CHAPTER-2 DRILLING FLUIDS

Drilling fluid -mud - is usually a mixture of water, clay, weighing material and a few chemicals. Sometimes oil may be used instead of water, or oil added to the water to give the mud certain desirable properties. Drilling fluid is used to raise the cuttings made by the bit and lift them to the surface for disposal. But equally important, it also provides a means of keeping underground pressures in check. The heavier or denser the mud, is the more pressure it exerts. So weighing materials -

barite - are added to the mud to make it exert as much pressure as needed to
contain formation pressures. The equipment in the circulating system consists of a large number of items. The mud pump takes in mud from the mud pits and sends it out a discharge line to a standpipe. The standpipe is a steel pipe mounted vertically on one leg of the mast or derrick. The mud is pumped up the standpipe and into a flexible, very strong, reinforced rubber hose called the rotary hose or kelly hose. The rotary hose is connected to the swivel. The mud enters the swivel the swivel: goes down the kelly, drill pipe and drill collars and exist at the bit. It then does a sharp U-turn and heads back up the hole in the annulus. The annulus is the space between the outside of the drill string and wall of the hole. Finally the mud leaves the hole through a steel pipe called the mud return line and falls over a vibrating, screen like device called the shale shaker. Agitators installed on the mud pits help maintain a uniform mixture of liquids and solids in the mud. If any fine silt or sand is being drilled, then devices called desilters or desanders may be added. Another auxiliary in the mud system is a device called degasser.

Functions of Drilling Fluids In the early days of rotary drilling, the primary function of drilling fluids was to bring the cuttings from the bottom of the hole to the surface. Today it is recognized the drilling fluid has at least ten important functions:

A- Assists in making hole by:
1. Removal of cuttings 2. Cooling and lubrication of bit and drill string 3. Power transmission to bit nozzles or turbines

B- Assists in hole preservation by:
4. Support of bore hole wall 5. Containment of formation fluids

C-It also:
6. Supports the weight of pipe and casing 7. Serves as a medium for formation logging

D-It must not:
8. Corrode bit, drill string and casing and surface facilities 9. Impair productivity of producing horizon 10. Pollute the environment.

Removal of Cuttings
The removal of cuttings from the face of the well bore is still one of the most important functions of drilling fluids. Fluid flowing from the bit nozzles exerts a jetting action that keeps the face of the hole and edge of the bit clear of cuttings. This insures longer bit life and greater efficiency in drilling.

Viscosity depends upon the concentration.The circulating fluid rising from the bottom of the well bore carries the cuttings toward the surface. Velocity is dependent upon pump capacity.) / Annular Volume (m3/m)] Density is weight. bore hole size and drill pipe size. but by circulating a sufficient volume of mud fast enough to overcome this effect. per unit volume of mud and has a buoyant effect upon the particles. pump speed. as shown by viscosity changes in pilot tests. Velocity is the rate at which mud circulates. Annular velocities between 30-60 m/min. quality. are frequently used. Under the influence of gravity the cuttings tend to sink through the ascending fluid. and the annular velocity is an important factor in transporting the cuttings to the surface. In the field it is measured as a timed rate of flow using a Marsh funnel. Viscosity is significant in affecting the lifting power of mud. Calculations for annular velocity are made as follows: Annular Velocity (m/min) = [(Pump output (m3/min. The effectiveness of mud in removing the cuttings from the hole depends on several factors. Increasing mud density increases its carrying capacity both by buoyancy and particles due to additional solids in interference. Viscosity is also measured with the Fann viscometer. and dispersal of the suspended solids. These instruments are valuable aids in measuring the effectiveness of drilling mud controls. the cuttings are brought to the surface. .

