1 BY ORDER OF THE COMMANDER 25th Virtual Fighter Squadron

25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011 25 VFS OPERATING INSTRUCTION 07-A-10 25 Jul 2011 Combat Operations A-10C Ground Weapon Employment

COMPLIANCE WITH THIS PUBLICATION IS MANDATORY ______________________________________________________________________________ OPR: 25 VFS, Snoopy Certified by: Raven6 Pages: 58 Distribution: 25 VFS ______________________________________________________________________________ This operating instruction (OI) provides Guidance on Ground Weapon Employment in the A-10 Thunderbolt II. SUMMARY OF CHANGES None, Document based on AFTTP 3-3, Combat Aircraft Fundamentals, A-10. 1. PURPOSE: The purpose of this document is to provide guidance and training for ground weapon employment in the A-10C and will be used within the 25th VFS. 2. INTRODUCTION: The A-10‟s primary mission is close air support (CAS). This OI provides the fundamental tools to build precise weapons delivery skills essential to CAS: fundamentals of bomb theory, conventional range patterns and development of tactical delivery references, computed bomb deliveries, manual bomb deliveries, and forward firing deliveries. 3. Weapons Delivery Terminology. In order to understand the discussion on free-fall weapons delivery, be familiar with the following terms and definitions: (See Figure 7.1, Bomb Triangle.) • Aim-off distance (AOD)—A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if the pilot did not recover) in a dive delivery. • Aim-off point (AOP)—The point on the ground, long of the target, at which the aircraft must fly to during the weapon‟s delivery pass. The AOP provides a ground reference to fly the aircraft to until a track reference can be set. • Angle of attack (AOA)—The angle between the zero sight line (ZSL) and the relative wind. • Ballistic trajectory—The path of a munition from release to impact. This trajectory is a result of release velocity, release angle, release height above the target, gravity, and weapon drag characteristics. • Bomb range (BR)—The horizontal distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact. • Bomb trail (BT)—The horizontal distance between the aircraft and the bomb impact. • Combat offset—Adjusting the RAP by a certain distance to correct for a previous miss. • DB— dive bomb. • Dive angle—The angle of dive for weapons delivery.


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• Gun bore line (GBL)—Represents the initial bullet muzzle velocity vector extended to infinity. This is the depression from the ZSL where the bullets initially come out of the gun. The A-10 GBL is at 33.7 mils depression. The GBL is sometimes used to approximate the aircraft vector on roll-out because the total velocity vector (TVV) lags the actual aircraft flight path. • HADB— high altitude dive bomb. • HARB— high altitude release bomb. • HAS— high angle strafe. • HATR—high angle tactical rocket • Initial Pipper Placement (IPP)—Angle between the target to the total solution in mils at track altitude. • Initial HUD Placement (IHP)—IHP is the angle at track altitude between the ZSL and the target, in mils. IHP can be derived from the total mil setting and the value for IPP. Total Mils = IHP + IPP. • Initial Aim-off Angle (IAA)—IAA is the angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. • Initial Target Placement (ITP)—ITP is the position of the target relative to a pitch ladder at track altitude. • LALD—low-angle low drag. • Mil—A term commonly used by A-10 pilots as an abbreviation for milliradian (1/1,000th of a radian). Mils are used to measure sight depression or relative positions and sizes of objects as seen through the HUD. One mil is equal to 1 foot at a range of 1,000 feet, and 1 degree equals 17.45 mils. • Relative wind—The speed and direction of the air mass relative to the aircraft. It is opposite in direction to the aircraft‟s velocity vector through the air mass. • Release aimpoint (RAP)—The wind-corrected point on the ground where the pipper must be placed at release for the munition to strike the target. • Release aimpoint extended (RAPE)—The point on the ground on which the aircraft track reference is set. This point is corrected upwind from the RAP. • Release altitude—The altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished. • Roll-in Target Placement (RTP)—A cockpit reference used to establish an aim-off angle for the aircraft. • Total sight setting (TSS)—The depression from the ZSL to the target at release altitude for the planned release conditions. Deviations from planned release parameters such as airspeed, dive angle, altitude, or G-loading will have an effect on the planned total sight setting. • Track reference—A position or point in the HUD that is used to maintain or correct the aircraft to the planned wire. Some common track references used in weapons delivery are IHP, IAA, IPP, and the desired release cue (DRC). • Tracking—A portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft sighting systems with the target. The amount of time associated is referred to as wingslevel or tracking time. • Zero sight line (ZSL)—A basic reference line extending through the fuselage of the A-10 parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. All sight depressions are referenced from the ZSL.


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Figure 7.1 Bomb Triangle. 4 Preparation. 4.1. General. Weapons delivery training in the A-10 requires a thorough understanding of training rules, weapons delivery theory, head-up display (HUD) symbology, aircraft systems knowledge and basic range layout and administration. (See Figure 7.2, A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface.)


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Figure 7.2 A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface. 5. Range Administration. 5.1. Range Entry and Exit. Written procedures and guidance can be found in command directives, applicable supplements, and local directives. Normally, entry to the controlled range as accomplished from a basic or tactical formation, depending on weather and/or spacing desired. 5.2. In-Flight Checks. Weapons delivery “in-flight checks” encompass nearly all systems on the A-10. They include fuel checks, weapons system checks, wind checks, estimated vertical error (EVE) checks, and a needle/ball check. 5.2.1. Fuel Checks. These are normally initiated and executed on the primary range frequency. At an absolute minimum, fuel checks are required prior to range entry, once while on the range, and once upon exiting the range. NOTE: Be extremely careful not to become distracted and drop them out of the cross-check. 5.2.2. En Route Checklists. There are certain checks that need to be accomplished before reaching the target area; these are collectively known as a “firepower, emitters, navigation, communications, and electronic countermeasures” (FENCE) checks. A FENCE check simply groups the items that need to be covered and is generic to any aircraft. Perform a FENCE check prior to weapons employment, including weapons switches set for the first pass. For training missions, do not place the Master Arm to ARM until entering the range and cleared by lead. A common A-10 acronym is listed in Figure 7.3, FENCE Checks, along with the items covered in


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a generic FENCE check. The FENCE check is an ongoing process. Start with a pre-takeoff FENCE check and accomplish another one for each phase of flight. Before arriving at the IP, the aircraft must be ready for combat. Once in the target area, your focus must be on finding and attacking the proper target. 5.2.3. Weapons System Checks. The Weapons portion of the FENCE check requires amplification to correctly set up weapons for employment. Disciplined weapons system checks are critical to mission success. When directed by the flight lead (FL) perform a Weapons System Check. Reference Figure 7.4, Common Weapons System Checks, for two common Weapons System Check acronyms. 5.2.4. Wind Checks. Analyzing winds is critical for accurate and consistent weapons delivery. Analyze winds by using your EGI readings (i.e., select STR INFO page on EGI) and visual indications provided by dust or smoke. Winds affect every aspect of the weapons delivery pattern and should be accounted for in flight. F-E-N-C-E Fire control systems set. Weapon system checks.. Gun armed. EO power on. Target identification set. Electronic warfare systems. CMS set. Navigation. EGI, map, and TACAN ready. Wind checked. Communications. Frequencies set, Emitters (reduce or select). TACAN set. External lights OFF. C-W-L-I-T-T-E-R Chaff/flare. CMS set to appropriate settings.





Weapons. Conduct weapons system checks Lights. OFF. N/A for DCS A-10C TACAN. Set to receive only or off.



Tape. DVADR running. T ECM as appropriate. E RWR as briefed. R Figure 7.3 FENCE Checks. S-P-A-D-E-S A-P-E-S Switches Set. Arm. A Profile Selected. Profile, DSMS. P Altitude Source. Elevation source. E DSMS quick-look (for stations and SOI, SPI. S profile settings). Elevation set as briefed. SOI and SPI set as briefed. Figure 7.4 Common Weapons System Checks.


for both a two-ship and a four-ship.3.” For example. Spacing.5.2.5.) 5. (See Figure 7. or “180 out.5 Conventional Pattern and Methodology. the standard spacing is one aircraft on each of the four corners. Corrections to pattern spacing. Conventional Pattern and Methodology.1. 5. Typical two-ship spacing in the container pattern is on opposite corners.3. (See Figure 7. All radio transmissions while in the range pattern will be made on the respective range frequency. Conventional Pattern and Methodology.4. Number Two is turning crosswind to downwind. .) For a four-ship. 25 Jul 2011 5.6 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. however.2. the basics remain the same. Radio Transmissions. Figure 7. should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind by varying the point at which the turn is made. Spacing will be established by the Flight Lead. Standard and expected radio transmissions while operating on the conventional range may vary. for example radio calls. Establishing a contract for when flight members turn crosswind will aid in maintaining spacing.2. when Number One is rolling in on final.

5.” 5. as a technique) to ensure safety of flight. Acknowledge this transmission IAW local guidance and the flight brief. Expect a rejoin followed by RTB.2.2.2. All pattern corrections to flight spacing should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind. Contingencies. then rock wings on final then turn opposite direction to normal range traffic. 25 Jul 2011 5. expect the range control officer (RCO. all aircraft must remain silent until the aircraft being addressed responds with its position and the requesting aircraft confirms the response with “CONTINUE” or “KIO. then Number Three should “KIO” (with altitude. When turning crosswind.2. Contingencies. If blind on the preceding aircraft. An example in a four-ship formation. particularly within a four-ship.3. on final (DRY) rock wings to indicate to the RCO and fellow flight members of the NORDO condition. 5. However. Since much of basic weapons delivery training will be performed on a conventional range. Downwind. Downwind displacement should be wide enough to allow for adequate wings-level time while on the base leg.5.” Number Two should respond immediately with two‟s position in the conventional pattern. immediately request the aircraft position. It is important to remember that if a “SAY POSITION” call is made. 5. SAY POSITION. Inform lead of any suspected weapon malfunctions.7 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. If NORDO on range.5.1. then clearing the downwind to base corner. If ever in doubt of the position of the previous flight member. and call a “KNOCK IT OFF” if required on the range frequency. Number Three then has two responses.2. Crosswind. Weapon Malfunction. if Warthog Three loses sight of Two: “DRAGGIN TWO. Lost Sight. Lost Comm. 5. The most common contingency is losing sight of one or more flight members. or ranger) to report the last event score while on crosswind.2.1. then follow local range procedures. “CONTINUE” or “KIO.5. and is known as the “coffin corner.6. follow the procedures outlined in paragraph 5.2. This will minimize variations and adjustments to the base leg turn. Additionally. it is critical that each aircraft fly their turn from final to crosswind as briefed by FL.6.2. then continue to fly the briefed range pattern. 5.5.2. The displacement from the target (downwind spacing) is not exact and is typically flown 2 to 3 NM from the target. be careful not to turn inside the preceding aircraft. Expect a rejoin and be prepared to communicate problems with HEFOE visual signals. the turn from crosswind is the most dangerous portion of the pattern.2. familiarity with the mechanics of flying the patterns are discussed next. If positive separation cannot be immediately ensured. For collision avoidance purposes. Due to aircraft potentially turning crosswind at different points. The basic rules apply: maintain aircraft control.” Ensure positive visual contact with previous flight member to ensure deconfliction. A typical technique for high release altitude deliveries is to turn crosswind at track altitude. visually reacquire the preceding flight member by first clearing the crosswind to downwind corner. Contingencies that could be encountered on the range must be briefed. Conventional Pattern.” The continue call is made when Number Three picks up a visual on Number Two or determines that there are no deconfliction problems in the pattern. 5. If NORDO with emergency. Plan to be at base altitude no later than when making the .6. After accomplishing the safe escape maneuver. climb away from the ground while analyzing the problem. or making the turn to downwind.

