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Training Report

Training Report

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Published by Prateek Aggarwal

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Published by: Prateek Aggarwal on Oct 17, 2012
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I am extremely thankful & indebted to the numerous P.G.C.I.L. Engineers, who provided vital information about the functioning of their respective departments thus helping me to gain an overall idea about the working of organization. I am highly thankful for the support & guidance of each of them I am highly indebted to my project guide, Mr. DHEERAJ(A.E.), Mr. DEEPAK (J.E.), for giving me his valuable time and helping me to grasp the various concepts of switchyard equipments and their control instruments and their testing. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents & all my fellow trainees who have been a constant source of encouragement & inspiration during my studies & have always provided me support in every walk of life.

Prateek Aggarwal B.E+M.B.A. 3rd year E.E.E U.I.E.T. (CHANDIGARH)


 What is an Electrical Substation?  Introduction: about substation  Brief description :

 Isolators  Circuit breaker  Lightning arrestor  Current transformer  Capacitor voltage transformer  Wave trap  Protective relays  Shunt reactor for bus voltage  Power line communication & SCADA system  Appendix  References

COMPANY PROFILEPOWERGRID, the Central Transmission Utility (CTU) of the country, is engaged in power transmission business with the mandate for planning, co-ordination, supervision and control over complete inter-State transmission system. POWERGRID owns and operates about 95,329 ckt kms of transmission lines at 800/765 kV, 400 kV, 220 kV & 132 kV EHVAC & +500 kV HVDC levels and 156 sub-stations with transformation capacity of about 1, 38,673 MVA. Recognizing the role of POWERGRID in the overall development of transmission and power sector, Govt. of India has conferred Navratna upon status to POWERGRID in May` 08, the highest honour for a Public Sector Enterprise. For overall co-ordination at national level, POWERGRID has implemented National Load Despatch Centre (NLDC) at Delhi with back up at Kolkata, which has been commissioned in February, 2009. For optimum utilization of available natural resources in the country, National Grid is being developed by POWERGRID integrating five electrical regions, matching with generation capacity addition and growth in power demand. Inter –regional capacity of about 28,000MW approx has already been established. The state-of-the-art Unified Load Despatch & Communication (ULDC) schemes implemented by POWERGRID are operational in all the five regions and are greatly contributing to bringing quality and economy in operation of power system besides improving data availability, visibility and transparency. The Regional Load Despatch Centres (RLDCs) are an epitome of technological excellence in grid operation through three tier hierarchical system, a unique feature in grid operation in the world.

POWERGRID’s Telecom Business
Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd has installed dedicated Optic Fibre communication Network for Real Time operation of the National Grid. POWERGRID diversified into Telecom business in 2001 to utilize spare telecommunication capacity of its Unified Load Dispatch Centre (ULDC) schemes, leveraging its country wide transmission infrastructure. As a part of this, POWERGRID has installed about 25,000 Kms of Telecom Network (backbone as well as last mile) and connectivity has been provided to about 206 cities including all metros, major cities & towns mainly through the Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) laid on its power transmission lines. POWERGRID’s Telecom Network is expected to be doubled in couple of years with the laying of OPGW on transmission lines under construction

and upcoming projects under various schemes. Presently, POWERGRID is one of the few telecom players with a marked presence in remote areas of North east and J&K and is providing highly reliable services to various customers.

International BusinessInternational Business Department is created with the objective to spread POWERGRID’s engineering services in Power Transmission Business across the world. The objective is strategic to POWREGRID’s growth plans; to de-risk domestic operations by way of diversified geographic presence, to gear up for next competitive phase and to learn international best practices. POWERGRID, the 3rd largest transmission utility in the world, is continuously setting best power transmission practices that are well acknowledged by multi-lateral funding agencies like The World Bank, ADB, etc. who have extended multibillion loans to POWERGRID in establishing transmission network in India. As POWERGRID is a Utility turned Consultant, the feedback obtained while carrying out the Operation & Maintenance of its projects is ploughed back to its design departments for continual improvement. This point of difference (POD) puts POWERGRID as the much preferred consultant to bring in world class transmission to its clients. Based on the rich experience earned through implementation of huge transmission networks in India and abroad by adopting latest technology in multifarious topology and environment, POWERGRID has so far been assigned more than 350 nos. of consultancy assignments by national and international clients in Construction of Transmission Lines and Substations, Load Despatch Centre, Distribution and Rural Electrification. POWERGRID has taken up 45 international assignments in countries like Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Tajikistan, Sri Lanka and UAE. The biggest advantage of POWERGRID is that unlike many of the renowned consultants, POWERGRID itself is one of the largest practicing transmission utility with experience in Engineering, Design, Procurement, Construction, Project Management, Construction Supervision, up gradation of Transmission System, Operation and Maintenance of transmission system. POWERGRID has a highly experienced and skilled talent pool of over 9800 full time employees which is its biggest strength in successfully implementing domestic and international projects. Very few consultants in the world have this kind of trained manpower that POWERGRID has today. POWERGRID has rich and varied power transmission experience which it can replicate in global projects and service clients to maximum satisfaction.

