ Teixeira says of Siston lies below those of Karason and Kermon towards the region of the Persian Gulf. in which themselves thereon. and other Greek authors. " ii. chap. xxii he tells us that Alexander caused to be translated out of Persian into Greek three books. lest I weary the reader. in chap. i. xxxv he speaks of the works of Boaly or Avicenna. with spear and shield. xv. Aristotle. Plato.^ chap.2 Lorestam. another on astrology and mathematics. handsome. arrows. who are the Persians and said. which differs in some particulars from that of Mahamed. are called Sunys all those that follow Morts Aly. 25 tam. 273 et Morts" = Arab. I. 548 et seq.^ Curdestam. and pride — They are great lovers of poetry. and records the bringing from India to Persia of " two very celebrated books of philosophy. Thus in Bk. and it has on one side Persia. 395 et seq. Teixeira here and there refers to one or other of the Persian writers or books. all at moderate prices. and with their horses caparisoned. as I have the others Xyabys. bordering on the territories of India. vol. and also books in prose and verse recounting the exploits of Rustdm . The warfare they are formidable. ^ In his Kings of Persia. and a third on philosophy . p. chap. xiv. murtazcC (chosen. of the Kings of Persia. which is that held by the Arabs and Turks and all those that follow the Alcoran of Mohamed without any comments or expositions. seq. one on medicine. are reducible to two principal ones Suny. p. The whole country of Persia is for the most part well supplied with provisions bread. . II. which were and are Teixeira says many. flesh. xxiii." : — : . Luristan see Curzon's Persia.

rose-water. or heathen Gaoryazdys who worship fire :^ who. 168. Iv. indigo. See also supra. 196. p. Regarding the Portuguese system of passports. " Calay. are acquainted with all the sciences and speculative arts. chap. called Zich el Kony. p. p. The Persians have no shipping except on the Caspian Sea and some that go to India do so by way of Harmuz in Portuguese ships.v. and the heathen and Moors that reside there. p. . 3 * See Hobson-Jobson. sandalwood and sapam. p. however. p. xxxvii he mentions a book of Persian poetry called " Khozrrai Xerin" {Khusrau Shirtn). ^ Cf. cinnamon. silver. pepper. 168. s. ^ See supra. 219. supra. tuthidth^'^ rhubarb. or in others under their licence. the professors of which treat of them with great nicety and subtlety." See Hobson-Jobson. cardamom. nutmeg. II. amorous . 2 Sic. horses. They take away very fine cloths and handkerchiefs. and many other things. 24. or Jews. and the women not over chaste. by a printer's error probably (see supra. musk. and not one of the least. carpets. and divers other commodities. 266. lignaloes. pearls. alum. intrusting the work of the administration of justice to trustworthy persons. 246. In fine. s. or cartazes. raw and manufactured silk. The Persian men are jealous. a famous astrologer. supra. Teixeira states that in the time of Hiildku there flourished in Persia " Coaja Naciradin Tufify. Khdn ^ Cf. China porcelain. though many in number. p. 218). gold. .'^ wa-Dimnah or fables of Bidpai) and in chap. and infra. and to barter what they bring. ^ namely. In Bk. Their common law. cloves. also." ^ On the navigation of the Caspian Sea see footnote supra. There usually come from all the provinces of Persia to Harmuz large caravans or cafilas^ to trade with the Portuguese and other Christians. who are free to live anywhere. lac. Persia is one of the civilised monarchies of the world. ginger. " Sappan-wood. mace. ambergris. .v. there being some eight to ten thousand families of them throughout all the provinces of Persia. of judgments and figures. calayn^ or tin. madder. are few in comparison with the others . very celebrated among the Persians " (the astronomical Tables of the Ilkhdni by the famous Nasiruddin are meant). occupies no more codices or volumes than that of their sect . supra p. who wrote a book.^ All the inhabitants of Persia are either Moors who are Xyays (and these form the greater part). by the which they are governed.252 are very APPENDIX C. There are also not a few Armenian and Nestorian Christians.'^ or brazilwood. brocades. cf. precious stones. sugar.

vol." For a description of Turkestan and its history. generally associated with the name of Mahmiid. . of the Kings of Persia (cf. of course the Oxus. ^ The Brit. viii.PROVINCES UNDER THE DOMINION OF PERSIA. * ^ See infra.' or 'lord. above it towards the east. which was called from his name Turon. son of Frayhdun (Feridun) "founded a city. it must be credited and held for certain.' and then come Turkestam. xxiii. and the inhabitants of those regions Tataron." or " Transoxiana " (see Lt. whose empire it is usual to divide into two parts. the first king of those people that descended into Persia.^ 9th ed. Brit. p. ^ "Gaznahen" (Teixeira once only has "Gazna" = Ghaznin. For description and history see Yule's article in Encycl.. vol. 213). p. It is situated near the Caspian Sea.. p.. To those parts belonged Chinguys Kan... -General Walker's article "Oxus" in Encycl. and ascertained it to be most true. and the same was given to that kingdom and the whole region. p. p. called by the proper name of Khan balek. regarding which see article " Khiva.^ and others innumerable. 196. xiv. and we Tartars. doubting thereof. p. ^ In the same chapter quoted from in the previous note Teixeira refers to " Kethao Kothan. etc.>^r= " beyond the river. This is the court of the Grand Tartar. On Kotan see Yule's Marco Polo. and on Afghan Turkestdn.^ Uzbek. One lies towards Europe. p. 'king. p. whose metropolis is the city of Kefah on the shore of the said sea. 9th ed. in the territories that are called those of Maure nahar. city. * In Bk. 204) Teixeira states that Tur. 359 et seq. vol. which the Persians call Tatar. above the Caspian Sea. which divides them from Karason. xxii.' and khan.\ The other is the principal. which means ' city of the king' or of the lord' from balek. of the Kings of Persia (cf supra. Brit. . 631 et seq." Regarding Tartary and the Tartars. situated in territories confining with China. and Amu or Amu Daria the local name. river " Gehun " (spelt " Jehun" above) is. but the only way of saying it is Balek. p. I inquired concerning it. whose greatness and opulence may be judged by the fact that he ordinarily has within the walls a garrison of sixty thousand menof-arms and though this may appear a large number. 214) Teixeira speaks of " Tartary. see Yule's Marco Polo. ' ' : . passim. vol. Turquestam as it is called to this day. the famous city in Afghanistan.^ 9th ed. vol. 253 Maurenahar the name of those territories that He across the river Gehun.^ 9th ed.. In Bk. supra.' I know well that there are those who write Balu. Brit. 246 n. see Yule's article in vol. which we commonly call Katayo [Cathay]" (cf also supra. p.^ Here are Koarrazm^ and Gaznehen. loi).^ Tatar. because. i. chap. as we call it. Ghaznah. Jaihun " Maurenahar" is Arabic Ma ward V A^(a." in Encycl. no less rich and is opulent than warlike.^ Ketao Kotan. being the Arabic name. xviii. otherwise Ghazni. 2 Khwirizm. 62. x. I. see Prince Kropotkin's article in Encycl.. chap. I. of which I have already treated [see supra. i. 241 et seq.

xiv. vol. The inhabitants are warlike.l Akh the city was called Balkh. 2 . see article in Encycl. although in former times it was always subject to Persia. a most also footnote on p. p. vol. the king of which for some fifteen years enjoyed the is . king of Macedonia. Bokhara. 213. I. 246. as are the others of those parts. vol. swords and shields. supra. 9th ed. Timur made the city his residence . 235). Brit. of whom he speaks below. they have taken the kingdom of their dominion. fifty miles south of Samarkand.. xxi." no word in Persian or Arabic like balk^ meaning " embrace " and. p.' as it is called to this popuday. * " Damarkand" is ^ In Bk. of the Kings of Persia (see supra. always flying and in this way they have in our days greatly increased Among others. of the ancient city of Kdshghar (see article in Encycl. or Tamborlan. 7). I. Kandar. chap. Its metropolis is Balk '? and it also contains Samarkand. 9th ed. situated in the territories of Maurenahar. I. spears. the two exchanging loving embraces show the pleasure he received from the visit. ^ cf. while Kaiomurs was building a city in Tabaristdn. • name "Axkhar" perhaps represents Aski Shahr. and contains cities and towns of importance.254 APPENDIX Uzbek C. but it makes war on it. : ! ' p.. ii. built. Teixeira gives some account of Avicenna (who was born near. rich and warlike. oiihe Kings of Persia {s&q supra. but his birthplace was Kesh. son of Philip. not at. and. p. chap. p. whence comes the best rhubarb f and many others. and said to his son. 247) Teixeira says noble city. " to to see him. i. as the Persians hold. etc. a very large province .) call Tamorlam.. xxxv. says ' (' This is surely my brother ') from which circumstance Bd. xxxv. at present not only is it separate. 235. and has taken some of its territories. 1 From the places mentioned it will be seen that what Teixeira calls the " province " of " Uzbek" comprised Afghan Turkestan." the ancient name of which was Marcandia. his brother came wherefore.. Brit. was the birthplace of the famous Teymur. Bokhara). and coats of mail. he called the city that he was laying out Balk. and is one of the most famous in the province of Uzbek I can find lous. the birthplace of Teymurlangh f Damarkand f Bokara. chap. : probably only an alternative form of " Samarkand. and " Samarkand. by Alexander the Great. whence came the invading Uzbegs. whom we vulgarly (Then follows an account of Timiir. . 158. In Bk. in any case. which means embrace.^ This province is very extensive." On Balkh." On Samarkand. . fight on horseback with bows and arrows. ' . the Cf. Teixeira's derivation may be considered simply as an example of popular etymology. (p. see Yule's Marco Polo. of the Kings of Persia^ Teixeira records how. Shea's translation of Mir Khwdnd " Kaiomurs recognized his brother. 58). p. the birthplace of Boaly or Avigena f Kaxghar and Axkhar. In Bk.

Holdich's article in Encycl. They are like the Chinese in face and beard. he was unable to restore it to him. They fight for the most part on horseback. 214). strongly-built. who are really Tartars and offshoots from them. see Sir T. vol. They are a gluttonous folk. in order to go more securely. and consider themselves among the most valiant in the world. arquebuses. whom they much resemble in dress. puffy eyes." In chap. are a warlike and arrogant race . xxxv of the same book Teixeira says " The Mogols. and pronunciation of speech. bow and Turkish arrows. in face and dress do not differ from the Chinese they are white. H. Brit. coats of mail and scimitars. which is a shield which serves as a targe. . manners. fond of wine. and sparse and straggling beards. They use lance and cofo [cf supra^ p. 255 favour of the Great Mogol. p. : : : . having themselves bound thereon when they enter into battle. xxii. I.. becoming his vassal but. and such like arms. Ubekes \sic\ Tartars. ." ' It is Persia. and very sensual. They speak somewhat through their nose like the Chinese. 837.^ 9th ed. chap. They are white and red. are large-limbed and strong. but on the death of the captain who governs them they elect another.PROVINCES UNDER THE DOMINION OF PERSIA. of the Kings of Persia (cf supra^ p. with small.^ The Uzbekes have no hereditary king. . . and those of Khetao Khotan. possible that Teixeira may have met some Uzbegs whilst in In Bk. our author says *' All these peoples. although so powerful. 5].^ ^ On the history of Kandahdr. artillery. xiii. and good-tempered.

chap. " where. (For details regarding Caspar da Cruz. In giving this complete translahave indicated the parts omitted by Purchas. 266) he spent three years." Here " Hamon" = 'Oman. F. tion. in Amao. p. 153. See History of the Imdms and Seyyids of ^Omdn (Hakluyt Soc). of the Kings of Persia." ' That is. no date is given for the reign of the founder of the kingdom of Hormuz." and in chap. xiv. ^ If this was Caspar da Cruz himself.) . the foundation must have taken place in 1565 or 1566. he subjected the kingdom of Hamon (which is the country of the Amanites.. see Barbosa Machado's Bibliotheca Lusitana^ tom. 347. 'Oman. however. which to this day has the same name). v. It must. that the territories 1 As stated in the Introduction {q. although both of them are kingdoms in Arabia.^ desiring to extend his men of his kingdom. pp. Relation^ of the Chronicle of the Kings of Ormuz^ taken from a Chronicle composed by a King of the same Kingdom^ na}ned achaturunxa^ written in Arabic^^ and summarily translated into the Portuguese language by a friar of the order of Saint Dominick^ who founded in the island of Ormuz a house of his order!* P When chief King Mahometh^ was reigning Arabia FeHx. ff. In Bk. near to that of Sabah. p. I. Padishah Turin Shih.APPENDIX D. he assembled in council the and said to them. be noted that there is a difference between Hyaman and Hamon.\ an abbreviated translation of this earlier version of Turin Shd. besides other territories. ' The writer spells the name " Hormuz. which is also therein. in which place. and by " Hyaman" is probably meant Yaman. " Dormuz. Teixeira ^ ^ us of Kaykaus settling the affairs of " the kingdom of Amon in Arabia." but when the preposition de happens to come before it he combines the two words (a common custom of the writers of that period) thus. p.h's Chronicle was printed in Purchas his Pilgrimes^ Pt. It is curious that Stevens makes the same error (see his title-page. in Introduction). ii. the ancient name of the people of which was Saba.. when he came from China to Hormuz. kingdom and fame.) See supra^ p. i. tells ^ As in Teixeira's version. (It will be seen that this earlier translator of Turin Shah's Chronicle omits all dates.'^ which is in the interior of at the beginning of his reign. — * Sic. 1785-1787. I li. xxix he relates how Baharon passed over with an army into Arabia. as he tells us {infra. D.

CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF ORMUZ. with the people that he had selected for his company." I cannot explain how the superfluous c got in here. so that it might become of profit. carrying out the determination of his father and those of his council .^ King Mahometh. and arrived at a tract of country that they then called Hormuz. and with certain of the people. vol. and he would leave to govern Arabia his eldest All having agreed son. n. and crossed over to the coast of Persia. It seemed good to him and to his followers to found in that port a city. which is where Hormuz now that land is. of Af. embarked. And thus his kingdom and fame would be increased .^ has " o brami " Barbosa (p. see supra^ p.^ which they now call Costeca f it is over against what is now called Hormuz on the coast of Persia. who was a man that would rule it well. ^ The Map of Arabia at p. and setting out from Amao he came to Calciate. arriving at the Cape of Jasques. ^ This statement 2 An Regarding Kalhdt. 155. And seeing and its position. he at once commanded to make ready a large force. and in the other places below where the name occurs. Cape Jashk being a long way from Hormuz. 257 on the coast of Persia had belonged to his predecessors. it did not seem to hira suitable to make a settlement there . since it was a good land. 1570) has " Braimu. i. n. wherefore his son remained there with many people. wherefore he continued his journey into the Strait along the coast. and through the carelessness of some of them had been lost. in a large number of ships that he had commanded to be made ready. These words seem to have got in here by some mistake. which is near that which they now call Magostam and Braamim. S . of the Comment. ^ See supra^ p. that at the present day its ruins show the city of Calciate to have been a very great and noble one. in order to found some cities and towns in that country. that his determination seemed good to them.* which is near the sea in the same Arabia. inasmuch as it was a place suitable for those of the country to trade with the ships that passed that way. having given orders regarding the affairs of Arabia and those of Calciate. 80. many of his chief men following him . error for " Caliate. Dall). 36) has " Ebrahemi " and Ortelius (Atlas. as the writer himself shows a ^ * few lines further on. . and wasted '^ that he had determined to cross over to them in person with the chief men of his kingdom who wished to follow him. and the city went on prospering in the course of time to such an extent. 154." .* thirty leagues outside the Strait. determined to settle and make their residence there and they therefore at once set about building houses and improving the is not found in Teixeira's version. The king and his followers being pleased with the country . depopulated.

and showed favour to the poor people of the country and the husbandmen. viz." 1 ' The statements in this paragraph do not appear in Teixeira's version. and to take each one what seemed to him best. This was the reason why. records the names of only two of Mahometh's successors." It represents Pers. * . in order that the memory of their predecessors might not perish. Ormuz had been founded on the coast of and had become prosperous with much people and riches. " stamp of much money. they generally called him Deranquu. It was a custom amongst these kings. they kept the country prosperous in their succeeding reigns.. by which every one of those countries is called the king to-day. beating (of. much people came to live under his protection and rule. The Dominican translator. dirain = monQy. and at the same time the prosperity of his country. Because of this benefit that he conferred on all that country. the which greatly increased the love of all towards him. and improved it. This they did . increasing in population and magnificence. APPENDIX D. they all sent to seek him with great presents. 2 In orig. seeing himself prosperous in this country and in favour with all his neighbours. and each one took the land that seemed good to him. this new city became very illustrious.^ which means. 155) spells it " Dramku. which was lacking in the country. by founding divers towns. This king. commanded money to be coined. and caused it to be inhabited . Teixeira {supra. both of Persia and of the other parts of Arabia. "^ After the city of Persia. " Cabadim" and " Pachaturunxa. showing the great pleasure they had at having him as a neighbour. that the fathers in their lifetime intrusted to them the government of the kingdom.258 country. And because this king was very liberal." Purchas {u. in order that he might improve it and cause it to be inhabited. he was very greatly and universally beloved by all those who had knowledge of him. and entertained strangers well. and with much people. it will be seen. And the fame of his virtues and nobility spreading to all parts round about. p. in a very short time. s. and ^^^= striking. And the sons that descended from these were con- And and very good tinuously such. zar-kob = goldsmith).3 ful because the kings that succeeded Mahometh* were powerin governing." and gives very few details of the history of^JHormuz. and each one gave to the land that he occupied his own name. by inventing money for it.) has " seale of money. they themselves becoming weary of it in their old age. commanded his chief men to go to the territories of Magostam. " Cello de moeda. The fame of his virtues and goodness spreading to all the kings of that Strait. in order the more to gain the love of all.

adds some details regardS 2 . nor statement borne out by the names of the kings as recorded.^ Arriving there. declared himself king. he was received by all with very great manifestations of delight and rejoicings.. whereupon he at once raised the siege of Cays. 160) that "Amir Bahadin Ayaz Seyfin. the rule going in the direct line. * ^ Amir Seyfadin Aben Azar.^ had gone by command of his uncle with a large armed force against the island and city of Cays. Afterwards this order and custom perished. because they were very sorrowful at having for a king a man who was not of the royal family wherefore.* and there being in the country none of the royal family. the goazil. put to death the others. many governed up tyrannically. was a slave. * Mir Xabadin Molongh. p. to be beheaded. nor did the to the present ^ Teixeira's version makes no mention of any such custom. they began their denominations anew. they proclaimed as king the nephew of the king. the ten following beginning to take the So that the first of the ten had to take the name of the founder and thus in order until the number often was completed. 158). the governor of the kingdom. Teixeira {supra.^ At this time a son-in-law of the deceased king. because some. ^ According him. According to Teixeira {ubi supra). that although rightful kings. and many were blinded^ by others who wished to have the rule of the kingdom.'^ The news was brought to him that his uncle had died. and with all the men that he had with him set out for Ormuz. p. and he fled for his to Teixeira's version. there was not such good rule in the kingdom. that is. with great rejoicings. and all his followers.^ IT After the direct line of succession to the throne had been broken. p. p. through covetousness of reigning. it will be seen {supra. putting to death the time there has never reigned any one that was not of the royal line. is the See supra. the people of life to Hormuz. Keys dethroned 9 Teixeira." the fifteenth king of Old Hormuz and founder of the island kingdom. 157) calls him. CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF ORMUZ. But there is one great and notable thing about this kingdom. * p. the ninth king. : names of the ten preceding. on the death of one who then reigned. as Hormuz was on the coast of Persia. This is not consistent with the statement in Teixeira's version {stipra.^ This order was preserved for some years. 158). He at once commanded the goazil who had set himself up as king. 259 that when they reached the tenth generation. who was his nephew. Teixeira's version says that he succeeded his father as king of Keys. ing the usurper's resistance. according to Teixeira (see ^ ^ supra.^ Only that. and that the goazil had declared himself king . it was the wazir {goazil or guazil is the Portuguese corruption of this word) Rex Xarear. 186.

proceeded to attack Hormuz. he thereupon crossed over with his people to the island that is now called Hormuz. which means "jungle. came with many men and powerfully equipped against Hormuz to destroy it. thereof prosper.260 affairs APPENDIX D. Nevertheless there salt. among the neighbouring kings increasing.) . 162) does not give any reason for the Hormuzis' change of location. so War had no longer such power to resist its enemies.-Eng. 1302. it happened that the king of Cremam.-Arab.^'' p. however. says {supra^ p. except by a few poor fishermen.D.^ which yield certain fruit that the Portuguese call that it Teixeira. cit. grow in the soil some poor clumps of jungle. thinking that he could there better defend himself against any foes.) has " a Wood . which come saline water. who. and. not daring to await the attack and power of the king of Cremam.). It will be noticed that Teixeira {supra^ p. embarked with all the people that could go." but " jungle" better conveys the 2 (fifteenth sense of the Portuguese mato. because it was more convenient. but they went on falling into decay. betook himself to the island called Queixome. it appearing to him that he was not safe there. 162) derives the name of the island from that of the old fisherman. so that he could not well defend himself there. which the ships take as ballast to India. "Cabadim" may be a printer's misreading for " Bahadim. et seq. and they called it Jarum. he says. are of it." (According to Dozy-Engelmann's Glossaire des Mots Espagnols et Portugais derives de VArabe^ anafega is from Arab.^ which is in the interior of Persia. leaving the country abandoned. and on the edges of the water is the salt as white as snow . and whoever wishes to cross the stream goes over on the The peaks of the range also are in some parts of top of the salt. who. months. ^ Cf the following description with Teixeira's {supra^ " maceiras Danafega. on account of its being somewhat large. and stony ground" (Johnson's Pers. lived there with his wife.® This island was formerly uninhabited. which After he had been there a few is near to the island of Ormuz. ^ The it " Kermon" of that was great hordes of Turks who. came out of Turkestan. I can "find no Persian word \\\iejarun^ meaning "jungle.^ and the soil almost entirely impregnated with salt. Purchas has " Apple trees of Anafega^^ and in the margin "A place and fruit so called. 160) calls him Mir Bahadin Ayaz Seyfin king of Hormuz). in A. and some trees like jujube-trees. King Cabadim." hni jaran means "coarse. because certain streams that flow through from a hilly range in the midst thereof."^ For the whole island is as it were of salt. lote-tree. after conquering the kingdom of Karman. Teixeira {supra^ p. * Purchas {pp. uneven. ® In orig. i6o). and." ^ Teixeira {supra^ p. an-nabikat=ihQ fruit of the Teixeira {supra^ p. 166) calls the trees conar.^ who at the time reigned in Hormuz. Diet). 164.

CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF ORMUZ. they called it Jarum. is an island called Cays." p. This island and city were very wealthy. when the king of Cremam returned to his dominions. and all the trade. in exchange for which. 1 Lit. "little apples.^ Wherefore. and producing only what I have said. those that succeeded gave it the name of Hormuz." that were the cause of their being poor eating. some leagues further in than Ormuz. began to build houses for himself and his people to dwell in. " Geman. the memory of which continues even to-day among those of the country \ and. it was in former times smaller and more convenient than it now is for even yet the people of the country show the places to which the sea used to come. owing to its being saline. who. was inclined to present it to Aydz. by a Cf. printer's error probably. Moreover. and which was destroyed by the king of Cremam. though now the island is deserted. that in this Strait of Ormuz. statements are not found in Teixeira's description his The above . which it retains up to the present time. and cultivated them . what follows with the Teixeira's statements. 162. or for the money that they made by them. but that the latter insisted on paying for it. because of the island's being sterile.* and there they made shift with what they Moreover. 261 mafads pequenas} like jujubes. 162) says. and very populous and prosperous. So that all the riches that Hormuz now has. and determined to settle there. and owing to the great concourse of people from Persia and Arabia who came to that place to seek the wares that came there from India.^ in which was founded in those times a very wealthy and very magnificent city. and they made it the capital of the kingdom. were at that . ^ 6 Purchas has here. there are still seen the remains of the ancient buildings that existed there. because of the great traffic of ships that came together there from all parts of India with many riches and very great quantities of merchandize . but which are bad eating. through being uninhabited. got by going to the countries round about. which was the name of the chief city that they had on the mainland. they bought those that came there from India.* II It is to be noted. Dominican writer here speaks apparently from 4 Teixeira {supra^ p.^ King Cabadim then having disembarked on this island. they went back again to resume possession of the lands they had formerly held. also bringing very rich goods. king of Keys." 2 as if 3 Purchas has " for they are sustained and liue by the raine water. that the island belonged to Neyn. because. supra^ . through the good offices of the mulld Xeque Ismael. and because the city founded in the island of Jarum prospered. which obtain an existence by virtue of the rain-water. of the island the own observation.

158." is omitted by Purchas. seeing himself illby the king of Hormuz. afterwards called ^ All that follows. and because they had rebelled in the matter of the tribute. and inflicting upon it. killing many of the people. lest there should happen to them some evils worse than those they had received from the kings of Ormuz . according to Teixeira {u. He says nothing. At^ the time that Hormuz was prosperous on the mainland of Persia the kings were at many times at war with the inhabitants of the island of Cays . who mentions 2 this fact in a marginal note. Sic in orig. p. and also fearing that these would prosper so in the trade as to deprive them of the whole of it (for they saw that it was already diminishing) .^ The treaty was made and confirmed. and at the same time^ the people and ships that had regularly come from India to Cays now began to frequent Hormuz. ^ Teixeira says nothing of the refusal of immediate assistance by the governor of Shiraz. since it was already being deprived of it by the city The king of Xiras gave no heed to recently founded in Jarum. and trade .262 APPENDIX D. as I have said. .). And because after the kings of Ormuz crossed over from the mainland to the island that they many injuries treated Hormuz they continued to prosper greatly in grandeur of buildings . governor of Xyr^z. * Teixeira does not mention this treaty until later on. when dealing with the reign of Amir Ayzadin Gordon X^ (see supra. p. because if he did not do so Cays would lose the whole of its dominion. p.). and they had often come against it with great array of battle. down to the end of the paragraph concluding with the words " the conquest of Ormuz. binding himself to be tributary to him. what follows with Teixeira's account {supra. the lord of Cays wrote to a king of Persia to whom he was then subject. ^ Cf. ^ Malek Ayzadin. whereby they withdrew much profit from those of Cays . made a treaty of peace with him. s. the latter becoming frightened on account of their disobedience. and those of Cays paid the tribute as long as the kings of Ormuz were prosperous on the mainland of Persia.* But when these became weak and disorganised they were no longer willing to pay it. time possessed by the island of Cays. however.^ and let it be understood that however much it might prosper it would not be difificult for him to destroy it at any time. prosperity.^ The lord of Cays. of any payment of tribute. ^ S^Q supra. that by all means and without any delay he would come with a large army to destroy the city that was increasing in prosperity in the island of Jarum . 169 et seq. 169). and of the curious expedient adopted by the ruler of Kais to obtain the help he so urgently needed. uninhabited. who was called the king of Xiras^ (which even now is a kingdom by itself). that which is now called Hormuz being. this embassy.

CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF ORMUZ.
delay, again wrote to the king of Xiras, that

263

Nevertheless the lord of Cays, seeing the danger resulting from on no account should he tarry, as great danger would result. And in order to make him understand the speed with which it was necessary that he should come, he used this metaphor that he would know what haste was needed, as he informed him that his head remained dirty because he could not wash it.^ The king of Xiras having seen this, at once got ready his forces, and proceeded to the island of Cays, where he prepared many boats, called by them terradas p' and in these crossed over with his forces to the island of Angam, which is two leagues from Ormuz, where the king of Ormuz attacked him and gave him battle, and defeated him.^ And having been defeated, though not utterly,^ he sent a proposal to the king of Ormuz, that he should give up to him his treasures and those of his predecessors ; and he would then go away and leave him in peace ; and that, if he were not willing to do this, he would wage war on him with fire and sword until he had utterly destroyed him. To these words the king of Ormuz replied, asking, how a man of such low origin as he was, who was descended from merchants, dared to propose such a thing to a king who came of such an ancient race of kings, who in Amao were always most noble knights, and had always been so up to their occupation of that island which was now called Hormuz ; and that he did not intend to be unworthy of his ancestry, as he had nothing to fear from him. (Even yet the kings of Ormuz take to themselves much glory in being descended from such a very ancient race as the kings of Amao, and give themselves out as related to a lord that lives in Arabia who is called the Catane,^ and despise the others, considering themselves better and nobler on account of antiquity than they.) Seeing himself thus affronted, the king of Xiras returned to Cays, and reinforced himself afresh with troops, and more ships, and returned with greater force against Hormuz;^ and, not
:

1

Only an Oriental could
See supra,
p. 22, n.

fully appreciate the significance of

such a

message.
2

3

Teixeira relates several antecedent events that are not recorded
writer.

by the Dominican
*

All the details that follow of the interchange of messages between the hostile leaders are omitted by Teixeira, who merely records the rejection of the peace overtures made by the Kaisis, and their second defeat by the Hormuzis. ^ " Catane" = Arab. Kahtdn, i.e., Joktan, from whom the tribes and
districts of south-eastern AralDia traced their descent (see

Imams of
i,

Palgrave's Central and Eastern Arabia, vol. Sayce's Races of the Old Testament, p. 65).

'Omdn,

p. vi

;

p.

453
;

;

® According to Teixeira {supra, p. 170), this was in A.D. 131 5 the previous expedition having taken place, apparently, the year before,

264

APPENDIX

D.

daring to give battle to the king, strove cunningly to come to parley with him, and craftily seized him,^ and sent him captive to the island of Cays, and he himself proceeded to lay siege to the island of Ormuz.^ The siege was sustained by another, who had been elected king by advice that the king who was taken prisoner managed to send.^ The siege lasted several months. Then the king of Xiras, seeing that he could not take Hormuz, and that the winter was coming on, and that it would not be safe for him to go by sea, returned to Cays, with the resolve to come back once more against Hormuz the following year. He returned thence in six months, bringing with him the king of Ormuz whom he had captured. But on the voyage a tempest overtook him, which scattered and destroyed his fleet. And it happened in this dispersal, that the terrada in which was the king of Ormuz who had been captured came to land at Hormuz, where he who was acting as king was not willing to receive him with honour ; wherefore,* after having been some days in Hormuz, he crossed over to Costeca, where Hormuz was formerly.^ Some days thereafter it happened, that he that was acting as king of Ormuz found it necessary to go to war with a people that then lived where now dwell the Noutaques,^ who are great sea-robbers.'' The real king, who was in Costeca, hearing of this, crossed over to Hormuz, and was received by the inhabitants as their king and lord, with great honors and rejoicings ; and he reigned peacefully until his death.^ The king of Xiras did not care to tempt Fortune again, and departed for his kingdom, abandoning the conquest of Ormuz.^ ^ The king of Ormuz,^^ seeing the evils that had come upon him

1

Teixeira,

who

is

fuller in

detail here, describes

how

this

was

effected.
2 Teixeira has it, that the king of Keys carried off Gordonxd captive in his terrada to Keys, whence he returned after five months, bringing his captive with him, to besiege Hormuz once more. This corresponds with what the Dominican translator records further on. 2 According to Teixeira {supra, p. 171), Bibi Sultan, wife of Gordonxa, had requested her nephew, Malek Guayxadin Dinar, to act as regent. * The details that follow differ in some respects from those given by Teixeira (see supra, p. 171). ^ " And dwelt in the fortress of Minab," says Teixeira. ^ See supra, pp. 21, 162. According to Teixeira, the usurper, finding that the troops were deserting him, fled for safety to Makron (Makrdn). ^ Which took place in A.D. 131 8, teste Teixeira. ^ This is not stated in Teixeira's account. 1^ According to Teixeira {supra, p. 173 ff.), this was Mir Xd Kodbadin, son of Gordonx£ The Dominican writer has here skipped over a number of events.
"^

CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF ORMUZ.

265

through the goazil of Cays,^ went against him with a large army, and having besieged him for some days without being able to conquer him, returned to Hormuz as the winter was approaching. He came back the following year, and took it and sacked it, and
left in it

a goazil o{ his

own

choice, with

many men. The

defeated

goazil

managed
;

to escape,

and

fled in a terrada to the island of

the goazil oi Barem he equipped himself anew in Barem, and returned against Cays ; and cunningly coming to parley with the goazil \AiOXi\ the king of Ormuz had left there to guard the city, seized him and put out his eyes, and resumed the government of Cays.^ But there succeeding to the throne of Ormuz Pachaturunxa,* who was the author of this Chronicle, and who reigned some three hundred years,* a little more or less, he brought it under his rule ; ^ and from that time forward it always remained subject to the kingdom of Ormuz. And then this Pachaturunxa subjected the island of Barem as a punishment for the favour that it had given to the goazil of Cays.^ And so the kings of Ormuz went on prospering in such manner that they became rulers of all the islands in this Strait, and all the country along the coast of Arabia as far as Lassa'^ and CatifTa,^ and also others on the shore of Persia, by which they formed a very great, rich and prosperous kingdom principally because the trade of Cays passed entirely to the island that is now called Hormuz \ wherefore Cays was utterly ruined, both in buildings and in wealth, so that it is now totally deserted, after having been the chief place of those parts.^ And Hormuz,^^ from having been a sterile and desert island, and a mountain of salt, is, among all the wealthy countries of
:

Barem by favor of

^ Purchas here inserts " (which had provoked the King of Xiras against him)," all the foregoing details having been omitted by him, as noted above (p. 261).

^

confused
2

In the above account the events of different years appear to be (cf. Teixeira's na.rra,tive, supra, pp. 173 ff., 183 ff., and 186 ff.).

In A.D. 1347, according to Teixeira {supra, p. 186). " three hundred years ago." The original has " reynou auera trezetos dnos" where I think trezetos is a lapsus penna for " trinta" (thirty). In any case, "three hundred years ago," if the correct rendering, would not agree with the statement of Teixeira, that Turdn Shdh reigned 1347- 1378.
*

Or

^

^ ®

See Teixeira, ubi supra. See supra, p. 186 et seq. See supra, pp. 26, 188.

^

See supra, pp.

29, 174.

(Cf. also p. 217.)

^ 1^

Cf
Cf.
;

supra,

p.

261.
p. 41, et seq.

what follows with Teixeira's
Barbosa,
;

et seq.

of Af. Dalb.,

vol. iv,

chap,

xliii;

fuller description, supra, p. 164, Linschoten, vol. i, chap, vi Comment, Pyrard, vol. ii, chap, xviii.
;

266

APPENDIX

D,

that

India, one of the wealthiest, through the come thither from all parts of India,
Persia, as far as the
I

many and rich goods and from the whole of

territories of the Mogores,^ saw merchants there, and from thus the inhabitants of Ormuz say that the whole and Hormuz is the stone thereof.^ Wherefore it is commonly said, that the custom-house of Ormuz is a conduit The last year^ that I was in of silver that is always running. Hormuz having been there three the ofificials assured me that the custom-house had yielded one hundred and fifty thousand pardaos for the King of Portugal beside what it is to be presumed is stolen by the Moors and the goazil^ who are officers of the custom-house.* And, even though this country yields no fruit, and has no water nor provisions, it has plenty of flesh, bread, rice, and much fish, and many and very good fruits, with which it is supplied from many parts, chiefly from Persia,^ whence come many pears, and peaches, plums, apples, grapes, figs, and quinces, of which they

Arabia and of and even from Venice. And world is a ring

Russia in Europe


;

1

The Mongols, Moguls,

or

Mughals

(see

Hobson-Jobson^

s.

v.

" Mogul").
2 The writer again quotes this well-known saying further on. Regarding it, see Comment, of Af. Dalb., vol. iv, p. i86 Pyrard, vol. ii, Burton's Camoens : Life and Lusiads^ vol. iv, p. 240, and footnote
;

;

p. 504.
^

1569 probably (see supra, p. 256,
Botelho's

n.).

India, ff. 76, 78, will be In Simao found the Hormuz custom-house returns for each year, from 1523 to The calculations are, however, in xerafins and ^adis. In the 1550. "tractate of the Portugal Indies^'' by the Viceroy D. Duarte de Menezes, translated in Purchas his Pilgrimes, vol. ii, p. 1506 et seq., ^^Ormus Fortresse yeeldeth to the King euery it is stated (p. 1522) yeare 170000. Pardaos de Tangas, which is 51000000. of Reys at 300. Reys the Pardao, and is thirtie one thousand eight hundred seventie fiue pounds sterling, counting one yeare with another, which is the rent of the Custome-house that was giuen to his Maiestie, with some
*
:

Tombo do Estado da

other duties that are paid to him, as in this Title is declared, &c." This was written circa 1585-87. On January 2nd, 1596, however, the King of Spain wrote to the Viceroy of India complaining of the small return from the Hormuz custom-house, which used to be one of the greatest revenue-producers in India ; and saying that Mathias de Albuquerque had written that in August 1594 the custom-house at Hormuz had yielded only thirty thousand pardaos. With respect to what the Dominican writer says as to peculation by "the Moors and the goazil^^ I may mention that the alvard referred to on p. 194, supra (of March i8th, 1569), shows that the captain, factor and other officials of Hormuz were robbing the King of Hormuz of " cabayas, horses, arrack rents and other things."
^

Here the

translation in Purchas ends with an " &c."

CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF ORMUZ.

267

make marmalades^ to supply the whole of India. Thence also the whole of India is supplied with raisins^ for the sick, and with wine, and dried plums and almonds for the sick ; and for delicious
There also come thither many melons at two seasons, which are very good, with the stripes and of the appearance of those of Abrantes. The first arrive from the 15th of March onwards, up till about the end of April. Then come others that last from July till September. There is also much fruit that comes there from Persia and Arabia, which they call mangas^ which is a very good fruit.* The pomegranates that come from Persia are not surpassed by those of Seville. And the pears and apples in December and January all these fruits arriving in such condition that they appear freshly picked from the trees, and they are very good. There also come there from Persia many nuts, vegetables, oranges, lemons, and many other provisions. Of the merchandise I say nothing, because thither come all the riches of the whole world, and thence they go to all parts. ^ So that with just reason they say, that the whole world is a ring and Hormuz the stone, though in itself it produces nothing but salt. It is very well supplied with water, both from the mainland of Persia and from the islands around.^ So that, whilst having nothing itself, it has all riches and abundance of everything that is brought to it from without.
dainties.
:

^

Cf.
i

Pyrard, vol.

vol.
f.

of Linschoten
2/,

222
'

p. 240, and footnote (the note at p. 48 of not quite correct). See also Garcia de Orta, on marmalade from the Tuarmel or bael fruit.
ii,

is

The

orig.

\\2i.s

dried

figs, raisins,

paffas^ an evident misprint iox passas^ currants, etc.

which means
\

' On mangoes, see Garcia de Orta, Collequio Linschoten, vol. ii, chap. xi. The former says that those of were the most extolled '^abadas). *

XXXIV
p. 252.

and

Hormuz

Cf. the list

given by Barbosa,
;

p. 42.

See also supra,
i,

^

Cf.

Barbosa, pp. 35, 44

Linschoten, vol.

p. 52.

