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Tp ch Khoa hc Cng ngh Hng hi S 21 01/2010



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C S L THUYT V OFDM & BICM-ID
THEORETICAL - BASED FOR OFDM & BICM-ID

ThS. PHM TRNG TI
Phng Thanh tra & BCL, Trng HHH
Tm tt
Bi bo cp n c s l thuyt v OFDM v b m BICM-ID. y l hng i mi nhm
nng cao cht lng h thng OFDM bng vic s dng b m BICM-ID, mt h thng c
nhiu trin vng trong h thng thng tin khng dy th h mi.
Abstract
In order to improve the performance of OFDMs system, the most promising candidate to 4G
Wireless Communication system, the article analyses the performance, designs and
appraises the quality of the OFDM system with BICM-ID (Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation
With Iterative Decoding).
1. t vn
Trong nhng nm gn y, OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple) khng ngng
c nghin cu v m rng phm vi ng dng bi nhng u im ca n trong tit kim bng
tn v kh nng chng li pha inh chn lc theo tn s cng nh xuyn nhiu bng hp. Trong
thc tin, vic xy dng mt h thng OFDM t phc tp hn so vi mt h thng n sng mang
dng b san bng. gn y OFDM c ng dng rng ri trong cc h thng thng tin th h
mi. Trong mt s iu kin c th, c th tng dung lng ng k cho h thng OFDM bng
cch lm thch nghi tc d liu trn mi sng mang tu theo SNR ca sng mang nhm khai
thc ti a dung lng ca h thng OFDM trn cc knh pha inh bng hp. n nay cc nghin
cu v OFDM thch nghi (AOFDM) c tin hnh theo cc hng: iu ch a mc trn cc
bng con; thay i thch nghi cc tham s OFDM; m turbo cho OFDM. Sau m Turbo, m BICM-
ID c xut nghin cu t nhng nm 1990 bi nhm nghin cu X.Li v Ritcey l b m tt
cho truyn dn trn knh a ng, do tha hng u im ca cc m xon c s, tng ch xo
trn bt, gii m lp v phng php nh x tn hiu iu ch.
Vi ngha thc tin rt hu hiu ca h thng OFDM trong h thng thng tin mi tc gi
mun phn tch c s l thuyt thit lp mt h thng OFDM s dng b m BICM-ID lm c
s cho cc nghin cu tip theo.
2. C s l thuyt v OFDM & BICM-ID
2.1. C s l thuyt v OFDM
Xt v bn cht, OFDM l mt trng hp c bit ca phng thc pht a sng mang
theo nguyn l chia dng d liu tc cao thnh cc dng d liu tc thp hn v pht ng
thi trn mt s cc sng mang c phn b trc giao nhau. Ph ca tn hiu OFDM c m t
hnh 1.

Hnh 1. Ph ca mt sng mang OFDM con v ca tn hiu OFDM.
Hnh 1 cho thy do tnh trc giao, cc sng mang con khng b xuyn nhiu bi cc sng
mang con khc. Vi k thut a sng mang da trn FFT v IFFT, ghp knh phn chia theo tn
s t c hiu qu khng phi bng vic lc gii thng m bng vic x l bng gc.
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Nh thc hin bin i chui d liu t ni tip sang song song nn thi gian symbol tng
ln. Do s phn tn theo thi gian gy bi tri tr do truyn dn a ng gim. Mt khc, do
chu k phng v CP c chn vo gia cc symbol OFDM nn xuyn nhiu gia cc symbol
(ISI) hu nh b loi tr hon ton (hnh 2).

Hnh 2. Khong phng v c chn vo gia cc Symbol OFDM.