What is an Electrical Substation?
“Electric Power is generated in Power Stations and transmitted to various cities and towns. During transmissions, there are power (energy) loss and the whole subject of Transmission and Distribution... An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and may be changed in voltage in several steps.

Elements of a substationSubstations generally have switching, protection and control equipment and one or more transformers. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short-circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use reclose circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. Other devices such as power factor correction capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation. Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in specialpurpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have several indoor substations. Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, for reasons of appearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions. Where a substation has a metallic fence, it must be properly grounded (UK: earthed) to protect people from high voltages that may occur during a fault in the network. Earth faults at a substation can cause a ground potential rise. Currents flowing in the Earth's surface during a fault can cause metal objects to have a significantly different voltage than the ground under a person's feet; this touch potential presents a hazard of electrocution.

Introduction: about substation

400/765 kv MOGA substation is one important substation of P.G.C.I.L.. It is one of the largest power grids in the state of PUNJAB and the north India. It is situated at URJA NAGARI 6.64 km far from MOGA railway station. The construction of this substation completed during 1994-98 by B.H.EL. .The area of this substation is about 300 acre.

The whole substation is divided in three parts: 1. 2. 3. 132kv switchyard 400/220kv switchyard 765kv switchyard

For 400kv &765kv switchyard a common control room is used.

A 765/400 kV substation is the highest grade system voltage for transmission in India.

The scope of the project includes Design, Engineering, Manufacture, Supply, Erection, Testing and Commissioning of 8 Bays of 765 kV & 2 Bays of 400kV, along with 7 Nos. of 333 MVA (Single Phase) 765/400 kV Power Transformers and 7 Nos. of 110 MVAR (Single Phase) 765 kV Shunt Reactor & 4 Nos. 63 MVAR (Single Phase) 765 kV Reactors. The project is commissioned in April 2011. The project is of strategic importance for entry into market of 765 kV Substations globally and widens up the horizon for the entire product range of P.G.C.I.L.

Tan Delta testing - Principle and Method
Tan Delta is a diagnostic test conducted on the insulation of cables and windings. It is used to measure the deterioration in the cable. It also gives an idea of the aging process in the cable and enables us to predict the remaining life of the cable. It is alternatively known as the loss angle test or the dissipation factor test. Principle The Tan Delta test works on the principle that any insulation in its pure state acts as a capacitor. The test involves applying a very low frequency AC voltage. The voltage is generally double the rated voltage of the cable or winding. A low frequency causes a higher value of capacitive reactance which leads to lesser power requirement during the test. Besides, the currents will be limited enabling easier measurement. In a pure capacitor, the current is ahead of the voltage by 90 degrees. The insulation, in a pure condition, will behave similarly. However, if the insulation has deteriorated due to the entry of dirt and moisture. The current which flows through the insulation will also have a resistive component.

This will cause the angle of the current to be less than 90 degrees. This difference in the angle is known as the loss angle. The tangent of the angle which is Ir/Ic (opposite/adjacent) gives us an indication of the condition of the insulation. A higher value for the loss angle indicates a high degree of contamination of the insulation. Method of Testing The cable or winding whose insulation is to be tested is first disconnected and isolated. The test voltage is applied from the Very Low Frequency power source and the Tan delta controller takes the measurements. The test voltage is increased in steps upto the rated voltage of the cable. The readings are plotted in a graph against the applied voltage and the trend is studied. A healthy insulation would produce a straight line. The test should be continued only if the graph is a straight line. A rising trend would indicate weak insulation which may fail if the test voltage is increased beyond the rated voltage of the cable. Interpretation There are not standard formulae or benchmarks to ascertain the success of a tan delta test. The health of the insulation which is measured is obtained by observing the nature of the trend which is plotted. A steady, straight trend would indicate a healthy insulation, while a rising trend would indicate an insulation that has been contaminated with water and other impurities. SUBSTATION A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages. Substations generally have switching, protection and control equipment, and transformers. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use recloser circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations themselves do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. Other devices such as capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation. BRIEF DESCRIPTION ELECTRICAL PROTECTION :

The following electrical protection have been provided on the transformers :-

(i) Differential Protection (ii) Restricted Earth Fault (iii) Winding temp high (iv) Oil temp high (v) Pressure relief valve (vi) Oil surge relay (vii) Over current relay (viii) Local Breaker Back up protection (ix) Surge arrestors on HV, MV & LV sides.