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
Page

iii,

note

2,

line 2,

xiv,

note
vii."

i,

line

and note 4, line 6, for " vol. xvii," read " vol. vii." 3, and note 2, line 2, for "vol. xvii," read "vol.
at
:

Ixii,

end " A narrative of the outward voyage of the Leeuwin^ by Frederik de Houtman, appears to be extant
note
2,

add

among
„ „
I,

the archives at Batavia (see Gray's Pyrard, vol.

i,

p. 31, «.,

and

note
note

2, line 2,
5.
I

p. 490, n,)P " 1599," read " 1598." for

vol.

ii,

5,

find that the description of the cofo quoted
is

the Itinerario of Ant. Tenreiro

copied by the latter

from from

Castanheda, Liv.

6,

11,

cap.

Iviii

(or else

Castanheda had access

to Tenreiro's MS.).

note

I,

add
i,

after "
ii,

Sarbatane"

:

— "and

Hak.

Soc. ed. of

Pyrard, vol.

17, note, line

p. 165, «."

for

"Vasco," read "Francisco;"

last line, for

"January," read "

55, line 18, to

May
;

19."
:

the sentence ending " hard" should be a footnote
p.

The Voyage of M. Caesar Fredertcke {i^ZZ), p. 3 Neere vnto the riuer Euphrates, there is a citie called Ayit, neere vnto which citie, there is a great plaine full of pitch, and by this pitch, the people haue great benefite, to pitch their barks, which barks they call Daneck and Saffin^ (the original has danec and safine). Ralph Fitch, who copies wholesale from this writer, says Their boates be called Danec' (Ryley's Ralph Fitch, p. 53).
See infra,
56

"

and
:

cf.
'

.

.

.

.

.

.

:

'

I

am

uncertain

regarding the origin of daneca; but
s.vv.,
'

cf.

Hobson-Jobson, and New. Eng. Diet.,
Dingey.'

64, note 3,

Dingy, Dinghy,
of his Kins^s of

— D.

F."

add :— "Teixeira,

in

Bk.

I,

chap.

Iv,

Persia, records

the erection of this building by 'Mirzah
147 1- 1506)."

Sultan

73,

Ogem'
*

(

note

I,

last line,

add

after "

Cadjowa"
. .

:

—" These

panniers

are called

muhaffees' by
1879."

a plate at
III, note

p.

Henry Abbott, who depicts them in 36 oi \{\s fournal from Aleppo to Bussora,
.

etc., Calcutta,

I,

last line,

add
I

:

Pibhoit, fournal, etc., p. 32.

— "[Perhaps —D. F.]"
name

the

'

Mucksoofa' of H.

115, note

I,

lines 2-4.

find that

regarding the origin of the
Orta,
f.

Couto has copied the legend of Aleppo from Garcia de

193.

121, note 3, line 2,
3.

add

:

— "[See

New

Eng.

Diet.,

s.

v.

'

Cane,'

b.— D.

F.]"

"

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
Page
160, note 2.

269
;

two

cities

Sirjdn is not " an alternative name of Kermd.n the were quite distinct (see Royal As. Soc.Jour.^ 1901
;

pp. 281-290

1902, p. 423).
:

*' Barros, in enumerating the places 164, note 4, add at end on the Persian coast subject to the rule of Hormuz, names

the ports of
'

'

Cuzte' (Kuhistuk),

'

Chacoa'

(?),

'Brainy' (for

Braimy'

=
;

'

Agon

'

(?)

Bandar Ibrahim), 'Ducat' (for 'Dugar'), and and adds at these last two ports arrive the
:

'

cafilas of Persia' {Dec. II, Liv. xi, cap. vii)."

173, line

I, for " when he had taken a post on their route," read " having set out" (orig, has '''puesto en camino''').

181, note 6,

add
is
'

:

— "Among the villages
is
'

{Dec. II,

Liv. XI, cap. vii) as

enumerated by Barros paying rents to the crown of
in

Hormuz

191, note 3,

Queringon, which
at

Mogostao,' evidently
professes to have

identical with Teixeira's

add

end

:

— " Varthema, who

Kolongon.'

visited

Hormuz

circa 1504, relates circumstantially, as

having

occurred while he was in the island, the murder of the sultan

by

being slain by an Abyssinian slave, who, after occupying the throne for twenty
his eldest son, the latter, in his turn,

days,

resigned

it

in

favour of a younger brother of the

parricide (Hakluyt Soc. ed. of Varthema, pp. 96-99).

The

whole story looks
traveller's."

like

an invention of
read " thirty."

this

hare-brained

202, note 6, line

add: — "Dos
to the

5,

for " fifty,"

At end of note
the

Santos,
subject

who devotes
of

a whole chapter of his
casting

book

amber(gris), records

ashore at Brava in 1596 of a huge mass of this substance {Ethiopia Oriental, Pt. I, Liv. I, cap. xxviii Theal's Records
;

of South African History, vol. vii, p. 249). This may possibly be the same mass referred to by Teixeira, who may have
given the wrong date."
„ „
205, line 19, for " province," read " city." 208, note 3, lines 9 and 10, for " Selim II," read "

Salim

I,"

and

delete the dates in parentheses.

218, note 4, line 4, for "Mr.," read " vol. iii," read " vol. xiii." 222, note 4, line
2,

"Gen.

;"

and

line 6, for


„ „

:— " Couto {Dec. X, Liv. ix, cap. vii) mentions the Celetes simply as fishers." 225, note 2, line i, for "1599," read "1598;" and line 2, for " Martin," read " Martim." 228, note continued from previous page, line 2, for "and is
insert

known," read " and the resin
230, note
3,

is

known."

232, note 7,

line 2, for " Banjarasin," read " Banjarmasin." last line, after " happened," insert " either between
or.

September, 1586, and January, 1587,

1

;

INDEX.
Aba, an Arabian weight, 177 Abbas, Shah. See Shah Abbas.

Ahmad Abu
84

Risha, King of Ana,
26

Abdarmon,

spring

of,

167

Ahwaz,

city,

Abd-er-Razzak, 188 Abdu-'l-Mumin Khan, 249 Abdul Rahman, 47

Abraham,
114
;

connection with Aleppo, with Orfa, 123
iv

Abrantes, melons of, 266 Abreu, Captain Miguel de,

Aieb Xam^adin, Amir, 183 Ain Dhahab, spring, 109 Ain-es-Zerga, 107 Ain Saida, ruined city, 41 Akbar, xxvi Ak Dagh, or Western Taurus mountain,

139
river of, 126

Abu

J afar Mansur, son of

Muham-

Akpunar,

mad, 69

Akr Kuf,

ruins of, 74

Abumemtem, 105 Abu Regemo, valley

of,

Aburixa Hamed, Amir

77 of Ana, 84

Abu Taleb, 52 Acapulco, xviii, 9, 13 A^en, Amir, 173 Achin, kingdom of, 2

Alaverdi Khan, Captain-General of King of Persia, 71, 174 Alaby, Xeque, 45 Albors Kuyh, 196 Albuquerque, Affonso de, captures

;

ambassadors

from, xxxvi, xxxviii, Ixiii, Ixiv, Ixxxix ; the Dutch and, Ixii, Ixvi, Ixxii, Ixxvii, Ixxxv Acle or Achla, hamlet of, no Acuna, Don Pedro de. Governor of
Philippines, 9

Hormuz, 191, 192 Albuquerque, Estevao de, Ixxxvi Albuquerque, Fernao de, Captain of
Malacca,
Ixiv,

Ixxxvi

Albuquerque,

Mathias
xi
;

de,

xlix

Captain of Hormuz, xxvi, xxviii

nominated Viceroy, Goa, XV, 231

arrives at

Adams,

Adalia, Gulf of, 139 William, Ixxvi, Ixxx

Adatha, loi

Aden Then,
Aderbaion.

hill,

92

See Azarbaijan. Adibes, foxes of Gerun island, 167

Aesop, 206 Afiony, an opium eater, 200 Aflayah, town of, 74
Africa, Turkish depredations on N. E.
coasts of, iv

Alcoran, 40, i?Q Aleppo, xxn, xxm, xxvi, xxvn, 57, 60, 71, 109, 117, 121, 122; described, 112, 113, 115; plague at, 113; Pasha of, 116; trade of, 67, 85, 86, 88, 100, 1 18-122, 130 Alexandretta, port of Aleppo, xxiii, 117, 121, 129, i3o» 132 Alexandria, trade with Alexandretta, 132

Algarve, xix
Algiers,

Afrin, river near Aleppo, 124 Agaric trade in Cyprus, 138

Dey

of,

145

Agathius,

ciii

chief in Bahrein, 187 ; put to death, 188 Agem. See Persia. Agemis, 51, 65 Aguiar, Bras d', Captain of Melinde,
xlvii

Ageb, Mir,

Al Hasa, trade with Basra, 29 All Bey, Mir, Captain of Turkish fleet, xii retires to Mombasa, but
;

abandons the place, xiii ; saved from Zimbas by Portuguese, xiv
Ali Shah, 184 Alkay9ar, or Kay§ar, 40 All Samts' Bay in Brazil, Ixxiv Allen, Richard, xliv

Aguyla, or lignaloes, 214 Agy, or Agi, Eastern title, 238 Ahasuerus, ciii, 71 Ahen, Hheun or Hhyuna, 38

Almeida, Antonio Lopes de, Almeida, Fernao de, Iv

Ivii

Almoktady

Bilah, Caliph, 69

Ahen Macuba,

fountains,

1 1

Almostazer Bilah, Caliph, 69

province of Persia. 202. Ambara Amber. in Persia.. ']%^ 80. Armenian Christians in Bagdad. 36. 127 Antonio. Argentarias Isles (Japan). 165. on the Euphrates. xxxii. 236 ship. 66 Amir Hamed Agy. 131 Amboyna. See Henjam Ixix. trade. 210 . Alum. ix. 238 Amomum. 214 Aohenhat. 86 . 131 Ayaz bargains for island of Gerun. 133 83 . Ixxxvi Ixvii. attack a caravan. 73 . xvi Azevedo. xxxv. Amaro. xxvi. mountains of. 68 . 169 Aquila. 242. 197. 163 Aydar. See Algiers. 249 Assambei. Ascension Island. Captain of Arabic supersedes Persian characters. 24 tribute exacted from. Aleppo. paid by caravans for safe-conduct. governor of Xyraz. 43. 198 Argel. Miser. Cape. Gulf of. 196 Attmcar. 157 Alybe. 209. ancient city. Andrea. xlvii . 252 Ixiii. Don John of. 83 Ancona. Ixxxiv. Governor of Langar Kanon. 169 Ayas Kala. v. 105 Aski Shahr. 197. in Cyprus. 82. xxxiv. Joao Soares. King. Arabs of Regh Ceyfadin. island near Mozambique. 246 Ayzadin Gordon Xa. trade 42. xxxiv. 141 Awal Island. remains 70 . See in Aleppo. 254 Andreguir Andreuy. Ixxiii. 147. and olive trees of. 244 Azevedo. 112 Babylon. 216 of. opinion on French version of Teixeira's book. Ixvii Armenians. (Indragiri). y a medicine. 113 . 21 Island. 84 Ayzadin. at Basra. xliii Atex quedah. King of Gerun. description of. Dom. 67 . 234 Fr. 99 in. xiii Arniqua. Ixxviii. 75 Arabia. Arroba. 199. 169. Amir of Hormuz. King of. Malek. wild. vi. Arissabaya. Ampaza. measure of weight. heavy by Turks at . 168. 201. mountain in Persia. 81. xxxiv Basra. Bay of. See Larnaka. Ixxv Aschika. 5 isle in Persian Gulf. mountain. Ixviii. D. 193 Aram Sobah. ruins of. Armenian Tagh. near Caspian Sea. Babakhofiy title of. 235. H. 85. 84. 10 Ariosto. tribe of Persia. Captain Joao Gago de. Lodovico. ^ake of. 254 Assafoetida. xxix Apheute Christo. fruits Asshar iii creek. 247 Astrakam. Captain-major of Malabar coast. Pedro de. Ixxxiii Antao Gil. Prior of Crato and pretender to throne of Portugal. 124 Christians. Amguli Hamadan. 28 Astrabad. remains of. 175 Ayas Ceyfin. borax. Captain of Mozambique.INDEX. Amadizes. 245. 106 .. 210 Hormuz. 112 271 school at Bagdad. of Hormuz. Arequy. Angola. 206. 208 Ana. words adopted into Spanish and Portuguese. river in Ber- hala Strait. Aleppo. Angan. King of Persia. fight of Lepanto. Ixiv tree in India. Arad Island. 189 Asses. on coast of Madura. Dey of. Old. King of Isle of Kais. xxviii. x . 76 Audiffret. 162. 28 . rich houses Amedom. 204 Anriques. xxix Antonio. 232 Ambergris. 39. See Oman. or Arrack^ wine made in Persia and India. Antonio de. 57. xlii Antioch. 127 Antioch. xciii Austria. 121 Ardavel or Ardevil. mountains near of. 205. 252 . 39 horse-thieving by. 252 Aly. in Persia. 147 Avicenna. 175 Babuxa. climate. Ixxxi Aniza. 227. Jeronimo de. clii Amsterdam Dutch Ixxix Amir. 246 Areca. people. 247 Ataide. 227. Archery at Aleppo. 150 Andrade. 201. warlike 190 Amao. Amza Khan. 29 Arabian Jews in Ana. 235 Areca. 228 . city of. 238 Aniao. 262 Azarbaijan. 134 Artabanus. 57. and products of. M. Xeque.