In many cases it may be necessary to add starch or other fluid loss control additives to reduce the fluid loss. Normally the weight of water plus the solids picked up from drilling is sufficient to balance formation pressures. is transmitted to the atmosphere at the surface. Wall Building A good drilling fluid should deposit a good filter cake on the wall of the hole to consolidate the formation and to retard the passage of fluid into the formation. The heat. There is little chance for this heat to be conducted away by the formation.105 bar/m of depth. having been transmitted from points of friction to the mud. Control of Sub-surface Pressures The proper restraint of formation pressures depends upon density or weight of the mud. However. at times abnormal pressure requires the addition of a higher specific . This property of the mud is improved by increasing the colloidal fraction of the mud by adding bentonite and chemically treating the mud to improve de-flocculation and solids distribution. This is the pressure exerted by a column of formation water.Cooling and Lubrication Considerable heat is generated by friction in the bit and where drill string is in contact-with the formation or casing. This shows up in decreased torque. Normal pressure gradient is equal to 0. increased bit life. reduced pump pressure. Solids in the mud help to lubricate. the circulating fluid must remove it. The application of conventional oil emulsion mud coupled with various emulsifying agents increases this lubricity. therefore. etc.

The density of mud is measured with a mud balance in g/cm3. High sand content of the flow line discharge is to be expected if sandy formations are being drilled. Regular tests for sand content should be made on the mud.00695) Suspending Cuttings and Sand and Releasing Them at the Surface Good drilling fluids have properties that cause the solids particles being carried to the surface to be held in suspension.052) psi = (depth. . lb/gal.1) psi = (depth. and the sand content not allowed to run over two percent at the pump suction. the mud reverts to its fluid condition and these coarse particles. ft) x (mud weight. due to a gel or thixotropy that develops after circulation has stopped. ft) x (mud weight. m) x (mud weight. and fittings will be damaged. to increase the hydrostatic head of the mud column. pumps. Upon resumption of circulation. The hydrostatic pressure that a column of mud exerts upon any point in the hole can be calculated as follows: Hydrostatic pressure: bar = (depth. Sand is extremely abrasive and if it is being re-circulated through the system. lb/ft3) x (0.gravity material. A comparison of the sand content of samples taken at the flow line and suction will tell whether or not the sand is being properly removed at the surface or is being re-circulated through the system. g/ml) x (0. together with the sand are carried to the surface. lb/cu ft or psi/1000 ft of depth. lb/gal) x (0. such as barite. The sand tube and screen are used to measure the sand content of the mud.

it may be forbidden for use in the drilling fluid. some of the hook load is alleviated and the string can be "floated in". The flow properties of the mud. For example. Protection of Well Bore and Assurance of Maximum Hole Information Optimum values of all the properties of drilling fluid are necessary to offer maximum protection of the formation. oil may improve the performance of mud and even the production of a well. Since a force equal to the weight of mud displaced buoys up both the drill pipe and casing. Transmit Hydraulic Horsepower to the Bit The drilling fluid is the medium for transmitting available hydraulic horsepower at the surface to bit-.Support of Weight of Drill Pipe and Casing With increasing depths. yet it may be added to control the resistivity in order to get the proper interpretation of an electric log. the weight supported by the surface equipment becomes increasingly important. Again. plastic viscosity and yield point. Hydraulics should be considered when planning a mud program. yet sometimes these values must be sacrificed to gain maximum knowledge of the formations penetrated. salt may upset mud and increase the fluid loss. this means that circulating rates should be such that utilization of optimum power is used to clean the face of the hole ahead of the bit. . exert a considerable influence upon hydraulics and should be controlled at their proper values. an increase in mud density necessarily results in a considerable reduction in total weight. if the casing is not completely filled up during running. In general. but if it interferes with the work of the geologist or ecologist. which the surface equipment must support. Equally.