Isolators: In electrical engineering, a disconnecter or isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-energized for service or maintenance. Such switches are often found in electrical distribution and

industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance.

Circuit breaker: Capacitor voltage transformer:
In high and extra high voltage transmission systems, capacitor voltage transformers (CVTs) are used to provide potential outputs to metering instruments and protective relays. In addition, when equipped with carrier accessories, CVTs can be used for power line carrier (PLC) coupling. A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step-down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split, an inductive element used to tune the device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further step-down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The device has at least four terminals, a high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a ground terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation or protective relay. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. In practice the first capacitor, C1, is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in series. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second capacitor, C2, and hence the secondary terminals. The external insulation is provided by the porcelain housing and coordinated with the capacitor stack, consisting of virtually identical elements so that the axial voltage distribution from the line terminal to ground is essentially uniform. The capacitor elements have a mixed dielectric material

consisting of alternating layers of polypropylene film and Kraft paper. The Kraft paper layers serve as a wicking agent to ensure homogenous synthetic oil impregnation. The electromagnetic unit (EMU) is housed in an oil-filled tank at the base of the capacitor stack. Mineral oil is employed as the insulating medium instead of air because of its superior insulating and heat transfer properties. The use of an oil-filled base tank removes the need for space heaters in the secondary terminal box as this area is warmed by heat transfer from the insulating oil. This results in a more reliable and cost effective design.

Wave trap: Line trap also is known as Wave trap. What it does is trapping the high frequency communication signals sent on the line from the remote substation and diverting them to the telecom/teleportation panel in the substation control room (through coupling capacitor and LMU). This is relevant in Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) systems for communication among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network. The signals are primarily teleportation signals and in addition, voice and data communication signals.

The Line trap offers high impedance to the high frequency communication signals thus obstructs the flow of these signals in to the substation busbars. If there were not to be there, then signal loss is more and communication will be ineffective/probably impossible. Protective relays: Protective relaying is one of the several features of power system design. Every part of the power system is protected. The protective relaying is used to give an alarm or to cause prompt removal of any element of power system from service when hat element behave abnormally. The relays are compact and self contained devices which can sense abnormal conditions. Whenever abnormal condition occur , the relays contacts get closed. This in turn closes the trip circuit of a circuit breaker. For switchyard protections following type relays are used: 1. Overcurrent relay 2. Earth fault relay 3. REF relay 4. Differential relay 5. Directional relay 6. Over flux relay 7. Buchoolz relay 8. IDMT relay

RES E/F +O/L Protection relay

Differential relay O/F protection +FFR Group A trip relay

Breaker failure relay O/C protection relays

CB trouble relay Group B trip relay

DR earth switch relay

Corona ring: A corona ring, also called anti-corona ring, is a toroid of (typically) conductive material located in the vicinity of a terminal of a high voltage device. It is electrically insulated. Stacks of more spaced rings are often used. The role of the corona ring is to distribute the electric field gradient and lower its maximum values below the corona threshold, preventing the corona discharge. Corona rings are typically installed on very high voltage power line insulators. Manufacturers suggest a corona ring on the line end of the insulator for above 230 kV and on both ends for above 500 kV. Corona rings prolong lifetime of insulator surfaces by suppressing the effects of corona discharge.

Buchholz relay

In the field of electric power distribution and transmission, a Buchholz relay is a safety device mounted on some oil-filled power transformers and reactors, equipped with an external overhead oil reservoir called a conservator. The Buchholz Relay is used as a protective device sensitive to the effects of dielectric failure inside the equipment. Depending on the model, the relay has multiple methods to detect a failing transformer. On a slow accumulation of gas, due perhaps to slight overload, gas produced by decomposition of insulating oil accumulates in the top of the relay and forces the oil level down. A float switch in the relay is used to initiate an alarm signal. Depending on design, a second float may also serve to detect slow oil leaks. If an arc forms, gas accumulation is rapid, and oil flows rapidly into the conservator. This flow of oil operates a switch attached to a vane located in the path of the moving oil. This switch normally will operate a circuit breaker to isolate the apparatus before the fault causes additional damage. Buchholz relays have a test port to allow the accumulated gas to be withdrawn for testing. Flammable gas found in the relay indicates some internal fault such as overheating or arcing, whereas air found in the relay may only indicate low oil level or a leak. Buchholz relays have been applied to large power transformers at least since the 1940s. The relay was first developed by Max Buchholz (1875–1956) in 1921.