For deliveries greater than 30 degrees. The goal is to develop and validate a canopy rail reference on the conventional range that can be applied to a tactical situation without known ground references.6. and fly the aircraft to the AOP. delay the roll-in until the target is approximately three fists aft of the canopy bow. As a ROT.2. Known Ground Track. if encountering a headwind while on base.g.3.2. Roll-In Target Placement (RTP). take the time available to assess the last pass and prepare for the next one. Anticipate the turn to base and lead it using as little G as possible.to 3-G turn (normally the steady tone). A technique is to start roll-in when the target is just aft of the canopy bow. Do not adjust the position of the turn from downwind to base leg as it can adversely affect the weapons delivery parameters on the upcoming pass. Canopy Rail Reference. Fly a precise base leg to put the aircraft in the best position to roll in and achieve the planned parameters (e. 5. Center.4.e. Approaching the roll-in point.1. A geographic reference (GEOREF) is a good starting point for finding the correct base position. 5. Although ITP is measured at track altitude.” A technique to dissect this complicated maneuver is “Pull.2. altitude. pilots should develop a roll-in target placement to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown.2. 30 degrees or less).2.g.4. 25 Jul 2011 turn for the base leg.6. The base leg must be consistent to get the aircraft on the correct wire relative to the target.2.6.e.6. since most of the turn for these deliveries are made in the vertical.6. depending on direction of roll-in). Don‟t forget to adjust for winds. airspeed.8 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. the base turn radius will be approximately 3.4. On a conventional range and attempting to validate tactical delivery references.3.3.3. Consider the winds at pattern altitude and adjust the final roll-in point as necessary (i. Pull. have a known aim off point for the delivery. Final Leg. 5. 10 or 2 o‟clock position.. start an unloaded roll to 80 degrees plus the dive angle.” This phrase leads an attack pilot through each step of the final leg. delay the roll-in. Mechanically. wind-corrected GEOREFs to start the base turn. Establishing and using RTP can place the jet on a correct . Set. A-10 pilots should use canopy references based on the initial target placement (ITP) for the delivery as the primary method to establish a tactical base position. The final is the weapon delivery portion of the pattern. and dive angle). and clearly “where the rubber meets the road.1 Roll-In Timing.2.2.2.. While on downwind. it is an accurate sight picture for target placement at base position. The actual cross-check and procedures used to put the release aimpoint on the target will vary depending on the delivery and delivery mode.4. Use known.000 feet. 5. and begin a 2. 5. 5. After developing and validating base canopy rail references.6.. execute a roll-in by advancing the throttles to MAX. start with the target about 20 to 30 degrees in front of the wing line (i.6. note the relationship of the target to the canopy rail in order to develop/validate tactical canopy references. similar to perch corrections in the traffic pattern). Base. 5. For lower angle deliveries (e.

Note that the depressible pipper does not provide crosswind correction on final. The depressible pipper is available in CCIP mode before designation. This allows pilots to correct for small base position errors in a tactical situation and minimize large track corrections on final. Likewise. After using one of the valid roll-in techniques. set the throttle to achieve the planned airspeed at release. Therefore. IHP is an angular representation (in mils) of the target relative to the ZSL. Since the aircraft will accelerate on final. cross check the target abeam the depressible pipper at track altitude. So if unable to set the DRC at Track. use the HUD pitch ladders to estimate if the target will be located at the appropriate angle when the aircraft rolls out. The DRC continuously computes and corrects for changes in airspeed. Regardless of the type of delivery flown (manual or computed) a track reference must be set. 5. increase bank angle and G to adjust the AOP shorter than planned. begin an unloaded roll-out. In any case. Begin to relax G during the roll-in as the top of the HUD approaches the target. and G-loading. During the roll-in. Any HUD reference with a mil depression .2. and continue with a normal track until release. the pilot needs accurate wind information and then must add/subtract the applicable head/tail wind component. as the HUD pitch ladders approach the edge of the target. Track References (SET). set the DRC at track altitude.6.2. decrease bank. and adjust the AOP longer than planned.7. If the target is not centered within the pitch ladders. If the expected target placement in the HUD is less than planned. Since the DRC is continuously computed. just like setting an IPP does for manual deliveries. Setting the DRC corrects the aircraft flight path toward the expected time of fall driving it toward the “correct wire. After roll-out. as the nose of the aircraft is halfway around the final turn. For computed deliveries.1 DRC. 25 Jul 2011 wire using a cockpit reference during roll-in. Roll-Out (Center).2. Set it and forget it.2. Initial Target Placement. If using ITP as a roll-in (not track) reference. without the aid of aim off distance markers in a tactical environment. the DRC will track down slightly as the pipper tracks up during the pass.2 IHP/IPP. One technique used is setting IHP mils in the depressible pipper. The pitch ladders should bracket the target when the roll-out is complete. 5. the steeper the aircraft will be after setting the AOP at track. The longer the nose is kept up during the turn (sometimes referred to as “floating” the turn).9 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 5. AOA. These track references are presented below. relax back pressure. 5.” Because weapons employment mils are based on a specific track altitude and airspeed. If the target is within approximately 30 mils of the CCIP pipper (just outside of the reticle). 5. an opportunity to refine the dive angle exists by cross-checking the pitch ladders.4. place the PBIL through the target and set a track reference. aggressively make an appropriate 3/9 correction to center the target. it is wind corrected and valid at all altitudes during the pass. if the angle in the HUD is greater than expected during the roll-in.6. The best track reference that may be used for CCIP WD is the DRC.7. a technique for using the DRC is to set the DRC on the target at track altitude. Setting the DRC in this manner establishes and refines the AOP for a correct wire. Hold the AOP and do not make a Banana pass by trying to hold the DRC on the target.5. it is imperative to center the target between the pitch ladders. Keep the minimum release staple (MRS) in your cross-check as your abort cue.7.2. a pilot should still set the DRC as soon as possible.

however. use a 1. IAA is the planned angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. To set the correct wire. add or subtract a degree. Fly smooth. Bombing Triangle—Initial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle.45 mils per degree.3.) Figure 7. (See Figure 7. IAA. 5. IAA must be corrected for head wind or tailwind. Regardless of where the aircraft is in relation to the planned wire. for a depiction of the reference. Concentrate on letting the sight track to the release aim point (RAP).7 mil per knot correction factor for headwind/tailwind and add 1 degree to IAA (17 mils).2. When employing manually. (See Figure 7. there are 17. The CCIP pipper will track quickly to the target. To correct IAA for winds.7. set the TVV 5 degrees long of the target.10 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. confirm aircraft parameters are within abort criteria. 5. therefore. IPP is the recommended track reference to use during manual weapon‟s delivery.6 Bombing Triangle – IHP and IPP Triangle.2.2. utilize the projected bomb impact line (PBIL) to fly the CCIP pipper to the target or combat offset point. Pipper Track.9. this will establish the correct wire. Continue to cross check parameters while flying to the release point. for a visual depiction of this track reference. After setting the track reference at track altitude. Bombing Triangle—Initial Head-Up Display Placement and Initial Pipper Placement Triangle.) Let us look at an example delivery with an IAA of 5 degrees. 5. During the dive. These references must be used for manual weapon‟s delivery if IHP is used as the track reference. divide attention between the movement rate of the pipper and the aircraft‟s parameters.7.6. For computed deliveries. For example.8. 25 Jul 2011 corresponding to the IHP may also be set abeam the target. with a 10 knot headwind. Confirm the Aircraft Parameters. for each 17 mils of wind correction. coordinated control inputs on final. Avoid attempting to slow the pipper down by .

This can be accomplished on base. 5. As a general rule. It is important to understand that when executing the SEM.2. Combat offset can be used to improve subsequent pass accuracy. Safe escape maneuvers include the climbing SEM. it must be executed immediately after weapons release. offset the aimpoint one half the miss distance in the opposite direction of the previous miss. One technique to help a smooth pipper track is to trim forward one „click‟ for each 10 degrees of planned dive. As an example.11. delivering a weapon with a time of fall below the minimum fuze time (a DUD weapon).12.2. Computed deliveries use real time safe escape to display an abort cue. . Release the weapon with the aiming reference on the intended release aim point.11 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The planned recovery maneuvers for free-fall munitions are the climbing maneuver (CLM) and turning level turn (TLT) safe escape maneuvers (SEM). and the weapon did not hit the target. Execution. Figure 7. reaching the abort cue. Start a recovery after ordnance release. Maintaining the minimum aircraft G for the duration of the maneuver is critical in achieving safe escape or safe separation as appropriate. or if you lose SA. perform a “combat offset. 20 degrees or below. 25 Jul 2011 bunting the aircraft as this can induce release errors. and the back-up SEM.” As a ROT.2. TLT SEM. and manual deliveries use an abort altitude. Recovery. execute a TLT SEM. 5. for low-altitude deliveries. but will cause a heavy stick.10. If a previous delivery was completed with the aiming reference on the target. or being hit by fragmentation from the ordnance employed. if the first weapon impacted 50 meters at 2 o‟clock. or after setting track. Pickle. For free-fall munitions. execute a CLM SEM. and for deliveries above 20 degrees. Trim through the roll-in. the primary concerns during recovery are hitting the ground (or descending below a desired altitude). 5.7 Bombing Triangle—Initial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle. release the weapon 25 meters at 8 o‟clock. on the second pass.

1. and exposure to threats. Pop-Up Pattern. with the following exceptions and the pop-up maneuver itself. Common Errors. and most importantly. A 45-degree offset offers a balance of target acquisition. gun. • Pull-up point (PUP)—The point along the approach course at which the pull-up to the climb angle is initiated. When employed tactically. 5. • Climb angle—The angle-of-climb that is to be achieved following the initiation of the pop-up.9. . CLM SEM errors include: insufficient G during the recovery. • Release altitude—The altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished. rocket. • Minimum attack perimeter (MAP)—Is a circle centered on the target. However. • Pull-down target placement (PTP)—Sight picture used to initiate pull-down. Pop-Up Pattern. Pop-Up Pattern Analysis: • Run-in altitude—The altitude above or below target elevation. not maintaining G on the aircraft until the TLT SEM is complete. It can be used for free-fall. • Apex—Highest altitude the aircraft reaches during the pop-up profile. the goal should be to strive for 3 seconds wings-level time. The approach (approach course) to the target can be either straight ahead or offset depending on the desired attack axis to the target. the distance from the target to this point is the radius of the circle.12. • Angle-off (AO)—The angular difference between the approach course and attack heading. rolling out prior to completing 60 degrees of turn. the approach course is generally 45 degrees offset from the final attack heading when employed from a conventional pattern.12 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The pop-up is an “unmask” maneuver used at low-altitude to visually acquire the target. exceeding 30 degrees of bank prior to 30 degrees nose high. TLT SEM errors include: an unloaded roll as the nose approaches the horizon. and Maverick attacks. • Dive angle—The planned dive angle for weapons delivery. • Tracking—A portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft-sighting system with the target. Review the following pop-up specific terms while referencing Figure 7. excessive nose high or nose low during the turn. • Pull-down point (PDP)—The start point for a maneuver to transition from the climbing to the diving portion of the pop-up delivery. which depicts the point at which target tracking is initiated. The pop-up point will vary depending on the ordnance to be employed. and not completing the maneuver to 30 degrees nose high. • PDP angle off nose (AON)—The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PDP.2. • PUP angle off nose (AON)—The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PUP.3. turning room to reposition for the pull-down. 25 Jul 2011 5. • Aim-off distance (AOD)—A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. and Figure 7. • Approach course—The ground track the aircraft flies until reaching the pop-up point (pull-up point [PUP]). The tasks associated with each leg of the pop-up pattern are generally the same as the conventional pattern. Fly to the target from the PUP. Using track altitude as a point on the ground.8. • Attack heading—Final attack heading. That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if not recovered) in a dive delivery.

Figure 7. 25 Jul 2011 • Bomb range—The distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact. .13 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.8 Pop-Up Pattern.

