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19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.

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1



PHN 1
CC KIN THC CN LU



1/nh ngha
0
0
A B A B
A B A B
> >

s s


2/Tnh cht
+ A>B A B <
+ A>B v B >C C A>
+ A>B A+C >B + C
+ A>B v C > D A+C > B + D
+ A>B v C > 0 A.C > B.C
+ A>B v C < 0 A.C < B.C
+ 0 < A < B v 0 < C <D 0 < A.C < B.D
+ A > B > 0 A
n
> B
n
n
+ A > B A
n
> B
n
vi n l
+ A > B A
n
> B
n
vi n chn
+ m > n > 0 v A > 1 A
m
> A
n

+ m > n > 0 v 0 <A < 1 A
m
< A
n

+A < B v A.B > 0
B A
1 1
>

3/Mt s hng bt ng thc

+ A
2
> 0 vi A ( du = xy ra khi A = 0 )
+ A
n
> 0 vi A ( du = xy ra khi A = 0 )
+ 0 > A vi A (du = xy ra khi A = 0 )
+ - A < A = A
+ A B A B + > + ( du = xy ra khi A.B > 0)
+ B A B A s ( du = xy ra khi A.B < 0)










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2

PHN II
CC PHNG PHP CHNG MINH BT NG THC


Phng php 1 : Dng nh ngha
Kin thc : chng minh A > B. Ta lp hiu A B > 0
Lu dng hng bt ng thc M
2
> 0 vi M

V d 1 x, y, z chng minh rng :
a) x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> xy+ yz + zx
b) x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> 2xy 2xz + 2yz

c) x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+3 > 2 (x + y + z)
Gii:
a) Ta xt hiu : x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- xy yz zx =
2
1
.2 .( x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- xy yz zx)
=
2
1
| | 0 ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2
> + + z y z x y x ng vi mi x;y;z R e
V (x-y)
2
>0 vix ; y Du bng xy ra khi x=y
(x-z)
2
>0 vix ; z Du bng xy ra khi x=z
(y-z)
2
>0 vi z; y Du bng xy ra khi z=y
Vy x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> xy+ yz + zx. Du bng xy ra khi x = y =z
b)Ta xt hiu: x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- ( 2xy 2xz +2yz ) = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- 2xy +2xz 2yz
= ( x y + z)
2
0 > ng vi mi x;y;z R e
Vy x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
> 2xy 2xz + 2yz ng vi mi x;y;z R e
Du bng xy ra khi x+y=z
c) Ta xt hiu: x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+3 2( x+ y +z ) = x
2
- 2x + 1 + y
2
-2y +1 + z
2
-2z +1
= (x-1)
2
+ (y-1)
2
+(z-1)
2
> 0. Du(=)xy ra khi x=y=z=1
V d 2: chng minh rng :
a)
2
2 2
2 2
|
.
|

\
| +
>
+ b a b a
; b)
2
2 2 2
3 3
|
.
|

\
| + +
>
+ + c b a c b a
c) Hy tng qut bi ton
Gii:
a) Ta xt hiu
2
2 2
2 2
|
.
|

\
| +

+ b a b a

=
( )
4
2
4
2
2 2 2 2
b ab a b a + +

+
= ( ) ab b a b a 2 2 2
4
1
2 2 2 2
+ = ( ) 0
4
1
2
> b a
Vy
2
2 2
2 2
|
.
|

\
| +
>
+ b a b a
. Du bng xy ra khi a=b
b)Ta xt hiu

2
2 2 2
3 3
|
.
|

\
| + +

+ + c b a c b a
= ( ) ( ) ( ) | | 0
9
1
2 2 2
> + + a c c b b a .Vy
2
2 2 2
3 3
|
.
|

\
| + +
>
+ + c b a c b a

Du bng xy ra khi a = b =c

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c)Tng qut


2
2 1
2 2
2
2
1
.... ....
|
.
|

\
| + + +
>
+ + +
n
a a a
n
a a a
n n

Tm li cc bc chng minh A>B theo nh ngha
Bc 1: Ta xt hiu H = A - B
Bc 2:Bin i H=(C+D)
2
hoc H=(C+D)
2
+.+(E+F)
2

Bc 3:Kt lun A > B

V d 1: Chng minh m,n,p,q ta u c : m
2
+ n
2
+ p
2
+ q
2
+1> m(n+p+q+1)
Gii:
0 1
4 4 4 4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ m
m
q mq
m
p mp
m
n mn
m

0 1
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
>
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|

m
q
m
p
m
n
m
(lun ng)
Du bng xy ra khi

=
=
=
=
0 1
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
m
q
m
p
m
n
m

=
=
=
=
2
2
2
2
m
m
q
m
p
m
n

= = =
=
1
2
q p n
m


V d 2: Chng minh rng vi mi a, b, c ta lun c : ) (
4 4 4
c b a abc c b a + + > + +
Gii: Ta c : ) (
4 4 4
c b a abc c b a + + > + + , 0 , , > c b a
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
0 ) 2 (
) 2 ( ) 2 (
0 2 2 2
2 2 2
0 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2 4 4 4
2 2 2 4 4 4
> + + + + +
> + +
+ + + + + +
>
+ + + + +
> + +
> + +
ac ab ac bc bc ab a c c b b a
ab a a c b a
ab c a c c b ac b c b b a a c c b b a
ab c ac b bc a
c a a c c b c b b a b a
ab c ac b bc a c b a
ab c ac b bc a c b a

ng vi mi a, b, c.


Phng php 2 : Dng php bin i tng ng
Kin thc:
Ta bin i bt ng thc cn chng minh tng ng vi bt ng thc ng
hoc bt ng thc c chng minh l ng.
Nu A < B C < D , vi C < D l mt bt ng thc hin nhin, hoc bit l ng th c
bt ng thc A < B .

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Ch cc hng ng thc sau:
( )
2 2 2
2 B AB A B A + + = +
( ) BC AC AB C B A C B A 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
+ + + + + = + +
( )
3 2 2 3 3
3 3 B AB B A A B A + + + = +
V d 1: Cho a, b, c, d,e l cc s thc chng minh rng
a) ab
b
a > +
4
2
2

b) b a ab b a + + > + + 1
2 2

c) ( ) e d c b a e d c b a + + + > + + + +
2 2 2 2 2

Gii:
a) ab
b
a > +
4
2
2
ab b a 4 4
2 2
> + 0 4 4
2 2
> + b a a ( ) 0 2
2
> b a
(BT ny lun ng). Vy ab
b
a > +
4
2
2
(du bng xy ra khi 2a=b)
b) b a ab b a + + > + + 1
2 2
) ) ( 2 1 ( 2
2 2
b a ab b a + + > + +
0 1 2 1 2 2
2 2 2 2
> + + + + + b b a a b ab a
0 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (
2 2 2
> + + b a b a Bt ng thc cui ng.
Vy b a ab b a + + > + + 1
2 2
. Du bng xy ra khi a=b=1
c) ( ) e d c b a e d c b a + + + > + + + +
2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) e d c b a e d c b a + + + > + + + + 4 4
2 2 2 2 2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
> + + + + + + + c ac a d ad a c ac a b ab a
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
> + + + c a d a c a b a
Bt ng thc ng vy ta c iu phi chng minh
V d 2: Chng minh rng: ( )( ) ( )( )
4 4 8 8 2 2 10 10
b a b a b a b a + + > + +
Gii:
( )( ) ( )( )
4 4 8 8 2 2 10 10
b a b a b a b a + + > + +
12 8 4 4 8 12 12 10 2 2 10 12
b b a b a a b b a b a a + + + > + + +
( ) ( ) 0
2 2 8 2 2 2 2 8
> + a b b a b a b a a
2
b
2
(a
2
-b
2
)(a
6
-b
6
) > 0
a
2
b
2
(a
2
-b
2
)
2
(a
4
+ a
2
b
2
+b
4
) > 0
Bt ng thccui ng vy ta c iu phi chng minh
V d 3: cho x.y =1 v x) y Chng minh
y x
y x

+
2 2
> 2 2
Gii:
y x
y x

+
2 2
> 2 2 v :x) y nn x- y ) 0 x
2
+y
2
> 2 2 ( x-y)
x
2
+y
2
- 2 2 x+ 2 2 y >0 x
2
+y
2
+2- 2 2 x+ 2 2 y -2 >0
x
2
+y
2
+( 2 )
2
- 2 2 x+ 2 2 y -2xy >0 v x.y=1 nn 2.x.y=2
(x-y- 2 )
2
> 0 iu ny lun lun ng . Vy ta c iu phi chng minh
V d 4: Chng minh rng:
a/ P(x,y)= 0 1 2 6 9
2 2 2
> + + y xy y y x R y x e ,
b/ c b a c b a + + s + +
2 2 2
(gi :bnh phng 2 v)
c/ Cho ba s thc khc khng x, y, z tha mn:

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
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+ + < + +
=
z y x
z y x
z y x
1 1 1
1 . .


Chng minh rng :c ng mt trong ba s x,y,z ln hn 1
Gii: Xt (x-1)(y-1)(z-1)=xyz+(xy+yz+zx)+x+y+z-1
=(xyz-1)+(x+y+z)-xyz(
z y x
1 1 1
+ + )=x+y+z - ( 0 )
1 1 1
> + +
z y x
(v
z y x
1 1 1
+ + < x+y+z
theo gt)
2 trong 3 s x-1 , y-1 , z-1 m hoc c ba s-1 , y-1, z-1 l dng.
Nu trng hp sau xy ra th x, y, z >1 x.y.z>1 Mu thun gt x.y.z=1 bt
buc phi xy ra trng hp trn tc l c ng 1 trong ba s x ,y ,z l s ln hn 1
V d 5: Chng minh rng : 2 1 <
+
+
+
+
+
<
c a
c
c b
b
b a
a

Gii:
Ta c : ) 1 (
1 1
c b a
a
b a
a
c b a b a
c b a b a
+ +
>
+

+ +
>
+
+ + < +
Tng t ta c : ) 2 (
c b a
b
c b
b
+ +
>
+
, ) 3 (
c b a
c
c a
c
+ +
>
+

Cng v theo v cc bt ng thc (1), (2), (3), ta c :
1 >
+
+
+
+
+ c a
c
c b
b
b a
a
(*)
Ta c : ) 4 (
c b a
c a
b a
a
b a a
+ +
+
<
+
+ <
Tng t : ) 5 (
c b a
b a
c b
b
+ +
+
<
+
, ) 6 (
c b a
b c
a c
c
+ +
+
<
+