Circuit Breaker
A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit; some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs. The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting the circuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys, and other materials. When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be contained, cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas or oil as the medium in which the arc forms. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including: • • • Lengthening of the arc Intensive cooling (in jet chambers) Division into partial arcs

• Zero point quenching (Contacts open at the zero current time crossing of the AC waveform, effectively breaking no load current at the time of opening. The zero crossing occures at twice the line frequency i.e. 100 times per second for 50Hz ac and 120 times per second for 60Hz ac ) • Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits

Finally, once the fault condition has been cleared, the contacts must again be closed to restore power to the interrupted circuit. The main function of the circuit breaker is to break and make the circuit. So theoretically a circuit breaker is a switch. The breaker is rated so that is should be capable to make, carry and break load current during normal operation and interrupt large fault current in abnormal conditions.

Circuit breaker is the main equipment for controlling power flow and safety of other equipments and personnel. The different associated elements and basic functioning of the circuit breaker is illustrated in the simplified Figure-A. The breaker can be operated by a trained substation personnel by pressing the button at the control room. But during the fault condition it trips automatically.

When fault in the line takes place the large fault current is associated with the increase of secondary current in current transformer (CT). This will actuate the relay and relay contact closes. Now as the tripping circuit of the breaker is complete the trip coil is energised. The energised trip coil initiates breaker mechanism for moving the circuit breaker moving contact away from fixed contact. The Arc formed between the moving contact and fixed contact is extinguished by breaker arc extinguishing mechanism. The breaker is open. From the figure it is clear that the breaker trip circuit can be closed by closing of either of the contacts C1 or C2. While C1 is for manual closing by pressing the button at the control panel, the C2 is closed automatically by breaker relay for abnormal over current condition sensed by CT. These two contacts in parallel fulfil the logic OR function. Applying same reasoning it is easy to think that the breaker can be logically conditioned for tripping on other abnormal conditions.

The trip circuit is supplied with DC battery source. Independent AC source may be used for trip circuit. It should be noted that for high voltage breaker the fault sensing device is outside the circuit breaker where as in case of low voltage breaker the sensing device is accommodated within the breaker enclosure.

During separation of moving contact from fixed contact electric arc is produced between the contacts. Extinguishing of the arc is the most important part of breaker functioning, which greatly influences the breaker design. Actually in low and medium voltage case, the arc extinction is not of much problem. The arc extinguishing is a difficult task in HV and EHV or UHV circuit and is the primary concern for breaker design. The energy stored in the line/circuit inductance is dissipated in the arc and the arc is required to be extinguished reliably.

From the above discussion it is observed that the circuit breaker functioning is comprised of three main components. Sensing and tripping circuit Operating mechanism Arc interruption The breakers can be classified several ways. The most important classification is the medium used for arc interruption.

For low and medium voltage use, air is mainly used as the medium for arc extinction . In HV, EHV and UHV substations oil and gas is used as arc quenching medium. Like low voltage system, Oil Circuit breakers are also becoming obsolete for higher voltage use. Vacuum is also used for arc quenching. Vacuum circuit breakers are usually used for breakers in the range of 3 kV to 38 kV. In modern EHV and UHV substations SF6 gas breakers have replaced the Oil circuit breakers and Air Blast circuit breakers. But one can still find Oil Breakers and Air Blast Breakers in many old substations.

SF6 is a superior gas having good dielectric strength and arc quenching ability which has proved to be a better medium for arc quenching in the breaker. An UHV SF6 Circuit Breaker is displayed below.

Single Line Diagrams do not show the exact electrical connections of the circuits. As the name suggests, SLDs use a single line to represent all three phases. They show the relative electrical interconnections of generators, transformers, transmission and distribution lines, loads, circuit breakers, etc., used in assembling the power system. The amount of information included in an SLD depends on the purpose for which the diagram is used. For example, if the SLD is used in initial stages of designing a substation, then all major equipment will be included in the diagram – major equipment being transformers, breakers, disconnects and buses. There is no need to include instrument transformers or protection and metering devices. However, if the purpose is to design a protection scheme for the equipment in the substation, then instrument transformers and relays are also included.

A) TELECOMMUNICATION There are three different types of telecommunication systems in a substation i.e. i. ii. iii. Microwave Communication System, Fibre-optic Communication System, PLCC-Power Line Carrier Communication.