3. Altitude may vary based on terrain. Be very careful while descending to pilot low-altitude minimums because it is very easy to overshoot your altitude and fixate on the target or PUP.9 Pop-Up Pattern Analysis. Remember to check the crosswind to downwind corner. The considerations for actions on downwind are similar to those in the conventional pattern. 5. During the turn to base the aircraft needs to descend and turn to arrive on the planned range approach course (see local and squadron guidance). except the aircraft will typically be 1. Base. Upon completion of the SEM. plan on depleting approximately 15 knots to 30 knots of airspeed while executing the pop-up attack. The downwind leg can either be parallel to the run-in leg (45 degrees offset away from the target) or parallel to the final leg. .000 feet AGL. The G and turn location will depend on the type of Pop-Up pattern to fly (offset or parallel downwind). gain as much energy as practical prior to the pull-up point. The turn from downwind to base is where the pop-up pattern diverges from the standard conventional pattern. and then downwind to base corner. for preceding aircraft. The SEM employed is generally a TLT.1. SEM and Crosswind.3.14 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Downwind. Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low maximum.500 to 2.2. 5. For pop-ups.3. As a ROT.3. establish a climbing vector and complete the turn to crosswind. and pilot low altitude category. 5. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. One technique is to level off 200 to 300 feet high and ease the aircraft down to pilot low-altitude minimums during the approach to the PUP. weather.

At the planned PUP. 5. The correct PUP for a strafe delivery is based upon desired delivery slant range. 5.3. The pop picture must be developed by flying a mechanical approach course. a baseline sight picture can be developed for use in a tactical environment. and rivers. During the climb. a 500-foot AGL run in could be only 300 feet above target elevation. there are specific range references that aid in identifying the pop-up point. the target will move down and aft in the quarter panel. it is possible to plan an attack heading to fly and identify GEOREFs such as roads. If the conditions are correct. Pull-Down Point. Pull-Up Point. increase the pull up point by 0. Target Acquisition. When the desired PUP is reached. select MAX power and begin a 3-G wings-level pull (G-suit inflates at 2. An important visual reference is the angle off the nose (AON) to the target at the pull-up point and pull-down point. a 45-degree angle-off results in the target starting at the 22 degrees AON at pull-up and moving to 32 degrees of AON at pull-down. A baseline sight picture for the pull-down point relates the target placement to a known cockpit reference for bombing deliveries. The pilot can also reference the distance from the target in the HUD as a back-up if the coordinates are known for the target and entered in the active steerpoint. For example.3. The Pop. In this case. The typical time to acquire the target from pull-up to pull-down is approximately 5 to 10 seconds depending on run-in altitude.4.5 Gs) to the desired climb angle.1 NM).3. With permission study. Do not confuse angle off (AO) with angle off the nose (AON). These are the areas that should be scanned during the climb to find the target. Correct PUP. hills. 5. pop-up for a low strafe or rocket delivery approximately 1 mile prior to the intended release slant range. desired dive angle.3.to 4-G pull down to intercept the planned attack wire. assuming a 500-foot AGL run-in altitude. . it will be done with an unloaded roll followed by a 2. focus on acquiring the target. Knowing the pull-up/pull-down AONs helps focus the pilots eyes for target acquisition. Pull up to 5 degrees higher than the planned delivery dive angle.3. GEOREFs or EGI ranges are the best method for determining the correct pull-up point on a conventional range. pull to approximately 5 to 10 degrees nose high and begin a roll and pull to the target.4. First learn the basics then apply the sight picture discussion in the following paragraphs to sharpen pop delivery skills. When on a controlled range.4. pull-up and pull down. and specific range restrictions. Calculate the AON using the following ROT: the pull-up AON is approximately one-half the planned angle-off and the pull-down point AON is approximately three-quarters of the planned angle off. 5. This point is referred to as PTP (pull-down target placement).15 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Increase the PUP distance by 0.1 NM for every 200 feet below planned altitude (For example.4. Flying a mechanical pop-up using planned parameters will aid in developing a sight picture to increase the chance for target acquisition and finding the wire. 25 Jul 2011 5. the dive angle will be 5 to 10 degrees nose low.1. The actual pop-up is performed referencing the target and varies dependent upon the ordnance employed. Normally. After setting the planned climb angle. PUP distances assume the ground elevation is equal to the target elevation. As a ROT.2. This is the point at which the pull-down is initiated.4. These points should be memorized in order to reduce task load on the range.3.4. Execute the pull-down as the aircraft approaches the correct pull-down visual reference. For most conventional range strafe deliveries.

As in the Pop-Up pattern. 5. PTP. crosswind. necessitating a descent for the base leg. Use RTP cockpit references to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown.4. 5. Final. A common error is to level off higher than planned release altitude which may result in a CCIP consent delivery with a short time on final. and base leg are identical to the rectangular pattern.6. a visual reference for canopy bow sight picture measurements.4. 5. the pilot should be cautious when descending to pilot low-altitude minimums. IFFCC provides . Because the target may be in sight while on a controlled range. the bump-up attack will be executed within ±15 degrees of the final runin heading. followed by a pushover to reacquire and track the target. Since PTP is measured from the horizon it cannot be translated to a sight picture without a known horizon reference.3. downwind.5.1.3. This is the angle from the horizon to the target at the planned pull-down point. Like the Pop-Up pattern. altitude. A shallow climb farther out may be preferred to a steeper climb close in. 6.6. The IAA can be used as an approximation of this angle. 6. add the IAA to the known horizon reference and equate that distance to a canopy reference. Bombing with IFFCC simplifies weapons delivery significantly.000 feet AGL. Pilots must determine their specific sight picture from this starting point.4. using PTP references will aid target acquisition while maneuvering to the correct wire. To calculate the PTP. IFFCC provides a CCIP based on the weapon selected in the current DSMS profile that considers wind. Bump-Up Pattern. the downwind will be flown at 1. Normally. Using the grommets (dust covers) for this sight picture affords the pilot both right and left hand roll-in sight pictures. Techniques. Roll-In and Track References. In a fluid tactical environment with moving targets and inaccurate coordinates. Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low as a maximum descent rate.1. AOA.6. aircraft velocity. it is an unmask maneuver designed to achieve LOS with the target. As the pull-down is completed.3. Adjust the pull-down sight pictures for different IAAs as they change and add the IAA to the horizon reference for the given climb angle. Computed Free-Fall Munitions Employment.5. and attitude. the bump-up uses a slight climb to acquire the target followed by a negative G pushover to intercept planned release altitude. The roll-in and track references discussed in the diving delivery section above still apply. the delivery considerations are those of a normal weapons delivery pass. Remember. Integrated Flight and Fire Control Computer. in the tactical environment the key is to acquire LOS with the target. 5. The Bump-Up maneuver is primarily used to unmask for forward-firing diving deliveries or level free-fall munitions employment. The distance between the center of two grommets (dust covers) is 5 degrees. The final portion is the same as with any diving delivery.16 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Final. this can be simulated by pulling up approximately 5 degrees nose high.500 to 2. The pull down point visual reference is determined using PTP. Instead of using large bank angles and positive G to get the aircraft from a nose-high attitude to an attack position. 5. This is a baseline starting point and is dependent on factors such as sitting height and seat adjustment. When employing a bump-up attack on the conventional range. 25 Jul 2011 5. On final.4.3.

delivery mode (CCIP. Delivery Modes. See Figure 7. Fuzing (type and time). Ripple Single).2. 25 Jul 2011 accurate weapons delivery even though the aircraft may be significantly off planned parameters. weapons effects may be less than desired. flying the aircraft through the planned delivery requires using solid weapons delivery techniques and procedures to include wind analysis. minimum altitude and desired safe escape maneuver. CCRP).17 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. DTOF. DSMS Profile Page. (See Figure 7. however. . Digital Stores Management System.2. This includes weapon type.10. 6. Free-fall bomb deliveries and rockets primarily use CCIP mode while LGBs and IAMs use continuously computed release point (CCRP). It is imperative to know how the CICU. IFFCC Air-to-Surface Cockpit Interface. release mode (Single. 6. Additionally.1. DSMS.2. UFC and IFFCC all integrate and function prior to weapons employment. All delivery specific information that IFFCC needs to calculate the correct solution is contained in the profiles created during mission planning and loaded to the DSMS via the DTC. Figure 7.11 IFFCC HUD Symbology—CCIP).

Altitude Sources.2.10 DSMS Profile Page.3. 6. This mode is valid only over flat terrain and is limited to altitudes 5. Radar Mode.1. Baro mode computes a true MSL altitude by starting with the central air data computer (CADC) barometric altitude adjusted by the Kohlsman altimeter setting (shown on the cockpit altimeter) and adjusting it for lag. This function is referred to as a “Baro update.” At approximately 50 to 60 KIAS.18 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 6. The aircraft will take an automatic barometric reference point during takeoff. and Delta. This is the starting point for all subsequent . installation error. There are three altitude sources for IFFCC WD computations: Radar.3. 6. Radar mode uses the radar altitude directly below the aircraft as the height above target for WD computations.000 feet AGL and below. and nonstandard air temperatures. Baro. The altitude source is selected on the armament HUD control panel (AHCP). the IFFCC system records the CADC barometric altitude from the cockpit altimeter. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.3. Baro Mode.

3. Like Baro. Delta Mode. Delta mode. Delta mode needs a reference altitude. 6. Figure 7. provided the EVE is less than 50 feet.19 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. NOTE: Ensure this is accurate by dialing the cockpit altimeter until the HUD altitude reads touchdown zone elevation prior to takeoff. 25 Jul 2011 calculations.3. The rest of the process for correcting the . uses the CADC pressure altitude as a starting point for computing true MSL altitude and calculates its own nonstandard pressure correction (Delta) rather than relying on the altimeter setting. an initial delta update is accomplished during the takeoff roll and assumes that the cockpit altitude (altitude set in HUD) is an accurate reading of true MSL altitude at that point.11 IFFCC HUD Symbology—CCIP. From this point on. To calculate the nonstandard pressure correction. unlike the Baro mode. the Baro update consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude.

3. an inflight Delta should be accomplished at the planned delivery altitude near the target area. Figure 7. Selecting a Mode. Elevation Sources. Baro provides the most accurate method of WD when EVE is less than 50 feet. The main benefit of the Delta mode is that the reference altitude may be changed via a delta update taken closer to the target area so that the corrections are more accurate for the target air mass. If EVE is greater than 50 feet. Delta updates received from other A-10s or forecast values from mission planning can be entered via IFFCC menus.4. This is due to the constant Baro update which consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude. IFFCC provides hot elevation. NOTE: Delta mode is completely independent of the cockpit altimeter setting except for the initial update on takeoff roll.000 feet AGL. then Delta provides the most accurate method of WD. IFFCC incorporates Level 1 digital terrain elevation data (DTED) which is loaded into the data transfer cartridge (DTC). . passive ranging. 25 Jul 2011 pressure/altitude scale is similar to the Baro mode. Radar mode may be the preferred mode over flat terrain when the pilot is sure the terrain elevation below the aircraft at release is the same as the target elevation and release occurs below 5. IFFCC provides the ability to select from several different elevation sources through its digital terrain system application software (DTSAS). Remember that the CADC pressure altitude is not effected by the altimeter setting. look-aside ranging. NOTE: If possible. 6. and coordinate ranging. 6. so changing the altimeter setting in flight does not affect Delta mode altitudes.20 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.12 Delta CAL Submenu.4.