Trong khong phng v, symbol OFDM c ko di theo chu k trnh xuyn nhiu gia
cc sng mang (ICI). Trong h thng n sng mang, pha inh hoc xuyn nhiu n s c tc
ng ti ton b d liu truyn trn knh. Cng trong iu kin , do vic truyn dn c thc
hin trn nhiu sng mang trc giao nhau nn ch mt phn d liu ca h thng OFDM b nh
hng. Phn d liu sai s c sa bng cc m sa li thch hp. V vy cht lng ca h
thng OFDM ph thuc rt nhiu vo kh nng chng nhiu ca cc b m sa li. V th cc b
m s dng cho h thng OFDM lin tc c nghin cu v ci tin.
2.2. C s l thuyt BICM-ID
Theo l thuyt m ho, cht lng ca cc m khi c th tng ln nh vic tng chiu di
t m. Vi m xon, cht lng gii m lin quan n chiu di ca b m. Vic tng chiu di
rng buc c th ci thin BER ng k, nhng gi phi tr l s phc tp ca b gii m hp l
cc i ML (Maximum-Likelihood) tng theo hm m. Cc m Turbo c xut gn y gii
quyt c vn trn, trong 2 hoc nhiu b m xon c di b nh ngn c lin kt
song song hoc ni tip. Nh xo trn ngu nhin, hiu qu sa li t c khng ch nh rng
buc trn cc chuyn dch li thnh phn m cn nh tc dng ca gii m lp. Do phng php
gii m dng cho cc m lin kt kh
thc hin nn phng php gii m lp
s dng xc sut hu nghim cc i
MAP (Maximum Aposteriori Probability)
cho mi b gii m ring c s dng
nhm tim cn dung lng knh .Vi
cc m thnh phn n gin, m Turbo
t c hiu qu tt nh cc b m
c chiu di ln. Mt gii php n
gin hn l s dng gii m lp vi m
ho lin kt, xo trn tng bt kt hp
vi ccb iu ch bc cao. Khc vi
m Turbo, gii php ny ch s dng 1
b m ho v gii m. Do , phc tp ca my thu gim ng k. Nhn thong qua, s khi
ca n khng khc nhiu vi TCM (Trellis Coded Modulation) c xo trn symbol truyn thng
c sut bi Ungerboeck. S ny c xut bi Zehavi nhm ci thin cht lng ca
TCM trn cc knh pha inh Rayleigh v c gi l BICM. Tuy nhin gi phi tr l c ly Euclid
t do FED (Free-squared Euclidean Distance) gim, dn n s suy gim cht lng khi truyn
qua cc knh Gauss khng pha inh. X.Li v A.Chindapol chng t rng BICM, phng php
lm hiu qu bng thng trn knh pha inh, c c kt qu tt c trn knh Gauss v knh pha
inh nh gii m lp ID. B m ny c gi l BICM-ID, nhm ti a ho li ch ca ID, vi im
mu cht l thay i nh x Gray trong b to m BICM ca Zehavi.


Hnh 3. S b m ho v gii m BICM.

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a) B m BICM truyn thng
B to m BICM truyn thng c m t ti hnh 3 bao gm b m ho, b xo trn bit v
b iu ch khng nh. B xo trn bt gi ngu nhin c tc dng hon v cc bt nh phn u ra
ca b m ho, thay cho cc b xo trn symbol truyn thng.
Xt c th cho b iu ch 8-PSK, nu k hiu hai bt u vo ca b m ho ti thi im t l
| |
2 1
,
t t t
u u u = v 3 bt tng ng u ra ca n (mt symbol m) l | |
3 2 1
, ,
t t t t
c c c c = , trong
i
t
i
t
c u , l cc bit th i. Sau khi c xo trn, mi nhm 3 bt nh phn | |
3 2 1
, ,
t t t t
v v v v = u ra b
xo trn c nhm vi nhau thnh mt nhm v c nh x ti 1 symbol trn knh phc
t
x
c chn t tp tn hiu X bi mt php gn nhn .
e =
t t t
x v x ), (
Vi tp tn hiu 8PSK ) 7 ,...., 1 , 0 , (
8 / 2
= =
[
l e
jl
. Vi tch sng tng quan, tn hiu bng
gc ri rc theo thi gian nhn c l:
t t s t t
z x E y + =
Trong
t
l h s pha inh, Es l nng lng symbol v t z l nhiu AWGN phc c mt
ph n bin l N
o
. Vi knh AWGN th 1 =
t
. Vi knh pha inh Rayleigh khng chn lc
theo tn s th
t
l phn b Rayleigh vi 1 ) (
2
=
t
E . y, chng ta gi s rng thng tin v
knh l hon ho tc
t
c d on mt cch y ti my thu.
b) Gii m BICM truyn thng
Do xo trn bt, gii m BICM cn c gii m tng chng v gii m xon, do n qu
phc tp cho ng dng trong thc t. Zehavi sut mt phng php cn ti u s dng 2
bc tch bit: To metric bt v gii m Viterbi. T mi tn hiu nhn c
b
y , su metric bt
c to ra, s dng quy lut ML. Vi 3 bt nh phn v cc symbol 8PSK:

e
~ = = =
i
b
x
t
i
t t
i
t
x y P b v y P b v

) ( log ) ( log ) ( I = 1,2,3; b = 0,1 (*)


Trong cc tp con ca tn hiu | | { } b v v v v
i i
b
= =
3 2 1
, , ( . K hiu biu th s thay
th tng ng. Vi 8PSK, kch thc ca mi tp con 4
1
=
b
x . Trong thc t, php tnh tng
log trong (*) c tnh bng xp x

