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Dr. Christos Drakos University of Florida

**Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1. Development
**

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY http://www.aashto.org/

AND

TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS

1.1 AASHO Road Test • Late 50’s road test in Illinois • Objective was to determine the relationship between the number of load repetitions with the performance of various pavements • Provided data for the design criteria 1.2 Performance Measurements Establishment of performance criteria is critical

Functional

AASHTO Vs AI

Structural

Poor Poor Fair Good V. Good PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ∝ Measure of Roughness Measure of Rutting Measure of Cracking Present Serviceability Index (PSI) PSI = A0 + A1F1 + A2F2 + A3F3 A0 … A3 = Regression Coefficients F1 = Measure of roughness F2 = Measure of rutting F3 = Measure of cracking How does the true (user) performance correlate to the measured performance? calculated the regression coefficients for the PSI equation .Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1.3 AASHTO Performance Relations Establish correlation between user assessment (ride experience) and performance indicators (measurable characteristics) USER ASSESSMENT 0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 – – – – – V.2 Performance Measurements (cont) • AASHO Road Test performance based on user assessment: – Difficult to quantify (subjective) – Highly variable – Present Serviceability Rating (PSR) 0-1 – V. Good – Visible distress (cracking & rutting) – Surface friction – Roughness (slope variance) • Measurable characteristics (performance indicators): Measure of how much slope varies from horizontal along the direction of traffic Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1. Poor 1-2 – Poor A panel of experts drove around in standard 2-3 – Fair vehicles and gave a rating for the pavement 3-4 – Good 4-5 – V.

ESAL) known known known • • MReff: Accounts for the environment SN: Index relating effectiveness of PVT structure Solve for SN .3. Poor) PSI0 5 (V.1 Performance Requirements & Design Life PSI scale: 1 (V.3.PSIt) Terminal PSI (known) no longer functional Time (age) Design Life Pvt is AASHTO performance requirement = ∆PSI • ∆PSI is such that PSIt is NOT reached before end of design life Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1. SN.2 Performance Relation PERFORMANCE (∆PSI) ESAL Structural Efficiency of PVT MReff ∝ = Structural Number (SN) What are the three factors affecting performance (∆PSI)? ∆PSI = fnc (MReff.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1. Good) PSI PSIt ∆PSI = (PSI0 .3 AASHTO Design Equations 1.

Different combination of materials & thicknesses may result in the same SN ii. position in PVT) SN = SN1 + SN2 + SN3 SN3 = D3 × a3 Basic Procedure: • Determine the traffic (ESAL) • Calculate the effective subgrade modulus (MReff) • Select the performance level (∆PSI) • Solve for the required SN needed to protect the subgrade Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1.3. Your job as a designer is to select the most economical combination.3. using available materials and considering the following: • Geometry requirements (Cut/Fill) • Drainage requirements • Frost requirements iii.4 Design Notes i.AASHTO assumes that pavement structural layers will not be overstressed: • Must check that individual layers meet structural requirements .3 Definition of Structural Number AC BASE SUB-BASE D1 D2 D3 a1 a2 a3 SN1 = D1 × a1 SN2 = D 2 × a2 SN Structural Coefficient (a): a = fnc (E.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1.

Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.25 S0=0.45 S0=0. Select a standard deviation (S0) • Flexible: − No traffic variation: − With traffic variation: • Rigid: − No traffic variation: − With traffic variation: S0=0.1 General Design Variables • • • • Design Life Material Properties Traffic Reliability • Degree of certainty that the pavement will last the design period • Uncertainty in: – Traffic prediction – Performance prediction – Materials & construction Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2. S0) W18 = w18 × FR Where: W18 = Design ESAL w18 = Predicted ESAL Steps: 1.2 AASHTO Reliability Factor (FR) Adjust traffic for reliability: FR = fnc (R.35 Reliability level Overall Standard Deviation: chosen • Traffic Variation • Performance prediction variation • Materials (subgrade) . Design Inputs 2.35 S0=0. Select reliability level (R) – Table 11.14 3. Define functional class (Interstate/Local) 2.

