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1. Transurethral resection of the prostate (commonly known as a TURP, plural TURPs, and rarely as
atransurethral prostatic resection, TUPR) is a urologicaloperation. It is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia

2. Transurethral incision of the bladder neck is an operative procedure that involves cutting the muscles of
the bladder neck. It is accompanied by a cystoscopy procedure. The bladder neck is the lower part of the bladder that connects to the urethra. The muscles may be cut at one or several locations. Transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) is the endoscopic removal of tumours in the bladder. Retrograde Pyelogram is a urologic procedure where the physician injects contrast into the ureter in order to visualize the ureter and kidney. EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a diagnosticendoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is a chronic symptom of mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming [1] up from the stomach into the esophagus. Cystoscopy (si-sts-k-p) is endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra. It is carried out with acystoscope.

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8. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) is primarily used in the endoscopic fragmentation of difficult bileand pancreatic duct stones 9. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a surgical procedure to remove stones from the kidney by a
small puncture wound (up to about 1 cm) through the skin.