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S QUYN

R CA

BT NG THC

CHUYN

nh gi trn bin
Bt ng thc l mt trong nhng ch kh ca Ton hc, gii quyt c nhng bi
ton hc ba i hi chng ta phi thng minh, sng to, phi chu kh tm ti pht trin v bn
cnh cn phi c phng php r rng. Bi vit ny gii thiu vi c gi mt phng php rt
quen thuc trong gii nghin cu v bt ng thc, l phng php: "NH GI TRN BIN",
cng c nhiu ti liu ni l: "NHN VO IM MT". Vi t cch mt ngi bit mt cht v
Ton hc, ti thu thp v tham kho kin ca nhiu thy c gio yu ton vit chuyn
ny. Ti xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c: "V Minh Thng, Nguyn Th Anh - K41-HSP H
Ni", v cc thy c bt danh: "huyclvc - thaithuanGC - chienthan - vophung".
Cm n s quan tm ca cc bn! Mi kin ng gp gip cho bi vit c y v
chnh xc hn, vui lng lin h qua in thoi hoc hm th: tienthuy3385@gmail.com.

Mt s bt ng thc c bn
1) nh l 1. Nu f (x) l hm s bc nht theo x, th vi mi x [a, b] ta lun c:
min{ f (a), f (b)} f (x) max{ f (a), f (b)}.
2) nh l 2.
Nu f (x) l hm li trn khong [a, b] th ta c: f (x) min{ f (a), f (b)}.
Nu f (x) l hm lm trn khong [a, b] th ta c: f (x) max{ f (a), f (b)}.
3) nh l 3. Cho f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, (a , 0). Vi x [, ] th f (x) t gi tr min hoc
b
b
(nu
[, ].)
max ti x = , x = hoc x =
2a
2a

Mt s th d

Bi ton 1. Cho x, y, z [0, 2]. Chng minh rng:


2(x + y + z) (xy + yz + zx) 4. (1)
Hng dn. Ta s chuyn ht sang v tri v coi chng nh mt hm bc nht theo x. Sau ta
p dng nh l 1. v hon thin chng minh.
Li gii. Ta c
2(x + y + z) (xy + yz + zx) 4
2(x + y + z) (xy + yz + zx) 4 0
(2 y z)x + 2(y + z) yz 4 0.
- Xt hm s f (x) = (2 y z)x + 2(y + z) yz 4, xc nh trn [0, 2].
- Nhn thy f (0) = 2(y + z) yz 4 = (2 y)(2 z) 0 v f (2) = yz 0, p dng nh
l 1, ta c f (x) max{ f (0), f (2)} 0. (pcm)
Bi ton 2. Cho a, b, c, d [0, 1]. Chng minh rng:
(1 a)(1 b)(1 c)(1 d) + a + b + c + d 1. (2)
Li gii. Ta c
(1 a)(1 b)(1 c)(1 d) + a + b + c + d 1
[1 (1 b)(1 c)(1 d)] a + (1 b)(1 c)(1 d) + b + c + d 1 0.
Ti liu bi dng hc sinh gii - luyn thi i hc 1

Ths.Nguyn Tin Thy


No. 0974913435

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S QUYN

R CA

BT NG THC

- Xt hm s f (a) = [1 (1 b)(1 c)(1 d)] a + (1 b)(1 c)(1 d) + b + c + d 1, xc


nh trn [0, 1].
- Nhn thy f (1) = b + c + d 0 v f (0) = (1 b)(1 c)(1 d) + b + c + d 1 = g(b) =
[1 (1 c)(1 d)]b + (1 c)(1 d) + c + d 1().
- Xt g(1) = c + d 0, g(0) = (1 c)(1 d) + c + d 1 = cd 0, theo () suy ra
f (0) = g(b) min{g(0), g(1)} 0, b, c, d [0, 1].
- T ta c f (a) min{ f (0), f (1)} 0, a, b, c, d [0, 1]. (pcm)
Bi ton 3. Cho a, b, c, A, B, C 0 tha mn: a + A = b + B = c + C = 1. Chng minh rng:
aA + bB + cC 1.
Li gii. Ta c
aB + bC + cA 1
a(1 b) + b(1 c) + c(1 a) 1 0
a + b + c ab bc ca 1 0
(1 b c)a bc + b + c 1 0.
- Xt hm s f (a) = (1 b c)a bc + b + c 1, xc nh trn [0, 1].
- Nhn thy f (0) = bc + c + b 1 = (1 b)(c 1) 0 v f (1) = bc 0, p dng nh l
1 ta c f (a) max{ f (0), f (1)} 0, a, b, c [0, 1]. (pcm)
Bi ton 4. [IMO] Cho ba s dng x, y, z tha mn x + y + z = 1. Chng minh rng:
xy + yz + zx 2xyz