Cng v theo v cc bt ng thc (4), (5), (6), ta c :
2 <
+
+
+
+
+ c a
c
c b
b
b a
a
(**)
T (*) v (**) , ta c : 2 1 <
+
+
+
+
+
<
c a
c
c b
b
b a
a
(pcm)


Phng php 3: Dng bt ng thc ph
Kin thc:
a) xy y x 2
2 2
> +
b) xy y x > +
2 2
du( = ) khi x = y = 0
c) ( ) xy y x 4
2
> +
d) 2 > +
a
b
b
a

V d 1 Cho a, b ,c l cc s khng m chng minh rng
(a+b)(b+c)(c+a) >8abc
Gii: Dng bt ng thc ph: ( ) xy y x 4
2
> +
Tac ( ) ab b a 4
2
> + ; ( ) bc c b 4
2
> + ; ( ) ac a c 4
2
> +

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6
( )
2
b a + ( )
2
c b + ( )
2
a c + > ( )
2 2 2 2
8 64 abc c b a = (a+b)(b+c)(c+a) >8abc
Du = xy ra khi a = b = c
Phng php 4: Bt ng thc C sy
Kin thc:
a/ Vi hai s khng m : 0 , > b a , ta c: ab b a 2 > + . Du = xy ra khi a=b
b/ Bt ng thc m rng cho n s khng m :
n
n
n
n
n n
n
a a a
a a a
a a a n a a a
|
.
|

\
| + + +
s
> + + +
...
..
.. ...
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1

Du = xy ra khi
n
a a a = = = ...
2 1

Ch : ta dng bt ng thc Csi khi cho bin s khng m.
V d 1 : Gii phng trnh :
2
3
4 2
2
1 2
4
1 4
2
=
+
+
+
+
+
x x
x
x
x
x
x

Gii : Nu t t =2
x
th pt tr thnh pt bc 6 theo t nn ta t 0 , ,
4
2
>

=
=
b a
b
a
x
x

Khi phng trnh c dng :
2
3 1
1 1
=
+
+
+
+
+ b a a
b
b
a

V tri ca phng trnh:

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) | | 3
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
3 1
1
1
1
1
1

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
+
+ + + + +

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
+
+ + =

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
=

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
b a a b
b a a b
b a a b
c b a
b a
b a
a
b a
b
b a
b a a
b
b
a


( )( )( )
( )( )( )
2
3
3
1 1
3
. 1 1 3
2
1
3
3
=
+ + +
+ + + >
b a b a
b a b a
Vy phng trnh tng ng vi :
0 1 4 2 1 1 1 = = = = = + = + = + x b a b a b a
x x
.
V d 2 : Cho x, y , z > 0 v x + y + z = 1. Tm GTLN ca P =
1 1 1 +
+
+
+
+ z
z
y
y
x
x

Gii : P = 3- (
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
+
+ z y x
) = 3 Q. Theo BDT Csi , nu a, b, c > 0 th

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( )
c b a c b a
c b a
c b a
abc c b a
abc c b a
+ +
> + +
>
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
> + +
> + +
9 1 1 1
9
1 1 1
1
3
1 1 1
3
3
3

Suy ra Q =
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
+
+ z y x 4
9
> -Q
4
9
s nn P = 3 Q s 3-
4
9
=
4
3

Vy max P =
4
3
.khi x = y = z =
3
1
.
V d 3: Cho a, b, c >0 . Chng minh rng:
abc
c b a
ab c ac b bc a 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
+ +
s
+
+
+
+
+

Gii: p dng bt ng thc Csi ta c :
|
.
|

\
|
+ s s
+ +
> + +
ac ab
bc a bc a
bc a bc a
1 1
2
1 1 2
2
2
2

Tng t :

abc
c b a
ab c ac b bc a
bc ac
ab c ab c
ab bc
ac b ac b
2
2 2 2
1 1
2
1 1 2
1 1
2
1 1 2
2 2 2
2
2
+ +
s
+ +
+
+ +
+
+

|
.
|

\
|
+ s s
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ s s
+ +

Du = xy ra khi a = b = c.
V d 4 : CMR trong tam gic ABC : 3 >
+
+
+
+
+ c b a
c
b a c
b
a c b
a
(*)
Gii : Theo bt ng thc Csi :
) 1 (
) )( )( (
33
c b a b a c a c b
abc
c b a
c
b a c
b
a c b
a
+ + +
>
+
+
+
+
+

Cng theo bt ng thc Csi :
) 2 ( ) (
2
1
) )( ( c b a c a c b b a c a c b = + + + s + +
Vit tip hai BDT tng t (2) ri nhn vi nhau s c
) 3 ( 1
) )( )( (
) )( )( (
>
+ + +

s + + +
c b a b a c a c b
abc
abc c b a b a c a c b

T (1),(3) suy ra (*). Du = xy ra khi a = b = c hay ABC l u .
V d 5:
Cho

<
s s <
z y x
c b a
, , 0
0
. Chng minh rng: ( )
( )
( )
2
2
4
z y x
ac
c a
c
z
b
y
a
x
cz by + +
+
s
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
Gii: t 0 ) ( ) (
2
= + + = ac x c a x x f c 2 nghim a,c
M: 0 ) ( 0 ) (
2
s + + s s s ac b c a b b f c b a

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( )
( ) ( )
( )( ) z y x c a
c
z
b
y
a
x
ac zc yb xa
z c a y c a x c a
c
z
ac zc
b
y
ac yb
a
x
ac xa
y c a
b
y
ac yb c a
b
ac
b
+ + + s
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + +
+ + + + + s + + + + |
.
|

\
|
+
+ s + + s +
) ( ) ( ) (
Theo bt ng thc Cauchy ta c:
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ) (
4
4
2
2
2
2 2
pcm z y x
ac
c a
c
z
b
y
a
x
ac zc yb xa
z y x c a
c
z
b
y
a
x
ac zc yb xa
z y x c a
c
z
b
y
a
x
ac zc yb xa
+ +
+
s
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
+ + + s |
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
+ + + s
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +


Phng php 5 Bt ng thc Bunhiacopski
Kin thc:
Cho 2n s thc ( 2 > n ):
n n
b b b a a a ,..., , , ,... ,
2 1 2 1
. Ta lun c:
) ... )( ... ( ) ... (
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
2 2 1 1 n n n n
b b b a a a b a b a b a + + + + + + s + + +
Du = xy ra khi
n
n
b
a
b
a
b
a
= = = ....
2
2
1
1

Hay
n
n
a
b
a
b
a
b
= = = ....
2
2
1
1
(Quy c : nu mu = 0 th t = 0 )
Chng minh:
t

+ + + =
+ + + =
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
...
...
n
n
b b b b
a a a a

- Nu a = 0 hay b = 0: Bt ng thc lun ng.
- Nu a,b > 0:
t: ( ) n i
b
b
a
a
i
i
i
i
,... 2 , 1 , = = = | o , Th th:
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
... ...
n n
| | | o o o + + + = + + +
Mt khc: ( )
2 2
2
1
i i i i
| o | o + s
Suy ra:
b a b a b a b a
n n
n n n n
. ...
1 ) ... (
2
1
) .... (
2
1
...
2 2 1 1
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1 2 2 1 1
s + + +
s + + + + + + + s + + + | | | o o o | o | o | o

Li c:
n n n n
b a b a b a b a b a b a + + + s + + + ... ...
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1

Suy ra: ) ... )( ... ( ) ... (
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
2 2 1 1 n n n n
b b b a a a b a b a b a + + + + + + s + + +
Du= xy ra
( )
n
n
n n
i i
b
a
b
a
b
a
du cng
n i
= = =

= =
....
....
,..., 2 , 1
2
2
1
1
1 1
| o | o
| o

V d 1 :
Chng minh rng: R xe , ta c:
8
1
cos sin
8 8
> + x x

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
9
Gii: Ta c: R x x x e = + , 1 cos sin
2 2

Theo bt ng thc Bunhiacopski, ta c:
( ) ( )( )
( )
2
4 4
4 4
2 2 4 4 2 2
cos sin
4
1
cos sin
2
1
1 1 cos sin 1 . cos 1 . sin 1
x x
x x
x x x x
+ s
+ s
+ + s + =

S dng bt ng thc Bunhiacopski mt ln na:
( )
( )( )
( )
8
1
cos sin
1 1 cos sin
4
1
1 . cos 1 . sin
4
1
4 4
2 2 8 8
2
4 4
> +
+ + s
+ s
x x
x x
x x

V d 2: Cho tam gic ABC c cc gc A,B,C nhn. Tm GTLN ca:
A C C B B A P tan . tan 1 tan . tan 1 tan . tan 1 + + + + + =
Gii:
* Bt ng thc Bunhiacopski m rng
Cho m b s, mi b s gm n s khng m: ) ,...., 2 , 1 )( ,..., , ( m i c b a
i i i
=
Th th:
) ... )( ... )( ... ( ) ... ... ... ... (
2 2 2 1 1 1
2
2 1 2 1 2 1
m
m
m
m
m
m
m m m m m m
m m m
c b a c b a c b a c c c b b b a a a + + + + + + + + + s + + +
Du= xy ra - b s (a,b,.,c) sao cho: vi mi i = 1,2,,m th -
i
t sao
cho:
i i i i i i
c t c b t b a t a = = = ,..., , , Hay
n n n
c b a c b a c b a ... : : : ... : : : ... : :
2 2 2 1 1 1
= =

V d 1: Cho

> e
= + + +
2 ,
3 ...
2 2
2
2
1
n Z n
a a a
n

Chng minh rng: 2
1
....
3 2
2 1
<
+
+ + +
n
a a a
n

Gii:
*
N k e ta c:
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|

=

<
2
1
2
1
1
4
1
1 1
2
2
k k k
k

3
2
2
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
...
2
7
1
2
5
1
2
5
1
2
3
1 1
...
3
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1 1
2 2 2
2
<
+
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ +
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
< + + +
+

<
n
n n
n
k k
k

Do theo bt ng thc Bunhiacopski:

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
10
2
3
2
3
1
...
3
1
2
1
...
1
....
3 2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
1
2 1
< < + + + + + + s
+
+ + +
n
a a a
n
a a a
n
n
(pcm)
V d 2: Cho 4 s a,b,c,d bt k chng minh rng:

2 2 2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( d c b a d b c a + + + s + + +
Gii: Dng bt ng thc Bunhiacopski: Tac ac+bds
2 2 2 2
. d c b a + +
m ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 d c bd ac b a d b c a + + + + + = + + + ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
. 2 d c d c b a b a + + + + + + s

2 2 2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( d c b a d b c a + + + s + + +
V d 3: Chng minh rng : ac bc ab c b a + + > + +
2 2 2