Look-Aside Ranging. In this mode the pilot manually enters a known target elevation into either the HUD via the UFC or the CDU. If no elevation is known (pop up target) and DTS is not functioning.4.2. The IFFCC only accepts the last laser ranging information received from the pod. or by selecting auto-elevation mode (referred to as “DTS” by many pilots) as a preference when loading the DTC.4. After firing the laser. delivery parameter data must have been input correctly . For example. then use TGP laser elevation. When targeting pod (TGP) is initially selected. IFFCC then uses the calculated elevation for solution computation. IFFCC will use this as the only elevation for solution computations.” 6. as opposed to the SPI elevation. When enabled in the CDU. which will then transfer the elevation to the HUD. Passive Ranging (Data Transfer System [DTS]). 6.1. CR automatically returns an elevation when the pilot enters coordinates into a Waypoint on the CDU. use HOT elevation and ensure the current steerpoint while delivering weapons is the target.4. IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the gun and bomb or rocket sights simultaneously. and the Waypoint under modification is the active steerpoint in the HUD. 6. if the TGP LOS has moved to an area with a significantly different elevation and the laser has not been fired.1. the elevation in the HUD is replaced with “DTS. If the TGP laser is set to latched mode. 6.21 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4.4. Computed Free-Fall Sight Application. IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the Maverick reticle or the depressible pipper. This only occurs if DTSAS is on and the pilot selects auto-elevation mode by using the UFC Data and Select switches. then the SPI elevation will be used.5. Every time the laser has stopped firing. Selecting the Best Elevation Source.5. NOTE: If in CCRP mode and using the TGP as an elevation source. 6.3. Profile. but DTS will be used until the laser is actually fired. In order for the IFFCC system to compute accurate release displays. use HOT. 25 Jul 2011 6. This mode is only active in auto-elevation mode (“DTS” visible in HUD). Hot Elevation. Coordinate Ranging (CR). the TGP elevation will be used by IFFCC. the IFFCC elevation will continuously update as long as the laser is firing.6. On conventional (known target set) ranges. the “T XXXX” will flash in the HUD to indicate the new elevation has been accepted. 6. the HUD will display „T DTS‟ indicating TGP is selected. To bomb on CR. Targeting Pod Elevation. If autoelevation mode is inactive (numeric elevation visible in the HUD). Use auto-elevation mode (DTS) in most cases. If the IFFCC elevation source is set to DTS or HOT elevation.5. the correct DSMS weapon profile must be selected.4. When active.4. then IFFCC will use the potentially incorrect elevation from the last time the laser was fired. the elevation returned by CR will automatically transfer to the HUD. the HUD will display „T XXXX‟ with X representing the elevation provided by the targeting pod. 6.

the greatest depression available is 310 mils. weapons will release IAW the profile. and the pilot cannot accurately deliver weapons. The DRC and MRS are displayed on the PBIL to show how the desired time of fall and abort cue relate to the current aircraft position.2.3. As the pipper reaches the aimpoint. the PBIL is dashed. centering the pitch ladders over the target result in a smooth PBIL track through the target.2. These depend on which mode is selected in the weapons submenu (or on IFFCC preferences in A/W/E). check the parameters and decide if they are within those required for the delivery.5. and IAW Pop-Up Pattern. There are limitations to when a solution can be displayed in the HUD. Solution Options. fix any PBIL errors with aggressive corrections while setting track. Keep the PBIL on the release aim point and allow the pipper to track to it. Remember at track that ITP is only an indication of aircraft position.5.5.) This figure is based on a 4. Since the center of the pitch ladders show the aircraft‟s path over the ground in computed HUD modes. Roll out (Center).5-mil per knot crosswind correction (found in the delivery parameters in the Battle Book). not square. This creates a problem with high crosswind and deliveries with high mil depressions. A delivery requiring 285 mils can display a solid PBIL out to 20 knots of crosswind (assuming the 4. Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR. The HUD projection is round.2. Several techniques exist to ensure that all necessary data have been input accurately. 6.1. When the computed solution is outside the HUD field of view. . IFFCC provides two options for WD solutions: Manual Release and Consent to Release. The reticle will flash when enough time has elapsed for all of the weapons to release.1. Manual Release.1. “Set” the DRC. In this case.1. Final.5 mil/kt correction). The PBIL guides to the desired release point by predicting the future position of the bomb along the ground.2.4. defined at 140 mils of depression.2.1. Likewise. (See Figure 7. is the area capable of displaying the maximum amount of crosswind solution (170 mils). when the pilot depresses the weapons release button. After roll out. 6.13. The CCIP Consent Release function provides a CCIP weapons release capability when the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV but above 550mils (in level flight). 6. The HUD can only display a pipper within a 170-mil radius of the 140-mil HUD center. This option allows the solution to be displayed only if the solution is within the HUD field of view (FOV). CCIP Consent Release (5 mil & 3/9).5. Begin roll-out as the pitch ladders approach the target.5. Perform the roll-in and Conventional Pattern. and appropriately selected on downwind. HD munitions are very susceptible to this problem.5. Therefore. Base to Roll-In (Pull).1. the center of the HUD. 25 Jul 2011 on the ground. Track (Set). Since the pitch ladders are wind corrected this will aid in leading a roll out that positions the aircraft upwind of the release aim point. 6. After pickling. perform the appropriate SEM. 6.5. not a track reference.22 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. with no crosswind capability at that depression. 6. Once track is set. depress the weapon release button and hold it long enough for the aircraft to release the number of weapons selected. 6.

When the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV the reticle is clamped to the outer edge of the HUD (with the clamped pipper 153 mils from HUD center regardless of bank angle). (See Figure 7.9 seconds.2.5.2. The PBIL and CCIP reticle are dashed. and a predesignate timeto-release numeric (TTRN) is displayed inside the dashed reticle if the time to weapons release is less than 20 seconds. .23 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.14.) The predesignate TTRN is displayed in increments from 0. the analog range bar is removed.13 Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR.1.1 to 9. then 10 to 20 seconds. 6. Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.

the clamped CCIP pipper is used as the aiming reference to designate the intended target. The pilot rolls in and places the CCIP pipper over the target. To employ the CCIP consent release function.2.2. Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology). This causes the PBIL and CCIP bomb reticle to become solid. and the TTRN.2. The symbology consists of a steering line. NOTE: When the solution is within the HUD FOV the solution and symbology will behave according to „Manual Release‟ regardless of IFFCC consent setting. and then depresses and holds the Weapons Release button to enter the CCIP Consent Release function.5.24 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 6. and the CCIP consent symbology to be displayed (Figure 7.15. a 10-mil diameter solution cue. in whole seconds.14 Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. . 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.

then the release will not be commanded. Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit. If the CCIP pipper passes outside of 5 mils.2. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. • If “5 MIL” was selected from the MAIN MENU.5.25 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper is within 5 mils and passes the 3/9 line of the solution cue.16. CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release). 6.18. parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane (Figure 7. After designation. (Figure 7.15 Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology.2. the aircraft is flown to align the CCIP pipper with the solution cue.2.) .1.

regardless of horizontal range to the solution. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.17.16 CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release. NOTE: Rockets are always manual release regardless of IFFCC Consent setting. CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery. . parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane). or if there is a fault in the consent system.) • The solution will become invalid prior to IFFCC commanded release (and hence aborted) if the Weapons Release button is released prior to actual weapon release.26 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. • If 3/9 was selected from the “MAIN MENU”. (See Figure 7. NOTE: LGBs/CBU-97 are always 3/9 regardless of IFFCC Consent setting. IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper crosses the 3/9 line of the solution cue.

3. For free-fall weapons. IFFCC calculates safe escape for fuze. IFFCC will remove fragmentation as a consideration for the MRS on GP bombs. No consideration is given to safe escape/safe separation. 6. 6. . Abort Cues. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.2. Real-Time Safe Escape.27 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. frag or Min Alt and displays the MRS and MRC based on the higher of the three. IFFCC can calculate a minimum TOF for safe escape based on actual aircraft parameters and planned escape maneuver. If this SEM is selected in the weapon profile.5.17 CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery.1.5.5. IFFCC calculates and displays an abort cue based on pilot and aircraft data. Selecting NONE.3. Selecting NONE in the CBU87/CBU-89/CBU-97 submenus has a slightly different effect on the MRS and MRC than in the MK 82/MK 84 submenus. 6.3. as explained below: • MK 82/MK 84: MRS and MRC does not consider frag and is only based on the values the pilot enters for Min Alt and Fuze.

To alert the pilot that IFFCC is extrapolating outside the bounds of RTSE tables.3. Figure 7. Only fuzing and function will be considered. If actual flight parameters are outside the boundaries of these tables. the MRS and MRC will flash.28 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 6. Real-Time Safe Escape Cues. The .5.18 Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit. 25 Jul 2011 • CBU-87/CBU-89/CBU-97: MRS and MRC represent submunition arming while not considering frag for an intact canister. not safe escape/safe separation. IFFCC extrapolates from the tables to calculate a RTSE value.3.

The rocket reticle is not displayed in the HUD unless a solution is available. MRS/MRC with CCIP Consent. When employing in CCIP Consent Release modes.5. This information is displayed by the analog ranging bar inside the reticle. Slant range. Trim the aircraft to maintain correct G-loading and allow the pipper to track to the target. DRC. frag.000 feet. Valid Solution Indications. 6.3. the valid solution indicator (VSI) appears as a small “x” over either the MRS or the DRC when the IFFCC computer determines (with the present aircraft parameters. 7.29 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. is constantly computed out to the kinematic range of the rocket. On roll-in.5. Avoid the tendency to hold the pipper on the target as this will induce tip off. This occurs only when no consent option is selected or available. CCIP Rocket Reticle. the MRS is based upon the true CCIP solution.1. fuze time. Because of the shorter slant range. IFFCC uses the inputs minimum altitude. 25 Jul 2011 flashing cues are somewhat subtle and are not always obvious on a cluttered HUD.3. With a rocket profile selected. If the VSI is present. conventional rockets are more accurate than standoff.1. and loft rockets.5. 7. the VSI may appear at roll-out but go away as the aircraft accelerates on final. and below the reticle in NM when the slant range exceeds 12. 7.19. Weapon Employment 7.4. or ground. the PBIL. then the aircraft is outside the minimum slant range computed by IFFCC.1. However. the analog range bar will be locked at the 12 o‟clock position. the critical element in shooting rockets.4. namely airspeed. place the pipper short of the target. Rocket Employment.1. which is outside the HUD FOV. IFFCC CCIP significantly reduces the difficulty in shooting accurate rockets. and winds) a solution will not be available within the HUD FOV prior to passing the respective TOF. (See Figure 7. When in Manual Release mode. For high sight depression parameters. and MRC are removed from the normal CCIP display. generally a half reticle short.5. CCIP Rockets. Flashing MRS/MRC should have no affect on the delivery.3. this accuracy is achieved at the expense of threat standoff. The MRC position inside the reticle corresponds to the minimum release slant range for the highest of fuze. 6. In this case. This delivery is characterized by short slant ranges and generally steeper dive angles (30 degrees or more). and safe escape maneuver to calculate a real time abort cue. dive angle.) . If the range bar has not met the caret or the staple is above the pipper when the bomb is released. tactical. The minimum release point is reached when the analog range bar meets the caret. The MRC is displayed as a caret on the inside of the reticle. MRS/MRC with MAN REL. This will occur at the same time that the MRS meets the pipper.1. Conventional Rocket. MRS. IFFCC displays an “X” over the pipper if this situation exists and the pilot should abort the pass. The MRS is displayed along the PBIL. 6. make a decision based on wind information and accuracy of parameters to determine whether to continue the pass or abort. IFFCC displays this cue as the MRS and MRC.

7. Additionally.2. Linear offset or mil crank may be used to adjust RAP/RAPE for winds. the top of the reticle should be used as the aiming reference for 9K S/R.1. With the depressible pipper set to 102 mils and dive angles between 5 to 15 degrees.1. Tactical Sight Setting. the pipper for 12K S/R and the bottom of the reticle for 15K S/R shots (it can also be set to 90 mils for a 6/9/12K reference). it can be used if wind velocity is not known and/or if there is no time to calculate wind corrections to achieve specific delivery parameters. Use a depressible pipper with either STBY Pipper. Crosswind correction must still be applied for accurate delivery (approximately 0. 25 Jul 2011 7.19 CCIP Rocket Reticle.1. headwind and tailwind corrections are negligible at closer slant ranges (less than 12.5 mils per knot).1 Tactical Sight Setting. Manual Rockets. Wind corrections are not as large as for bombs. CCRP is a system delivery that will usually be employed at low-altitude to „loft‟ rockets or medium-altitude for level or shallow deliveries.2. The tactical sight setting is a manual delivery technique using a set mil reference to employ manual rockets at several slant ranges. however.3. CCRP Rockets. 7. (See Figure 7. or Guns. As a rule.000 feet) and only the crosswind need be considered if a “close” mark is required). HARS. for additional information. The RAN replaces the TTRN .) Figure 7. realize that standby pipper is 50 mils in diameter vice 25 mils for the depressible pipper. Manual rocket deliveries are similar to manual bomb deliveries. This sight setting can also be used with the standby pipper.30 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.20.

