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Emilio F. Aguinaldo
(1869-1964)

Strong Points
Proclamation of the Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898. Establishment of the Malolos Republic, which had its congress, constitution, national and local officialdom and Reorganization of the provincial and municipal governments. Division of government into legislative, executive and judiciary. Establishment of the Dictatorial Government addressed to the problems regarding the condition in the Philippines. Prepared a budget for the reestablishment and improvement of education. Granted executive clemency to all Spanish civilians being held prisoners and granted permission for all foreigners, including Spaniards, to freely engage in business in the Philippines. Creation of Department of Foreign Affairs, Navy and Commerce; De-

partment of War and Public Works; Department of Police and Internal Order, Justice, Education and Hygiene; and the Department of Finance, Agriculture, and Manufacturing Industry.

Weak Points
There were a lot of Filipino casualties and losses caused by the war, epidemics, reconcentration camps, and on the economic side as well. Filipino forces encountered disaster everywhere without the military expertise of Luna who was assassinated. Failed to storm Manila after marching from Kawit to Bacoor, thereby giving the American invaders a chance to grow in strength. Government failed to obtain any foreign recognition. Filipinos resorted to guerrilla warfare with all its devastating features and was finally brought to an end when he was captured.

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JMJ He took an oath of allegiance to the United States, was granted a pension from the U.S. government, and retired to private life. Aguinaldo was arrested and, together with others accused of col-

RPTL laboration with the Japanese, was held for some months in Bilibid Prison until released by presidential amnesty for he was used by the Japanese as an anti-American tool.

Manuel L. Quezon
(1878-1944)

Strong Points
Established Commonwealth government and created the national language institute that proclaimed Tagalog to be the national languages basis Fought to secure the TydingsMcDuffie Law in Washington. Passed National Defense Law to provide citizen army and the extension of free trade for the Philippines to adjust to its economy. Passed Immigration Act for an annual immigration quota of 500 due to problem with Japanese and signed the women suffrage law. Looked into the problems of the landless peasants and proposal for land reform.

Engaged in free trade, creating the National Economic council, and establishing government companies for peoples protection against merchants or producers exploitation; transportation and communications improvement; Strengthened certain agencies for the improvement and extension of service to people; and art and literature progress through contests and competitions

Weak Points
Failure of the initiation and implementation of the policy for social justice and laws for rural populations improvement due to lack of government funds to purchase landed estates and resistance of big and powerful landlords. The economy remained dependent to the U.S. due to the Bell

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JMJ Trade Act, otherwise known as the Philippine Trade Act, which was a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States.

RPTL

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Jose P. Laurel
(1891-1959)

Strong Points
Made life for compatriots, oppressed by a harsh military regime, a little less difficult. Exerted every effort to increase production and bring consumers' goods under control. Prioritize the passage of Bill of Rights. Issued an executive order organizing the Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (KALIBAPI) as the sole political organization to back the government. Philippine-Japanese Treaty of Alliance was signed by Claro M. Recto, who was appointed by Laurel as his Foreign Minister, and Japanese Ambassador to Philippines Sozyo Murata.

Weak Points
The Japanese Puppet Republic.

Denounced in some quarters as a war collaborator or even a traitor, although his indictment for treason was superseded by President Roxas' Amnesty Proclamation, and evidenced by his subsequent electoral success.

Violated his Oath of Office and headed an illegal government of the Philippines.

Guerrilla activities and Japanese retaliatory measures brought the peace and order situation to a difficult point.

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JMJ The Philippines faced a crippling food shortage which demanded much of Laurel's attention.

RPTL not to say that his government didn't have forces against said resistance.

A sizable portion of the population actively resisted his presidency, supporting the exiled Commonwealth government; that is

Declared the country under martial law in 1944 through Proclamation No. 29, dated September 21.

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Sergio S. Osmea
(1878-1961)

Strong Points
Food distribution centers were set up, price ceilings instituted and, characteristically, financial aid sought from the United States. Restored the government Commonwealth

Congress enacted C.A. No. 682 creating the People's Court and the Office of Special Prosecutors to deal with the pending cases of "collaboration".

Weak Points
OsRox (Osmea-Roxas) mission wasnt favored by Quezon due to some provision on military bases. Corruption on relief goods from UNRRA during the war. Many patriotic Filipinos objected to the unjust provision of the BellTrade Relations law.

Reorganized the government so that it will be responsive to the immediate needs of the people. Executive departments were restored and the Department of Information was restored. Pre-war bureaucracy was re-established and Congress was convened. Enacted Commonwealth Act No. 672 - rehabilitating the Philippine National Bank. Court of Appeals was abolished and its appellate jurisdiction was transferred to the Supreme Court, the members of which were increased to eleven.