7
.
27

Li gii. Ta c
7
27
7
xy + yz + zx 2xyz
0
27
7
(1 2z)xy + z(1 z)
0
27
xy + yz + zx 2xyz

!2
 x + y 2
1z
7
vi 0 xy
=
. Nhn thy
Xt hm s f (xy) = (1 2z)xy + z(1 z)
27
2
2
!2
!2
!
7
1
1
1z
1
1
1
f (0) = z2 + z
= (z )2
< 0 v f (
)= z
z+
0, nn theo
27
2
108
2
2
3
6
!2
1z
nh l 1 ta c f (xy) max{ f (0), f (
)} 0, x, y, z tha mn iu kin bi ton. (pcm)
2
Bi ton 5. Cho ba s dng x, y, z tha mn x + y + z = 1. Chng minh rng:
4(x3 + y3 + z3 ) + 15xyz 1.
Li gii. nh gi 0 xy

 x + y 2
2

1z
=
2

!2
.

Ta c
4(x3 + y3 + z3 ) + 15xyz 1
h
i
4 (x + y + z)((x + y + z)2 3xy 3yz 3zx) + 3xyz + 15xyz 1 0
4 12xy 12yz 12zx + 27xyz 1 0
3xy(9z 4) 12z(1 z) + 3 0.

Ti liu bi dng hc sinh gii - luyn thi i hc 2

Ths.Nguyn Tin Thy


No. 0974913435

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S QUYN

R CA

BT NG THC

!2
1z
Xt hm s f (xy) = 3xy(9z4)12z(1z)+3, vi 0 xy
. Ta c f (0) = 12z2 12z+3 =
2
!2
!2
1z
1z
3z
2
3(2z 1) 0 v f (
)=3
(9z 4) 12z(1 z) + 3 = (3z 1)2 0. p dng
2
2
4
!2
1z
)} 0, x, y, x tha mn iu kin bi cho, pcm.
nh l 1 ta c f (xy) min{ f (0), f (
2
Bi ton 6. Cho ba s khng m x, y, z tha mn x + y + z = 1. Chng minh rng:
x3 + y3 + z3 + 6xyz
Li gii. nh gi 0 xy

 x + y 2
2

1z
2

1
.
4

!2
.

Ta c
(x3 + y3 + z3 ) + 6xyz

1
4

h
i
1
(x + y + z)((x + y + z)2 3xy 3yz 3zx) + 3xyz + 6xyz 0
4
1
1 3xy 3yz 3zx + 9xyz 0
4
3
3xy(3z 1) 3z(1 z) + 0.
4
!2
1z
3
3
. Ta c f (0) = 3z2 3z+ =
Xt hm s f (xy) = 3xy(3z1)3z(1z)+ , vi 0 xy
4
2
4
!2
!2
!2
1
1z
1z
3
9z2
1
1
3 z
0 v f (
)=3
(3z 1) 3z(1 z) + =
[(z )2 +
> 0.]
2
2
2
4
4
2
12
!2
1z
p dng nh l 1 ta c f (xy) min{ f (0), f (
)} 0, x, y, x tha mn iu kin bi cho,
2
pcm.
Bi ton 7. Cho ba s khng m a, b, c. Chng minh rng:

a + b + c 3
abc max{( a b)2 , ( b c)2 , ( c a)2 }.
3
Li gii 1. Gi s

max{( a b)2 , ( b c)2 , ( c a)2 } = ( a b)2 .


Xt biu thc:

Vi t =

a + b + c 3
f (a, b, c) = V P VT = ( a b)2
+ abc.
3

ab, ta c:




a + b + c 3
t + t + c 3
f (a, b, c) f (t, t, c) = ( a b)2
+ abc ( t t)2
+ abc
3
3

2( a b)2
=
0.
3
3
Theo nh l dn bin ta c: f (a, b, c) f (t, t, c) = 0, vi t = abc.

a + b + c 3
Li gii 2. Gi s a b c. Lc ta cn chng minh:
abc ( a c)2 .
3
a + b + c 3
Xt hm s bin b: f (b) =
abc, ta c f (x) max{ f (a), f (c)}. Gi s f (a) f (c) ta
3
Ti liu bi dng hc sinh gii - luyn thi i hc 3

Ths.Nguyn Tin Thy


No. 0974913435

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S QUYN

R CA

BT NG THC

chng minh

f (a) ( a c)2
3

1
2
a c a2 c + 2 ac 0
3
3
3
3
3

18
Ch rng: a + c + c + a2 c + a2 c + a2 c 6 a9 c9 = 6 ac. Ta s c iu phi chng minh.
Bi ton 8. Cho a, b, c [0; 1]. Chng minh rng:
a
b
c
+
+
+ (1 a)(1 b)(1 c) 1.
b+c+1 c+a+1 a+b+1
Li gii. Gi s a b c, ta c:
a
b
c
a+b+c
+
+

.
b+c+1 c+a+1 a+b+1 b+c+1
Lc bi ton s tng ng vi:
(1 a)(1 b)(1 c) 1
(1 a)(1 b)(1 c)

a+b+c
b+c+1

1a
.()
b+c+1

Sau khi rt gn (1 a) v s dng bt ng thc Cauchy thu c iu phi chng minh.