liquid droplets dispersed in liquids. They are particles whose size falls roughly between that of the smallest particles that can be seen with an optical microscope and that of true molecules. comprising 40% of all the minerals present. constitute the most abundant class of minerals in these rocks. Clay minerals mostly belong to the group of silicates having layer structures. smoke.Clays and Colloid Chemistry Colloids are not a specific kind of matter. Over 50% of the clay minerals in the earth’s crust are illites. but they may be of any substance.. emulsions. the advantages of using suspensions of clay-in-water became apparent as clay minerals were inadvertently incorporated in the fluid as a result of drilling through . Another characteristic of colloidal systems is that the particles are so small that properties like viscosity and sedimentation velocity are controlled by surface phenomena.e. Although initially water was used as the carrying fluid. i. or solids dispersed in gases. i. clay suspensions...e. Clay minerals which occur in all types of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Colloidal systems may be consist of solids dispersed in liquids. a phenomenon known as Brownian motion. but differ from most layer silicates by having hydrous nature. i. The order of relative abundance of clay minerals is as follows: -Illite -Montmorillonite and mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite -Chlorite and mixed-layer chlorite-montmorillonite -Kaolinite and septechlorite -Attapulgite.e. also occur as submicroscopic particles. One characteristic of aqueous colloidal systems is that the particles are so small that they are kept in suspension indefinitely by bombardment of water molecules. palygorskite and sepiolite Most layer silicates are usually in microscopic size.

clay-in-water suspensions served to keep the formation fluids confined to their respective formations during drilling operations. a thick slurry facilitated this action as compared to a liquid of low viscosity and devoid of shear strength. Swelling properties of different clays are a function of -Structure -Chemical composition -The amount and types of exchangeable cations In swelling due to hydration. e. kaolinite clay exhibits little or no swelling on hydration. swelling due to the expansion of the crystal lattice itself. there are two types of swelling. Also. it became the usual practice to add surface clays to water in order to prepare a mud for circulation. on the other hand. . and swelling due to the adsorption of water on surface of the clays particles. water. Subsequently.. As the primary function of a drilling fluid is to remove cuttings.argillaceous strata. Sodium-montmorillonite. i. Properties of Clay Minerals Two characteristic physical properties of clay minerals are size and shape of particles. swells in water to many times its dry volume.e..g. The physicochemical properties of clays which are of great interest to the petroleum engineers and petroleum geologists are: -Base exchange capacity -Adsorption and retention of water -Deflocculation and flocculation Swelling of clays Some clays do not swell upon hydration.

Clays Used in Drilling Fluids The suitability of clays for use in drilling fluids may be determined by -Yield. or clay states. i. additives. . Major categories include air.e.and oil base fluids. Flocculation is defined as the state of dispersion in which there is a formation of clusters of particles separable by relatively weak mechanical forces.e. water. Each has many subcategories based on purpose. This may be caused by a change in chemical composition of the dispersion neutralization of negative charges on clay particles. the number of barrels of mud of a given viscosity obtained from a ton of clay in fresh water -Suspension capacity in salt water -Plastic viscosity -Apparent viscosity -Yield strength Thixotropic properties. In good drilling fluids.Flocculation and Deflocculation Deflocculation is defined as the state of a dispersion in which solid particles in a liquid remain geometrically independent and unassociated with adjacent particles. clay is in a state of deflocculation. i.. the difference in gel strength determined immediately after agitation and after quiescence (usually 10 min) -Wall building properties as measured by water loss through a filter paper -Thickness of filter cake produced Types of Drilling Fluids Many types of drilling fluids are used in industry..

The second function of the continuous phase is to suspend the reactive colloidal solids. Clays used in water based drilling fluids are mainly in three groups: -Montmorillonites (bentonite) -Kaolinites -Illites Chemicals used in water based mud’s can be grouped according to their functions as: -Thinners -Dispersants -Deflocculants . Water is also a solution medium for all conditioning chemicals which are added to the drilling fluid. viscosity. Water also acts as a medium for transferring the surface available hydraulic horsepower to the bit on the bottom of the hole. clay is added to increase density. -Water -Active colloidal solids -Inert solids -Chemicals Water is the continuous phase of any water-based mud. gel strength and yield point.Water Based Muds Water based mud’s consist of four basic phases. such as barite. and to decrease fluid loss. In water based mud’s. Primary function of the continuous phase is to provide the initial viscosity which can be modified to obtain any desirable rheological properties. such as bentonite. inert solids.