Gii: Dng bt ng thc Bunhiacopski
Cch 1: Xt cp s (1,1,1) v (a,b,c) ta c ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
. 1 . 1 . 1 ) ( 1 1 1 c b a c b a + + > + + + +
3( ) ( ) ac bc ab c b a c b a + + + + + > + + 2
2 2 2 2 2 2

ac bc ab c b a + + > + +
2 2 2
iu phi chng minh Du bng xy ra khi a=b=c


Phng php 6: Bt ng thc Tr- b-sp
Kin thc:
a)Nu

s s s
s s s
n
n
b b b
a a a
.....
.....
2 1
2 1
th
n
b a b a b a
n
b b b
n
a a a
n n n n
+ + +
s
+ + + + + + .... ....
.
...
2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
.
Du = xy ra khi v ch khi

= = =
= = =
n
n
b b b
a a a
....
....
2 1
2 1

b)Nu

> > >


s s s
n
n
b b b
a a a
.....
.....
2 1
2 1
th
n
b a b a b a
n
b b b
n
a a a
n n n n
+ + +
>
+ + + + + + .... ....
.
...
2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1

Du = xy ra khi v ch khi

= = =
= = =
n
n
b b b
a a a
....
....
2 1
2 1

V d 1: Cho AABC c 3 gc nhn ni tip ng trn bn knh R = 1 v
.
3
2
sin sin sin
2 sin . sin 2 sin . sin 2 sin . sin S
C B A
C C B B a A
=
+ +
+ +

S l din tch tan gic. chng minh rng AABC l tam gic u.
Gii: Khng gim tnh tng qut ta gi s .
2
0
t
< s s < C B A Suy ra:

s s
s s
C B a
C B A
2 sin 2 sin 2 sin
sin sin sin

p dng BT trebusep ta c:
( )( )
( )
) 2 sin 2 sin 2 (sin
3
1
sin sin sin
2 sin . sin 2 sin . sin 2 sin . sin
2 sin . sin 2 sin . sin 2 sin . sin 3
2 sin 2 sin 2 sin sin sin sin
C B A
C B A
C C B B A A
C C B B A A
C B A C B A
+ + s
+ +
+ +

+ + >
> + + + +

Du = xy ra du ABC
C B A
C B A
A

= =
= =

2 sin 2 sin 2 sin


sin sin sin


19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
11
Mt khc:
| | | |
) 2 ( 2 sin . . sin ). sin 2 )( sin 2 (
sin sin sin 4 sin . sin 2 . sin 2
) cos( ) cos( sin 2 cos ) cos( sin 2
2 sin ) cos( ). sin( 2 2 sin 2 sin 2 sin
S C b a C B R A R
C B A B A C
B A B A C C B A C
C B A B A C B A
= = =
= =
+ = + =
+ + = + +

Thay (2) vo (1) ta c
.
3
2
sin sin sin
2 sin . sin 2 sin . sin 2 sin . sin S
C B A
C C B B a A
s
+ +
+ +

Du = xy ra A ABC u.

V d 2(HS t gii):
a/ Cho a,b,c>0 v a+b+c=1 CMR: 9
1 1 1
> + +
c b a

b/ Cho x,y,z>0 v x+y+z=1 CMR:x+2y+z ) 1 )( 1 )( 1 ( 4 z y x >
c/ Cho a>0 , b>0, c>0
CMR:
2
3
>
+
+
+
+
+ b a
c
a c
b
c b
a

d)Cho x 0 > ,y 0 > tha mn 1 2 = y x ;CMR: x+y
5
1
>
V d 3: Cho a>b>c>0 v 1
2 2 2
= + + c b a . Chng minh rng
3 3 3
1
2
a b c
b c a c a b
+ + >
+ + +

Gii:
Do a,b,c i xng ,gi s a>b>c

+
>
+
>
+
> >
b a
c
c a
b
c b
a
c b a
2 2 2

p dng BT Tr- b-sp ta c
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
>
+
+
+
+
+ b a
c
c a
b
c b
a c b a
b a
c
c
c a
b
b
c b
a
a .
3
. . .
2 2 2
2 2 2
=
2
3
.
3
1
=
2
1

Vy
2
1
3 3 3
>
+
+
+
+
+ b a
c
c a
b
c b
a
Du bng xy ra khi a=b=c=
3
1

V d 4: Cho a,b,c,d>0 v abcd =1 .Chng minh rng :
( ) ( ) ( ) 10
2 2 2 2
> + + + + + + + + + a c d d c b c b a d c b a
Gii: Ta c ab b a 2
2 2
> +
cd d c 2
2 2
> +
Do abcd =1 nn cd =
ab
1
(dng
2
1 1
> +
x
x )
Ta c 4 )
1
( 2 ) ( 2
2 2 2
> + = + > + +
ab
ab cd ab c b a (1)
Mt khc: ( ) ( ) ( ) a c d d c b c b a + + + + + = (ab+cd)+(ac+bd)+(bc+ad)
= 2 2 2
1 1 1
+ + > |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+
bc
bc
ac
ac
ab
ab
Vy ( ) ( ) ( ) 10
2 2 2 2
> + + + + + + + + + a c d d c b c b a d c b a



19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
12
Phng php7 Bt ng thc Bernouli
Kin thc:
a)Dng nguyn thy: Cho a>-1, e s n 1 Z th ( ) na a
n
+ > + 1 1 . Du = xy ra khi v
ch khi

=
=
1
0
n
a

b) Dng m rng:
- Cho a > -1, 1 > o th ( ) na a + > + 1 1
o
. Du bng xy ra khi v ch khi a = 0.
- cho 1 0 , 1 < < > o a th ( ) na a + s + 1 1
o
. Du bng xy ra khi va ch khi

=
=
1
0
o
a
.
V d 1 : Chng minh rng 0 , , 1 > > + b a b a
a b
.
Gii
- Nu 1 > a hay 1 > b th BT lun ng
- Nu 0 < a,b < 1
p dng BT Bernouli:
( )
.
1
1
1
1
1
b a
a
a
a
b a
a
a b
a
a
a
b
b b
+
>
+
<

+ < |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|

Chng minh tng t:
b a
b
b
a
+
> . Suy ra 1 > +
a b
b a (pcm).
V d 2: Cho a,b,c > 0.Chng minh rng
5
5 5 5
3 3
|
.
|

\
| + +
>
+ + c b a c b a
. (1)
Gii
( ) 3
3 3 3
1
5 5 5
>
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

c b a
c
c b a
b
c b a
a

p dng BT Bernouli:
( )
c b a
a c b
c b a
a c b
c b a
a
+ +
+
+ >
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2 5
1
2
1
3
5 5
(2)
Chng minh tng t ta uc:

( )
c b a
b a c
c b a
b
+ +
+
+ >
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2 5
1
3
5
(3)
( )
c b a
c b a
c b a
c
+ +
+
+ >
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2 5
1
3
5
(4)
Cng (2) (3) (4) v theo v ta c
>
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
3
3 3 3
5 5 5
c b a
c
c b a
b
c b a
a
(pcm)
Ch : ta c bi ton tng qut sau y:
Cho . 1 ; 0 ,... ,
2 1
> > r a a a
n
Chng minh rng

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
13

r
n
r
n
r r
n
a a a
n
a a a
|
|
.
|

\
| + + +
>
+ + + .... ....
2 1 2 1
.
Du =
n
a a a = = = ....
2 1
.(chng minh tng t bi trn).
V d 3: Cho 1 , , 0 s s z y x . Chng minh rng
( )( )
8
81
2 2 2 2 2 2 s + + + +
z y x z y x
.
Gii
t ( ) 2 , , 1 2 , 2 , 2 s s = = = c b a c b a
z y x
.

( )( )
) 1 ( 3
2
0 2 3
0 2 1 2 1
2
s + s +
s s s
a
a a a
a a a

Chng minh tng t:
) 3 ( 3
2
) 2 ( 3
2
s +
s +
c
c
b
b

Cng (1) (2) (3) v theo v ta c
( ) ( )
) (
1 1 1
) (
8
81
1 1 1
2 2
1 1 1
2 9
pcm
c b a
c b a
c b a
c b a
c b a
c b a
csi
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + >
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + |
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + >
>

Ch : Bi ton tng qut dng ny
Cho n s | | 1 , , ,...., ,
2 1
> e c b a x x x
n

Ta lun c:
( )( )
( ) | |
b a
b a
x x x x x x
c
c c n
c c c c c c
n n
+

+
s + + + + + +
4
.... ....
2
2 1 2 1


Phng php 8: S dng tnh cht bc cu

Kin thc: A>B v B>C th A>C
V d 1: Cho a, b, c ,d >0 tha mn a> c+d , b>c+d
Chng minh rng ab >ad+bc
Gii:

Tac

+ >
+ >
d c b
d c a

> >
> >
0
0
c d b
d c a
(a-c)(b-d) > cd
ab-ad-bc+cd >cd ab> ad+bc (iu phi chng minh)
V d 2: Cho a,b,c>0 tha mn
3
5
2 2 2
= + + c b a
. Chng minh
abc c b a
1 1 1 1
< + +
Gii: Ta c :( a+b- c)
2
= a
2
+b
2
+c
2
+2( ab ac bc) ) 0
ac+bc-ab (
2
1
( a
2
+b
2
+c
2
)

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
14
ac+bc-ab
6
5
s ( 1 Chia hai v cho abc > 0 ta c
c b a
1 1 1
+ (
abc
1

V d 3: Cho 0 < a,b,c,d <1 Chng minh rng (1-a).(1-b) ( 1-c).(1-d) > 1-a-b-c-d
Gii: Ta c (1-a).(1-b) = 1-a-b+ab
Do a>0 , b>0 nn ab>0 (1-a).(1-b) > 1-a-b (1)
Do c <1 nn 1- c >0 ta c (1-a).(1-b) ( 1-c) > 1-a-b-c
(1-a).(1-b) ( 1-c).(1-d) > (1-a-b-c) (1-d) =1-a-b-c-d+ad+bd+cd
(1-a).(1-b) ( 1-c).(1-d) > 1-a-b-c-d (iu phi chng minh)