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Manuel A. Roxas
(1892-1948)

Strong Points
Ratification of the Bell Trade Act, the inclusion of the Parity Amendment in the constitution, and the signing of the 1947 Military Bases Agreement. He volunteers to serve the country during war as food coordinator. Proclamation of Philippine Independence by US President Harry Truman and withdraw and surrender of all rights of possession, supervision, jurisdiction, control and sovereignty now existing and exercise by USA in and over the territory and people of the Philippines Proclaimed the Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933 effective throughout the country. Issued a Proclamation outlawing Huks' movement, making it a crime to belong to the same. The declaration was hailed by all responsible and peace-loving elements.

Enacted Republic Act No. 1946 (Tenant Act) which provided for a 7030 sharing arrangements and regulated share-tenancy contracts

Weak Points
Failed to win over the Huks to his side and the country faced with a Communist unrest in rural areas. He granted the US control of the military and naval bases at Clark Air Base and Subic Bay Naval Base in exchange for military aid because of problems of national security due to the looming Korean War. Problems of land tenure continued. Granted full amnesty to all socalled Philippine collaborators, many of whom were on trial or awaiting to be tried, particularly former President Jose P. Laurel. His administration was marred by graft and corruption; moreover,

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JMJ the abuses of the provincial military police contributed to the rise of the left-wing (Huk) movement in the countryside. His heavyhanded attempts to crush the Huks led to widespread peasant disaffection.

RPTL Failed to curb graft and corruption in the government, as evidenced by the Surplus War Property scandal, the Chinese immigration scandal and the School supplies scandal.

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Elpidio R. Quirino
(1890-1956)

Strong Points
Broke the back of the Huk movement with the aid of ferocious military machinery and the suspension of the writ of Habeas Corpus. Ratification of the RP-US Mutual Defense Treaty, growth of industrial ventures, expanding irrigation, and improvement of the road system. Establishment of rural banking and setting up of the Central Bank of the Philippines that the stabilized Philippine currency. Signed into law the Magna Carta of Labor and the Minimum Wage Law. Opened diplomatic and trade relations with neighboring countries. Focused on agricultural productivity and industrialization. Enlightened the people on the activities of the Republic by the

periodic radio broadcasts from the Malacaan Palace. Promote the smooth restructuring of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the military reorganization.

Weak Points
Basic social problems remained unsolved, and his administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption. Unabated rampage of graft and corruption in his government, as revealed in the Tambobong-Buenavista scandal, the Import Control Anomalies, the Caledonia Pile Mess and the Textbook Racket. Wasteful spending of the people's money in extravagant junkets abroad. Failure of government to check the Huk menace which made travel in the provinces unsafe, as evidenced by the killing of former First Lady Aurora Quezon and her

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JMJ companions on April 28, 1949 by the Huks on the Bongabong-Baler road, Baler, Tayabas. Economic distress of the times, aggravated by rising unemployment rate, soaring prices of commodities, and unfavorable balance

RPTL of trade. Quirino's vaunted "Total Economic Mobilization Policy" failed to give economic relief to the suffering nation. Frauds and terrorism committed by the Liberal Party moguls in the 1947, 1949 and 1951 elections.

Ramon F. Magsaysay
(1907-1957)

Strong Points
Successful in peace and order campaign against the Huks and regained the trust of the people to the government. Policy of honest government, no friends or relatives ever benefitted from his position. Created extensive irrigation systems and introduced modern agricultural methods and approved the Agricultural Tenancy Act. First Filipino president to wear Barong Tagalog to promote Filipino culture. Established Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).

His administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free; his presidency was cited as the Philippines' Golden Years. Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was at its prime, and the Filipino people were given international recognition in sports, culture and foreign affairs. The Philippines ranked second in Asia's clean and well-governed countries.

Weak Points
He was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War.

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JMJ Although the common people benefitted from the land distribution of the government, and tenants were given more rights, the problems that were solved by the government were just in the surface rather than the main problem. They put a solution to a problem but not in the main one, in Republic Act No. 1199 farmers were given a certain percentage of the distribution of crop, so it put and minor solution to that but with the case of the tenurial system, it wasnt given notice.

RPTL The relocation of the people from certain places worked at first but eventually started a cultural dispute between the natives living there and those who were relocated.