Illum rocket solutions target a point over the SPI. vertically maneuver the aircraft to place the analog range bar on the MRC.1. the pilot uses the same CCRP references discussed previously by applying sufficient G to place the PBRL on the ASL.4. The delivery of M257/278 rockets is restricted to CCRP mode. For the rocket flare to attain the menuentered desired flare height at mid-burn. or 30-degree loft. pull the nose of the aircraft up to . the pilot starts a pull-up to 20 degrees when the RAN equals 30. this solution is always calculated based on the SPI.2.20 Tactical Sight Setting. The analog range bar represents the predicted flare ignition height while the MRC represents the desired flare ignition height to mid-burn. Figure 7. MAN REL is the only release mode for rocket deliveries. Remember. push the nose of the aircraft down to position the analog range bar over the MRC. 7.21. 7. 20-. Delivery parameters can vary from lofting nose high to 30 degrees nose low. During the loft profile. These rockets provide approximately 2 to 3 minutes of illumination. Start the pull-up when the RAN equals 10 degrees plus the planned loft angle. the pilot may perform a 10-. For example.1. The “USE CCRP” message will be displayed in the HUD. If the MRC is outside the analog range bar. The Mk-257/278 rockets are illumination rockets. the pickle button is “hot” and the pilot must attempt to release the rockets as close to the center of the Solution Cue as possible.4. therefore. 7.31 25 VFS OI 07-A- If the MRC is inside the analog range bar (Figure 7. Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar). 25 Jul 2011 and displays a “45” numeric seven seconds prior to the target being in range. The MRC and analog range bar are utilized in a unique way with M257/278 rocket flares. During a low altitude run-in. Illumination Rockets. for a 20-degree loft.

fly the MRC to the analog range bar. Take care to ensure the proper symbology is being used for the two respective weapons as dangerous miss distances can occur when using opposing symbology.1. Once the analog range bar and MRC are coincident. CAUTION: The HUD symbology for the rocket CCIP is very similar to the gun CCIP.4. TTRN. In other words.4.21 Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar. 7.3. . analog range bar and MRC will be removed from the HUD and a dashed “X” will be displayed over the pipper.1. RKT is displayed below the rocket reticle to help distinguish the two.32 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. If launching the selected rocket flare would cause it to hit the ground before parachute deployment. ASL. Solution Cue. maintain that flight path angle until release. Figure 7. the PBRL. 25 Jul 2011 position the analog range bar over the MRC.4. 7.

1.1.2. Dive angle does not affect dispersion.1.5. The cycle can be interrupted at any point by squeezing the trigger. 7. 60. and 150 seconds after firing. Harmonization. The GAU-8/A is installed such that bullets pass through the 41-mil depression at 4.2. the GAU-8/A will automatically cycle at 24. a gun unsafe indication will result. Dispersion.000-pound aircraft.2. Pilot knowledge of proper strafe techniques and the ability to recognize. The GAU-8/A is the primary weapon of the A-10. The GAU-8/A was built with the specifications that 80 percent of the bullets must fall within a 5-mil diameter of the desired aimpoint and 100 percent must fall within 13 mils.000 feet slant range when in 30 degrees of dive with a 36. and correct for common pilot errors are critical for employment.1 Clearing Cycle. the A-10 pilot is provided unsurpassed staying power and flexibility. Each specific delivery has its advantages and disadvantages. was to have no unfired or “wasted” rounds in the barrel. After six to eight passes of 150 rounds each with only 1. If two broken firing pins are detected.5 seconds after every firing. The goal. 7.2.5 seconds. The GAU-8/A goes through a barrel clearing cycle within 0. Dispersion. Gun Characteristics. 7. the gun can detect a broken firing pin (resulting in a live round). gun dispersion can increase to 30 mils for 100 percent and 18 to 20 mils for 80 percent of rounds fired. Additionally. With over 1. 7. It is set in IFFCC by the weapons load crew when the gun is loaded. In general. 25 Jul 2011 7. when designing the gun. If the clearing cycle is interrupted by safing the gun. Barrel cooling also stops when the master arm or rotate switch is set to the safe position. does increase as the gun heats up. and the weather. 7.150 rounds of 30mm high explosive incendiary (HEI) and armor piercing incendiary (API) rounds. the threat.4. Parameters. and in the HUD when in GUNS mode.2 Cooling Cycle. The cockpit gun unsafe light will illuminate if the clearing cycle is not completed in 2. 7. Strafe deliveries for the A-10 are divided into two broad categories: highangle and low-angle.2. 7.33 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Rounds Counter. combined with a sustained rate of fire of 62 rounds per second.1.3. Two target strafe (TTS) can be accomplished from either LRS or HAS deliveries. analyze. only the bullet footprint.1. strafe parameters are dictated by the target. The cooling cycle was designed to eliminate increased bullet dispersion due to barrel heating and rotates the barrels under a schedule following trigger release. high accuracy.5 minutes between bursts.2.2. Rounds remaining are displayed in increments of 10 on the DSMS page.2. a gun unsafe indication will result. and HAS is usually 30 degrees and above. To cool the barrel. and sustained firepower make strafe the most reliable and effective method for the A-10 to deliver firepower against a ground target.2 Gun Employment. however. The GAU-8/A characteristics of increased standoff. .1. 100. Low-angle strafe (LAS) and long range strafe (LRS) are generally considered any delivery 15 degrees and below.

the aircraft will likely sustain frag/ricochet damage.g. APCs).2. is typically 5. .) For LAS passes against hard targets. (See Figure 7.000 feet on hard targets.000 feet slant range.34 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Cease fire on a LAS delivery on soft targets at 2. LRS slant range. Low-Angle Strafe.22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference. slant range will very nearly equal ground range.22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference. a mobility kill (M-Kill) may still be likely. or soft skinned vehicles (e.1. lightly armored targets (e.000 feet and 3.000 feet.A10 for specific Pd against targets. the aiming reference is 39 to 40 mils.. cease fire no later than 3.g. trucks and jeeps).000 to 2. Refer to the weapons shop and AFTTP 3-1. Realize that if attacking a heavily armored target. If attacking personnel.000 to 6. for gun cross elevation with the target at 5.2. However. 25 Jul 2011 7. When employing manually and assuming firing at 2. The objective of a LRS delivery is to standoff using the excellent range of the GAU-8/A to kill or immobilize a target. The objective of a LAS delivery is to press into effective kill range for a hard target (tank). For low-altitude shots. 7. this can be an effective delivery.2. Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference. the probability of damage (Pd) goes down significantly as the range increases. elevate the gun cross to compensate for gravity drop based on slant range.000-foot slant range to avoid breaking the 3/9 plane of any target shot at.500 feet slant range.2. If an aircraft breaks the 3/9 plane of a hard target after employing on it. Figure 7.000 to 6. when employing on a controlled range.2..23. (See Figure 7.) If employing manually. Long-Range Strafe.

Shoot long then short if the targets are aligned with the run in axis to avoid breaking 3/9 with a target. altitude. Because of the increased dive angle. the gun cross will have to be elevated to compensate for gravity drop at various slant ranges. Tactically. and airspeed parameters must be met to hit the target. specific dive angle. Similarly. TTS is shooting two targets with two separate bursts on the same pass.2. “think” of it as a combination of LRS and LAS— incorporating the techniques of both. . Reference squadron Battle Books for specific deliveries and their mil elevations. targets should be close enough that they are in the confines of the HUD simultaneously when opening fire on the first target. Avoid the 15. As a ROT. strafe in the direction of egress (left to right off right. to see how to compute slant range by referencing the target on the canopy rail.35 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. for example).4 Two-Target Strafe. and the overall effective target area is increased. The correct slant range is acquired when employing on a conventional range and firing at the desired altitude. Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In. HAS deliveries are used from medium-altitude with dive angles greater than 20 degrees. 7.to 30-degree dive region for hard targets due to limited weapons effects (obliquity angles may result in ricochet at impact versus penetration).2.2. there is increased bullet density. HAS deliveries are less sensitive to elevation and slant range errors than low angle deliveries.24.23 Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference. strafe the nearest target to the range tower first. then move away from the tower to strafe the second target. more vulnerable parts of the target are exposed. (See Figure 7. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. High-Angle Strafe. 3. Just as in LRS. the slant range is dependent upon desired weapons effects and target attacked. When employed in a low-angle delivery. If employing manually. When employing on a controlled range.2. while on the planned dive angle.) 7.

7. Guns Attack Modes.1. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. and wind corrected 4. The gun reticle consists of a 1 mil pipper at the center of a 50-mil circular reticle with range marks at the 12. Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. Air-to-surface guns can be accomplished in GUNS and CCIP modes.5 second).36 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The CCIP is corrected for all factors influencing the bullets after the gun has reached full speed (approximately 0. 6.2. If a fixed sight (wind corrected fixed gun cross or 4/8/12 reticle) is selected in guns. 7. non-wind corrected 4K GUN CROSS is displayed.2. 3.25. No gun cross is available in STANDBY PIPPER.24 Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In. 4/8/12 reticle. Some of these factors include deceleration.000 foot gun cross. gun barrel rotation. 7. (See Figure 7.3.) .3. GUNS mode offers CCIP reticle.2. and winds. In HARS with the GUN ARMed. then in CCIP the 4K wind corrected gun cross will be displayed (when the gun is armed). aircraft angle of attack. The power-on default sight for the gun is the CCIP gun reticle.2.3. gravity drop. and 9 o‟clock positions. a fixed. CCIP guns cross. CCIP Gun Reticle. Strafe Symbology.

the range bar remains fixed at the 12 o‟clock position and an accurate range numeric is presented as long as a valid solution exists.) The analog range bar is located just inside the reticle and moves counter clockwise from the 12 o‟clock position as slant range to the target decreases. An analog range bar with a 5-mil tab indicates the slant range to the CCIP gun solution in thousands of feet.2. (See Figure 7. Slant ranges can be displayed from 0 to 12. and an X is placed over the pipper.2. If the pipper is pointed at a target that exceeds the maximum range that IFFCC can calculate.000 feet. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. For example. A hash mark at the end of the analog range bar indicates current slant range in thousands of feet as read from the reticle clock position.1 increments to 9. the range numeric is removed. A pilot option is to display the range numeric in kilometers.000 feet.9. a “K” will follow the range numeric. If there is no solution.3.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. The numeric then changes to an integer beginning at 10 and increasing to 99. current slant range is 6. Maximum ranges in excess of 6 NM were observed during flight tests of IFFCC. This aids the pilot in keeping the pipper near the target for when a solution becomes possible.26. Analog Range Bar.37 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.1. 7. the pipper will clamp at the maximum range solution (with an “X” over it) and will still be roll stabilized and wind-corrected. and the maximum range that will be displayed is 99K. with the hash mark at the 6 o‟clock position. . the analog range bar is thin. The 2-digit numeric displays the range in nautical miles beginning at 0. Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric. In this case.000 feet. Outside of 12.1 and increasing in 0.

By placing the target under the MTI with the gun pipper in front of the direction of motion. 7.2. (See Figure 7.2.38 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.3.3. The MRC functions identically to the reticle MRC. 5-mil lines to the left and right of the pipper can be used to estimate the lead required for a moving target. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. using more compact symbology. CCIP Gun Reticle MTI. . The CCIP gun reticle includes two moving target indicators (MTI). Use the MTI to estimate movement and deliver a burst of sufficient length and dispersion to increase the probability of a hit.26 Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric. (See Figure 7.) The IFFCC CCIP gun cross displays the same computed impact point as the CCIP gun reticle. The MTI assumes the target is moving perpendicular to the aircraft at a rate of 20 knots.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. 7. These lines expand or contract as the slant range and bullet TOF is changed.2. The horizontal line at the top of the cross helps to distinguish it from a non-computed gun sight. no range numeric will be shown.3.) The two vertical.27 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle Moving Target Indicator. The horizontal bar will not be present. similar to the CCIP gun reticle. CCIP Gun Cross. and each line segment of the cross is 5 mils long making the cross a total of 20 mils across. The gun cross consists of a 2-mil pipper and a 4-mil gap.2. and the cross will have an X through it if a solution is not available due to lack of altitude source or a solution outside of the HUD FOV. the target and bullets should arrive at the same point at the same time.