V d 4: Cho 0 <a,b,c <1 . Chng minh rng: a c c b b a c b a
2 2 2 3 3 3
3 2 2 2 + + + < + +
Gii:
Do a < 1 1
2
< a v
Ta c ( )( ) 0 1 . 1
2
< b a 1-b-
2
a +
2
a b > 0 1+
2
a
2
b >
2
a + b
m 0< a,b <1
2
a >
3
a ,
2
b >
3
b
T (1) v (2) 1+
2
a
2
b >
3
a +
3
b . Vy
3
a +
3
b < 1+
2
a
2
b
Tng t
3
b +
3
c c b
2
1+ s
c
3
+
3
a s a c
2
1+
Cng cc bt ng thc ta c : a c c b b a c b a
2 2 2 3 3 3
3 2 2 2 + + + s + +
V d 5 Chng minh rng : Nu 1998
2 2 2 2
= + = + d c b a th ac+bd =1998
Gii:
Ta c (ac + bd)
2
+ (ad bc )
2
= a
2
c
2
+ b
2 2 2 2
2 d a abcd d + +
2 2
c b + - abcd 2 =
= a
2
(c
2
+d
2
)+b
2
(c
2
+d
2
) =(c
2
+d
2
).( a
2
+ b
2
) = 1998
2

r rng (ac+bd)
2
s ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1998 = + + bc ad bd ac 1998 s +bd ac
V d 6 (HS t gii) :
a/ Cho cc s thc : a
1
; a
2
;a
3
.;a
2003
tha mn : a
1
+ a
2
+a
3
+ .+a
2003
=1
c

hng minh rng :

a
2
1
+
2
2003
2
3
2
2
.... a a a + + +
2003
1
>

b/ Cho a;b;c 0 > tha mn :a+b+c=1
Chng minh rng: ( 8 ) 1
1
).( 1
1
).( 1
1
>
c b a



Phng php 9: Dng tnh cht ca t s
Kin thc
1) Cho a, b ,c l cc s dng th
a Nu 1 >
b
a
th
c b
c a
b
a
+
+
>
b Nu 1 <
b
a
th
c b
c a
b
a
+
+
<
2) Nu b,d >0 th t

d
c
d b
c a
b
a
d
c
b
a
<
+
+
< <
`
V d 1: Cho a,b,c,d > 0 .Chng minh rng

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
15
2 1 <
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
<
b a d
d
a d c
c
d c b
b
c b a
a

Gii: Theo tnh cht ca t l thc ta c

d c b a
d a
c b a
a
c b a
a
+ + +
+
<
+ +
<
+ +
1 (1)
Mt khc :
d c b a
a
c b a
a
+ + +
>
+ +
(2)
T (1) v (2) ta c


d c b a
a
+ + +
<
c b a
a
+ +
<
d c b a
d a
+ + +
+
(3)
Tng t ta c

d c b a
a b
d c b
b
d c b a
b
+ + +
+
<
+ +
<
+ + +
(4)

d c b a
c b
a d c
c
d c b a
c
+ + +
+
<
+ +
<
+ + +
(5)

d c b a
c d
b a d
d
d c b a
d
+ + +
+
<
+ +
<
+ + +
(6)
cng v vi v ca (3); (4); (5); (6) ta c
2 1 <
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
<
b a d
d
a d c
c
d c b
b
c b a
a
iu phi chng minh
V d 2 :Cho:
b
a
<
d
c
v b,d > 0 .Chng minh rng
b
a
<
d
c
d b
cd ab
<
+
+
2 2

Gii: T
b
a
<
d
c
2 2
d
cd
b
ab
<
d
c
d
cd
d b
cd ab
b
ab
= <
+
+
<
2 2 2 2

Vy
b
a
<
d
c
d b
cd ab
<
+
+
2 2
iu phi chng minh

V d 3 : Cho a;b;c;dl cc s nguyn dng tha mn : a+b = c+d =1000
tm gi tr ln nht ca
d
b
c
a
+
Gii: Khng mt tnh tng qut ta gi s :
c
a

d
b
s T :
c
a

d
b
s
d
b
d c
b a
c
a
s
+
+
s
1 s
c
a
v a+b = c+d
a/ Nu :b 998 s th
d
b
998 s
d
b
c
a
+ s 999
b/Nu: b=998 th a=1
d
b
c
a
+ =
d c
999 1
+ t gi tr ln nht khi d= 1; c=999
Vy gi tr ln nht ca
d
b
c
a
+ =999+
999
1
khi a=d=1; c=b=999

Phng php 10: Phng php lm tri
Kin thc:
Dng cc tnh bt ng thc a mt v ca bt ng thc v dng tnh c
tng hu hn hoc tch hu hn.

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
16
(*) Phng php chung tnh tng hu hn : S =
n
u u u + + + ....
2 1

Ta c gng bin i s hng tng qut u
k
v hiu ca hai s hng lin tip nhau:

1 +
=
k k k
a a u
Khi :S = ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 3 2 2 1
....
+ +
= + + +
n n n
a a a a a a a a
(*) Phng php chung v tnh tch hu hn: P =
n
u u u ....
2 1

Bin i cc s hng
k
u v thng ca hai s hng lin tip nhau:
k
u =
1 + k
k
a
a

Khi P =
1
1
1 3
2
2
1
..... .
+ +
=
n n
n
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a


V d 1: Vi mi s t nhin n >1 chng minh rng

4
3 1
....
2
1
1
1
2
1
<
+
+ +
+
+
+
<
n n n n

Gii: Ta c
n n n k n 2
1 1 1
=
+
>
+
vi k = 1,2,3,,n-1
Do :
2
1
2 2
1
...
2
1
2
1
...
2
1
1
1
= = + + > + +
+
+
+ n
n
n n n n n


V d 2: Chng minh rng:
( ) 1 1 2
1
....
3
1
2
1
1 + > + + + + n
n
Vi n l s nguyn
Gii: Ta c ( ) k k
k k k k
+ =
+ +
> = 1 2
1
2
2
2 1

Khi cho k chy t 1 n n ta c
1 > 2( ) 1 2
( ) 2 3 2
2
1
>

( ) n n
n
+ > 1 2
1

Cng tng v cc bt ng thc trn ta c ( ) 1 1 2
1
....
3
1
2
1
1 + > + + + + n
n

V d 3: Chng minh rng 2
1
1
2
<

=
n
k
k
Z ne
Gii: Ta c
( ) k k k k k
1
1
1
1
1 1
2

<
Cho k chy t 2 n n ta c

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
17

1
1
....
3
1
2
1
1
1
1 1
....... ..........
3
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
1
2
1
2 2 2
2
2
2
< + + +

<
<
<
n
n n n


Vy 2
1
1
2
<

=
n
k
k



Phng php 11: Dng bt ng thc trong tam gic

Kin thc: Nu a;b;cl s o ba cnh ca tam gic th : a;b;c> 0
V |b-c| < a < b+c ; |a-c| < b < a+c ; |a-b| < c < b+a
V d 1: Cho a;b;c l s o ba cnh ca tam gic chng minh rng
1/ a
2
+b
2
+c
2
< 2(ab+bc+ac)
2/ abc>(a+b-c).(b+c-a).(c+a-b)
Gii
1/V a,b,c l s o 3 cnh ca mt tam gic nn ta c

+ < <
+ < <
+ < <
b a c
c a b
c b a
0
0
0

+ <
+ <
+ <
) (
) (
) (
2
2
2
b a c c
c a b b
c b a a

Cng tng v cc bt ng thc trn ta c: a
2
+b
2
+c
2
< 2(ab+bc+ac)
2/ Ta c a > b-c
2 2 2
) ( c b a a > > 0
b > a-c
2 2 2
) ( a c b b > > 0
c > a-b 0 ) (
2 2 2
> > b a c c
Nhn v cc bt ng thc ta c

( ) | | ( ) | | ( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )( ) b a c a c b c b a abc
b a c a c b c b a c b a
b a c a c b c b a c b a
+ + + >
+ + + >
>
. .
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2


V d2 (HS t gii)
1/ Cho a,b,c l chiu di ba cnh ca tam gic
Chng minh rng ) ( 2
2 2 2
ca bc ab c b a ca bc ab + + < + + < + +
2/Cho a,b,c l chiu di ba cnh ca tam gic c chu vi bng 2
Chng minh rng 2 2
2 2 2
< + + + abc c b a

Phng php 12: S dng hnh hc v ta


19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
18
x + y = 1
M
N
O
M
K
H
M
1
x
y
V d 1:
Chng minh rng : 0 , ) ( ) ( > > s + b a ab c b c c a c v c b >
Gii
Trong mt phng Oxy, chn ) , ( c b c u = ; ) , ( c c a v =
Th b u = , a v = ; ) ( ) ( . c b c c a c v u + =
Hn na: s + s = ab c b c c a c v u v u v u v u ) ( ) ( . ) , cos( . . . (PCM)
V d 2:
Cho 2n s: n i y x
i i
,..., 2 , 1 , ; = tha mn: . 1
1 1
= +

= =
n
i
i
n
i
i
y x Chng minh rng:
2
2
1
2 2
> +

=
n
i
i i
y x
Gii:
V hnh











Trong mt phng ta , xt:
) , (
1 1 1
y x M : ) , (
2 1 2 1 2
y y x x M + + ;; ) , (
1 1 n n n
y y x x M + + + +
Gi thit suy ra e
n
M ng thng x + y = 1. Lc :
2
1
2
1 1
y x OM + = ,
2
2
2
2 2 1
y x M M + = ,
2
3
2
3 3 2
y x M M + = ,,
2 2
1 n n n n
y x M M + =


V
1
OM
2 1
M M +
3 2
M M +
2
2
1
= > > + +

OH OM M M
n n n

> +

=
2
2
1
2 2
n
i
i i
y x (PCM)


Phng php 13: i bin s
V d1: Cho a,b,c > 0 Chng minh rng
2
3
>
+
+
+
+
+ b a
c
a c
b
c b
a
(1)
Gii: t x=b+c ; y=c+a ;z= a+b ta c a=
2
x z y +
; b =
2
y x z +
; c =
2
z y x +

ta c (1)
z
z y x
y
y x z
x
x z y
2 2 2
+
+
+
+
+

2
3
>

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
19
3 1 1 1 > + + + + +
z
y
z
x
y
z
y
x
x
z
x
y
( 6 ) ( ) ( ) > + + + + +
z
y
y
z
z
x
x
z
y
x
x
y

Bt ng thc cui cng ng v ( ; 2 > +
y
x
x
y
2 > +
z
x
x
z
; 2 > +
z
y
y
z
nn ta c iu
phi chng minh
V d2:
Cho a,b,c > 0 v a+b+c <1. Chng minh rng
9
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
>
+
+
+
+
+ ab c ac b bc a
(1)
Gii: t x = bc a 2
2
+ ; y = ac b 2
2
+ ; z = ab c 2
2
+ . Ta c ( ) 1
2
< + + = + + c b a z y x
(1) 9
1 1 1
> + +
z y x
Vi x+y+z < 1 v x ,y,z > 0
Theo bt ng thc Csi ta c: > + + z y x 3.
3
xyz , v: > + +
z y x
1 1 1
3. 3
1
xyz