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Carlos P. Garcia
(1896-1971)

Strong Points
Filipino First Policy, an attempt to initiate economic independence through dollar exchange controls, which subsequently brought about the rise of the fledgling Filipino industrialist. Established the Dr. Jose Rizal Centennial commission to preserve the writings of Rizal for the next generations. He anchored his government on austerity, severely simple, temperate spending Approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines (signed into law as Republic Act No. 1700). Acted on the BohlenSerrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years.

Weak Points
Maligned in the press due to his perceived anti-American policy. Rice and Corn Nationalization Bill and Anti-graft Bill was veto Accused corruption in the Philippine Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC) and Government Service Insurance System (GSIS). He cuddled officials involved in the anomalies. Enjoys acquiring expensive things like planes and yachts despite anchoring temperate government spending. The imports that were coming in the country greatly outnumbered the exports that we were shipping out of the country, making the Philippines highly dependent on foreign products that required dollars to purchase.

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Diosdado P. Macapagal
(1910-1997)

Strong Points
Reset the celebration of Independence Day from July 4th to the more politically appropriate June 12th, when Aguinaldo declared Philippine Independence from Spain. Promised a socio-economic program anchored on "a return to free and private enterprise", placing economic development in the hands of private entrepreneurs with minimal government interference. Launched his version of Agrarian reform. Combat misdeeds in government. Partial relinquishment of exchange controls in a move to stabilize the currency. Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 (Republic Act No. 3844) which provided for the purchase of private farmlands with the intention of distributing them in small

lots to the landless tenants on easy term of payment.

Weak Points
The administration's campaign against corruption was tested by Harry Stonehill, an American expatriate with a $50-million business empire in the Philippines, ties to corruption within the government. Issues raised against the incumbent administration were graft and corruption, rise in consumer goods, and persisting peace and order issues.

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Ferdinand E. Marcos
(1917-1989)

Strong Points
Mobilized the manpower and resources of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) for action to complement civilian agencies in such activities as infrastructure construction; economic planning and program execution; regional and industrial site planning and development; community development and others. Instituted a mandatory youth organization, known as the Kabataang Barangay and brought the "Green Revolution" to the Philippines. Exports of timber products were among the nation's top exports. The Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran (Movement for Livelihood and Progress) economic program that aims to promote the economic development of the barangays by encouraging its residents to engage in their own livelihood projects.

Constructed CCP, Philippine Heart Center, Lung Center, San Juanico Bridge and etc. Tried to increase the agricultural production through a new strain of grain called miracle rice.

Weak Points
Election was marked by massive violence, vote-buying, and fraud on Marcos' part, and Marcos used $56 million from the Philippines' treasury to fund his campaign. Students in Manila mobilized enormous numbers of people to attend protests against U.S. imperialism and the "rise of fascism" under Marcos. The protests later became known as the First Quarter Storm. Marcos declared martial law on September 22, 1972, by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081, extending his rule beyond the constitutional two-term limit. He justified this by exaggerating threats of Communist and Muslim insurgencies.

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JMJ Marcos wanted the Philippines to become involved in the Vietnam War. Regime was marred by rampant corruption and political mismanagement by his relatives and

RPTL cronies, which culminated with the assassination of Benigno Aquino. Philippines' external debt rose from $360 million (US) in 1962 to $28.3 billion in 1986, making the Philippines one of the most indebted countries in Asia.

Maria Corazon C. Aquino


(1933-2009)

Strong Points
Creation of the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG), which was tasked to go after the Marcos ill-gotten wealth. Proclaimed the Freedom Constitution. Promulgated two landmark legal codes, namely, the Family Code of 1987, which reformed the civil law on family relations, and the Administrative Code of 1987, which reorganized the structure of the executive branch of government. Declared that the presence of US Military Forces in the Philippines was an affront to national sovereignty. She ordered the United States military to vacate U.S.

Naval Base Subic Bay and Clark Air Base. The grant amnesty of to all political prisoners which set free about 459 detainees Regained democracy after 20 years of Marcos regime.

Weak Points
Electric blackouts became common in Manila. The capital experienced blackouts of seven to 12 hours, bringing numerous businesses to a halt.

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JMJ Coup uprising by the left wing militant soldier. Agrarian workers and farmers marched to the historic Mendiola Street near the Malacaang Palace to demand genuine land reform from Aquino's administration. Faced series of natural disasters and calamities like 1990 Luzon earthquake, 1991 volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Tropical

RPTL Storm Thelma and MV Doa Paz sank.