2. 7. This gun MRC defines a minimum recovery altitude that is calculated using the minimum altitude entered in the IFFCC 30 MM submenu. the caret will be displayed below the top of the 12 o‟clock tick and above the 3 o‟clock tick. then the recover MUST be a 4G WINGS LEVEL pull to the horizon to recover at or above the min alt.4. Minimum Range Symbology for Guns.) If the min alt is set to what is in the Battle Book.3. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. . the caret will be displayed below the 3 o‟clock tick and above the bottom of the 6 o‟clock tick.39 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. A minimum range caret (MRC) is available in Guns and CCIP modes for the CCIP reticle and gun cross.26. This caret also provides a time-to-go indication before aircraft recovery from guns pass must begin (four Gs in 2 seconds WINGS LEVEL is the assumed recovery). • When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds past (or below) the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent). • When the aircraft is at the minimum recovery altitude. Reference the squadron battle book for „pads‟ to add to the min alt setting to allow for a typical „climbing safe escape‟-like maneuver that allows up to 30 degrees of bank during the 4G pull to the horizon. • The caret is clamped vertically next to the top of the 12 o‟clock tick when there are 5 seconds or more until recovery must begin. • The caret will be clamped at the 6 o‟clock tick when the aircraft is 5 seconds or more below the minimum recovery altitude. (See Figure 7. the caret will be next to the 3 o‟clock tick. The caret begins descending vertically when the time-to-go to the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent) decreases below 5 seconds. • When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds above the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent). Minimum Range Cue.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross.

except it has no horizontal bar at the top and no range numeric.000 feet slant range solutions. 8.3. Wind Corrected Gun Cross.2.3.5. 4/8/12 Gun Reticle.2.26 Minimum Range Cue.000.000. Figure 7. the analog range bar is not present. for more information. IFFCC corrects for crosswinds and the pilot elevates the sights for slant range. The wind-corrected gun sight (WCGS) is similar in appearance to the CCIP gun cross. 7. Elevation of the gun sight for targets inside or .000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross. Toggling the SEL rocker on the UFC or cycling DMS L/R with HUD-SOI will display the 4/8/12 gun reticle.6. The 4/8/12 gun reticle displays three wind-corrected fixedrange pippers representing 4. The WCGS is a cross set at 41 mils.40 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. and 12.) 7.27. (See Figure 7. 25 Jul 2011 • Setting the minimum altitude in the 30 MM submenu to 0 feet deselects the gun CCIP minimum range cue display. 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4.

Sight Settings.2. and the 4/8/12 Reticle.41 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2.27 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4. Figure 7. elevate the sight for slant range and correct upwind for crosswind. Wind Corrected 4k Gun Cross. Manual Strafe Deliveries. set the appropriate mils for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds.000 feet slant range have to be estimated by the pilot. 7. .1. When employing the GAU-8/A manually. When using the standby pipper.4. There are several sight settings for GAU-8/A manual strafe deliveries: Standby Pipper.4. Like the 4/8/12 gun reticle. 25 Jul 2011 beyond 4. this sight is useful when target elevation information is unavailable. HARS fixed gun cross.000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross 7.

4. the wind will “drift” the aircraft into its firing position. For crosswinds. 7. Manual Strafe Techniques.3.42 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. For example.000 foot slant range requires the pilot to place the target one sixth the distance from the gun cross towards the TVV.2. .4.000 feet).2. Elevate the gun cross for a headwind and depress for a tailwind. for more information. The top pipper of the 3 is the 4K pipper and is fixed at 41 mils. for a 15-knot crosswind at 4. Neither drift nor crab has an advantage over the bank method other than firing with wingslevel. illustrates a technique using a gun cross to TVV ratio against crosswinds to determine the aimpoint when employing with the OPT-C gun cross. When using the 4/8/12 reticle.3.2.000 feet of slant range.5 mils or 30 feet upwind of the target and fire. The drift method involves using an upwind roll-in point and AOP. (See Figure 7. Elevate for Slant Range. Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints.4. use 1:6 ratio against armor (up to 4. place the gun cross 7.2.2. Wind Corrections. For example.3. When using the wind corrected 4K gun cross. the standard correction factors are: 0.28.000 feet slant range. there are three pippers inside one reticle to aid estimating elevation. Strafe wind correction presents a similar problem to that encountered in the delivery of any other type of conventional ordnance. use 1:4 ratio for long-range strafe (4.000 foot slant range). only elevate for slant range.000 feet). For direct crosswinds. Elevate the sight for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds. 7. and use 1:2 ratio for very long-range strafe (slant range greater than 10.5. The same effect can be achieved utilizing the crab method into the wind.000 to 10. a 4. 25 Jul 2011 7.4.2. As a ROT.1. there are two basic methods to correct for wind once on final: drift/crab or bank. Once rolled out on final. Mil dispersion will compensate for these ROTs. Realize that the release aimpoint in both cases will be the same.) 7. Figure 7.29. See the Battle Book for elevation techniques based on delivery (4/6/9K strafe) and sight settings for HAS.mil per knot of crosswind for most slant ranges or 1-foot per knot of crosswind for every 2.

25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. .43 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. for more information.28 Manual Strafe Techniques.

Banked strafe is only valid for crosswinds up to 15 knots and/or slant ranges up to 8. Keep the no crosswind aiming reference for the slant range to be used on the target with bank. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.5 mil for every knot of direct headwind or tailwind. In a strong crosswind.30. Avoid using the rudder. High-angle strafe corrections. are the same as for low-angle deliveries. (See Figure 7. 7.3.) . the aircraft is flying straight at the target and is pointed at the target.29 Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints.3. headwind and tailwind corrections are minimal in low-angle and long-range strafe (unless they are very strong).4. 7. for further information. the aircraft drift is countered by banking into the wind. Since the wind drift has been canceled by bank. A ROT for 30 degrees or greater is to use 0.3. headwinds and tailwinds are much more of a factor both for the ground track and the AOP.2.28.44 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. uncoordinated flight will cause a lateral trajectory shift error.) Due to bullet velocity and low trajectory angles. However. a drifting or crabbing attack will require a considerable offset aimpoint. It is similar to flying a wing low approach to the runway.4 For LAS/LRS using the bank strafe method.4.000 feet. during high-angle strafe. and shoot at the appropriate slant range.2. Trajectory Shift Error. Manual Strafe Techniques. using the drift or crab method. (See Figure 7.

The standard chassis of most former Soviet Union equipment (e. The mil size of a target is simple. Mil Sizing a Target. 10 feet in width. APC.45 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. tank.5 mils head/tail). or selfpropelled gun) is approximately 20 feet in length. Because a mil in the HUD is a fixed size. Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship.3.4. it is possible to estimate the range to a target if the size of the target is known.e. 7. The aspect must be determined prior to release.5. See the formula below. it would be 5 mils on the beam and 2. and mil relationship used to determine slant range and appropriate aimpoint (i. for the standard Soviet tank and 4.g.000 feet slant range. A standard conventional range strafe rag is 16 feet.. and 10 feet in height. This leads to the slant range per mil relationship presented in Figure 7.2.30 Trajectory Shift Error. and must be determined for both head/tail and beam aspects.. . 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.31.

These include aimpoint and tracking error. 7.46 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. slant range estimation error.31 Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship.4. and uncoordinated flight error.2. . 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. Common Strafe Errors.4.

3. . does not carry speed as long as API.000 feet S/R for 45 degrees of dive and almost negligible in 60-degree HAS.47 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. Consequently. When stepping on the left rudder. Aimpoint and Tracking Error. The reverse of this is equally true—using the wrong mil setting at a known slant range.2. This error is applicable for both fixed gun sight and computed gunnery. The second most prevalent error with non-computed gunnery is firing at the incorrect slant range for the given mil setting.2.4. Figure 7. See Figure 7. needle/ball not centered). Pilots must know the mil depressions necessary to hit a target at various slant ranges. 25 Jul 2011 7.000 feet in dives of 30 degrees or less. but the flight path of the aircraft will not change immediately. 7. The API will be on target and slightly later than the HEI impacts. The bullets will hit between the aiming reference and the flight path.4.32.2. HEI has a lighter. greater than 15.4.5 Shooting Combat Mix (CM).32 CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected.2. 7. CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected. notice that HEI impacts short at long ranges.1.. This divergence becomes prevalent at slant ranges greater than 12.4. faster muzzle velocity initially but due to higher drag. Slant Range Estimation Error. The most common pilot-delivery error in strafe is the failure to place and maintain the aiming reference on the target and not obeying the cardinal rule of track-shoot-track. at long ranges HEI will land shorter than API. the nose (and aiming reference) will swing left. but in the A-10 it is approximately onesixth of the way from the gun cross to the velocity vector.4.4. This could be caused by a rudder input or by the rudder being incorrectly trimmed (e. 7.g. Since the CM setting for bullet type optimizes the CCIP sight for API. The exact impact point depends on airspeed and bullet velocity.2. Uncoordinated Flight.

4.7. guided. Smoothly squeeze the trigger to PAC-1. (See Figure 7. AGM-65D Maverick Missile.4. 7. Approaching the desired slant range (determined by IFFCC cues. wind variations. • Look at the target when tracking and firing.8.1. PAC is available in both Guns and CCIP/CCRP.8. and track the target. 7. two Mavericks will be the standard loadout. PAC Arming. The AGM-65 Maverick missile is a precise. ground references. aircraft vibration. A cardinal rule for strafe is to “track-shoot-track. it probably was on during firing. and relative ease of employment can optimize both target destruction and aircraft survivability. The bullets at target altitude (BATA) is a small flashing circle that appears in the HUD at the point on the ground where the IFFCC computer predicts the bullets will impact. IFFCC also incorporates a valuable training tool for feedback on dry strafe passes. 7. or apparent target size). a standard loadout of up to six . standoff missile.2. With the current LAU-117.4. Bullets at Target Altitude. standoff parameters.1. IFFCC compensates for these errors through the PAC system. The PAC system is available whenever the EAC is armed. If LAU-88s are used.48 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The B/H/K-model Mavericks are the electro-optical (EO) version which uses dark and light contrast to lock onto targets. Both Maverick models may also be used in conjunction with other weapons to enhance delivery capabilities of those weapons. learn from that and make a correction (combat offset).6. The D/G models are infrared (IR) and use heat signatures for target acquisition. after the gun trigger is depressed. the Gun switch is set to PAC ARM. Combat Offset.) Its accuracy. Precision Attitude Control (PAC).8. not at the gun cross. While these errors are small. Strafe Delivery Techniques. 7.2. 7. set the sight just short of the target and evaluate the slant range. 25 Jul 2011 7.4. the Master Arm switch is in ARM or Train. smoothly pull the trigger to the second detent (“shoot”). effective warhead.2.” If the pipper was on the target before and after firing. at the end of the first bullet‟s TOF expiration when Master Arm is not safe.3. Squeeze the trigger to PAC-2 to shoot. then recover.2. The BATA appears. continue the track momentarily (track).4.2. • Shoot a 2-second burst for tactical situations. Maverick. and pull to first detent (“track”).4. 7. and the air refueling door is closed. The AGM-65D and G models are also extremely useful for night target search when a targeting pod is not available. they are more than enough to cause increased bullet dispersion and a complete miss.6. When the gun is fired.2. During roll-in.8. Rolling in. 7. pull the pipper up to the target. Whatever the error from the first attack. stabilize it. and other factors can cause errors in pipper placement that are beyond the pilot‟s ability to see or control through stick inputs. continuing to track the target.3. set the gun sight to the appropriate aiming reference.2. PAC-1 is engaged when the gun trigger is pulled to the first detent and PAC-2 is engaged at the second detent.33.2.4. This estimation is based on aircraft altitude above the target and bullet TOF for the calculated slant range.