Voice Frequency (VF) channels of all these systems have been integrated/interconnected to make a hybrid communication system. Microwave & Fibre Optic are multi-channels communication systems and are also called 'Wideband communication system'. PLCC is single channel communication system

In SCADA system measured values, i.e. analogue (measured value) data (MW, MVAR, V, Hz Transformer tap position), and Open/Closed status information, i.e. digital data (Circuit Breakers/Isolators position i.e. on/off status), are transmitted through telecommunication channels to respective sub-LDCs. For this purpose Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) at 400KV, 220KV and few important 132KV sub-stations have been installed. System values & status information below 132 KV have not been picked up for data transmission, except for 33KV Bus isolator position and LV side of generators. Secondary side of Current Transformers (CT) and Potential Transformer (PT) are connected with 'Transducers'. The output of transducers is available in dc current form (in the range of 4mA to 20mA). Analogue to digital converter converts this current into binary pulses. Different inputs are interleaved in a sequential form and are fed into the CPU of the RTU. The output of RTU, containing information in the form of digital pulses, is sent to subLDC through communication links. Depending upon the type of communication link, the output of RTU is connected, directly or through Modem, with the communication equipment. At subLDC end, data received from RTU is fed into the data servers. In general, a SCADA system consists of a database, displays and supporting programmes. In UPPTCL, subLDCs use all major functional areas of SCADA except the 'Supervisory Control/Command' function. The brief overview of major 'functional areas' of SCADA system is as below: 1. Communications - Sub-LDC's computer communicates with all RTU stations under its control, through a communication system. RTU polling, message formatting, polynomial checking and message retransmission on failure are the activities of 'Communications' functional area. 2. Data Processing - After receipt of data through communication system it is processed. Data process function has three sub-functions i.e. (i) Measurements, (ii) Counters and (iii) Indications.

'Measurements' retrieved from a RTU are converted to engineering units and liberalised, if necessary. The measurement are then placed in database and are checked against various limits which if exceeded generate high or low limit alarms.

The system has been set-up to collect 'Counters' at regular intervals: typically 5 or 10 minutes. At the end of the hour the units is transferred into appropriate hour slot in a 24-hour archive/history.

'Indications' are associated with status changes and protection. For those statuses that are not classified as 'alarms', logs the change on the appropriate printer and also enter it into a cyclic event list. For those statuses, which are defined as an 'alarms' and the indication goes into alarm, an entry is made into the appropriate alarm list, as well as in the event list and an audible alarm is generated in the sub-LDC.

3. Alarm/Event Logging - The alarm and event logging facilities are used by SCADA data processing system. Alarms are grouped into different categories and are given different priorities. Quality codes are assigned to the recently received data for any 'limit violation' and 'status changes'. Alarms are acknowledged from single line diagram (or alarm lists) on display terminal in LDCs. 4. Manual Entry - There is a provision of manual entry of measured values, counters and indications for the important sub-station/powerhouse, which are uncovered by an RTU or some problem is going on in its RTU, equipment, communication path, etc. 5. Averaging of Measured Values - As an option, the SCADA system supports averaging of all analogue measurements. Typically, the averaging of measured values over a period of 15 minutes is stored to provide 24 hours trend. 6. Historical Data Recording (HDR) - The HDR, i.e. 'archive', subsystem maintains a history of selected system parameters over a period of time. These are sampled at a pre-selected interval and are placed in historical database. At the end of the day, the data is saved for later analysis and for report generation. 7. Interactive Database Generation - Facilities have been provided in such a way that an off-line copy of the SCADA database can be modified allowing the addition of new RTUs, pickup points and communication channels. 8. Supervisory Control/Remote Command - This function enables the issue of 'remote control' commands to the sub-station/powerhouse equipment e.g. circuit breaker trip command. Though, there is provision of this function in this system, yet it is not used in U.P. As such, related/associated equipment have not been ordered.

9. Fail-over - A 'Fail-over' subsystem is also provided to secure and maintain a database of devices and their backups. The state of the device is maintained indicating whether it is 'on-line' or 'failed'. There is a 'backup' system, which maintains database on a backup computer and the system is duplicated.

Early electrical substations required manual switching or adjustment of equipment, and manual collection of data for load, energy consumption, and abnormal events. As the complexity of distribution networks grew, it became economically necessary to automate supervision and control of substations from a centrally attended point, to allow overall coordination in case of emergencies and to reduce operating costs. Early efforts to remote control substations used dedicated communication wires, often run alongside power circuits. Power-line carrier, microwave radio, fibre optic cables as well as dedicated wired remote control circuits have all been applied to Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) for substations. The development of the microprocessor made for an exponential increase in the number of points that could be economically controlled and monitored.


1 .www.powergrid.com 2 .www.scribd.com 3 .“ Electrical power system” by Ashfaq Hussain 4 .“Switchgear & protection” by U.V.Bakashi

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