204 . Boaly. . 235 Boekhout. 186 Barem. 160. trade of. 239 Blinding of relatives by Kings of Persia.. 29. 169. Amir Mobarezadin. of. 3 natives of. 160. li Botelho. 99 Behaeddin Ajas. town of. 29. 71 . xxii inhabitants 63 . loan merchant. xxxii Bermuda. of Borneo. 49. claimed by Mom- and government of. of. 166 Bilan. Upper. treatise on Africa 68 Both. xlix Botero. indusof. 15 of. 60 . origin of name. in Persia. Ixvii Barbary. of. Ixxxii. 67. 64. city. tests to discover spurious stones. Ixxxiv Benzoin. citadel 63 climate. Joao de. 120. pass Bajiiy 4 of. xxvii. Borneo. threatened by the Persians. Ixi Barley. Captain Juriaan. Bear. 15 Bagozzy. 130 Bi Fatima.. 272 Bagdad. English ship. coast of. Bandar Abbas. 231 . 57. Melik. 194 Bali. caravan trade of. xliv Beddwfn. the Dutch and. Ixvii. sites of. Bibi. 256 Baharon Xa. 67. 33. voyages Ixxx Blowpipe {Zeruefana). 222 fishery. 35. fort of. 4 . 30 barek. 29. King Hormuz. Bezoar 199. 171 their pearl- Beghdely. 155 Bandar Ibrahim. 175 Barreto. Mombarek. Basra. 159 Bangasaly. 254 Balsas river. 5 descrip- . xliii. Dutch vessel. 71 . 192 Barselor. or Berenus. Daniel Levi de. Strait of. Pahang. 28 . Portuguese historian. 230 Biarmia. 222 tiger-hunting in. 142 21 Barbosa. 13 Balyo. rafts. lii. 61. 227 Berberia. xliii. Jorge de Lima. Island of. 34. 200 stones. 2. Birenus. Isle of. of. use xix. capital of Canara. 216 Bengal. 30 . 35. ruins of ancient . See Bedawin. Diogo Moniz. 31 Balkh. Ixxxiv. method of. Ixxxviii. Gasparo. 19. XV. origin of. Betel. description of. bezoar stones of. 1 72 Ixxvii Barker. Diogo. 173-177. Giovanni. products. Bassein (Basaym). INDEX. 168 Banjarmasin. 100 tries. . 265 127 Balao^ a rowing-boat. ports of. 26. 22 Bitumen. xx. 19. . King of Persia. 164 iii. Queen of Hormuz. Bostan. of Persia. clan of Turkomans. Bax Dulab. 207 Bangasalys of Hormuz. 183. Turks get possession of. loghea. Ixxxv in Persia. Barcelor. island tion. of. 37. vii. Wm. xxiv Abb. English ship. 85. 161 Bejar in Salamanca. 13 Balsas of canes. William. Mongana. Ixxxv . 230 . English ship. 168 Banians in Hormuz. Ixxx Biddulph. 2 Benjamin. 229 . Simao. 30. 4 . etc. city of. 68. Bahrein Islands. 70 description of. Arabs. antidote against poisons.. bezoar stones 230 of Ceylon. li Barrios. xliv Benjamin of Tudela. 72 17 Bayona Isles. of. Barents. xxxv. 24. x. 254 Bolay Agy.. 26 . explosion at. Pieter. 112 Battista. Ivi Balbi. 174 Barreto. 210 Bardistan. See iii. garrison . 25. 19 Basra. 6 Blyde Boodschap. products. 35 J government 29 J etc.Machado. Jeronymo. 4. 156 Bandar Nakhilu. 69 . 28 . of. 238 Ixxviii Barkamin. etc. 29. Edmund. 165. 74 Beduynes. Captain of Hormuz. and Bailan. xvi Portuguese galleon. xliv Bear's Whelp. xxiv Barros. 65 100 . of Malacca. 144 Black Stone of Mecca. 44. Bokhara. 230 of India. Braamin 257 . xlvi. 128 Biranus. Ixviii. or Bassadore. 230 of Mexico. Bantam. Bom Jesus. 57 Birds. Venetian of Bahadin Ayaz Seyfin. trade of. 230 210 Basidu. 86. 178 Banda Islands. Belyla. civ. Bombareka. See Bahrein. 21 Banek. 247 Botelho. . 230 . xxi. . lands of. Sunda. Ixxxiv. 36. 19. 260 Baharon.

iii Cardamoms. Pero Fernandes de. fortress of. de. See Kishm. 95 Cabot. 60 near from Basra. Simao. Bromefield. 86 Camel-hire between Aleppo and its port. 228 Camphor. hawsers of. palace of. Martim Affonso de. fighting tribe. Isle of. 1. Ixxxi Cabral. Fernando de. Arab doctoring of. 245 Calayat. kingdom of. Pero de Almeida. Thomas. 70 Cara Bax. 252 Cartazes. 201. 12. 27. 166 273 Cambayatys of Hormuz. Canzir. pashalik of. 144 Castro. tooth of. Dominico. D. Ixxxiii Castel Marquez. at Alexandretta. 252 Cache. 36 Camel's straw. 225. xlvi. 214 Camara. xcv Brune. spare ones in caravans. Cabadim. 16 Castelbranco. viii. 132 Caranja^ Portuguese galleon. burnt. Castello. Ixxix Caniales^ daggers of Arabs. 29 . 58 Bridge of boats at Bagdad. Jorge de. Butargas. at Tayibe. 120 Casas de Kaodh. 70 Cala^a. King of Hormuz. v. Ruy Gonsalves da. 3. 40 Caesar. Constantino de. in Arabia. 232 Brito. 133. medicine from. 250. 9 Castro. 174 Castello-branco. 228 210. iv Cambaya. 249. 82 Castanho. 208 opinion of. 64 Calegary. in Syria. imported into Aleppo. 123 Calenders. 30. Brazil. 141 Carpets. Teixeira's notes on. 221 Broct.houses at Bagdad. 16 Caramania. xxx Bush-rats of Arabia {Jerboas)^ 37 Bussorah. xiv Brito. 139 Castel Torneze. Lourengo de. Jonas. 73 Camels' milk and colocynths. a tribe. Simao de. monk of the 131 Greek Church. xliv Brown. 87 exported . 142 Calumba wood. 201 . 67 129. description of. of Achin. in Ceylon. 45 . 66 .INDEX. 24 . D. 210 Californias. 5 Bricks. 221. Carvalho. Trajano Rodrigues . 185 Bradadin. Ixxxvi Portuguese ship. 131. Sir John. Calanges. 138 210 Arabian Carpathus. rebel lord of Japan. Castel Nuevo. Ixxxiv. li T . 173. annual cost of. 258. 239 Brahemy. 67. 260 Cabilda. v Calaminta trade in Cyprus. 120 duties of. 243. 147 Byra. xiii. 4 Cangeatica. See also Somaliland. xxxix. 94 Cabiley^ a tribe. D. 227 Camels and their uses. Ixxvi. Caerden. Cane Burgol. Rex. Cape. great herds at Bir Enus. 210 . destruction of. D. 235 . xxii. 141 Candia. 67 Canes. 67 . 103 . 58 . great stores Bagdad. Ixxviii Brito. 73 . 217. 4 Canals. Belchior. 8 Canto. danger of shipping in wet weather. xii. 74 Cananor. trade in Persia. 57 salt-fish roes. Vincencio de. porter. on Gulf of Venice. 121 Caselbax. trade at Bagdad. Ixxxv Brito. 156 Brahmans. town on the Euphrates. Cannafistola. 2 . of Borneo. wazir of Mogostam. Persians. fort. Turkish captain. x. lii-lv. 121 Camel-panniers. kingdom of Ceylon. exported from Persia. pilot. See Calefah's mosque at Bagdad. 149 Castel Rosso. 36 Bragan^a. Isle of. lands in Persia. Paulus van. Bragacya. See Kuwanto. 162. 43 Bungo in Japan. or Caliate. 239 Buluk bashi. 151 CaramusaleSy Turkish vessels. 133 Capgi. xviii. Roque de. Ixxix Burrough. a medicine of Arabia. Candia. 168 Cambodia. inhabitants of Azarbaijan. 235 Buddha. See Basra. 132. Kalhat. Ixxxv Cairo. Captain of Columbo. duty on. food of. Isle of. kingdom of. Ixxxvii Caryseas (Kerseys). Bradadin. Joao Correa de. John and Sebastian. xvii. 13 Caloiro or Caloyro. 210 Brava. 108 . x Canara. xlix Brunei in Borneo. 62 at Aleppo. coffee .

95. Ixix. 232 Cat's method of fishing with its tail. 252 Coaia Yafez. 19 Cloths. 3. trade in Persia. 222 Cenizas. 7. of Hormuz. port in China. 116. 220 Cazel Bax. 210. on Persian Gulf. 85 Cloves. 109. China Wood. sea-faring people in Straits of Singapore. 46 at Aleppo. See Cinnamon. 210. 182 Cellates (Seletes). kingdom of. 7 Christians not allowed to live in Mashad Ali. . exported from Persia. 49 . xlii . 231 . 219 Cobadim or Cobadixa. products of. 8 . exported from Aleppo. vii. 138 Cavalleiro. 36 9ocana. of Cyprus. Emperor of. X. 274 INDEX. 144 Chess. probably Shilu. 165 . i68 Chylao. 136 Cittanuova. dearth of salt in. 225 Chandanay sandalwood. voyage xxxi Cavite. 67. Ivii. large herds near Tayibe. 232. 58 . of Sao Louren90. citizen of. 66 Chaul. 29 . 9 Chaldees. not to attack vessels of. Queen Eliza- Catane. Cinnamon. 134 . living at Aleppo. in. fortress on Gulf of Venice. Isle of. See Chilaw. 115. port in Queixome. Lord of Arabia. Portuguese honour. 235 of. . Diogo. 150 Clarence Strait. 1 Ceifadim. xl ChauSy officer of the Turk. of. Capt. 147 Ceylon. 235 . island of. Greeks. bay of. 226 Portuguese capture ships and goods of. Portuguese ordered . 235 Choabedeh. game of. Persian poet. cement. 150 Cheeses produced in Cyprus. 178 ChitaSy tame leopards. 252 . 119 Coco-stones. 236 . iv beth's letter to. 119. 213 . Francisco. 1 Cephalonia. of Ceylon. 198 made . vi China. Jean. 3 Chincheos. King of Persia. 19 ChaudeleSy mantles. disease cured by use of hog-stone. xxxi. 36. different names given to. trade with Ana. Ixxviii. China Root. town 177. 119. See Cinnamon. 149 Catella. 182 Cobrocya in Arabic. 238 Chieri. Chelonites. 134 Christian city near Es Sabakhah. 144 Chilao. disease in Cyprus. trade with Philippines. 252 Citium. 175. xliv China Pao. ix . exported from Aleppo. 8 .wood of.China. at Basra. remains of. 6 Chincungu. 177 Chinguys Kan. 201 Cholle. plant of Ceylon used to facilitate. 205 rock-salt exported 232 in Chiloe. 179. at Bir Enus. pamplis (liquor) wines made in. See Cinnamon. pepper from. 37 Chocolate of Mexico. held captive by King of Achin. long-armed Child-birth. 116 Chalybon. 252 Chincheo. Cha (tea). cvii Charu. living Chales. 211 Chau. liv Cavendish. XV. Cochin . from Persia. 235 cinnamon and into 165 198 . Domingo Hortis de. tion and use of tea from. See Es Sikhneh. Ixxxviii. description of. port in Zante. 102 Christ. Bishop of. 3 . eagle. Ixxxviii . fighting tribe. sacked by Portuguese. 177 pearl-fishery of. 165 . origin of. xxvii. 167 Chatins. China porcelain. exported from Persia. li Catiffa. 82 Cedars. 236 . King. 177 . xxvi. 92 . 86 pearls in. 215 Chardin. 201 . shrub. ii. 191. 193 Ceifadixa. port of. xxx. from Gerun by ships of. Order iii of. Ixviii. 232 Cochineal Aleppo . 223 Cattle. 112 Champa. 235 . Cochin. 201 Chaboya. cinnamon of. . island of. 265 Cat's-eyes. Ixxix fortress Peru. 253 ChipOy oyster. introduced into Philippines by Spaniards. dues at Ana on. rhubarb brought from. temple near Basra. alum used instead of salt in. liii.1 1 . 3. Ixxxi Chingala tongue. xxxvi . Thomas. pearl fishery. city. Ixxxix . 31 Christianity in Philippine Isles. in Japan. 263 Cataro. descrip- imported from Venice. Chinese of Fuh-kien. 22 Chilaw.