the swelling of shale is greatly reduced in the presence of calcium cations. lime [Ca(OH)2]. The water dissolves the clays and returns to the surface as mud. When calcium is added to a suspension of water and bentonite. Calcium mud’s are classified according to the percentage of soluble calcium in the mud. caustic soda and filtration control agent.Types of Water Based Muds: a) Clear Water: Fresh water and saturated brine can be used to drill hard formations. 2. When calcium mud comes into contact with shaly formations. 1. This mud is made by pumping water down to the hole during drilling and letting it react with formations containing clays or shales.Gyp Mud which contains up to 1200 ppm of soluble calcium. the calcium cations will replace the sodium cations on the clay plates. thinner. It is similar to lime mud except that the lime is replaced by gypsum and they have higher temperature stability. . This mud is characterized by its high solids content and a high filter loss resulting in a thick filter cake. The major advantage of calcium mud is their ability to tolerate a high concentration of drilled solids without these affecting the viscosity of mud.Lime Mud which contains up to 120 ppm of soluble calcium and it is prepared by mixing bentonite. compacted and near normally pressured formations. b) Calcium Muds: Calcium mud’s are superior to fresh water mud’s when drilling massive sections of gypsum and anhydrite as they are susceptible to calcium contamination.

caustic soda. .working under moderately high temperatures .high tolerance for contamination by drilled solids .good bit hydraulics and reduced circulating pressure losses. .high true yield strength . The advantages of this type of mud are: .c) Lignosulphonate Mud: This mud type is considered to be suitable when : . This type of mud consists of fresh water or salt water.low filter loss is required. It is also suitable for drilling potentially productive sands. bentonite. d) KCl / Polymer Mud: The basic components of KCl/polymer mud’s are: -fresh water or sea water -KCl -inhibiting polymer -viscosity building polymer -stabilized starch or CMC -caustic soda Lubricants This mud is suitable for drilling shale sections due to its superior sloughinginhibition properties.higher shear thinning .improved bore hole stability . ferrochrome lignosulphonate. CMC or stabilized starch. It is not suitable for drilling shale sections due to adsorption of water.high mud densities are required. The disadvantage is their instability at temperatures above 250 oF.

At the present time..Oil Based Muds Oil based mud’s has been defined as a system the continuous or external phase of which is any suitable oil. i. True oil mud systems consist of the following components: -Suitable oil -Asphalt -Water -Emulsifiers -Surfactants -Calcium hydroxide -Weighting materials -Other chemical additives Among all of these. The following commonly available oils have gained widespread acceptance. The others are only used for the purpose of enhancing and stabilizing rheological properties and plastering characteristics. true oil mud’s and invert emulsion mud’s. -Lease crude oil -Refined oils The following specifications are used as guidelines for the selection of oil: -Specific weight (API gravity) – For viscosity purposes -Aniline point – A measure for the aromatic content of the oil . Different types of oils have been used as the continuous phase in oil mud’s. there are two mud systems the external phase of which is oil. only oil and asphalt are necessary for the proper functioning of oil mud’s.e.

-Emulsification of any water picked up during drilling operation. in the open hole section of the well. Bodying agents can be classified into two groups: -Colloidal size materials -High molecular weight metal soaps Asphalts which are colloidal-size organophilic materials are used in oil mud have to impart required properties and control fluid loss. mainly through their absorptive characteristics. some water is generally added to react with chemical additives in order to enhance the rheological properties and plastering characteristics of oil. thus. pressure of the drilling fluid in the borehole is intentionally maintained below the formation pore fluid pressure. Heavy metal soaps of fatty acids (emulsifiers) are added to the oil mud’s in order to emulsify the water in oil. controlling fluid loss Aerated Muds Interest in under balanced drilling is increasing worldwide. A number of bodying agents have been used in oil mud’s to achieve the desired rheological and filtration loss characteristics. The functions of emulsifiers in oil mud’s are as follows: -Imparting weak gel strength to oil mud’s because gel strength is necessary for suspension of weighting materials. In under balanced drilling operations. As a result formation fluids flow into the well when a permeable formation is .-Flash point – It is the temperature at which oil vapor ignites upon passing flame over the hot oil -Fire point – It is the temperature at which continuous fire is sustained over the oil surface when flame is passed over it Although presence of water is not required in oil mud’s. Asphalt work with the same principle as clays in water-based mud’s. -Controlling the tightness of any water emulsion resulting from water contamination.

