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# 2.7.

A renowned laboratory reports quadruple-point coordinates of 10.2 Mbar and 24.1◦C for four-phase equilibrium of allotropic solid forms of the exotic chemical β-miasmone. Evaluate the claim. Jawab Jadi dalam penentuan Quadraple point, hanya membutuhkan salah satu syarat. P (tekanan) atau T (suhu) saja. Misalnya menggunakan T (suhu) 24,1 oC, pada suhu tersebut memiliki P yang mungkin berbeda dari 10,2 Mbar. Jadi pada suhu tertentu memiliki tekanan tertentu yang spesifik. Jadi tidak bisa menggunakan keduanya.

2.12. Heat on the amount of 7,5 kJ is added to a closed system while its internal energy decreases by 12 kJ. How much energy is transferred as work? For a process causing the same change of the state but for which the work is zero, how muchheat is transferred? Jawab Kondisi pertama: ∆U = -12 kJ Q = 7,5 kJ ∆U = Q + W maka W = ∆U – W = -12 kJ – 7,5 kJ = -19,5 kJ Kondisi kedua: ∆U = Q + W ∆U = -12 kJ W = 0 maka Q = ∆U = -12 kJ

2.17. A hydroturbine operates with a head of 50 m of water. Inlet and outlet conduits are 2 m in diameter. Estimate the mechanical power developed by the turbine for an outlet velocity of 5 ms-1. Diketahui h2 = 50 m h1 = 0 m Jawab v = 5 ms-1 d=2m

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Cv = (5/2)R and Cp = (7/2)R. insulated pipe with inside diameter of 1. An incompressible (ρ = constant) liquid flows steadily through a conduit of circular cross-section and increasing diameter.098 m/s Mr = 28 gm/mol Jawab = C R = 8. and the average velocity is 20(ft)(s)-1. the temperature is 120(◦F). Nitrogen flows at steady state through a horizontal.89 K V1 = 20 ft/s = 6.25 x 2 m/s = 0.5(in).5 m/s 2.5 cm D2 = 5 cm v1 = 2 m/s (a) Untuk fluida yang bersifat incompressible (ρ = konstan) berlaku persamaan v1A1 = v2A2 v2 = v2 = ( = ( v1 )2 v1 )2 x 2 m/s karena A = D2 .5 )2 x 2 m/s = 0. What is the temperature? Assume for nitrogen that PV/T is constant.( )( )( ) 2. maka persamaannya dapat diubah menjadi: = ( 0.5 inch Cv = P2 = 20 psia R Cp = R P1 = 100 psia = 698 . A. A pressure drop results from flow through a partially opened valve.22. (Values for R are given in App.314 (m)3(Pa)(mol)-1(K)-1 . the diameter is 5 cm (a) What is the velocity of location 2? (b) What is the kinetic energy-change (J/kg) of the fluid between locations 1 and 2? Jawab D1 = 2.) Diketahui : d = 1. the diameter is 2. At location 2. If the pressure just downstream from the valve is 20(psia).5 cm and the velocity is 2 m/s. At location 1. 103 Pa T1 = 120oF = 321.27. Just upstream from the valve the pressure is 100(psia).

Cp . Ek = . Mr = . ∆T ½. energi kinetik yang dilakukan oleh Nitrogen dihasilkan oleh energi panas.∆H ½ .314 .1 ) v12 .v12 =( =( v1 )2 – v12 .1 ) v12 dalam soal ini. 28 = - T2 = 188 K 2.( ½( . maka A1 = A2 dan t1 = t2. (T2 – 321. ∆v2 = 2 .89) )2 . Cp . Sehingga persamaan konyinuitasnya menjadi : = v2 = v2 = v1 v1 ∆v2 = v22 .096)2 .= = Q=A. ( T2 – T1 ) 8. Find the equation for the work of a reversible.1 ) (6.v= Persamaan kontinuitas : Q1 = Q2 Karena Nitrogen mengalir dalam kran yang sama.32. m. isothermal compression of 1 mol of gas in piston/cylinder assembly if the molar volume of the gas is given by .

∫ n R T dV V – bn V2 Wkompresi = .314 = konstan Ta2 = T1. . and Cp = (7/2)R Diketahui : T1 = 20 ⁰C = 293 K P1 = 1000 kPa T2 = 60 ⁰C = 333 K P2 = 100 kPa Diasumsikan bahwa Cp = 7/2 R Ditanyakan Jawab = konstan.000 kPa to 60◦C and 100 kPa. Cv = 5/2 R : Berapa ∆U dan ∆H dari proses tersebut? : Nilai R yaitu 8.37.Where b and R are positive constants. Devise a reversible nonflow process (any number of steps) for accomplishing this change of state.RT ∫ 1 dV V1 V – bn Wkompresi = RT ln V1 – b V2 – b 2. dan basis mol gas adalah 1 mol.P dV n= 1 mol ∫∂W = . The condition of a gas change in a steady-flow process from 20◦C and 1. V= v/n = RT + b P RT = v – b = v – bn P n n P=nRT V – bn ∂W = . and calculate ∆U and ∆H for the process on the basis 1 mol of gas. Assume for the gas that PV/T is constant. Cv = (5/2)R.

3663 = 6312.68 – 2. 8.68 10-3 m3 . 303.V1) = 8837.4045 ∆Ub = ∆Hb – P2 (V2 . 0045 .314 1000 kPa = 2.3 K ∆ Ta = Ta2 – T1 = 29. 0045 = .7 K ∆ Tb = T2 – Ta2 = 333 K – 29. 8. (-263. = 1 mol .3 K – 293 K = . 3663 .436) 10-3 m3 + 2.5481. ∆ Ta = .5481. 8.7 K) PV = nRT V1 = n .7673.314 = 8837. 293 K V2 = n .436 10-3 m3 ∆ Ha = ∆Ua + V1(P2-P1) = .Ta2 = 293 K .7 K ∆ Hb = Cp .3 K =303. (100 .436 10-3 m3.9663 + 100 kPa (27. 8. 333 K . Ta2 = 29.263.314 100 kPa = 27. = 1 mol .314 = .1000) kPa . ∆ Tb = .7 K ∆Ua = Cv .

3663) = 1163.4045 + 8837.9618 ∆H = ∆Ha + ∆Hb = (-7673.0045 + 6312.∆U = ∆Ua + ∆Ub = (.5481.9663) = 831. 9618 .