Martim Affonso de Mello. 62 . 123. Husain. 121 Cofos^ in Borneo. 142 134 . 54 Custom-house receipts of Hormuz. 67 . 230 J (wild) of Persia. Consuls. prosperity under Venetians. Ixix. Ixxvi-lxxix. viii. 238 Cremam. 166 Ixxxiv. 175 Conar. 150 Damarkand. See Karman. 195 Colocynths. . used in. at Bagdad. 134 . grown near Mashad grown near Mashad 44 . Antonio Pereira. 244. 133. Francisco da. 150 Dalmatia. Quilimane. Simao da. Ruy Dias de Aguiar. Concan. 225 145 at Aleppo. Portuguese ship. Pedro. Captain. 122. ix. O. in Ceylon. 138. Ixxviii. Isle of. 185. 175 Costa. 19. various names of. See Currants. 143 Dal Ponte. 108 Cornfields of Zante. 129 Ixxvii. Coinage in Persia.INDEX. ConcepcdOy Portuguese ship. xc. ii. 242 Dargahon (Darguwan). Ixviii. evergreen in Gerun. Corner. Charles. 146. iii. 123 Dal Ponte. xii. Ixxxvii ConbacoTaycosama. 10 Cows. Shaikh. 137. 71 Currants of Zante. 149 Corinthian grapes. Codrington. 207. xl. Miguel da. Crocodiles. use of hot water as a drink. 119 Cotolendi. Jeronymo. 119 Couriers from Constantinople to Aleppo. in the Azores. 248 Danecas. 32 Cruz. XV Couto. 193 Cun Kan. Ixxvii. Ixxxiii of. 62. 132 . 134 Ali. 224. Jacob. xxx. Commagene. Ixxxi. Pasha of. vii. Girolamo. Alvaro da. of Aleppo. CotimOy tax on goods at Aleppo. Sebastiao da. Nuno da. in Persia. 118 Contadora. 143 Cuyper. Comorin. shipping trade with Venice. 201 Coffee-houses of Bagdad. Ixxxi. Ixxxvii Costa. 175 . xvi. 149. dearth in. Piero. 208 its trade. 202 Corna Zebad. medicine made from. kingdom of. Island of. 148 ciii Cyrus. iii 238 Constantinople. Thome de Sousa. Richard. with Coromandel coast. Ixix. 224. 119 Damavand. Simon de. Diogo de. Ixvi. Ixxxii Dallam. Ixxiv. Caspar da. river of. Agostino. 5 275 Coutinho. xiii. iv. xxxii Cory or Comory. ship. 69. 256 Cuama. 1. Ixxxiii Coutinho. Corvo. Captain of Hormuz. li. Earl of. 258 Coins minted at Basra. 88. Frank. li. Manoel de Sousa. and cotton yarn exported from Aleppo. 266 Cordes. kingdom Ixxiii. D. 210. Dey of Algiers' voyage to. xi. 1 Coutinho. 143 Ixxviii Customs officers at Bagdad. 210 Concei^ao. 132 . 220 Crystal work of Sinhalese. Ixiv. 88 . Ixxxvi. ix. imports into Aleppo from England. ruler of Japan. 136. 120 Corda.. targets made of rattans. 142. D. Ixxxiii Costa. 112. Belchior Diaz da. Dr. Cape. consuls at. trade Alexandretta. boats. Iv Cunha. Cuba. Cape. Ixxxvii Costa. 174 Coutinho. Ixxv. 235 Colthurst. 4 Coutinho. Ixxvii Corfu. 9 Copper. . hills. 55 . viii. Isle of. 55 Danial. port Queixome. trade with Alexandretta. xlvii. Hi. 67. Ixxix. ix Costeca. Coutinho. xcvii. 231 Coutinho. 19. sheep trade with Ana. 30 Coje Zoete. 35 Columbo. 254 Damascus. 162 Darab (Dar-Aguerd). Captain Balthazar da. Iii Cyprus. Ixviii. See Korea. Diogo Lopes. Ixxxiii Coffee. in Usbek. 225 Cruz. xix Cumberland. 134 . Dabul. iii. X. 100 Cyprus. xcviii Cofalla bank. xiv. xli Cunha.Major D. xl. 210 Curdestam. See Kohistug. Ixxxv. Ixviii. 29. 120 province of. Ixxvi. English Consul at Ixxxvi Aleppo. liii Coutinho. Thomas. 135 . Corea. 130. description and use of. titles Congo. xvi. 193 Daifuxama. xciii trade of Cotton. 187 in T 2 . Ixxxiii.

Ix . Ixvii and Bantam. 26 with Basra. river. 'captured by Xa Kodbadin. Eben Rabyah. 197 Dharamsalas. 98 Djebel Serbin. 235 Deccan. Dorak 29 or Dawrak (Doreka). caravanserais. . xliv of. 246 sent to and Achin. 26. Indies. D. 226 173 Indies. trade with Alexandretta. xxix 242 from exported from. 121 . . Ixi. province of Gilan. 29 El Meshad. Davis. Arab clan. Francisco d'. 217. near Bahrein. 164 Do^ar. name of given to King Mahometh Hormuz. Ixvi. the river Tigris. river of. 173 End-safet. Do^ar. of Islam. in Persia. near Drake. 36 medicinal stones obtained . Ceylon. 161 Fars. ships attack Portu- Duarte. xli. East India Company formed land. Mir.1 . temple. 120. . Iviii . wine made from. ship of Captain Wood lost near Martaban. 210 Denu. 88. river. xxxi. 46 Dhofar. i. 86 Diaz. 34 Sir Francis. Ixxxviii in Eng- Deranquu. 108 Devil. methods of obtaining. xliii. vessels. 137 Dyo. 147 . fortress of. Ii . Ixxxiii Ixxvi. xii Doniar. attempts to discover a N. coast on Gulf of Venice. 108 Basra. 85. guese vessels from Malacca. 160 Dschemaleddin. Ixvii. xxxiv Dutch at Aleppo. xvii. Tagus Erivan. kingdom of. at Aleppo. trade Djub Ghdnim (? lubeba). ii. 163 city. 198 . xxxii. English ship. 246 Dates. booty captured from Portuguese ships. 160. Persia. trade with Aleppo. xxxiii Ducats. iv . 1 59.. Ixxxii Ixxxviii . kind of silk in Persia. xxxvii capture two Portuguese ships. Portuguese fear of the fleet of. Persian and Arab names for the. Antonio. ix priest. in Persia. xlvi capture of Portuguese ships at Cape Comorin. Earthquake that destroyed 241 121 Lar. xxxxii. 8 Ebrahem Salgor. 276 Darydh Gueylany. traffic in slaves with Zante. Ixxi Diba. in Arabia. ruler of Kerman. Bonaventure. Eca. earth Cyprus. 71 Diamonds. 100 El Dandal. Dinar. 118.-E. Escandarona. xli. Diyarbakar. Ixxxi. etc. town of. 21 Egypt. 231 Deh Na. 221. 76 Elephants. Portuguese feating. Ixxxi . King of orders regarding capturing and detrade in the East. robber. and Japanese. xxv Dschelaleddin Sijurghutmisch. 121 expedi. Dyestuffs. 232 Diarbek or Karaemit. 246 Djebel Bu Schir. 120. INDEX. 132 Ein-ak. from. Dutch pinnace. 181 Dondra Doneys. 209. range of hills. Ixii Deer. John. 70 Dudley. Ixi Edward Eggs. Ivi. 120 . clan of Arabs. Ixxxviii and Spaniards. Xeque. blockade tions to E. 1 1 72 106 Ebenkaiz. Doro. Malek. 60 Malek. 175 197. 90 El Kajim (Kahem). Ixxvii and Portuguese. xxxvi Edible birds' nests of the East Edward^ English ship. 227 Dialah. 159 Eagle-vrood of Cochinchina. 126 El Chidhr. xliv Duifken. stream of. 99 Djebrin. xxxv. 216 Digilah or Diguylak. 117 fish Aleppo Esclavonia. 106 Ebony in the Philippines. Portuguese reference to. Sir Robert. 225 . 131 . 1 59 Derab. Arab tribe. 246 English consul. ii. 258 Eben Emana. Ixi collected by Arabs in Hindarabi isle. river. at Alexandretta. 93 El Katif. Ixxxii. 29. xxxiv. battle of. in Mesopotamia. See Guayacadin. 149 . Derrima. passage to the Far East. 97 Emadadin Ogen. merchants at Aleppo. Duzgun in Persia. Luis Fernandes. Ivii . xxxiv Drahem. 181 Earthenware made at Aleppo. . fortress Drahemya.

D. Falah Atsany. King of Hormuz. ixviii. nephew of Amir of Ana. xlviii-1. 50 Francisco. 118. 190 Gaxkhar. 227 Euphrates. 45 . Ixxx Fire. 71 Ethiopia. Ixiii Gama. 127 Figueiredo. killed by Spaniards. of ship. Foists. D. Malek. 49 Fruits of Persia. 100. 19 . 204 Franks leave Tripoli for Alexandretta. xlix. Ixxxiv Ganges river. 26 Fish-teeth used for blowpipe darts. 61. 131 . 74. D. used in hunting in Persia. 93. river. xv. xvi Garra. Ixiv. 26 Fernandes. 220 in Persia. backwater at Mashad Ali. in Persia. Luiz da. 109 Es Seriyeh (Serige). river. Diego. Famagosta. 196 Fireballs used to fire vessels. town. Fatehpur Sikri. Vasco da. 223 246 Gax Khar. trade with Aleppo. salt marsh. 121 Fachreddin 160. lOI Es Sochneh. 193 Gazelles. 222. Esegel. 120 . 266 Fuel used at Mashad Husain. religion of.. See Ezekiel. city of. Ixix. Ralph. 67 Florida. ciii George. 98. merchants at Aleppo. Gama. 194 Fellahieh. King 206. at Alexandretta. in Cyprus. 185 Fruit-trees of Hormuz island. 136 Faria y Sousa. near lake of Antioch. 167. 161 Ahmed ben Ibrahim Et-Thaibi. 29. imported into Mashad Ali. 88. Feruxa. Ixxxiv Fimmarchia. Gaznahen. Georgia. 260 Fruit and vegetables of Queixome. 252 Garajao. 36. iii Gedida. Isle of. 173 Gatan. town on the Furat. xix Eye diseases. 107 Es Sikhneh (Sucana). isle of. 236 Filippe the Prudent. 127 Fish. 33 Falcons. Ivi Esther and Ahasuerus. xliv ix. King of Hormuz. hamlet in Zante. Ixxxiv- de. Manuel Ixviii. 25 . 120. 143 Gazela. Gaoryazdys. 194 Fars. 8 Gehun river. Iv. xlvi. 218 Persia. trinkets made from. Joao da. death of. Fal. D. 73. Viceroy of India. fortress in Persia. Juan Battista de. 130 Freire. 86. 238 of Hormuz. 220 lii-lv. port in Ceylon. Bibi. valley land route to Europe. Iv Figueiroa. use of surmah for. 235 Galls. 20 Ivi. 144 Gama. 159 Geloofy cvii Dutch ship. Fogo. 119. 119. Gelaladin Queyzy. xlv. 93 Ferragoxa. son of of. Mir. 59. Ixxviii Gemelli-Careri. 223 Fish-bones. 277 friars. 18 Firelocks made by Sinhalese. 208. xl. 219 Ezekiel. caravan robbed at. 173 Gelaladin Suraget Mex. xxii. 104. D. D. 168 Ix . Esteval Rodrigues de. 253 Gebrahin (Djebrin). a kind of cannon. 240 Farur. 49 Genebrardus. 194 Francisco. 157 Gaules. 17 Ixx Farracoxa. 166. 242. 6 Fisher's Rock. See Kashgar. crocodiles 224 196. Cesare. 22 Fowls. 193. 143. 229. Ixxxiii French consul at Aleppo. Gama. 245 Georgians of Hormuz. captain Ixviii. Joao Pais. product of myrrh. 238 Fir-trees near lake of Antioch. Ixxxvii. lord of Hormuz Island. Vasco Gaoriy fruit in Persia. 194 Fig-trees. Gayetan. description of. 199 Furat. xxvi Fayo. warlike tribe in Persia. Ixiii. Ivii Ixxiv da. 56 Fyad. 118. lix. 107 Gat. Sultan. 99 E^pera. shoals of. 29.INDEX. xxvi-xxxi Flax-weaving at Bagdad. Moors of Ferragut Xa. 156. 222 Fitch. 56 Geese and ducks abundant on Shatel-Arab river. Giovanni Francesco. Agi Mahamed ben. Francisco da. 53 Fufely fruit. Federici. 224 Gama. 85. city of Afghanistan. xix Flour sent to Manila from Chincheo and Japon. 137 Frangue. 90 Galle. King D. provmce of. See Oxus. tomb of. in Persia. 117. Ruy Mendes de. Franciscan 137 Es Sabakhah. river. Joao Gomes.