Ngoi ra chng ta c th dng hm bc nht gii quyt vn ().
Bi ton 9. Cho x, y, z, t [0, 1]. Chng minh rng:
x2 y + y2 z + z2 t + t2 x (xy2 + yz2 + zt2 + tx2 )

8
.
27

Li gii. Gi s y t (cn cc trng hp khc tng t). Xt hm s:


f (x, y, z, t) = (y t)x2 + (t2 y2 )x + y2 z + z2 t yz2 yt2 .
D thy hm s f (x, y, z, t) l hm s lm, nn ta c
f (x, y, z, t) max{ f (0, y, z, t), f (1, y, z, t)}
- Ta c f (0, y, z, t) = z(y t)(y + t z). Nu y + t z 0 th bt ng thc hin nhin ng, cn
nu y + t z > 0, ta p dng bt ng thc Cauchy s thu c kt qu. ng thc xy ra khi
2 1
(x, y, z, t) = (0, 1, , ).
3 3
- Ta li c: f (1, y, z, t) = (1 z)t2 + (z2 1)t + t + y2 z y2 yz2 . D thy y l hm lm trn
[0, 1] theo bin t, nn ta c:
f (1, y, z, t) max{ f (1, y, z, 0), f (1, y, z, 1)}.
T ta c iu cn chng minh.

Mt s bi tp ngh

Bi 1. Cho ba s dng a, b, c, tha mn a + b + c = 3. Chng minh rng:


a2 + b2 + c2 + abc 4.

Ti liu bi dng hc sinh gii - luyn thi i hc 4

Ths.Nguyn Tin Thy


No. 0974913435

www.VNMATH.com
S QUYN

R CA

BT NG THC

Bi 2. Cho ba s dng a, b, c, tha mn a + b + c = 1. Chng minh rng:


7(ab + bc + ca) 2 + 9abc.
Bi 3. Cho a > 0,; a1 , a2 , , an [0, a] v
S =

n
X
(a a1 ).(a a2 ) (a ak1 ).ak .(a ak+1 ) (a an ).
k=1

Tm gi tr ln nht ca S .
Bi 4. Cho a, b, c, d, e [p; q], vi q > p > 0. Chng minh rng:
1 1 1 1 1
(a + b + c + d + e)( + + + + ) 25 + 6
a b c d e

"r

r #2
q
.
p

Bi 5. Cho ba s dng a, b, c. Chng minh rng:


a b c

+
+
2.
bc
ca
ab
Bi 6. Cho xi [0, 1], vi i = 1, n. Chng minh rng:
x1 + x2 + + xn + x1 x2 + x2 x3 xn x1

hn
2

].

Bi 7. Cho n s khng m: a1 , a2 , , an . Chng minh rng:




a1 + a2 + + an n

a1 a2 an max ( ai a j )2 .
1i jn
n
Bi 8. Cho a, b, c, d [0, 1]. Chng minh rng:
a + b + c + d abcd 3.
Bi 9. Cho xi [0, 1], vi i = 1, n. Chng minh rng:
x1 + x2 + + xn x1 x2 xn n 1.
Bi 10. Cho ba s dng x, y, z tha mn: x + y + z = 1. Chng minh rng:
9xyz + 1 4(xy + yz + zx).
Bi 11. Cho ba s dng x, y, z tha mn: x + y + z = 1. Chng minh rng:
5(x2 + y2 + z2 ) 6(x3 + y3 + z3 ) + 1.
Bi 12. Cho n N; n 2 v a1 ; a2 ; ; an [0, 1]. Chng minh rng:
X
a1
+ (1 a1 )(1 a2 ) (1 an ) 1.
a
+
a
+
+ an + 1
3
cycle 2
Bi 13. Cho ba s dng x, y, z tha mn: x + y + z = 1. Chng minh rng:
1
1
1
27
+
+

.
1 xy 1 yz 1 zx
8

Ti liu bi dng hc sinh gii - luyn thi i hc 5

Ths.Nguyn Tin Thy


No. 0974913435