( ) 9
1 1 1
. >
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
z y x
z y x . M x+y+z < 1. Vy 9
1 1 1
> + +
z y x
(pcm)
V d3: Cho x 0 > , y 0 > tha mn 1 2 = y x CMR
5
1
> + y x
Gi : t u x = , v y = 2u-v =1 v S = x+y =
2 2
v u + v = 2u-1
thay vo tnh S min
Bi tp t gii
1) Cho a > 0 , b > 0 , c > 0 CMR: 8
16 25
>
+
+
+
+
+ b a
c
a c
b
c b
a


2)Tng qut m, n, p, q, a, b >0
CMR
( ) ( ) p n m p n m
b a
pc
a c
nb
c b
ma
+ + + + >
+
+
+
+
+
2
2
1



Phng php 14: Dng tam thc bc hai

Kin th: Cho f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c
nh l 1:
f(x) > 0,

< A
>

0
0 a
x

s A
<
s

< A
<
<

s A
>
>
0
0
, 0 ) (
0
0
, 0 ) (
0
0
, 0 ) (
a
x x f
a
x x f
a
x x f

nh l 2:

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
20
Phng trnh f(x) = 0 c 2 nghim ( ) 0 .
2 1
< < < o o f a x x
Phng trnh f(x) = 0 c 2 nghim :

( )

<
> A
>
< <
o
o
o
2
0
0 .
2 1
S
f a
x x
Phng trnh f(x) = 0 c 2 nghim :

( )

>
> A
>
< <
o
o
o
2
0
0 .
2 1
S
f a
x x
Phng trnh f(x) = 0 c 2 nghim ( ) ( ) . 0 .
2 1
2 1
<

< < <


< < <
| o
| o
| o
f f
x x
x x


V d 1:Chng minh rng ( ) 0 3 6 2 4 5 ,
2 2
> + + + = y x xy y x y x f (1)
Gii: Ta c (1) ( ) 0 3 6 5 1 2 2
2 2
> + + y y y x x
( ) 3 6 5 1 2
2 2
+ = A' y y y

( ) 0 1 1
3 6 5 1 4 4
2
2 2
< =
+ + =
y
y y y y

Vy ( ) 0 , > y x f vi mi x, y

V d2: Chng minh rng: ( ) ( )
3 2 2 2 4 2
4 4 . 2 2 , xy x xy y x y x y x f > + + + + =

Gii: Bt ng thc cn chng minh tng ng vi
( ) 0 4 4 . 2 2
3 2 2 2 4 2
> + + + + xy x xy y x y x ( ) 0 4 1 4 . ) 1 (
2 2 2 2 2
> + + + y x y y x y
Ta c ( ) ( ) 0 16 1 4 1 4
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
< = + = A' y y y y y
V a = ( ) 0 1
2
2
> + y vy ( ) 0 , > y x f (pcm)


Phng php 15: Dng quy np ton hc
Kin thc:
chng minh bt ng thc ng vi
0
n n > ta thc hin cc bc sau :
1 Kim tra bt ng thc ng vi
0
n n =
2 - Gi s BT ng vi n =k (thay n =k vo BT cn chng minh c gi l
gi thit quy np )
3- Ta chng minh bt ng thc ng vi n = k +1 (thay n = k+1vo BT cn
chng minh ri bin i dng gi thit quy np)
4 kt lun BT ng vi mi
0
n n >


19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
21
V d1: Chng minh rng :
n n
1
2
1
....
2
1
1
1
2 2 2
< + + + 1 ; > e n N n (1)
Gii: Vi n =2 ta c
2
1
2
4
1
1 < + (ng). Vy BT (1) ng vi n =2
Gi s BT (1) ng vi n =k ta phi chng minh BT (1) ng vi n = k+1
Tht vy khi n =k+1 th (1)
1
1
2
) 1 (
1 1
....
2
1
1
1
2 2 2 2
+
<
+
+ + + +
k k k

Theo gi thit quy np

( ) 1
1
2
1
1 1
2
) 1 (
1 1
....
2
1
1
1
2 2 2 2 2
+
<
+
+ <
+
+ + + +
k k k k k


( ) k k k k
1
1
1
1
1
) 1 (
1
....
1
1
2 2 2
<
+
+
+
<
+
+ +


2
2
) 1 ( ) 2 (
1
) 1 (
1 1
+ < + <
+
+ +
k k k
k k
k
k
2
+2k<k
2
+2k+1 iu ny ng .Vy bt
ng thc (1)c chng minh
V d2: Cho N ne v a+b> 0. Chng minh rng
n
b a
|
.
|

\
| +
2
s
2
n n
b a +
(1)
Gii: Ta thy BT (1) ng vi n=1
Gi s BT (1) ng vi n=k ta phi chng minh BT ng vi n=k+1
Tht vy vi n = k+1 ta c
(1)
1
2
+
|
.
|

\
| +
k
b a
s
2
1 1 + +
+
k k
b a


2
.
2
b a b a
k
+
|
.
|

\
| +
s
2
1 1 + +
+
k k
b a
(2)
V tri (2) s
2 4 2
.
2
1 1 1 1 + + + +
+
s
+ + +
=
+ +
k k k k k k k k
b a b b a ab a b a b a

0
4 2
1 1 1 1
>
+ + +

+
+ + + + k k k k k k
b b a ab a b a
( )( ) 0 . > b a b a
k k
(3)
Ta chng minh (3)
(+) Gi s a > b v gi thit cho a > -b a > b

k
k
k
b b a > > ( )( ) 0 . > b a b a
k k

(+) Gi s a < b v theo gi thit - a<b
k k k
k
b a b a < < ( )( ) 0 . > b a b a
k k

Vy BT (3)lun ng ta c (pcm)
V d 3: Cho N e s > n a 1 , 1 . Chng minh rng : a n a
n
. 1 ) 1 ( + > +
Gii
n=1: bt ng thc lun ng
n=k ( N e k ): gi s bt ng thc ng, tc l: a k a
k
. 1 ) 1 ( + > +
n= k+1 . Ta cn chng minh: a k a
k
). 1 ( 1 ) 1 (
1
+ + > +
+

Ta c: a k a k a k a k a a a a
k k
) 1 ( 1 . ) 1 ( 1 ) . 1 ).( 1 ( ) 1 ).( 1 ( ) 1 (
2 1
+ + > + + + > + + > + + = +
+

Bt ng thc ng vi n= k+1
V y theo nguyn l quy np: a n a
n
. 1 ) 1 ( + > + , N e n
V d 4: Cho N e s n 1 0 , , ,
2 1
>
n
a a a tho mn

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
22
2
1
2 1
s + + +
n
a a a . Chng minh rng:
2
1
) 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (
2 1
>
n
a a a

Gii n=1: s
2
1
1
a >
2
1
1
1
a Bi ton ng
n=k ( N e k ): gi s bt ng thc ng, tc l:
2
1
) 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (
2 1
>
k
a a a
n= k+1 . Ta cn chng minh:
2
1
) 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (
1 2 1
>
+ k
a a a
Ta c: =
+
) 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (
1 2 1 k
a a a ] ) ( 1 )[ 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (
1 1 1 2 1 + +
+ +
k k k k k
a a a a a a a
2
1
)] ( 1 )[ 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (
1 1 2 1
> + >
+ k k k
a a a a a (V
2
1
) (
1 1 2 1
s + + + + +
+ k k k
a a a a a )
Bt ng thc ng vi n= k+1
Vy theo nguyn l quy np:
2
1
) 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (
2 1
>
n
a a a
V d 5: Cho N e s n 1 , n i R b a
i i
,..., 2 , 1 , , = e . Chng minh rng:
) )( ( ) (
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
2 2 1 1 n n n n
b b b a a a b a b a b a + + + + + + s + + +
Gii n=1: Bt ng thc lun ng
n=k ( N e k ):gi s bt ng thc ng, tc l:
) )( ( ) (
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
2 2 1 1 k k k k
b b b a a a b a b a b a + + + + + + s + + +
n= k+1 . Ta cn chng minh:
) )( ( ) (
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1 1 2 2 1 1 + + + +
+ + + + + + s + + +
k k k k
b b b a a a b a b a b a (1)
Tht vy:
2 2 2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
). ( ) )( ( ) 1 ( b a a b b b a a a VP
k k k
+ + + + + + + + + = +
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
. ) (
+ +
+ + + + +
k k k
b a b b b a + + + + + + >
+ + + + 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1
2 2 ) (
k k k k k k
b a b a b a b a b a b a b a
2
1
2
1 1 1
2
+ + + +
+ + +
k k k k k k
b a b a b a
2 ) (
2
2 2 1 1
+ + + + >
k k
b a b a b a ) (
2 2 1 1 k k
b a b a b a + + +
1 1 + + k k
b a
2
1
2
1
.
+ +
+
k k
b a
2
1 1 2 2 1 1
) (
+ +
+ + + >
k k
b a b a b a
Vy (1) c chng minh
V d 6: Cho N e s n 1 , n i R b a
i i
,..., 2 , 1 , , = e . Chng minh rng:
n
a a a
n
a a a
n n
2 2
2
2
1 2 2 1
) (
+ + +
s
+ + +

Gii:
n=1: Bt ng thc lun ng
n=k ( N e k ):gi s bt ng thc ng, tc l:
k
a a a
k
a a a
k k
2 2
2
2
1 2 2 1
) (
+ + +
s
+ + +

n= k+1 . Ta cn chng minh:
1
)
1
(
2
1
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
+
+ + +
s
+
+ + +
+ +
k
a a a
k
a a a
k k

(1)
t:
k
a a a
a
k 1 3 2 +
+ + +
=


) 2 (
1
1
) 1 (
1
2 2 2
1
a ka a k a
k
VP + +
+
=

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
23

(

+ + +
+ +
+ + +
+
+
>
+ +
k
a a a
k a k
k
a a a
k a
k
k k
2
1
2
3
2
2 2
1
2
1
2
3
2
2 2 2
1
2
.
) 1 (
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
+
+ + +
=
+
k
a a a
k