philosophical and medical works in hands of Hhanega. in Achin. 37. Hhyuna or Ahen. 171 . 2/8 INDEX. 171 Gouvea. 9 Guinea. Hit (Hyt). exported from Aleppo. 171 . 169 . Xeque. Henrique. 50 Ghazan Khan. See Ispahan. Ixxxi Greville. producing bezoar stones. 174. sulphurous stream. 248 Herons in Mesopotamia. . 142 Greek saint's feast. xxvi.. fortress. der. 68 . 42 Hheun. Don Francisco Tello de. 56. 133 Grotlandia. 230 Gold. 206 in Aleppo. in Persian Gulf. hamlet of. on the Euphrates. in Persia. caravan halting-place. trade with Persia. 144 . 241 Hideyoshi. Hippopotamus. monk's story of. defeats King of Keys. 64 Gurgestam. Ixxiv Herat. 171. 21 Greenland. Island of. 38 Hides. region of. Captain Antonio. Hares. hills. 77 Gomes. King of Keys. rich houses of. captured by King of Keys. 165 Gerun. 203 Glass made at Aleppo. Guillestigui. 128 Gibel el Bexar. Ghaneiza (Geneza). Fa. 158 Esther and. 74 Good Hope. Ixix. Governor of Laion. 104 arrival of Ixxxv . caravanserai. Persians. 4 . 2 . complain of their vessels in E. 56 Ramadan. 9 Gypsum found in Persia. 71 brother of King of Hormuz. city. stream in Arabia. Hats used by Turks in Cyprus. town on the Euphrates. no Hillah(Hela). See also Ban- Gomegme. 188 Hammam. 205. Ixvii. See Hormuz. 214. 144. i Goldsmiths at Bagdad. 173. in Persia. slaves in Zante from. 264 Gueche (gypsum). 236 . Moorish epoch. caravan halting-place. commerce in. 209. 55» 56. 223 isle of. original inhabitant of Island of Hormuz. Fernao. town on the Euphrates. exported from Manila to Mexico. Goa. 167 Guerreiro.. 109. vii. Ixxxviii Heemskerk. Gueylon or Guylan. Antonio. 38 Hhynigha. 98 Gilan. driven from his kingdom but returns. 48 Hirahistan. holds Hormuz against King founds Hormuz. 10 Hijra. 246 Ginger exported from Persia. 205. Hagen. 171 . city of. mountains. Hamed 208 Khan. 121 See Gilan. 1 162. 17. 241 Grain imports into Zante. Ixiv Griego. Jacob van. Cardinal D. yams from. D. Ixxxviii destruction of Haluz. 246 . in Mindanao. 8 . Guayacadin Dinar. 100 Gueylon. iii of. xxx. Ant. Ixxxiv 90 Ixviii. 182 Hisphaon. 161 Gibel Bilan. 172 Malek. river in Persia. 69 Hikla (Acle). Gez. 98. Fulke. sea of. found in Tartar Empire. Haidar. 78 Guadel. Ixxxviii Henjam. 19. watercourse. 163 . 167 Gum Habin. 147 Gujerat. 210. See Greenland. 135 Hindarabi (Andreuy). xlix Girdles and sashes as badges of honour. Capt. dar Abbas. Dutch capturing Indies. Henri ques. in Cyprus. 15 Hawizeh 263 (? Oeza). driven ashore in Hormuz by a storm. 138 Guns of bronze at Bagdad. Malek. xlii. 71. Hhaleb= Aleppo. captures ships bound to Keys. Cape Gordon Xa. Hira. 252. xxviii. 171 . in Borneo. chief of Mongols. 170. Toyotomi. 113 . 57 Greeks. Ixxv . trade in Persia. U Henriques. iv. 201 produced in Cyprus.. in Persia. 134 Havana. Ixxvii. 252 Giralte. 208 . 137 coin. 157 Ghadir-et-Tair. 126 99 Harmus. 199. head-gear of. Juan Martinez de. Haman. Hamed. 162. 239 Goats. 26 Gombroon. Joao Scares. in city of Malacca. province in Persia. 163. xxvii. Indies. See Khalkhal. on the Euphrates. alarm at Hahe oie. 119 Golden Chersonese. chamber of. Hamed Raxet. 244 Buddha's tooth at. 170 . 36. 248 Hadyt. city in Khorasan. 245 Guyne. 209 Guzman. Cape in Cyprus. Francisco. xix. See Hormuz. Dutch ships in E. Steven van 78. 246 Halkhan. 112 of Keys. Ixxix Gerun.

King of Hormuz takes refuge in. 168 . Teixeira's digression on. seized by King of Xyraz.. silver mines of. 265. 161 . of Arabia. xvi . 159. killed by Achinese. reference to. attacked by King destroyed by of Karman. 258. conquered by Portuguese. 252 de. trade of. 230 . 165 residence in. sea of. 163 Ispahan. 237 sold publicly in Pegu. 70 Istakhr. Human Hunting by Javanese and obtained in Syaka. 86 . 264 attacks and sacks Keys. Ixxvii. xxxvii Homer Soiadin. 252 Horsburgh pore. 260. 29 great herds at Bir Enus. run for King of Hormuz. 173 Bahrein added to kingdom of. 191 . attacked by Horseback. besieged by King of Keys. 257. 192 . 5 Irak. 261. 263 defeats King . Mount. trade at Bagdad. Helena. 259. 67 . 108 Jafar. 250 I stria. people of Philippines. 35 Jacobites of Hormuz. 198 Indigo. city in Persia. 164 fortress of. INDEX. Keys con- I^d King of Hormuz. 209 . 183 . vii. of Xyraz. 235. mosque at Bagdad. founder of Shiraz. 232 Hollandiay Dutch ship. 168. 71 Jaguin. . 213. 259 second attack by King of Xyraz. at St. See Hyerak. 173 subdued by Nazomadin. Ixxxi Izaak. camphor sent from Borneo to. 182 Honey at Zante. Englishmen at. 209. 163 . province of Persia. 168 Jacub. 246. . 242 Ismael Suphy. Horsemanship 121 schools at Aleppo. 249 Ismael. opium of. 260 King of. 157. 242 Issicus Sinus. port of. Abraham's journey to Orfa to seek a bride for. 17. ascetics of. . v. 122 . . 143 Hoop. 200 Irak Ajami. 169. Pegu. 160. in Straits of Singa- Hrey. Shah. flourishes origin of. island of. . 242 Hyr. sack of. quered by King of. 65 Jambxed. description. xxxv. on Persian coast. 85. 163. 129 Issuf. trade with Aleppo. 266 . 242 Jama al Vazir. 157 167. 263 of. 197. island of. . of. trade with Bagdad. 197 . invaded by men of Keys. trade in Persia. 52 Huyenbe. Zimbas. 67 . 183 Incense. 155 . 218. Siam. 19. qualities of. vii. mountain. 250 I^d. ixii. 62. 261 peace with Keys. ambergris exported to Arabia and Persia. Frederik Hulaku Khan. 262. 153. xxiii. 206 jousts on. 264. conquered by Turks. 156. Xeque. 155 . in Hormuz. decline of. 179. under Soleyman. 260 . treaty of . at 220 Husain's (Ocem's) mosque Mashad Husain. 155. Ixxviii Hordobat. 248 Houtman. 1 70 . custom of naming the Kings of. 191. bezoar stones of. Old. 119. 238 Iwami. 240 Jami-al-Kasr. chronicle of Kings 256 Hormuz. 198 Hormuz. 181 . 262 King of Xyraz. 58 . 183 Jahrum. 172. 252 Indragiri (Andreguir) river. Hormuz and territories around invaded by men Hyrcania. Ixvi Jabal Sinam. 239 Jaghal-'Aghli. Turkish General. 227 India. Strait of. . Dutch ship. xxv-xxx . 263 . Ilocos. 89 Jaffna in Ceylon. Cornelis de. 33. in Persia. 169. open trade of. wine of Kaffraria. . 3 Light. 158. trade with Ana. province of Persia. 162 purchases Ge. 120 in Persia. wine smuggled from Persia. 177 . King of Karman. 123 Horses exported from Basra. 156 Ida. 156 King of Hormuz. 141 II. at Bagdad. 29. Teixeira's . 236. 248. etc. city of. Hog-stone. 150 Ivory of Ceylon. Pasha of Bagdad. commander of Dutch fleet to the East. pearl trade with China. Ixvi Houtman. See Ordabad. xc . Hyerak. 163. 64 . 279 flesh eaten . 202 . 7 Imaduddin Achchewankari. pearl fisheries in. 266 xx. 162. in Persia. Iron found at Niriz. in Persia. . 158. 4 . in Candia. xxxiv. 262. 173 . wines made in India. prospers under Kodbadin's rule. 161. medicinal 232 .. 264 escapes and returns to Hormuz.

Malay name for liquorice Kayumarras. imported into Aleppo. iii. in Persia. 237 Jazira = Mesopotamia. 114 Joete. of Resht. 242 Kazvin. city of Persia. 44 Jezebel. opening of Kandahar. port of Arabia. 211 Kaffraria in Africa. 243 Kebulos. . 39. 182 Oman. ruins of. 254 1 Kastelorizo. 195 Jogis. 97 Julfar. 41 Kalefah. 236 first King of Persia. Pass dino. Governor of. 169. din's forces. 56. port. town on the Euphrates. Kara Amid or Diar Kara Su. 74 161. on Persian shore. King of Hormuz. 177 Katifa. manzel of. Ixxvi Kaodh = co&QQ. 154. 156 Kayo maniz. connection with Aleppo. 178. range of hills. 217 . 1 78 Karu. Jashk. 218 . 155 Karoas = pearl-divers. 23 Kanis. in Persia. 67 Java. island of. Kodbadin 257 . city of. titles used in. kingdom of. 198 Kahem. Kermon. 49 . 68 Juba.280 Jamxed Khan. province Keys. 174. 91 Jubeba. 217. medicinal fruit. 254 Kane. Kerseys. 248 . 57. eating of human flesh by. 236 cinnamon trade Gordonxa cap- . High Priest. port in Queixome. 81 Jebel Amiri. 2 Javanese. 75. Queen. 157. allies with Mohamed Dram Ku. 159. Karason. wormwood from. 113. 126 Karaittivu. 238 . 208 Ketef-el-Hel. 168 . See Hormuz. 109 Jebel el Lebdi. 246. Kaykaus. Mashad Ali. 10 . 220 Joab. 176. Kethao Kotan. 181 Kaxon. viii. Dom Hieronymo. 212. 76 . 116 Japan. town of. 181 Karkuf. Jewish synagogue. 250. caravan halting-place. . shoals of. 116. 239. 250 . see Ramesvaram. See Keys. 250 Kadachadri. of. Karman. See Keys. Kaoh. 263 Josuah. Arabian lord. Governor INDEX. 260 . 182 cape. 121 of. See Karman. 139 Katar. of Bagdad. wine made of millet in. 65 . 188 captured by Kodbadin. 116 Jews. 99 in Persia. rhubarb from. in caravan. surmah exported from. 154. 66 Dutch trade with. even into war. port in Arabia. 222 Joktan. ix Bakr. 102 Jebel Shbeit. 217 . See Kashan. tomb of. 248 Kapul. 109 Jebul (Gebul). Kalhat (Kalayat) in 173. Kabul. 257 . not allowed to in Hormuz. town. 252 . mountain. 243 Kashgar. plain. Isle of. water made live in of. 261 isle in Strait of Basora. 254 Kais. xxvii. 206 Kabulstan. 206 Jewish synagogue at Aleppo. 90 Jubab. Ixv. use oisurniah by. 248. at. Isle of. pearl fishery of. Bernar- Jarra. Kamaladin Ismael. 226 Jarum. 162 joins (Keis). 120 from England Keshkan. 109 Jehun river (Oxus). 213 Kashghar. 208 Janissaries in Aleppo army. 37 Jesuits of Ceylon. carried always by Persians. rich houses of. in Persia. head-gear 135 . takes refuge in. title. river. captured by Xa Kodbadin. 93 Kaioamurs. Isle of. Teixeira's note on. at. rose217 . fortress. Karvez. 19 Kashan. visited by Torunxa. 20I Jarid^ javelin play at Aleppo. Kodba- description of. 253 JerboaSy bush-rats. Kaream. 185 with Ceylon. 22. keeping of their sabbath. 158 Karga. Arabia. 179 Jewels. fortress in Persia. 177 fishery of. 207 Kenn. Island of. rhubarb grown sur?7iah^ 219 213 . caravan halting-place. Xa Kaykobad. See Mashad Husain. 256 . 10 62. Strait of S. produces Karbala. Kalb al Sor. 187. in Gerun. 219. 172. Ixxxviii. in Aleppo. in Persia. 209. vii. 253 . 78. 239 Kazran or Kazerun. exports of tutty. 219. 196 and cinnamon. in Arabian desert. in province of Lasah. Ixxxi. 183 160. expedition against Hormuz. pearl Johor.