-Mud-making shales : Thick shale sections containing dispersible clays cause a rapid rise in viscosity as cuttings become incorporated in the mud. Consideration must also be given to obtain adequate formation evaluation and maximum productivity. in an offshore well. -Pressured formations : The density of the mud should be adjusted as pressurized formations are to be drilled. -Hole instability : Two basic forms of hole instability are hole contraction and hole enlargement. which are higher than degradation temperature. If the lateral earth stresses bearing on the walls of the hole exceed the yield strength of the formation. it is easy to reduce the excessive viscosity.. however. etc. i. Most frequently used aerated fluids are air-liquid mixtures. foams. high density mud’s increase the cost of drilling and have risks of stuck pipe. Selection of Drilling Fluids Selection of the best fluid to meet anticipated conditions will minimize well costs and reduce the risk of catastrophes such as stuck drill pipe. when the mud is weighted.e. -High temperature : Most of the mud additives degrade with time and elevated temperatures. the possibility of using salt water should be considered. hole slowly contracts. When the mud is unweighted.penetrated during under balanced drilling. aerated fluids are used in under balanced drilling operations. gas kick. loss circulation. costly chemicals such as barite should be used to restore the mud properties. Special additives must be used to make mud resistive to high temperatures. Some important considerations affecting the choice of mud’s to meet specific conditions are presented as follows: -Location : The availability of supplies must be considered. loss of circulation. He density of the mud . However. mist and gas. Usually. etc.

or psi/1000 ft of depth. Proper mud’s should be selected to prevent such problems. -Rock salt : To prevent the salt from dissolving and consequently enlarging the hole. torque and drag are a problem because the pipe lies against the low side of the hole and the risk of pipe stuck is high.should be high enough to resist contracting. Field Tests on Drilling Fluids Properties It is necessary to perform certain tests to determine if the mud is in proper condition to perform the functions previously discussed. -Hole inclination : In highly deviated holes. Viscosity: The Marsh funnel viscosity is used for routine field measurement. The frequency of these tests will vary in particular areas depending upon conditions. Gel strength: Report as lb/100 sq ft. and keep cutting to be removed from the well properly. Hole enlargement occurs at watersensitive shale zones. Fluid loss: Report cc of filtrate at the end of thirty minutes. MWD. A standard API form should be provided for reporting the results of these tests: Density or mud weight: Report in g/ml or in lb/gal. lb/cu ft. Productivity impairment : Solids control or density adjustments should be considered properly to keep the formations non-damaged or blocked. Shale stabilizers should be used to prevent hole enlargement. either an oil base mud or a saturated brine must be used. measure and . Instrument should be calibrated once a day when weight is critical. Plastic viscosity (cP) and Yield Point (lb/100 sq ft) are measured with the Fann viscometer. Report viscosity in seconds per quart. Formation evaluation : The selected mud should be suitable for logging tools.