Vy (1) c chng minh

V d 7: Chng minh rng: 2 , , ) 1 (
1
> Z e + >

n n n n
n n

Gii: n=2

= +
=


3 ) 1 (
4
1 n
n
n
n

1
) 1 (

+ >
n n
n n
n=k 2 > : gi s bt ng thc ng, tc l:
1
) 1 (

+ >
k k
k k
n= k+1:Ta c :
1 1 1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
+ +
+ + > +
k k k k
k k k k
2 1 2 2 2 2
) 1 ( ] ) 1 [( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( + + = + + =

k k k k
k k

) 2 ( ) 2 (
2 1 2
k k k k
k
+ + >

(v k k k k k 2 1 2 ) 1 (
2 2 2
+ > + + = + )
k k
k k ) 2 ( + >
k k
k k ) 2 ( ) 1 (
1
+ > +
+
Bt ng thc ng vi n= k+1
Vy 2 , , ) 1 (
1
> Z e + >

n n n n
n n

V d 8: Chng minh rng: R x n x n nx e N e s
-
, , sin sin
Gii: n=1: Bt ng thc lun ng
n=k :gi s bt ng thc ng, tc l: x k kx sin sin s
n= k+1 . Ta cn chng minh: x k x k sin ) 1 ( ) 1 sin( + s +
Ta c:

e s
e + s +
R x x x
R b a b a b a
, 1 cos , sin
, ,

Nn: x kx x kx x k sin cos cos sin ) 1 sin( + = +
x kx x kx sin . cos cos . sin + s x kx sin . . sin + s x x k sin . . sin + s x k sin ) 1 ( + =
Bt ng thc ng vi n= k+1. Vy: R x n x n nx e N e s
-
, , sin sin


Phng php 16: Chng minh phn chng

Kin thc:
1) Gi s phi chng minh bt ng thc no ng , ta hy gi s bt ng
thc sai v kt hp vi cc gi thit suy ra iu v l , iu v l c th l iu tri
vi gi thit , c th l iu tri ngc nhau .T suy ra bt ng thc cn chng minh
l ng
2) Gi s ta phi chng minh lun p q
Mun chng minh q p (vi p : gi thit ng, q : kt lun ng) php chng
minh c thc hin nh sau:
Gi s khng c q ( hoc q sai) suy ra iu v l hoc p sai. Vy phi c q (hay
q ng)
Nh vy ph nh lun ta ghp tt c gi thit ca lun vi ph nh kt
lun ca n .
Ta thng dng 5 hnh thc chng minh phn chng sau :
A - Dng mnh phn o : P Q
B Ph nh ri suy tri gi thit
C Ph nh ri suy tri vi iu ng

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
24
D Ph nh ri suy ra 2 iu tri ngc nhau
E Ph nh ri suy ra kt lun :


V d 1: Cho ba s a,b,c tha mn a +b+c > 0 , ab+bc+ac > 0 , abc > 0
Chng minh rng a > 0 , b > 0 , c > 0
Gii:
Gi s a s 0 th t abc > 0 a= 0 do a < 0. M abc > 0 v a < 0 cb < 0
T ab+bc+ca > 0 a(b+c) > -bc > 0
V a < 0 m a(b +c) > 0 b + c < 0
a < 0 v b +c < 0 a + b +c < 0 tri gi thit a+b+c > 0
Vy a > 0 tng t ta c b > 0 , c > 0
V d 2:Cho 4 s a , b , c ,d tha mn iu kin
ac > 2.(b+d) .Chng minh rng c t nht mt trong cc bt ng thc sau l sai:
b a 4
2
< , d c 4
2
<
Gii:
Gi s 2 bt ng thc : b a 4
2
< , d c 4
2
< u ng khi cng cc v ta c
) ( 4
2 2
d b c a + < + (1)
Theo gi thit ta c 4(b+d) s 2ac (2)
T (1) v (2) ac c a 2
2 2
< + hay ( ) 0
2
< c a (v l)
Vy trong 2 bt ng thc b a 4
2
< v d c 4
2
< c t nht mt cc bt ng thc sai
V d 3:Cho x,y,z > 0 v xyz = 1. Chng minh rng
Nu x+y+z >
z y x
1 1 1
+ + th c mt trong ba s ny ln hn 1
Gii :Ta c (x-1).(y-1).(z-1) =xyz xy- yz + x + y+ z 1
=x + y + z (
z y x
1 1 1
+ + ) v xyz = theo gi thit x+y +z >
z y x
1 1 1
+ +
nn (x-1).(y-1).(z-1) > 0
Trong ba s x-1 , y-1 , z-1 ch c mt s dng
Tht vy nu c ba s dng th x,y,z > 1 xyz > 1 (tri gi thit)
Cn nu 2 trong 3 s dng th (x-1).(y-1).(z-1) < 0 (v l)
Vy c mt v ch mt trong ba s x , y,z ln hn 1
V d 4: Cho 0 , , > c b a v a.b.c=1. Chng minh rng: 3 > + + c b a (Bt ng thc
Cauchy 3 s)
Gii: Gi s ngc l i:
3 < + + c b a ab ab c b a 3 ) ( < + + ab cab a b b a 3
2 2
< + + 0 1 ) 3 (
2 2
< + + b a a b a
Xt : 1 ) 3 ( ) (
2 2
+ + = b a a b a b f
C a a a 4 ) 3 (
2 2
= A = a a a a 4 9 6
2 3 4
+ ) 4 9 6 (
2 3
+ = a a a a = 0 ) 4 ( ) 1 (
2
s = a a a
(V

< + +
>
3
0 , ,
c b a
c b a
3 0 < < a ) > 0 ) (b f v l. Vy: 3 > + + c b a
V d 5:
Chng minh rng khng tn ti cc s a, b, c ng thi tha mn (1),(2),(3):
c b a < (1)

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
25

a c b <
(2)
b a c <
(3)
Gii: Gi s tn ti cc s a, b, c ng thi tha mn (1),(2),(3), lc :
c b a <
2 2
) ( a c b > 0 ) )( ( > + + c b a c b a (1)
a c b <
2 2
) ( b a c > 0 ) )( ( > + + + c b a c b a (2)
b a c <
2 2
) ( c b a > 0 ) )( ( > + + + c b a c b a (3)
Nhn (1), (2) v (3) v vi v ta c: 0 )] )( )( [(
2
> + + + + c b a c b a c b a
V l. Vy bi ton c chng minh


Phng php 17 : S dng bin i lng gic

1. Nu R x s th t x = Rcoso , | | t o , 0 e ; hoc x = Rsin
(

e
2
,
2
,
t t
o o
2. Nu R x > th t x =
o cos
R
| )
|
.
|

e
2
3 , , 0
t
t o c
3.Nu ( ) ( ) ) 0 ( ,
2 2 2
> = + R b y a x th t ) 2 ( ,
sin
cos
t o
o
o
=

+ =
+ =
R b y
R a x

4. Nu 0 ,
2
2 2
> =
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
b a R
b
y
a
x | o
th t ) 2 ( ,
sin
cos
t o
o |
o o
=

+ =
+ =
bR y
aR x

5. Nu trong bi ton xut hin biu thc : ( ) ( ) 0 , ,
2 2
> + b a b ax
Th t: |
.
|

\
|
e =
2
,
2
,
t t
o o tg
a
b
x

V d 1: Cmr : ( )( ) ( ) | | 1 , 1 , , 2 1 1 3 1 1
2 2 2 2
e s + + b a a b ab a b b a
Gii : 1 , 1 s s b a
t :

=
=
|
o
cos
cos
b
a
| | ( ) t | o , 0 , e
Khi :
( )( ) ( )
( )
| | ) ( 2 , 2 )
6
cos( 2
) cos( . 3 ) sin(
sin . sin cos . cos 3 sin . cos sin . cos
1 1 3 1 1
2 2 2 2
dpcm
a b ab a b b a
e + =
+ + + =
+ + =
+ +
t
| o
| o | o
| o | o o | | o

V d 2 : Cho 1 , > b a .Chng minh rng : ab a b b a s + 1 1
Gii :
t :
|
|
.
|

\
|
(

=
=
2
, 0 ,
cos
1
cos
1
2
2
t
| o
|
o
b
a


19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
26
ab
in
tg tg tg tg
tg tg a b b a
= s
+
=
+
=
+
= + =
+ = +
o |
o |
| o | o
o |
o |
o |
o o | |
|
o
o
|
o
|
|
o
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
cos . cos
1
cos . cos
) ( cos ) sin(
cos . cos
) 2 sin 2 (sin
2
1
cos . cos
) cos . cos . (
cos cos
cos
1
cos
1
1 1

V d 3: Cho 0 = ab .Chng minh rng : 2 2 2
4
) 4 (
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
s
+

s
b a
b a a

Gii :
t: |
.
|

\
|
e =
22
,
2
, 2
t t
o o btg a
| | 2 2 2 , 2 2 2 2 )
2
2 sin( 2 2
2 ) 2 cos 2 (sin 2
) 2 cos 1 ( 2 2 sin 2
cos ). 1 ( 4
1
) 2 (
4
) 4 (
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
e =
=
+ =
=
+

=
+

t
o
o o
o o
o o
o
o o
tg
tg
tg tg
b a
b a a

Phng php 18: S dng khai trin nh thc Newton.
Kin thc:
Cng thc nh thc Newton
( ) R b a N n b a C b a
n
k
k k n k
n
n
e e +

=

, , ,
*
0
.
Trong h s ) 0 (
! )! (
!
n k
k k n
n
C
k
n
s s

= .
Mt s tnh cht t bit ca khai trin nh thc Newton:
+ Trong khai trin (a + b)
n
c n + 1 s hng.
+ S m ca a gim dn t n n 0, trong khi s m ca b tng t 0 n n.
Trong mi s hng ca khai trtin nh thc Newton c tng s m ca a v b bng n.
+Cc h s cch u hai u th bng nhau

k n
n
k
n
C C

= .
+ S hng th k + 1 l ) 0 ( . n k b a C
k k n k
n
s s


V d 1:
Chng minh rng ( )
*
, 0 , 1 1 N n a na a
n
e > + > + (bt ng thc bernoulli)
Gii
Ta c: ( ) na a C C a C a
n n
n
k
k k
n
n
+ = + > = +

=
1 1
1 0
0
(pcm)
V d 2:
Chng minh rng:

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
27
a)
*
, 0 , ,
2 2
N n b a
b a b a
n
n n
e >
|
.
|

\
| +
>
+

b)
*
, 0 , , ,
3 3
N n c b a
c b a c b a
n
n n n
e >
|
.
|

\
| + +
>
+ +

Gii
Theo cng thc khai trin nh thc Newton ta c:
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
n
b a b a
b a C C C C b a
a b C b a C b a C b a C b a
b a b a b a b a b a
n i b a
a b C a b b a C a b b a C b a C b a
a C a b C a b C b C b a
b C b a C b a C a C b a
n n
n
n n n n
n
n
n n n
n n
n n n
n
n n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n
i n i i i n n n i i i n i n
n n n
n
n n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
+
s
|
.
|

\
| +

+ = + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + + s +
> + >
= >
+ + + + + + + + = +
+ + + + = +
+ + + + = +