208. Governor of Kudum. loses Gordonxa in a storm. city. 166 Larek. 138 Ladies' Sea. town in Lastande. 232 Laxkary. 171 . Kolur. La Puebla Lar in Mexico. port in Persia. 14 . 240 Larnaka in Cyprus. 1 70 . in Gilan. . at Bushire. expedition from becomes Hormuz against. xx. tures ships bound to. Kudam. 259 trade tributary to Hormuz. xlii in Borneo. 209. Amir. 47 . Ixi. . 173 defeat sacked by of Kodbadin at. Mosque near Mashad Caliphs of. destroys fleet of his nephews and reconquers Gerun. 265 ruin of. 208. Kornah. 241 Laristan. Kykan Lac. 133 Koaia Mamud Kateb. reference 197 Kubr Mahmood. 158 253 Kharab (Karab). Sir James. 185 . v. Hormuz again invaded 281 to death of. xiii. Kykanos). Khwarispi or Koarrazm. Ixxiii Lamo. 252 Khetao Khotan. Mount (San Pedro). channel in Persian Gulf. Kwanto. 6 Kishm. 242 Komzara. vii. 173 . See Kohistug. Kharag (Karg). 171 . name given to Malay Sea. 5 Khor Minaw. . kingdom in Borneo. 186 or Kuhistak. . 184 Kodbadin. xciv Lancaster. Hormuz 159 . xl. district of Khan Balek. 229. Japan. dies at Nakelstam. 184 . in Persia. See Kulaghan. island. of. King of. 4. 9 Lafeta. 133 . Lastan. name given to medium-sized river. 184. 242 127 Persia. Ixviii. in Persia. Lave. 19. 159 slain by Malek Seyfadin. 243 Kumzar. 29 Lassa. 131 fortified city . wine smuggled from Persia to. 262 attracted to Hormuz from. Ladrones Isles. 246 Langebercque^ Dutch ship. 25 Khiva. KingofOrmuz. of Isle of. 155. 155. or Lara. province of. Ixxix Kuy Kastaron. conquered by King of Hormuz. by men of. 184 . 183 . Ladanum (gum). of. 208 Lahore. 181 Kum. 211 Kohistug Lardadi. 135 evacuated by Koadbadin's men. 246 . 253 Kini Balu. Laft. 257 Kolongon. Kostek. See Kumzar. xvii. 181 . 159 Kurdistan. 25 Kuwanto. 208 I^or. xiv Lamsvelt. kingdom of. xx. Persia. King of Hormuz. Xa. Xady flies to. 21 Persia. 169 Larinsy silver coins. 241 city in Keys. 24 from Persia. 169. 156 Layaga. Kufa. Laion 246 Kodbadin Thahantan. people take possession of. Mahamed Dram Ku disembarks his force at. Cosmo de. Cape. 251 Kurnah. 246 Ali. brother's shores. city. 69 Kulaghan. xli. trade with Basra. (or Japan. treachery against. Jan. 174. 172. See Lassa. xxxi-xxxiv. Ixxx in Achin. river. 159 . captures Gordonxa. Ixxxviii Langarkanon in Persia. 158 Kwambaku Taiko Sama. 208. village in Kurdestan. 265 Komron Mirza. King of Hormuz. 2 . Korea II 25 (Koray) invaded by Japanese. 113 Kyoto. Khor Sultani. invades Hormuz a second time. defeated by Xady at Keys. 171 Koaja lamaladin Neym. Laurel-trees near lake of Antioch. hill of. 161 Kiti. 197 in Persia. Arab 75 settlement. 183.INDEX. xxvi . 162. poses his brother's opsuccession as . island of. captures and sacks island of. 187 Lahijan in Persia. Krishnappa. Gulf of. 173 A'odrasy = golden cruzados. 262 sacked by King of Hormuz. Rax. conquers Persian and Arabian 181 . 136 Lasan. or Kurna. 6'^^Karason. 265 Khalkhal. 265 ruled by King of Hormuz. 10 ruler of Khamir. 264. 5. 209. Ixviii. river 1 1 of. town La ah. xx. 25 fortress. 159 Kodbadin. 255 247 155 Khorasan. province of. 30.

- 1 28: INDEX. xxx. Captain Luiz. King of Hormuz. 224 . 160 Mahometh. 257 Mahometh. bezoar stones of. Ixxxv-lxxxix . li. 6 Archipelago. Jan Huyghen van. the Euphrates. 172. Diogo. 201 See Mashad Husain. vii. Ixx-lxiii. Ixxxii Lignaloes from Persia. Ixxxiii Sultan. 198 . Ixxi Linhares. town on Matty a weight. 140 Madre XXX de Deos^ Portuguese ship. 150 Malandy. 155 Arab prince. 189 of Magdom. at Aleppo. fish-stone quarried in. Lichis (Lechyas). 205 Mahamed Xa. nipa wine at. Ixiii Lima. Katifa. 252 Macedo. Maciejra. xxvi. King of Hormuz. 251 made Lusoes. city of. 26 Malabar. 115 Malec. D. Mamud Homer. battle of. exported from Cyprus. 17 Ma'*ulepatao. Pero Gomez d'Abreu de. Magadosho on Philippines. Governor of Hormuz. xiii. 156. 1 Linschoten. incense abundant in. Lobo. Sound of. Madeira. discovers imports into Aleppo from England. liii Lima. Miguel de. 31. sea of. 193- Mahmud Kalhati. 222 . Paulo de. 147 Mahamed Dram Ku. 173 Mahamud 195 Xa. Ixviii. xlvi. 206 Lorestam. Ixxxix Mace. 186 Malwa opium. Rodrigo. city of (La Puebla). iv. King of Oman. Captain city. xliii Lions attack a caravan. 14 Lucca. xxvii. good rule of. leaves. harbour in Venice. Ixxxiv Madagascar. xvi. y 199 Lenkoran. of. Los Angeles. xxix LeeuWy Dutch ship. his *' Sailing Directory. Lead. King of Hormuz. Lesina or Lussin. 198 China Mahamed 35 Sorkab. xi Lima. death of Nayak Mam O^em. 197 Governor of Keys. 163 Malindi. ix. invades Persia. isle near Borneo. 5 . 21 Somali coast. 56. calumba wood found 215 . 172. in Xeque. xii. Ixx. 6 Macao. 154. Estevao Teixeira Macedo. xli Madine. Malek Licumbo. xl. xxxi . xlix. river. tiger-hunting in. of. xviii. 42 Liquorice. Moors' name for Affonso de Albuquerque. Ixxvii Maiar Magem. 119. XXX. in Persia. 7 Laz. 208 Leopards used in Persia for 220 Lepanto. pearl thieves. 236 Lisbon blockaded by English fleet. 214 . See Luristan. governor of Mozandaron. kingdom of. kingdom of Borneo. chief village of Shaikh Shuwaib. 199 at. Ixxxv. 120 Lecena. Conde de. Ixiii. Ixxxiii LiefdCy Dutch ship. 252 Lima. wine made in Persia from. 178. traders from. 230 . Caez. Ixvi. Ixxvi. 56 Madura. kingdom of. Ixxxv. 258 Mahu. exported from Persia. Magellan Straits. xii Magallanes. 149 Leedes. 2 . D. Ixxxiv Madder. Mamura. 1 Machado Boto. 137. Ixxvi Luzon (Lu^on). 192 Malaua (? Malawale). Malay name for. Jacques. 1 Maguey wine of Mexico made from. Ixvi. Ixviii Leeuwin^ Dutch ship. 234 Malamocco. Ixxi. 1598. Fernando de. island of. province of Persia. xiv Maltese privateers in the Levant. 227 . King of Hormuz. exported from Aleppo. Ixxiii Ixii. city. 157. description of. 197 . hunting. Teixeira Malayan studies fauna and flora of. Maged. iii. 120 Luristan. 179 Malacca. Mahamed eben Raxet. 188 26 Xeque. 250 Maktueh. Antonio de. Ixvi 245> 252 Ixiii Maldive Islands. Magd^ud. 256 . 4 Makran. Jorge de. 139. xvii. wine made from. Nayak fishing. I . viii. D. coin. xli." XXXV. tax on pearl 179. Ixxviii. use of betel. xl de. 173 Mahamed. 199. 61. li Lokman. D. William. vi. crocodiles at. li Lobo. xvii Malay use of betel («>?).

Antonio de. 140 v. near Khorasan. 199 . 204. Mexat Sandadiah. xii. Bay of. 47. 232 Medina. 199 xviii. 175. 248 founding of the city. pazar khony medicine in Persia. 222 title. Aleixo 1 de. Francisco. xxix. xviii. Silva de. 248. 124. Mexat O^em. Ixxxiii. 51 . town of. 57 Mesud. Mecca. exports of journey bezoars 7 . iii. Mexia. Ixxxi. 96 Mecere. 177 . 267 Mendo^a. Bibi. xvii. pearl- 178 . from of. 203. . 47» 5°. 49 . Affonso Telles de. 219 . Arabian coast. Menezes. Maximiliano de. 206 Medicinal plants of Timor. straw. 160 Mascarenhas. Mariam. D. loi. Diego de. Cape. 172 Marjoram. 18 . xx. Mendozino. 189 Menezes. Iv. Mendo^a. 159. vii proposal to build a fort at. 231 Khorasan. xxii. lii. Bay of. i. XXX. 202. Ixxxvii Mendo^a. King Mastic. See Kyoto. See also Cairo. 231 . 30. 267 Maronites living in Aleppo. 34 Mares preferred to horses by 43 Arabs. See Banjarmasin. Afonso. xxii. 239 Mangoes of Persia and Arabia. Ixxxvii. 177 Maurenahar. Ivi. Amir. Melons of Hormuz. isle of. plain of. 71. Cairo in Egypt. Archbishop D. 116 Maros. xxviii. a medicine of Arabia. African Medical works Maraxak. Mascarenhas. of Greek writers used by Persians. Manama. xix. island of. D. Luiz de. Marzoko. Ixxxii. xlix Mexico. Manna. 1 22 . 76 Mexed. 9. 44. xx capital of xxii Mashad. 207 Mayucy. Mauritius. 92 Melinde. King of. D. 225 Matan or Magtan. silver. 247 Meaco. island of. 244. xxxiv. Ixxxiv Meneses. lii fisheries of. pilgrim caravan from Aleppo to. See Mashad Husain. stone of Cananor. 11 Menucheher. Andre Furtado Ixxxvi. liv. no Melo. 194 Maskat. 33» 39. 208. de. use from. wild. 122 Na9erya. D. products and climate of. 248 Mannar. in. King of. abundance of fish at. 52 . black antimony from. and porcupine. Jeronimo. Iviii Marmalades made pilgrim caravans to. 49 . springs of. xxvi Menezes. iv. 222 of Massud.. See Gaor Yazdy. deer. 210 Menezes. 250 Mesopotamia. 56. King of Persia. pass of. Mashad Ali. MaynatoSy men who wash clothes. li Matical. 239 . 79 Meka^ar Jubab. xi. 68 . xxi. xviii. near Basra. 253. 267 Maniar Macem. 103 Manni. 248 Mello. 215 stones produced from the stomachs of the monkey. 231 xxiii. 78 of Eu- in Hormuz. . 161 Mexat Aly (or Mam Aly). 6. 188 pearl-fishers' attendants. Acapulco to. xiv 283 in Mazandaron Persia. 202 Masulipatam. Arabian weight. 35. iii. Duarte xxviii. Cornelius. xlviii. 16 Mendoga. vii. Menezes. caravan halting-place. Ixxxiv Mauritius^ Dutch ship. li Menezes. Pero Furtado de. 48 . MandecaSy 178 port in Bahrein. 73» 125. 225 Melluha. . Teixeira's notes on. imports into. Ixxxvi. See Mashad. See Mashad Ali. 8. Iv Mendo^a. li. Dom 225 Francisco Tello de. salt trade with Bagdad. pearl-fishery of. 175. 136. 201. chief pashalik of the Turk. INDEX. vi. inhabitants of. Francisco da lii. 6. i. 203. Ixxxix de. 198. Martim Affonso de. 231 Hormuz. 228 Me^enah. 227 Medyk Marwa in Persia. 75 Martaban. Mandra. Ixvii Maurigy. 13 231 wine made in. . 238 Manyat (Tel ul Manahyat). on banks phrates. 32. 93 Maravediy Arab or Turkish coin. 98 Masaud. Fr. 72 Masirah. Teixeira's notes on. 7 Matelief. tiger-hunting caravans from Basra to. v . . Manila. D. Gonsalo de. name of dog. Simao de. 72 Mashad Husain or Karbala. 160. 204. ix. Rokneddin. See Gaor Yazdy.

2 of. 6 Momia. on Euphrates. hands over Aleppo to Turks. xcv. 252 Nasuh. Arabs of Persian shore. 26 Mombasa. xl Morts-Aly. 1 Moridon. district of Persia. 86 Mustansiriyah. caravan halting-place. 199 Moehzadin Fulad. 227 Myrtle-trees. 236 at . . 53. 156. Pasha. Musaib (Me9ayehb). 172 Mindanao. Jan 159 Jansz. 252 Mostafa. Amir. li Miranda. Ixxviii wine of Bengal. 258 Mogul. King Nestorian of Keys. civ natives of Africa. 185 Nagasaki. College of. Henrique Henriques de. 143 Mills on the Euphrates. 76 of. production of. 206 Myrrh. van. sect of. 196 Nasariah (Na9eria). trade at Ana. 235 cinnamon . 66. fortress of. 214 . 231 Mona. 64 Musulys (Mosulis). water-course. Mizrakji Khan. John. 62 . Ixxxi. found in China and India. de. Joao Pinto de. 2. 166. old city. black antimony of Arabia. 252 in Persia. etc. the. 116. 47. xxv. 16 Nazmalek. 86 Mosulis. 67 Mune. J. xc. 57 Mocegueios. corsair. Henry. 17 Mosul. 266 Monkey. 85 Motelob. 235 Mokararias^ tribute paid by Hormuz to Persia. Malek. 109 Nakelstam. Ixxvi. Naquib. an Arab king. Moelenaer. Ixxviii.