4.2 • Rigid: 4.5 • Lower volume: 2.32 .1 Effective Subgrade Resilient Modulus (cont) • Compute average uf for entire year • Determine effective MR using average uf uf = 1.32 Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.4 Material Properties 2.18 ×10 8 × MR −2.4.5 2.0 • Flexible: 4.18 ×10 8 × MR −2.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.1 Effective Subgrade Resilient Modulus • Obtain MR values over entire year • Separate year into time intervals • Compute the relative damage value (uf) for each modulus uf = 1.3 Performance Criteria Design for serviceability change: • ∆PSI = PSI0 – PSIt – PSI0 = Initial serviceability index – PSIt = Terminal serviceability index • Major highways: >2.

usually assume aHMA=0.4.2 Pavement Structural Layers (cont) Untreated and Stabilized Bases • Can estimate the base layer coefficient from Figure 7.4 Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.2 provides the same protection as 1” material with a=0.2 Pavement Structural Layers • Layer coefficient ai. relative quality as a structural unit: • Initially layer coefficients were derived from AASHO road test results.44 – 2” of material with a=0. have subsequently been related to resilient modulus Hot-Mix Asphalt • AASHTO does not require test to determine HMA modulus.227 × (log E 3 ) − 0.839 .249 × (log E 2 ) − 0.15 for: – Untreated base – Bituminous-treated base – Cement-treated base • For untreated base can also use the following (instead of interpolating from the figure): – a 2 = 0.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.4.16 • Can also use the following (instead of interpolating from the figure): – a3 = 0.977 Granular Sub-bases • Can estimate the sub-base layer coefficient from Figure 7.

20 – SNi = ai × Di × mi – Time required for drainage – Percent time moisture levels approach saturation Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.2 Nomograph to Solve for SN .6 Computation of Required Pavement Thickness 2.6.1 Basic Approach • Determine the required SN for design traffic • Identify trial designs that meet required SN 2.5 Drainage • AASHTO guide provides means to adjust layer coefficients depending on the effectiveness of the drainage • Define quality of drainage of each layer based upon: • Determine drainage modifying factor (m) from Table 11.6.

minimum thickness.2 + ⎞ ⎝ 4.6.3 Solving the Equation log W 18 log⎛ ⎜ 0.6 Computation of Required Pavement Thickness (cont) 2. S0. Maple.6.5 Layered Design Analysis • Nomograph determines the SN required to protect the subgrade • However.32 ⋅ log M R − 8.4 + ( ) (Z R ⋅ S 0) + 9.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.2 − 1. Mathcad.4 Pavement Structural Layers • SN = a1D1 + a2D2m2 + … • No Unique Solution! Many design configurations will meet the required SN • Optimize the design.6. PSI & MR • Give an initial estimate for the SN • Allow the equation solver (Matlab.36 ⋅ log( SN + 1) − 0. etc. consider the following: – Design constraints – drainage. available materials – Construction constraints – minimum layer thickness – Economics 2. ZR.) to iterate for the solution Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.07 ( ) • Declare the known variables – W18. each structural layer must be protected against overstressing • Procedure developed using the AASHTO design nomograph – Determine the SN required to protect each layer by entering the nomograph using the MR of the layer in question .5 ⎠ PSI 1094 ( SN + 1) 5.19 + 2. Excel.

a2.6 General Procedure 1.25 the structural number SN1 required to protect the base and compute the thickness of layer 1 by SN • D = a1 1 1 2. have to protect each layer from overstressing.6. Based on the roadbed soil resilient modulus MReff. BUT. m3 MReff D1 SNtotal SN2 SN1 D1 = SN1 a1 Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2. SN1= a1D1 So. need to get required SN (level of protection) for each layer • Only top (AC) layer does not need protection For example: Base needs SN1 protection. determine from Figure 11. E 1. Using E3 as the MR value. a3.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design • First we need to protect the subgrade. Using E2 as the MR value. determine from Figure 11.25 the structural number SN2 required to protect the subbase and compute the thickness of layer 2 by SN − a D* 2 • D ≥ a m1 1 2 2 2 3. use the nomograph to get SN needed to provide adequate protection • BUT. a 1 E2. determine from Figure 11.25 the total structural number SN3 required and compute the thickness of layer 3 by SN − a D* − a D*m • D ≥ 3 1a 1 2 2 2 m 3 3 3 . m2 E3.

Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.37 • Maximize crushed stone thickness – minimize AC thickness – Can also stabilize base to use less HMA • Use gravel only for fill or frost .8 Cost Considerations • Consider: – Different combination of materials – Cost of materials – Cost of excavation (cut areas) • Express cost as a unit contribution to SN Material Crushed Stone Pit-Run Gravel Asphalt Concrete 0.000 2.000.00 $/unit SN 3.5” 3” 3.16 × 0.4 = 3.12 0.10 0.000 Asphalt Concrete 1” 2” 2.000 – 150.5” 4” Aggregate Base 4” 4” 4” 6” 6” 6” 2.000 – 7.7.16 0.12 3.000.40 0.7.1 Construction / Stability Layer must be thick enough to act as a unit: • Thickness > 2* (Maximum Aggregate Size) Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.37 4.000 > 7.000.-in 0.95 1.yd.05 $/sq.000 – 500.80 mi 0.000 150.000 – 2.32 1.7 Other Thickness Considerations 2.1 AASHTO Suggested Minimums ESAL < 50.60 ai 0.80 0.000 50.000 500.000.

80 1.000 500.-in) 1. = 0. = 0.000 ai 0.42 0.000 30.000 25.000 - Cost ($/sq.70 - WORK EXAMPLE ON THE BOARD Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.20 0.000 5. Dev.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.40 0.70 0.yd.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 Given: • Reliability = 90% • Performance period = 20 years • Overall Std.9 AASHTO Design Example 1 Given: • Reliability = 90% • Overall Std.25 .32 0.000 12.10 mi 0.35 • W18 = 10 million • Design Serviceability Loss = 2.000 350.26 million • Design Serviceability Loss = 2.0 Material AC Crushed Stone Granular Subbase Roadbed Soil MR 400.80 0. Dev.0 Material Asphalt Concrete Cement-Stabilized Base Bituminous-Treated Base Crushed Stone Pit-Run Gravel Excavation Modulus (psi) 300.45 • W18 = 5.000 14.14 0.

13: 0.20 0.70 0.40 0.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Construct a material information table: Material Asphalt Concrete Asphalt Concrete Cement-Stabilized Base Bituminous-Treated Base Crushed Stone Crushed Stone Pit-Run Gravel Layer Surface Base Base Base Base Subbase Subbase $/sq.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.yd-in 1.37 .80 1.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Asphalt Concrete structural coefficient (a) – Figure 7.70 1.32 ai mi $/Unit SN Next step is to fill in the information Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.40 0.

15: 0.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Cement-stabilized base structural coefficient (a) – Figure 7.118 .15: Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Bituminous-treated base structural coefficient (a) – Figure 7.

10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Crushed stone base structural coefficient (a) – Figure 7.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.15: Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.16 .10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Crushed stone subbase structural coefficient (a) – Figure 7.16: 0.

20 0.40 0.2 1.120 0.300 0.80 1.0 1.yd-in 1.78 4.0 1.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Material Asphalt Concrete Asphalt Concrete Cement-Stabilized Base Bituminous-Treated Base Crushed Stone Crushed Stone Pit-Run Gravel Layer Surface Base Base Base Base Subbase Subbase $/sq.40 0.44 Are there any obvious conclusions? .18 6.160 0.70 0.0 1.78 2.370 0.59 6.2 0.70 1.32 ai 0.275 0.0 1.Topic 7 – AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.8 $/Unit SN 4.118 0.08 4.00 2.090 mi 1.

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