1. ask intel in what direction movement is likely to plan attacks along the movement axis (versus perpendicular). Know what types of targets are expected for Maverick employment. the AGM-65 G/G2 Maverick Operations supplement.33 AGM-65D Maverick Missile. Target Expectations.1.2. .1. 7. see the AGM-65A TV Maverick Operations supplement. Successful Maverick employment requires thorough mission planning.1. 7. ask intel if the enemy is known to use Camouflage and Deception to minimize target ID mistakes. Figure 7. and threats that might drive specific attack axes. Important target information includes the following: 7. For a more detailed discussion on specific Mavericks. and the AGM-65 H/K Maverick Operations Supplement.1. factor terrain. Know if the targets are parked or running to aid in polarity decisions for IR Mavericks. weather and threats in order to determine the appropriate polarity and first lock opportunity slant range. The size and relative shape will also effect the maximum planned launch envelope based on lock logic for each type of Maverick.1. Target Area Restrictions.3. based on size and shape.3. There are many factors that may be known and planned for such as target.3. Mission Planning. 7. For EO Mavericks. Be ready to identify them (tank versus truck) in the MAV MFCD. 7.1.49 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. If the enemy is on the move. the AGM-65B TV Maverick Operations supplement. Type Target. 25 Jul 2011 Mavericks is possible.1. the AGM-65D Maverick Operations supplement. Be familiar with planned fire coordination measures.3.

7. Each degree of bank will result in 1 percent loss of range.2. To achieve maximum range launches at lower altitudes.3. D/G Maverick “Keyhole. Important weather information includes the following: 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 60degree maximum dive angle.” The B model of the Maverick does not have a “keyhole. the missile seeker must be within the launch window.3.2. Target Acquisition and Lock Logic. 30 degrees per second roll rate at launch.3. B-Model Lock Logic.2.” This launch window is one of several considerations to satisfy good lock logic. When launched. This climb is referred to as G-Bias.1. G-Bias. Cloud cover can also reduce shadows and target area heating. For EO employment shadows can cause lock logic difficulties.1.3. For IR employment.000 feet per second (3 NM launch equals approximately 18 seconds). Firing inside of 12. Knowing how high the clouds are will be a consideration when firing missiles with G-bias.50 7.2. the missile will initially climb to extend its range. Sun angle will determine how large the shadows are in relation to the targets and in what direction the shadows are located. The “Keyhole. Target area cloud cover.000 feet slant range minimizes the G-bias. • Launch Envelopes: minimum altitudes are 300 feet AGL for EO and 150 feet AGL for IR. 25 Jul 2011 7. 3-minute video on per pass for B-models. sun direction (and time of day) has an effect on which side of the target will likely be identifiable in the MAV page. Sun Azimuth/Elevation. Lock-on to a target that is too low in contrast or too small to survive missile launch transients (less than 1/2 the tracking window) is sometimes possible.” 7.3. These limits are 10 degrees (radius) around the longitudinal axis of the missile and 15 degrees down from the center. (See Figure 7. If the target is inside these limits. 15 minutes maximum on ground.3.”) The launch window is sometimes referred to as “The Keyhole. The following Maverick numbers are important to know: • Time limits: 3-minute EO warm-up. bank angle at lock should be less than 10 degrees. and TOF equals 1. the pointing cross will become steady.4.5 to +3.2. Cloud cover could drive lower altitude employment. A good lock-on for the B-model is indicated when the four white dots depicting the background gates bound the target and the pointing cross is steady.0.1. G-limits equal +0.2.1. minimum range equals 10 x KTAS (25 x KTAS for G/G2-model).2.3.” In order to achieve the “good lock logic” in a D/G/G2/H/K-model Maverick.34. 7. and 30 degrees maximum bank angle change lock-on to launch.1. the point cross will flash. as the Mav will lose track if it enters the clouds.3.1.2. • 30 x 30 x 30 Rule: 30 degrees maximum bank angle at lock-on. The H/K models have a 10 degree radius keyhole which is not pictured in Figure 7. 60 minutes total for EO power ON.34. but the pointing cross and scene magnifiers will . D/G Maverick “Keyhole. and 45 seconds between passes for missile realignment (B-model only—missile should not be called up during this time). 7.3.1. 7. 7. If not. 30 minutes video total for each missile per mission. The amount of this climb is based on distance from target when launch occurs.

2. If tracking the target with an ATP.3. 7. note the polarity (in charge-coupled devise [CCD] or forward looking infrared [FLIR]) to determine the polarity for the Maverick to minimize one more switch change on final. select AFT on the boat switch (polarity switch). friction. and conversely.3. Figure 7. solar. Detectable.‖ 7. IR Mavericks. vegetation cools faster than metal objects.3. Generally. vegetation heats up faster than these same objects. 7.3.. select forward.3. For targets which are darker than the background.2. Is the target hotter or colder than the background? If it is hotter. other factors which can reduce the apparent temperature difference between a target and its background include: .e.34 D/G Maverick ―Keyhole. then the boat switch should be aft.3. Target aspect may either reveal or mask the heat source. Detection of non-operating targets or of heavy armored targets that have been operating for only a short time (i.3. the switch should be forward. or chemical) or from basic IR properties of materials.e. in early morning. Contrast Modes. 25 Jul 2011 flash if the target is too small. 7.1.51 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.3. IR heat signatures result from heating (i. Besides humidity and precipitation.. at night. For targets which are lighter than the background. There are many obscurants that will affect IR heat signatures. EO Mavericks. or the angle of the missile seeker head from the boresight exceeds missile limits. slow heat build-up) will depend on the solar heating cycle and the target‟s specific background temperature. If it is colder than the background. Look at the target and try to determine which of the following contrast modes the Maverick will need for a successful lock-on (this should reduce switchology on final).1.

4. lock target. at typical employment ranges. To get video. Point the crosshairs to the target and release the slew switch. 7.3. 7. If the missile stays locked on. 7. Another technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in NFOV. the scene in the MAV should correlate to the features in the MAV SYMBOL on the HUD. boat switch in the center position prior to commanding lock). With a A/B-model Maverick. Locking On.3. target description. Employment. .1. NOTE: Either way.2.. a steady pointing cross and confirm positive target identification. This improves contrast and allows target locks faster and at greater ranges than WFOV when familiar with the target area. Do not use on moving or point targets. • Scattered or broken cloud cover which can vary thermal heating. or use CHINA HATFWD/SHORT with the MAV profile called up and HUD SOI to automatically switch the MFCD to Maverick video and make it SOI. The biggest difference is in the WFOV versus NFOV. space stabilize (holding the DMS-FWD/LONG while changing the FOV prevents the missile from returning to the boresight position) and go to NFOV by pushing CHINA HATFWD/SHORT. WFOV will allow more of the target area to be seen and to help assess target array. Tactical reference points (e. Ensure that the Maverick symbol has a chance to stabilize over the target.3. The crosshairs will close.3. either select the MAV page. 7.4. The scene must have some contrast to establish a lock.2.4.4. Stabilize the Mav scene: press and hold DMS-FWD/LONG to space stabilize. 25 Jul 2011 • High winds.2. Once in NFOV. continue to slew Maverick to target trying for good lock until the pass must be aborted.g. runways) will help funnel the pilot to the target area. creating solid crosshairs in both the horizontal and vertical axis on the aimpoint in the center of the screen. confirm proper mil sizing.. With a G/K/H/K-model Maverick in Force Correlate mode (i. If the target does not lockup. With a D/G/G2/H/K missile. Once the target area is located and in the center of the MAV page select NFOV. Roll-In. TMS-AFT/SHORT to ground stabilize.2. ATP use. A good technique is to roll-in in wide field of view (WFOV) (if available) so that the target area is discernible.4. the missile will lock onto specified area. Once acquired. • Bare spots on a blanket of snow. or CHINA HAT-FWD/LONG to SLAVE TO SPI. • Calm water surfaces. • Dry ground. In WFOV. the missile is ready for launch. or using an ATP to aid in acquisition. array. If these criteria are met. and the pointing cross will indicate when good lock logic criteria has been met. Pull the Maverick symbol to the target.3. Ensure a Maverick profile is selected so the missile will fire (Mav will not fire in sensor mode). roads.3. release the Slew switch and Space Stabilize switch.3.4.52 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2. 7.1. the switchology is almost the same. Compare the scene to expectations from visual indications. 7. One technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in WFOV.e. and mission planning. ensure the MFCD is bounded by the green square (MAV is SOI) to prevent switch errors and/or a dry pass prior to exposure to threats.

7.4.4. It will also be displayed in the MAV page when NOT in the sensor mode.3.4.3. This technique will help expedite target lock-ons. 7. Set the altitude alert to give a pull off cue on a Maverick pass. The flight lead will establish the time of final criteria. The Maverick reticle will not come up on the HUD.” 7. The pointing cross will flash with a D/G/G2/H/K-model if: • The temperature difference (delta T) between target and background is insufficient (scene bounding for H/K Mavericks).4.3. 7. if medium altitude.and high-altitude employment.2 For a boresight reference.3. use 25 x TAS = Abort slant range (7.G2/H/K model Mavericks when NOT in sensor mode. These higher altitudes may also allow the pilot to avoid flying into certain threat envelopes. feet). Firing.3. • For AGM-65G/K.3. a picture should be drawn on the canopy to represent the target-to-pipper relationship.7. Ensure the pointing cross is steady for at least 1 second before firing. Time on Final Considerations. 7. Consider time on final to avoid threats. The Maverick is one weapon where the loss of IFFCC does not dramatically affect the delivery process. • If there is not a steady cross but the target is locked up. use the depressible pipper. so 3. to put the cross within the “keyhole. The DLZ is not available for B model Mavericks.4.3. 10 x TAS = Abort slant range (typically 300 knots. the missile may be out of gimbal limits. Losing IFFCC causes two major changes. A Maverick desired launch zone is displayed in the HUD for AGM-65D/G. Some key points to consider . 25 Jul 2011 7. if the cross is flashing in the bottom right of the MAV page. Non-IFFCC Considerations. slant range information will also be lost. A flashing pointing cross indicates that the missile may lose lock at or after launch. Employing the Maverick from medium-altitude has many advantages. Safe Escape Maneuver. Do not shoot the Maverick within the minimum safe launch distance: • For AGM-65B/D/H. Desired Launch Zone (DLZ). Dial in the proper mil reference for where the missile was boresighted.53 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.7. Medium Altitude Employment. 7. As with the EO Maverick.500 feet).4. It is critical that the correct type of Maverick is loaded in DSMS for an accurate DLZ display.4. • Seeker head exceeds launch angle criteria.7.5. and unnecessary exposure. ground impact. Many use 10 seconds for medium. so fly the Maverick towards the flashing cross.4.1. Getting consumed with trying to lockup the target is a very common problem.5. 7. With the loss of the reticle. make a right-hand descent. • Target size is too small. Target acquisition is easier from higher altitudes. For example. or remask when low altitude. The only SEM for Mavericks is to stop the rate of descent and climb back out of the threats.