Yield stress (YS. Pm.θ300 YP = θ600 . "Recommended Practice on Standard Field Procedure for Testing Drilling Fluids". Flow index (n. cp). lime content.Max. lbf/100 ft2).Pf. percent solids by volume. dial reading at 3 rpm . cp).PV AV = θ600 / 2 n = 3. (percent by volume) Other tests which may enter into the evaluation of a mud system are as follows: Apparent viscosity. lbf/secn/cm2). resistivity. unit-less) PV = θ600 .32 log (θ600 / θ300) K = θ300 / (511n) Gel strength = Max. and detailed procedures may be found in their publication. Consistency index (K. Gel Strength . (API RP 13B). Sand content: Report as percent by volume. Salt content: Report as ppm chloride. pH: Measure with p-Hydrion paper or pH meter.record cake thickness in mm. The API has recommended standard methods of conducting these tests. temperature. etc. ppm calcium (hardness). or ppm sodium chloride. lbf/100 ft2). lbf/100 ft2). Apparent viscosity (AV.(Tau. dial reading at 3 rpm. Retort Analysis: Determine the liquid and solid content of a drilling fluid. Rheological Properties: Determine viscometer readings to calculate the following for a drilling or completion/ work over fluid: Plastic Viscosity (PV. Yield Point (YP.

Polymers are multi-purpose . Bentonite. YP. determine PV. θ600 = 36 θ300 = 24 Solution: PV = 36 -24 = 12 cP YP = 24 – 12 = 12 lbf/100 ft2 AV = θ600 / 2 = 36 / 2 = 18 cP n = 3.Example: Given the following well data.32 log (θ600 / θ300) = 3.32 log (36/24) = 0. attapulgite clays and sub-bentonites all form colloidal suspensions in water.5846 K = θ300 / (511n) = 24 / 5110. subbentonites and polymers are most widely used viscosity builders.626 Drilling Fluid Additives There are fundamental aspects that have to be controlled in order to have an effectively and successfully purposing drilling fluid. Bentonite. attapulgite clays. AV. n and K.5846 = 0. These aspects can be categorized as: -Viscosity Control -Fluid Loss Control -Weight Control -Corrosion Control Viscosity Control Viscosifiers :Many different products are classified as viscosifiers. They increase viscosity. yield point and gel-strength by intersurface friction and by chemically binding-water.

they revert to orthophosphates.additives that may simultaneously modify viscosity. Thinners : Mud thinners or dispersants reduce viscosity by breaking the attachment of clay plates through the edges and faces. control filtration properties. -They have very low temperature stability. Organic thinners are good for higher temperatures. gel strength and yield point. -They have no fluid loss ability. The thinners absorb to the clay plates. Phosphates : -Useful as effective thinners in most bentonite water-based mud’s at shallow depths. stabilize shales and create or prevent clay flocculation. lignins and tannins. -Small amounts of thinner are very effective at temperatures less than 130°F -pH is around 5. . -They are organic thinners serving both as dispersants and as fluid loss control agents due to their colloidal structure. thus disturbing attractive forces between the sheets. Inorganic thinners include sodium acid pyrophosphate. Most thinners can be classified as organic materials or as inorganic complex phosphates. sodium tetraphosphate and sodium hexametaphosphate. Organic thinners include lignosulfonates.0. which severly flocculates clays and increase viscosities and gel strengths. tetrasodium pyrophosphate. Lignites : -They have a temperature stability of 400°F. -At relatively low temperatures. Thinners are added to a mud to reduce viscosity. so caustic soda or some other hydroxyl ion containing additive is required to maintain pH above 7.

-To reduce fluid loss to productive formation and to minimize formation damage. Tannins : -They are dual-purpose materials serving as dispersants and fluid loss control agents. . Bentonite : -A multipurpose additive that aids in fluid loss control. -They are dual-purpose additives serving as both dispersants and fluid loss additives. barite suspension. viscosity generator for hole cleaning purposes. -They have temperature stability in the range of 300°F to 350°F. Lignosulfonates : -They are effective for lime mud’s. -They are effective as general purpose thinners due to the heavy metal-ions attached. -They may cause disintegration of active solids. Fluid Loss Additives The reasons for fluid loss control are: -To maintain hole integrity. -To protect water sensitive shales. -To reduce log analysis problems. -To minimize hole washout to achieve better casing cement jobs. -They are effective in thinning lime mud’s and cement contaminated mud’s.-They are not suitable for high-salt content fluids due to the insolubility of lignite in salt. -They may cause disintegration.