2
) ( 2 ) .... )( (
) ( ) ( .... ) ( ) ( 2
0
: 1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 ,
) ( ) . . ( .... ) ( ) ( 2
. ....
. ....
1 1 0
1 1 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 0

b) t 0
3
>
+ +
=
c b a
d
Theo cu (a) ta c:
n
n
n n n
n n n n n n n n n
n n
n n
n n
n n n n
c b a
d
c b a
d c b a d d c b a
d
d c b a
d c b a
d c b a
d c b a
|
.
|

\
| + +
= >
+ +

> + + > + + +
>
+ + +
>
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
.
|

\
| +
=
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
.
|

\
| +
>
+ + +
3 3
3 4
)
4
(
2
2 2
4
2
2
2
2
4

Phng php 19: S dng tch phn
Hm s: | | R b a g f , : , lin tc, lc :
* Nu | | b a x x f , , 0 ) ( e > th
}
>
b
a
dx x f 0 ) (
* Nu | | b a x x g x f , ), ( ) ( e > th
} }
>
b
a
b
a
dx x g dx x f ) ( ) (
* Nu | | b a x x g x f , ), ( ) ( e > v | | ) ( ) ( : ,
0 0 0
x g x f b a x > e - th
} }
>
b
a
b
a
dx x g dx x f ) ( ) ( .
*
} }
s
b
a
b
a
dx x f dx x f ) ( ) ( .
* Nu | | b a x M x f m , , ) ( e s s th
}
s

s
b
a
M dx x f
a b
m ) (
1
(m, M l hng s)

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
28
V d 1: Cho A, B, C l ba gc ca tam gic.
Chng minh rng: 3
2 2 2
> + +
C
tg
B
tg
A
tg
Gii:
t ) , 0 ( ,
2
) ( t e = x
x
tg x f
) , 0 ( , 0 )
2
1 (
2 2
1
) (
)
2
1 (
2
1
) (
2 ' '
2 '
t e > + =
+ =
x
x
tg
x
tg x f
x
tg x f

p dng bt ng thc Jensen cho:
3
2 2 2
6
3
2 2 2
6
3
2 2 2
3 3
) ( ) ( ) (
> + +
> + +
|
.
|

\
| + +
> + +
|
.
|

\
| + +
>
+ +
C
tg
B
tg
A
tg
tg
C
tg
B
tg
A
tg
C B A
tg
C
tg
B
tg
A
tg
C B A
f
C f B f A f
t

V d 2: Chng minh:
6 cos 2 5 10
2
0
2
t t
t
s

s
}
x
dx

Gii
Trn on
(

2
, 0
t
ta c:
( ) pcm
x
dx
x
dx
x
x
x
x
x
6 cos 2 5 10
0
2 3
1
cos 2 5
0
2 5
1
3
1
cos 2 5
1
5
1
5 cos 2 5 3
0 cos 2 2
2 cos 2 0
1 cos 0
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
t t
t t
t
t
s

s
|
.
|

\
|
s

s
|
.
|

\
|

s

s
s s
s s
s s
s s
}
}







19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
29
PHN III : CC BI TP NNG CAO

*Dng nh ngha
1) Cho abc = 1 v 36
3
> a . . Chng minh rng +
3
2
a
b
2
+c
2
> ab+bc+ac
Gii: Ta xt hiu: +
3
2
a
b
2
+c
2
- ab- bc ac = +
4
2
a
+
12
2
a
b
2
+c
2
- ab- bc ac
= ( +
4
2
a
b
2
+c
2
- ab ac+ 2bc) +
12
2
a
3bc =(
2
a
-b- c)
2
+
a
abc a
12
36
3


=(
2
a
-b- c)
2
+
a
abc a
12
36
3

>0 (v abc=1 v a
3
> 36 nn a >0 )
Vy : +
3
2
a
b
2
+c
2
> ab+bc+ac iu phi chng minh
2) Chng minh rng
a) ) 1 .( 2 1
2 2 4 4
+ + > + + + z x xy x z y x
b) vi mi s thc a , b, c ta c
0 3 6 2 4 5
2 2
> + + + b a ab b a
c) 0 2 4 2 2 2
2 2
> + + + b a ab b a
Gii:
a) Xt hiu: x xz x y x z y x 2 2 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 4 4
+ + + + = ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 2
1 + + x z x y x = H
H>0 ta c iu phi chng minh
b) V tri c th vit H = ( ) ( ) 1 1 1 2
2 2
+ + + b b a H > 0 ta c pcm
c) v tri c th vit H = ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 + + b b a H > 0 ta c iu phi chng minh

* Dng bin i tng ng
1) Cho x > y v xy =1 .Chng minh rng

( )
( )
8
2
2
2 2
>

+
y x
y x

Gii: Ta c ( ) ( ) 2 2
2 2 2 2
+ = + = + y x xy y x y x (v xy = 1)
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 . 4
2 4
2
2 2
+ + = + y x y x y x
Do BT cn chng minh tng ng vi ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 4
. 8 4 4 y x y x y x > + +
( ) ( ) 0 4 4
2 4
> + y x y x ( ) | | 0 2
2
2
> y x
BT cui ng nn ta c iu phi chng minh

2) Cho xy > 1 .Chng minh rng

xy y x +
>
+
+
+ 1
2
1
1
1
1
2 2

Gii:
Ta c
xy y x +
>
+
+
+ 1
2
1
1
1
1
2 2
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2 2 2
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ xy y y x


( )( ) ( )( )
0
1 . 1 1 . 1
2
2
2
2
>
+ +

+
+ +

xy y
y xy
xy x
x xy

( )( ) ( )( )
0
1 . 1
) (
1 . 1
) (
2 2
>
+ +

+
+ +

xy y
y x y
xy x
x y x


19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
30

( ) ( )
( )( )( )
0
1 . 1 . 1
1
2 2
2
>
+ + +

xy y x
xy x y
BT cui ny ng do xy > 1 .Vy ta c pcm


* Dng bt ng thc ph
1) Cho a , b, c l cc s thc v a + b +c =1 Chng minh rng
3
1
2 2 2
> + + c b a
Gii: p dng BT BunhiaCpski cho 3 s (1,1,1) v (a,b,c)
Ta c ( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2
. 1 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 c b a c b a + + + + s + + ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
. 3 c b a c b a + + s + +

3
1
2 2 2
> + + c b a (v a+b+c =1 ) (pcm)

2) Cho a,b,c l cc s dng . Chng minh rng ( ) 9
1 1 1
. > |
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
c b a
c b a (1)
Gii: (1) 9 1 1 1 > + + + + + + + +
a
c
a
c
c
b
a
b
c
a
b
a
9 3 > |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ +
b
c
c
b
a
c
c
a
a
b
b
a

p dng BT ph 2 > +
x
y
y
x
Vi x,y > 0. Ta c BT cui cng lun ng
Vy ( ) 9
1 1 1
. > |
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
c b a
c b a (pcm)

* Dng phng php bc cu
1) Cho 0 < a, b,c <1 .Chng minh rng : a c c b b a c b a
2 2 2 3 3 3
3 2 2 2 + + + < + +
Gii: Do a <1
2
a <1 v b <1
Nn ( )( ) 0 1 0 1 . 1
2 2 2 2
> + > b a b a b a
Hay b a b a + > +
2 2
1 (1)
Mt khc 0 <a,b <1
3 2
a a > ;
3
b b >
3 3 2
1 b a a + > +
Vy b a b a
2 3 3
1+ < +
Tng t ta c

a c c a
c b c b
2 3 3
2 3 3
1
1
+ < +
+ < +

a c c b b a c b a
2 2 2 3 3 3
3 2 2 2 + + + < + + (pcm)

2) So snh 31
11
v 17
14

Gii: Ta thy
11
31 <
( )
11
11 5 55 56
32 2 2 2 = = <
Mt khc
( )
14
56 4.14 4 14 14
2 2 2 16 17 = = = < Vy 31
11
< 17
14
(pcm)

* Dng tnh cht t s
1) Cho a ,b ,c ,d > 0 .Cminh rng: 2 3
a b b c c d d a
a b c b c d c d a d a b
+ + + +
< + + + <
+ + + + + + + +

Gii: V a ,b ,c ,d > 0 nn ta c

a b a b a b d
a b c d a b c a b c d
+ + + +
< <
+ + + + + + + +
(1)

19 Phng php chng minh Bt ng thc_ Nguyn c Hn www.VNMATH.com
Su tm v tuyn chn
31

b c b c b c a
a b c d b c d a b c d
+ + + + +
< <
+ + + + + + + +
(2)

d a d a d a c
a b c d d a b a b c d
+ + + +
< <
+ + + + + + + +
(3)
Cng cc v ca 4 bt ng thc trn ta c :
2 3
a b b c c d d a
a b c b c d c d a d a b
+ + + +
< + + + <
+ + + + + + + +
(pcm)

2) Cho a ,b,c l s o ba cnh tam gic
Chng minh rng :1 2
a b c
b c c a a b
< + + <
+ + +

Gii: V a ,b ,c l s o ba cnh ca tam gic nn ta c a,b,c > 0
V a < b +c ; b <a+c ; c < a+b
T (1)
2 a a a a
b c a b c a b c
+
< =
+ + + + +

Mt khc
a a
b c a b c
>
+ + +

Vy ta c
2 a a a
a b c b c a b c
< <
+ + + + +
Tng t ta c
2 b b b
a b c a c a b c
< <
+ + + + +


2 c c c
a b c b a a b c
< <
+ + + + +

Cng tng v ba bt ng thc trn ta c :
1 2
a b c
b c c a a b
< + + <
+ + +
(pcm)


* Phng php lm tri :
1) Chng minh BT sau :
a)
1 1 1 1
...
1.3 3.5 (2 1).(2 1) 2 n n
+ + + <
+

b)
1 1 1
1 ... 2
1.2 1.2.3 1.2.3.....n
+ + + + <
Gii:
a) Ta c :
( ) ( )
( ) 2 1 (2 1)
1 1 1 1 1
.
2 1 . 2 1 2 (2 1).(2 1) 2 2 1 2 1
k k
n n k k k k
+
| |
= =
|
+ + +
\ .