Fidel V. Ramos
(1928-)

Strong Points
The Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion, as a result of his policies and programs designed to foster national reconciliation and unity. The Philippines was dubbed by various internationally as Asia's Next Economic Tiger. Enacted a law that would create an Energy Department that would plan and manage the Philippines' energy demands. Congress not

only created an Energy Department but gave him special emergency powers to resolve the power crisis. Implemented economic reforms intended to open up the onceclosed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite more foreign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption. Signed the final peace agreement between the government and the Moro National Liberation

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JMJ Front (MNLF) led by Nur Misuari in 1996. Women in National Building which gives women equal economic opportunities in national development efforts.

RPTL deal involved the acquisition of 158 hectares of reclaimed land on Manila Bay that was to be converted into so-called Freedom Islands. The deal was forged in April 1995 as part of the Ramos administration's Manila Bay Master Development Plan (MBMDP). Tried to amend the country's 1987 constitution; a process popularly known to many Filipinos as Charter Change or the so-called "Cha-Cha".

Weak Points
His experience in handling migrant workers protection. Charges of alleged massive corruption or misuse of funds blemished the resulting programs and various projects, one of which was the Centennial Expo and Amphitheater at the former Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Pampanga, supposedly Ramos' pet project. Accused of corruption in the PEA-Amari deal. The controversial

Joseph E. Estrada
(1937-)

Strong Points
Declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured its headquarters and other camps. Suspension of release of Php37 Billion pork barrel

Debt reduction of IMF-WB. President Estrada can move with more speed in transforming Mindanao into a progressive economic center. Land bank and DBP funds to small enterprises.

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JMJ Slowing the economic growth to 0.6% in 1998 from a 5.2% in 1997. The economy recovered by 3.4% in 1999 and 4% in 2000. Pro-poor president.

RPTL Alleged P400 million payoff from jueteng hidden in a bank account known as "Jose Velarde" a grassroots-based numbers game, as well as P180 million from the government price subsidy for the tobacco farmers' marketing cooperative. His rumored mistresses gifts of mansions. and

His much-criticized drinking sprees and midnight cabinet members.

Weak Points
Severely criticized by the mainstream media for cronyism, incompetence, and corruption, supposedly causing it to lose the confidence of foreign investors. Having cabinet. a so-called midnight

The first president to be impeached.

Gloria M. Macapagal-Ar(2001-)

royo Strong Republic Nautical Highway allowed nation to be more connected and greater connectivity in terms of trade and

Strong Points
Lead the People Power II to oust former president Estrada.

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JMJ commerce, and to certain extent tourism. Job Creation through infusion of fresh capital in form of investments. Conventional infrastructure emergence of many domestic and international airports, road construction, and strategically place expressways in Southern and Central Luzon. Holiday economics. moving holidays around for sake of boosting local tourism. Relatively peaceful and orderly elections 2010 election is largely cleaner than 2004s controversial election. Annual economic growth in the Philippines averaged 4.5% during the Arroyo administration, expanding every quarter of her presidency.

RPTL Military uprising due to her corruption. Expensive travel abroad. ZTE deal Expensive highway construction (Macapagal Boulevard). Issued Presidential Proclamation 1017 (PP 1017) and used it as basis in declaring a state of emergency throughout the Philippines to quell the military rebellion, stop lawless violence, and promote peace and stability. A controversial expanded value added tax (e-VAT) law, considered the centerpiece of the Arroyo administration's economic reform agenda, was implemented in November 2005, aiming to complement revenue-raising efforts that could plug the country's large budget deficit.

Weak Points
Arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral fraud.

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JMJ Benigno S. Aquino III


(1960-)

RPTL

Strong Points
Created the no wang-wang policy, strengthening the implementation of Presidential Decree No. 96 and signed Executive Order No. 1, creating the Truth Commission. Reformed the education system in the Philippines by shifting to K 12 education, a 12-year basic education cycle. Ordered the Department of Health (DOH) to support and assist all regional hospitals and health centers and intensify their efforts to attend to the needs of dengue inflicted patients. Required all radio stations to broadcast a minimum of four original Filipino musical compositions every hour (EO No. 255). Launched his official presidential website aims to create communication between Aquino and the people, getting feedback from the people, telling Aquino their woes and grievances. Declared a moratorium on the cutting and harvesting of timber in the natural and residual forests and creating the Anti-Illegal Logging Task Force.

Weak Points
The Manila hostage crisis occurred. Aquino expressed concern over the matter and gave his condolences to the victims. Bishop Nereo Odchimar of Tandag, head of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP), said that Aquino might face excommunication from the Catholic Church for supporting the Reproductive Health Bill, the plan to distribute and give Filipino couples the choice to use contraceptives for artificial birth control. Critics have used to question his work ethic, alleging his inaction on the issues of disaster response and rising oil prices.

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