Starch : -They work well as fluid-loss agents in the presence of low soluble calcium or sodium ions. -It may contaminate formations such as salt or anhydrite. -A bactericide must be used to prevent digradation and fermantation. which makes it suitable for use in inhibited mud’s. . -A thinner may be necessary to counteract the viscosity effects of the additive. -It is highly sensitive of calcium ion contamination. calcium or potassium without pre-hydration. -It has a temperature stability up to 400°F. -It degrades at temperatures over 200°F. -It may cause a thinning effect in some salt mud’s Cypan : -It can be used successfully in high-temperature regions due to its stability up to 400°F. -Slurries are susceptible to the effect of high temperature gelation which could cause an increase in the fluid loss. CMC : -It is active in low to moderate contaminating-concentrations.-It is not suitable for use in environments high in concentration of sodium. -An increase in viscosity is observed when it is used. -They are suitable for salt-water or gyp mud’s. -It may cause dynamic filtration XC Polymer : -It builds viscosity.

Calcium Carbonate is an additive used in drilling mud’s. -It has high viscosity at low shear rates. Hematite is sometimes used depending on the availability. It is cheap and readily available. It has an API defined specific gravity of 4. Lignites and Tannins : -They have good temperature stability in the range of 300°F to 350°F. Lost Circulation Materials -Fibous materials – for seepage losses and in combination with other materials . -It has low viscosity at high shear rates. -The dual action of fluid loss control and dispersing tendencies makes these products suitable for single-product usage in some cases. and can be suspended easier than barite. Barite is by far the most common weighting material used in drilling fluids. suspension of barite requires high gel strength and viscosity.2. Also it is acid soluble. workover fluids and packer fluids to increase the fluid density. usually to control formation pressure. -They are susceptible to calcium-ion contamination and subsequent mud flocculation due to sequestering nature of the additive. It has a specific gravity of 2. therefore. which makes it possible to increase mud weight up to 21 ppg. However. It is more economical than other agents. the fluid density can be increased up tp 12 ppg. -Suspends barite.7.-It increases gel structure. -They have colloidal structure that aids in fluid-loss control. Weighting Materials They are substances with high specific gravity which can be added to the mud to increase its density.

-Flake materials – for seepage losses -Granular – for losses in fractures -Slurries that develop strength over time pH Adjusters Due to the acid pH of some mud additives and to the operating pH of some mud systems.V1=Volume of the first substance. Increasing the weight of drilling mud with a material such as barite can be related in a similar manner. DR = Density of the resulting mixture. The three most common pH adjusters are: -Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) -Potassium hydroxide -Calcium hydroxide They are corrosive. D1=Density of the first substance. Mixture of drilling fluids If two substances having different densities are mixed then the density of the mixture is a function of the quantity and density of the components of the mixture. so additional care is required when used. V2=Volume of the second substance. it may be necessary to add materials to increase the pH of the mud system. This relationship can be expressed as follows: V1D1 + V2D2 = (V1 + V2) (DR) where. D2=Density of the second substance. V1W1 + V2WB = (V1 + V2) (W2) .

if V1 is 100 bbls and WB is 35.4 – W2) Sacks of barite / 100 bbl of mud = [1490 (15 – 14)] / (35.4 x 3 = 217.4 x 42 or 1490 lbs. (35. then Sacks of barite / 100 bbl of mud = [1490 (W2 – W1)] / (35. DR = Density of barite. W2= Final mud density of the second substance.4 ppg. W1=Initial mud density.4 Sacks of barite / 300 bbl of mud = 72.) then a barrel of barite weighs 35. Therefore.25 Sp. Assuming an average density for barite of 35. Solution: Sacks of barite / 100 bbl of mud = [1490 (W2 – W1)] / (35.V1=Volume of mud before weighting. 4 ppg (4.4 – W1)] DV . SV = [(35. It is used to determine the initial volume of mud to start with in order to obtain a specific volume of mud after weighting. V2=Volume of barite added.Gr.4 – 15) = 72.where.4 – W2) / (35. Barite for oil field applications is packaged in 100 lb sacks.4 – W2) Example-1 How much barite is required to increase the density of 300 bbls of mud from 4 ppg to 15 ppg.2 The below formula is called the starting volume formula.4 ppg).