Cho n chy t 1 n k .Sau cng li ta c

1 1 1 1 2 1
... . 1
1.3 3.5 (2 1).(2 1) 2 2 1 2 n n n
| |
+ + + = <
|
+ +
\ .
(pcm)

b) Ta c:
( )
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 ... 1 .....
1.2 1.2.3 1.2.3..... 1.2 1.2.3 1 . n n n
+ + + + < + + + +


<
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 .... 2 2
2 2 3 1 n n n
| | | | | |
+ + + + < <
| | |

\ . \ . \ .
(pcm)



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PHN IV : NG DNG CA BT NG THC

1/ Dng bt ng thc tm cc tr
Kin thc:
- Nu f(x) > A th f(x) c gi tr nh nht l A
- Nu f(x) s B th f(x) c gi tr ln nht l B
V d 1 :Tm gi tr nh nht ca :T = |x-1| + |x-2| +|x-3| + |x-4|
Gii: Ta c |x-1| + |x-4| = |x-1| + |4-x| > |x-1+4-x| = 3 (1)
V 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 x x x x x x + = + > + = (2)
Vy T = |x-1| + |x-2| +|x-3| + |x-4| > 1+3 = 4
Ta c t (1) Du bng xy ra khi 1 4 x s s
(2) Du bng xy ra khi 2 3 x s s
Vy T c gi tr nh nht l 4 khi 2 3 x s s

V d 2 :
Tm gi tr ln nht ca S = xyz.(x+y).(y+z).(z+x) vi x,y,z > 0 v x+y+z =1
Gii: V x,y,z > 0 ,p dng BT Csi ta c
x+ y + z
3
3 xyz >
3
1 1
3 27
xyz xyz s s
p dng bt ng thc Csi cho x+y ; y+z ; x+z ta c
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
. . 3 . . x y y z z x x y y z x z + + + > + + + ( ) ( ) ( )
3
2 3 . . x y y z z x > + + +
Du bng xy ra khi x=y=z=
1
3

Vy S s
8 1 8
.
27 27 729
= . Vy S c gi tr ln nht l
8
729
khi x=y=z=
1
3

V d 3: Cho xy+yz+zx = 1. Tm gi tr nh nht ca
4 4 4
x y z + +
Gii: p dng BT Bunhiacpski cho 6 s (x,y,z) ;(x,y,z)
Ta c ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2 2
xy yz zx x y z + + s + +
( )
2
2 2 2
1 x y z s + + (1)
p dng BT Bunhiacpski cho (
2 2 2
, , x y z ) v (1,1,1)
Ta c
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4
2 2 2 2 4 4 4
( ) (1 1 1 )( )
( ) 3( )
x y z x y z
x y z x y z
+ + s + + + +
+ + s + +

T (1) v (2)
4 4 4
1 3( ) x y z s + +
4 4 4
1
3
x y z + + s
Vy
4 4 4
x y z + + c gi tr nh nht l
1
3
khi x=y=z=
3
3

V d 4 : Trong tam gic vung c cng cnh huyn , tam gic vung no c din
tch ln nht
Gii: Gi cnh huyn ca tam gic l 2a
ng cao thuc cnh huyn l h
Hnh chiu cc cnh gc vung ln cnh huyn l x,y
Ta c S = ( )
2
1
. . . . .
2
x y h a h a h a xy + = = =
V a khng i m x+y = 2a. Vy S ln nht khi x.y ln nht x y =

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Vy trong cc tam gic c cng cnh huyn th tam gic vung cn c din tch
ln nht


2/ Dng Bt ng thc gii phng trnh v h phng trnh

V d 1:Gii phng trnh:
2 2 2
4 3 6 19 5 10 14 4 2 x x x x x x + + + + + =
Gii : Ta c
2
3 6 19 x x + +
2
3.( 2 1) 16 x x = + + +
2
3.( 1) 16 16 x = + + >
( )
2
2
5 10 14 5. 1 9 9 x x x + + = + + >
Vy
2 2
4. 3 6 19 5 10 14 2 3 5 x x x x + + + + + > + =
Du ( = ) xy ra khi x+1 = 0 x = -1
Vy
2 2 2
4 3 6 19 5 10 14 4 2 x x x x x x + + + + + = khi x = -1
Vy phng trnh c nghim duy nht x = -1
V d 2: Gii phng trnh
2 2
2 4 4 3 x x y y + = + +
Gii : p dng BT BunhiaCpski ta c :
( )
2 2 2 2 2
2 1 1 . 2 2. 2 2 x x x x + s + + s = Du (=) xy ra khi x = 1
Mt khc ( )
2
2
4 4 3 2 1 2 2 y y y + + = + + > Du (=) xy ra khi y = -
1
2

Vy
2 2
2 4 4 3 2 x x y y + = + + = khi x =1 v y =-
1
2

Vy nghim ca phng trnh l
1
1
2
x
y
=


V d 3:Gii h phng trnh sau:
4 4 4
1 x y z
x y z xyz
+ + =

+ + =


Gii: p dng BT Csi ta c
4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
x
2 2 2
2 2 2
x y y z z x
y z
x y y z z x
x y y z z y z z x z y x
+ + +
+ + = + +
> + +
+ + +
> + +

2 2 2
.( )
y xz z xy x yz
xyz x y z
> + +
> + +

V x+y+z = 1) Nn
4 4 4
x y z xyz + + > Du (=) xy ra khi x = y = z =
1
3

Vy
4 4 4
1 x y z
x y z xyz
+ + =

+ + =

c nghim x = y = z =
1
3


V d 4: Gii h phng trnh sau
2
2
4 8
2
xy y
xy x
=

= +


(1)
(2)



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T phng trnh (1)
2
8 0 y > hay 8 y s
T phng trnh (2)
2
2 . 2 2 x x y x + = s

2 2
2
2 2 2 0
( 2) 0
2
2
x x
x
x
x
+ s
s
=
=

Nu x = 2 th y = 2 2
Nu x = - 2 th y = -2 2

Vy h phng trnh c nghim
2
2
x
y

v
2 2
2 2
x
y




3/ Dng BT gii phng trnh nghim nguyn

V d 1: Tm cc s nguyn x,y,z tho mn
2 2 2
3 2 3 x y z xy y z + + s + +
Gii: V x,y,z l cc s nguyn nn
2 2 2
3 2 3 x y z xy y z + + s + +

( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
3 2 3 0
3
3 3 2 1 0
4 4
x y z xy y z
y y
x xy y z z
+ + + s
| | | |
+ + + + + s
| |
\ . \ .


( )
2 2
2
3 1 1 0
2 2
y y
x z
| | | |
+ + s
| |
\ . \ .
(*)
M
( )
2 2
2
3 1 1 0
2 2
y y
x z
| | | |
+ + >
| |
\ . \ .
, x y R e

( )
2 2
2
3 1 1 0
2 2
y y
x z
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .


0
2
1
1 0 2
2
1
1 0
y
x
x
y
y
z
z


= =


=



Cc s x,y,z phi tm l
1
2
1
x
y
z
=


V d 2: Tm nghim nguyn dng ca phng trnh
1 1 1
2
x y z
+ + =
Gii: Khng mt tnh tng qut ta gi s x y z > >

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Ta c
1 1 1 3
2 2 3 z
x y z z
= + + s s
M z nguyn dng vy z = 1. Thay z = 1 vo phng trnh ta c
1 1
1
x y
+ =
Theo gi s x>y nn 1 =
1 1
x y
+
1
y
s 2 y s m y nguyn dng
Nn y = 1 hoc y = 2
Vi y = 1 khng thch hp
Vi y = 2 ta c x = 2
Vy (2 ,2,1) l mt nghim ca phng trnh
Hon v cc s trn ta c cc nghim ca phng trnh l (2,2,1);(2,1,2); (1,2,2)
V d 3:Tm cc cp s nguyn tho mn phng trnh x x y + = (*)
Gii:
(*) Vi x < 0 , y < 0 th phng trnh khng c ngha
(*) Vi x > 0 , y > 0
Ta c x x y + =
2
x x y + =

2
0 x y x = >
t x k = (k nguyn dng v x nguyn dng )
Ta c
2
.( 1) k k y + =
Nhng ( ) ( )
2
2
1 1 k k k k < + < + 1 k y k < < +
M gia k v k+1 l hai s nguyn dng lin tip khng tn ti mt s nguyn
dng no c
Nn khng c cp s nguyn dng no tho mn phng trnh .
Vy phng trnh c nghim duy nht l :
0
0
x
y
=


Bi tp ngh :
Bi 1:Chng minh rng vi mi a,b,c > 0 :
c b a ab
c
ac
b
bc
a 1 1 1
+ + > + +
HD : Chuyn v quy ng mu a v tng bnh phng cc ng thc.
Bi 2:Chng minh bt ng thc : *) ( 1
) 1 (
1
..
4 . 3
1
3 . 2
1
2 . 1
1
N n
n n
e <
+
+ + + +
HD:
1
1 1
) 1 (
1
+
=
+ k k k k

Bi 3: Cho a, b. c > 0 v a + b + c s1. Cmr : 64
1
1
1
1
1
1 > |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
c b a

HD : p dng bt ng thc Csi cho |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
c b a
1
1 ,
1
1 ,
1
1
Bi 4 : Cho 0 , 0 > > > > c b c a . Cmr : ab c b c c a c s + ) ( ) (
HD : p dng bt ng thc Csi cho
b
c b
a
c
a
c a
b
c
, , ri cng hai v theo v.
Bi 5: Cho a, b >1. Tm GTNN ca S =
1 1
2 2

+
a
b
b
a


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HD : p dng bt ng thc Csi cho
1
,
1
2 2
a
b
b
a
v xt trng hp du = xy
ra .
Bi 9 : Tm GTLN v GTNN ca y =
2 2
4 2
) 2 1 (
12 8 3
x
x x
+
+ +

HD: t x= |
.
|

\
|
e
2
,
2
,
2
1 t t
o o tg
Bi 10: Cho 36x . 9 16
2 2
= + y Cmr :
4
25
5 2
4
15
s + s x y
HD: t :

=
=
o
o
sin
4
3
cos
2
1
y
x

Bi 11: Cmr : | | 1 , 1 ), 1 2 1 (
2
1 1
2 2
e + > + x x
x
x
HD : t x =
(

e
4
,
4
, 2 sin
t t
o o
Bi 12: Cho 1 , 0 , s > c b a . Chng minh rng: a c c b b a c b a
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 + + + s + +
Bi 13: Cho AABC c a, b, c l di cc cnh. Chng minh rng:
0 ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2
> + + a c a c c b c b b a b a
Bi 14: Cho 0 , , 1 , > s Z e b a n n . Chng minh rng
n
n n
b a b a
|
.
|

\
| +
>
+
2 2

Bi 15: n n s Z e 2 , . Chng minh rng:
3
1
1 2 < |
.
|

\
|
+ <
n
n

Bi 16: C tn ti R xe sao cho:
3
3
3
1
s s
tgx
x tg
?
Bi 17: Cho AABC c din tch bng 4 (n v din tch). Trn cc cnh BC, CA,
AB ly ln lc cc im A, B, C. Chng minh rng: Trong tt c cc tam gic
ABC, ABC, ABC c t nht 1 din tch nh hn hay bng 1(n v din tch)
















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