3. Budget time spent inside the cockpit and give priority to flying the aircraft. In-flight visibility and other environmental factors play a part in this range.3. or pilot-acquired visual contact with small point targets. helicopters and AC-130 gunships as well as ground forces using hand-held laser designators. During the weapons preflight. 7.1. Employing the Maverick from low-altitude is very similar to medium-altitude with a few significant differences. Consider the minimum altitude for recovery.3.6. Target identification range is the range where the boresight can be put on the desired target or target area.3.3. its Pk is very large. Take all factors into consideration to establish this unmask point.3.1.1. Establish base distance and altitude based on the planned slant range for release. it is also feasible to deliver LGBs from a diving CCIP delivery. . 7. One threat is the ground. to unmask from the low-altitude regime in order to acquire and shoot the target. and target acquisition. Employment. Notify maintenance personnel if there are discrepancies. 7. Laser Guided Bombs such as GBU-12s and GBU-10s are normally delivered from level/toss CCRP deliveries much like general purpose bombs. This laser spot is normally provided by either the employing aircraft‟s targeting pod (known as „Self Lase‟) or by a pod from another aircraft such as the flight lead or wingman (referred to as „Buddy Lase‟). and from where. 7. A good ROT to use for low-altitude Maverick employment is two slews maximum.4. Another common ROT is no more than 10 seconds on final. 25 Jul 2011 when employing from medium-altitude include establishing base distance and altitude. FAC mark. but may change in flight due to actual TDA.2.3.6. Unmask ranges should be established in the brief by the flight lead. 7.6. In certain tactical situations.4.54 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. GBU Laser Codes.2. The obvious difference when employing laser-guided bombs is that they require laser energy to guide to the target.4. Altitude alert should be used to provide minimum altitude abort cues. Laser spots can also be provided by other airborne platforms such as UAVs. 7. The key to success is knowing when. ensure all LGBs are set to the correct code.3. Laser Codes are normally briefed by the flight lead or are written in the squadron standards. The bottom line is do not get so consumed in shooting the missile that you hit the ground. See the Battle Book for base parameters and slant ranges. Base Distance. 7.6.5. Low-Altitude Employment. Laser Guided Bomb Employment. Do not unmask until the boresight is on a confirmed target/target area. Some basic ROTs for unmasking are: 7. This range varies with the means of target identification used such as targeting pod. Target Identification Range. then come off the pass. The general steps for employing an LGB are listed below.1. 7.6.

4. captains bars). Align the PBRL with the ASL and when the TTRN reads 5 seconds.4.4. Normally check left if the targeting pod is loaded on station 10 to minimize TGP masking. After weapons release. however. It is critical that the laser aimpoint be corrected for winds.2.2.2. Additionally.2. Guide times less than this may result in the bomb not hitting the desired point.6. Confirm that the targeting pod has the correct laser code set. enter the target coordinates in a steerpoint and ensure this steerpoint is the current steerpoint in the HUD and also the SPI. The DSMS Status Page also displays the SPI coordinates and elevation and these can be compared to the appropriate target waypoint page on the CDU. refine the TGP aimpoint and fire the laser until weapon impact.4. CCRP Consent Option is always „3/9‟ Mode for LGBs. An additional technique is to roll in a slight dive to confirm the location of the target symbol in the HUD FOV and then pull to wings level. check away approximately 45 to 60 degrees in order to maintain visual and standoff from the target.2.2. the SPI type is displayed in the lower-left corner of the HUD steer point (STPT) and well as the DSMS Status Page.4.2.8 Common Errors. Self Lase. Ensure the TGP is at the correct target location by either AREA or POINT tracking the desired DMPI or SLAVING to the target steerpoint. 7.2. 7.2. 7. The following lists common errors encountered when employing LGBs: .000 feet AGL.4..7.4. Turn the aircraft towards the target using steering symbols in the HUD (SPI Locator Line.4. 7.5. High surface winds may require a laser aimpoint that is completely off the target. 7. a caution advisory will be provided.4. 7. 7.7. If the LGB profile is set to CCRP.2 Laser Guided Bombs require an absolute minimum of 8 seconds of guide time. 7. Adjust the laser aimpoint one foot upwind per knot of wind in this regime. as these have the most effect on the bomb. 25 Jul 2011 7. Once rolled out. hold the pickle button down until the weapon is released. specifically the winds between the surface and 4.2. In the target area. the HUD Mode will automatically change to CCRP when the profile is selected. 7. If the TGP laser code is different from the code set on the weapon in the DSMS Inventory. Weapon time-of-fall is displayed on the left side of the HUD and in the lower-right corner of the TGP display.3.1 CCRP always targets the SPI. weapon release will not be inhibited.55 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. After weapons release. Buddy Lase.1. A technique for all CCRP deliveries once the target steerpoint is in the HUD is to TMSAFT/LONG to ensure the SPI is set the current steerpoint. maneuver the aircraft in accordance with the briefed geometry. Select the appropriate LGB weapons profile using the DMS switch and ensure the correct stations are armed using the DSMS Quicklook (COOLIE-DOWN/LONG).

1. A JDAM contains both an inertial measurement unit (IMU).5. The advantages of these weapons include relatively large release windows known as Launch Acceptability Regions (LARs) that provide significant standoff and they can be delivered through the weather.1. 7. In RT mode. If the weapon does not receive a GPS signal.1. • Not having the TGP on the correct DMPI at release. In BOC mode. Inertially Aided Munitions Employment. This can cause the LGB to guide on the wrong laser.1. When the weapon acquires GPS. the current SPI coordinates are sent to the JDAM and the JDAM guides to those coordinates after release. for a guide time below the minimum of 8 seconds.1. 25 Jul 2011 • Inadvertent HOTAS error that causes TGP laser type to change from laser to IR Marker. Inertially Aided Munitions include Joint Direct Attack Munitions such as GBU-38s and GBU-31s as well as Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers such as CBU-103. which will cause the bomb to deplete energy.1. The JDAM has two modes of operation: bomb on coordinate (BOC) and relative targeting (RT). much like an INS as well as a GPS. The weapon will sacrifice these parameters in order to hit the target. the following steps occur: 7. 7. derived by its own IMU (which was derived from the aircraft EGI) to the “true location” that the GPS receiver tells it. The JDAM is a coordinate-seeking weapon and the coordinates it guides to is the aircraft SPI. • Other aircraft firing a laser with the same code into the target area during someone else‟s self lase attack.5. CCRP symbology for these weapons is different than laser-guided and GP bombs. especially with the flexibility of cockpit selectable impact. These weapons are employed using level/toss deliveries in CCRP Mode.1.5. 7. These weapons guide to specific coordinates that can be generated using aircraft sensors or provided in mission planning. The weapon does not acquire GPS until after release. LGBs will not guide on the Sniper‟s training laser.56 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The weapon will attempt to achieve the desired impact angle and azimuth for hitting the target (see below). it compares what it thinks its location is. However.1. 7. When the pickle button is depressed and the aircraft SPI coordinates are passed to the weapon. delayed or proximity fuzing with a FMU-152 Joint Programmable Fuze.5. • Not correcting the laser spot for winds.1.1. Joint Direct Attack Munitions. The weapon searches for GPS satellites and acquires a 3D GPS solution. If there is a .2 Relative Targeting. When the weapon is released from the aircraft. 7.3. causing endgame TGP adjustments with a weapon in the air resulting in a moving laser spot. . It then begins guidance to the target coordinates. The 500-pound GBU-38 and 2000-pound GBU-31 JDAMs are extremely versatile and accurate weapons that can be used against a variety of targets. its own position is known based on its internal IMU. it will guide to the target using only its IMU. the JDAM attempts to correct for any errors in its actual location caused by errors present in the navigation solution of the aircraft. the weapon attempts to guide to the exact coordinates that were passed to it.1.5.5. 7. JDAM Release Sequence. but the weapon IMU is aligned to the aircraft EGI. Additionally.5. When the pickle button is depressed in a JDAM attack.2.

In the A-10C. RT mode will be enabled and „RT‟ will be displayed in the HUD. 7. such as a TGP mark or a target designation cue (TDC) designation. 7. ensuring the SPI reflects those coordinates and maneuvering the aircraft to the weapon LAR for release. the target coordinates should be input in a steerpoint and then that steerpoint should be the current steerpoint in the HUD. JDAMs are coordinate-seeking weapons. In the latter. There are two instances where BOC mode will be used: if the SPI is a steerpoint with preplanned or hand-entered coordinates loaded into or if a hooked datalink symbol on the TAD is the SPI. the target coordinates may be mensurated coordinates received during mission planning or received over the radio from a joint terminal attack controller (JTAC). In the former. The difference between coordinates generated by an aircraft sensor such as the targeting pod and the actual target location is known as target location error (TLE).2. there are some significant factors to consider. This is because the same platform that told the JDAM where it was in space (the aircraft EGI) also generated the target coordinates. However.5. Weapon Employment.5. There are numerous ways to acquire target coordinates.3.1. as described in Figure 7.1. another aircraft may broadcast a SADL J12. hence the most important element for successful employment is generating as accurate coordinates as possible.5. 7.57 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. ensuring the aircraft SPI reflects the desired target is absolutely critical. A JDAM-specific FENCE check is the STAIR check.35. The pilot then hooks the Donor SPI. As with LGBs. If the target coordinates were generated by the aircraft. 7. • If the employing aircraft does not have an operable TGP. JDAM employment consists of acquiring target coordinates. As with other CCRP deliveries.5.6 SADL Message. the generating aircraft can pass coordinates via voice and then be handentered into a steerpoint. 25 Jul 2011 difference. a flight member can generate coordinates with a TGP and pass via a J12. In neither case is the EGI in the employing aircraft the “source” of the coordinates and the JDAM will use BOC Mode and guide to those coordinates without correcting for any location error. but the end result should be the same coordinates in a steerpoint that is the SPI: • Lase the target with the TGP.3.3. JDAM STAIR Check. take a mark via TMS-RIGHT/SHORT and then copy this mark to next available steerpoint and label in accordance with the briefed contract.1. copies to a empty steerpoint and renames the point.35 JDAM STAIR Check . which of these modes to use is automatically determined by the CICU.1. • If SADL is inoperable.3. JDAMs always target the SPI. S T A I R Steerpoint TMS-AFT/LONG SLAVE ALL IAM Profile Readback Ensure target steerpoint is current/in the HUD Resets SPI to current Steerpoint Slave all sensors to SPI Correct JDAM Profile selected Confirm/Readback SPI coordinates on DSMS Status Page Figure 7.1.6 target sorting message that contain the appropriate coordinates.3. the weapon will offset its aimpoint from the passed target coordinates the same amount.

it can result in a hung weapon that cannot be released. release the weapon. due to the fact that at pickle the CICU sends the SPI coordinates to the bomb. Hold the pickle button down until the HUD and/or DSMS indicate that weapon release sequence is complete. CAUTION: The JDAM release sequence can take up to 1. WCMD contains an INS only and does not use GPS. Different tactical scenarios will dictate where in the LAR to actually release the weapon.3.1. In order to drop WCMD in a conventional mode navigate to the specific 1760 station carrying the CBU on the STAT page and turn it off. 7. Then select the desired conventional profile and deliver the weapon in either CCRP mode. release the weapon. This is easily accomplished by turning towards the target steerpoint and centering the captains bars.5. 7. There are two significant differences between JDAMs and WCMD. maneuver the aircraft to place the aircraft in the LAR. from pickle to weapon release.4. When the caret reaches halfway down the staple. sends the release signal to the JDAM station. the timer will indicate time until max range for the LAR is reached. 25 Jul 2011 7.58 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. such as 50 percent.5. WCMD weapons such as CBU-103 and CBU104 are delivered using the same HUD symbology and techniques as JDAMs. 7. WCMD can be delivered unguided and they act just like their conventional counterparts (CBU-87 and CBU-89). Once in the LAR. unguided or by using a CCIP pipper.2.5. If the pickle button is released during this sequence.1. • A less accurate technique for release in order to achieve desired impact angle is to release at briefed percentage of the LAR.2. The left side of the HUD will show the DLZ and if outside the LAR. a release range for a specific set of parameters should be calculated and then corrected for winds. NOTE: JDAMs cannot be released ballistically. the HUD will display MAN REL and the timer will change to a predicted time-of-fall. . • For normal releases.5 seconds to complete. Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers.3 NM. or by using a CCIP pipper.2. Unlike JDAMs. the JDAM repeats those coordinates back and when the CICU verifies that they are the same. Once the Range Numeric next to the caret reads 2. using the same CCRP HUD symbology as GP and laser-guided bombs. Conventional DSMS profiles can be loaded in additional to the normal guided profiles.2. These percentage ROTs may not be valid at all altitudes. Once the target steerpoint has been defined and confirmed. • The JDAM can be released at max range in order to maintain standoff from a collocated threat or if dropping a JDAM in proximity mode where minimizing elevation error with a 90-degree impact angle is not desired or required.5.

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