4 – W2) / (35.327 bbls of water to add = 1200 x 0.5) / (13.5 – 8.4 – W1)] DV SV = [(35.33)] bbl of water to be added = 1200 [(15.4 – 12)] 250 = 228 bbls The below formula is called the starting volume formula.4 – 14) / (35.2 – 13.327 = 392 The above problem can be solved similarly to obtain the result directly in barrels rather than percent by volume.5) / (13.2 ppg mud to 13. % by volume water = 100 [(W1 – W2) / (W2 – 8.5 ppg? Solution: % by volume water = [(15.2 – 13.33)] Example-3 What volume of water will be necessary to reduce the density of 1200 bbls of 15.33)] = 392 . It is used to determine the initial volume of mud to start with in order to obtain a specific volume of mud after weighting. [(W1 – W2) / (W2 – 8.Example-2 How much 12 ppg mud is needed to prepare exactly 250 bbls of 14 ppg mud? Solution: SV = [(35. bbl of water to be added = present vol.33)] = 0.5– 8.

2) (8.33)] + V3 (35. V1 + V2 +V3 = VF V + V3 = 300 V3 = 300 .9 = 1252 sx of barite) .2) = 433 bbl of water 300 – 216 = 84 bbl of barite (84 x 41.33) + V2 (35.4) = 300 (15) V[ (0.8) = 173 bbl of oil 216 (0.4 = 7000 V1 = 395 bbl of water V2 = VF – V1 V2 = 500 – 395 V2 = 105 bbl of barite 105 (14.8) + (0.2) (8.9) = 1565 sx of barite Example-5 Calculate how much oil.33) + (500.4) = 300 (15) V = 216 bbl of water and oil 216 (0.8) (6.8) + (0.V1) 35.4) = 500 (14) V1 (8.V V[ (0. Solution: V1W1 + V2W2 + V3W3 = VFWF V1 + V2 +V3 = VF The oil and water have a ratio of 80/20 so that they can be considered as one volume (V) that is 80 % oil and 20 % water.33)] + (300 – V) (35.8) (6. water and barite are required to make exactly 300 bbl of 15 ppg oil mud with 80/20 oil/water ratio.Example-4 Calculate how much water and barite must be mixed to make exactly 500 bbl of 14 ppg mud? Solution: V1W1 + V2W2 = VFWF V1 + V2 = VF and V2 = VF – V1 V1 (8.

64) = 64 bbl [64 / (16 + 64 +V)] = 0.64) = 64 bbl [16 / (16 + 64 +V)] = 0. calculate how much water will have to be added Retort Analysis: Oil : 64 %.Example-6 Calculate how much oil will have to be added to change the oil/water ratio of 100 bbl of 80/20 oil mud to 90/10.75 = 5 bbl .16) = 16 bbl Volume of oil = 100 x (0.16) = 16 bbl Volume of oil = 100 x (0.1 V = 80 bbl Example-7 If the same 80/20 mud is to be changed to 75/25 oil water ratio. Retort Analysis: Oil : 64 %. Water : 16 % and Solids: 20 % Solution: The oil water ratio is changed by the following formula: {Volume of oil / [(Volume of oil + Pressure volume of water + Volume of water to be added) ]} = New percent of oil in liquid phase Volume of water = 100 x (0. Water : 16 % and Solids: 20 % Solution: The oil water ratio is changed by the following formula: {Volume of water / [(Volume of water + Pressure volume of oil + Volume of oil to be added) ]} = New percent of water in liquid phase Volume of water = 100 x (0.

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