~
i
i
i i
a a log max log hay bng tra bng nu cn chnh xc
hn. Cui cng, ) log( x y
t
c thay bng khong cch Euclid bnh phng
2
x y
t t
.
c) S suy gim cht lng ca BICM trn knh Gauss
Mc d BICM c cht lng tt trn cc knh pha inh nh li ca phn tp, mt iu
khng ng ca BICM l s suy gim cht lng trn knh Gauss do iu ch ngu nhin gy ra
bi xo trn bt . Nh xo trn bt v gii m ta ti u, symbol c th to ra t bt k im tn
hiu no trn trong vng ln cn ca constellation trn hnh 4.
Khong cch Euclid t do FED ca BICM c xc nh l
2
0
2
d d d
H E
= , vi
H
d l khong
cch Hamming t do ca mi m v
0
d l khong cch Euclid nh nht gia cc im trong tp
tn hiu iu ch. Vi iu ch 8 PSK, ) 8 / sin( 2
0
H =
s
E d vi E
s
l nng lng ca 1 symbol
knh.
Ni chung, FED ca BICM nh hn vi dB so vi TCM tng ng . Do BICM truyn
thng km hiu qu hn so vi TCM trn knh Gauss.

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Hnh 4. Cc s nh x khc nhau.
d) BICM-ID
Vic xo trn bt lin kt cc bt m ho ban u xa nhau v cng symbol knh. Vi
xo trn l tng, cc bt m ho to ra mt symbol knh c lp, do s phn hi t cc vng
d liu mnh (t b nh hng ca nhiu knh) c th loi b s tranh chp trong iu ch bc cao
v ci thin vic gii m ti cc vng d liu yu (b nh hng ln ca nhiu knh). Vi thng tin
y ca 2 bt trong mt symbol knh c c nh gii m hi tip, iu ch 8PSK tin ti iu
ch nh phn cho mi v tr bt. Do khong cch gia cc im tn hiu trn constellation tng
ln ng k.
Tuy nhin, nu phn hi cha li, chng ta s nhn c mt constellation nh phn sai. Do
, iu quan trng l cn gim nh hng ca cc li phn hi v kim sot c vic truyn li.
iu ny phi c tnh n khi thit k h thng vi vic phn hi quyt nh mm v cc b xo
trn c thit k tt. Mc d phc tp hn so vi phn hi quyt nh cng, nhng phn hi
mm l mu cht nhn c cc tng ch vn c BICM trong vic gim truyn li.
e) Gii m lp s dng phn hi mm
Gii m lp cho iu ch m a mc cng c nghin cu bi Seshadri v
Sunderberg. Woerz v Hagenauer s dng tin cy ca cc kt qu gii m iu khin
phn hi.
Nh ch ra trn hnh 3, my thu s dng phng php lp cn ti u thng qua ti u
tng phn ring bit, ch khng tch ri gii iu ch vi gii m xon. Xc sut hu nghim cho
cc bt m ho c th tnh bng.
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Tp ch Khoa hc Cng ngh Hng hi S 21 01/2010

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) ( ) ( ) (
t
x x
t t t t
i
t
x y P y x P y b v P
i
b t
i
b t

e e
~ ~ =

(**)
Ban u, gi s xc sut tin nghim ) (
t
x P l nh nhau i vi mi
t
x . Sau , khi SISO
c dng gii m xon v to ra cc xc sut bt hu nghim cho cc bt thng tin v cc bt
m ho. Theo Benedetto, ta k hiu xc sut tin nghim l ) ; ( I q P v xc sut hu nghim l
) ; ( O q P ca bin ngu nhin q. Ban u khng c ) ; ( I u P
i
t
; v n cng khng c dng trong
ton b qu trnh gii m. Thm vo , ) ; ( O u P
i
t
v ) ; ( O c P
i
t
; l thng tin ngoi lai (cn c
gi l thng tin ngoi hay thng tin thm vo) .
Trong chng th 2, ) ; ( O c P
i
t
cng nh ) ; ( O v P
i
t
, c xo trn v phn hi ti b gii m.
Gi s ) ; ( ),. ; ( ),. ; (
3 2 1
I v P I v P I v P
t t t
l c lp (nh xo trn tt) th vi mi e
t
x ta c:
| | ) ; ) ( ( )) ) ( ), ( ), ( ( ( ) (
3
1
3 2 1
I x v v P x v x v x v P x P
j
t
j j
t t t t t [
=
= = = (***)
Trong { } 1 , 0 ) ( e
t
j
x v l gi tr ca bt th j ca nhn c gn cho. S dng (**) v (***),
chng ta c cc xc sut bt hu nghim ngoi lai cho gii iu ch chng th 2 l:
[

e =
e
= =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
= =
i
b t
i
b t
x i j
t
j j
t t t
i
t
x
t t t
i
t
t
i
t i
t
I x v v P x y P
I b v P
x P x y P
I b v P
y b v P
O b v P

)) ; ( ( ) ( (
) ; (
) ( ) (
) ; (
) (
) ; (
vi i=1,2,3; b=0,1.
Do , khi tnh li cc metric bt cho mt bt, chng ta cn s dng cc xc sut tin nghim
ca cc bt khc trong cng 1 symbol knh. Cc metric bt c to ra s c a vo b gii
m v lp li qa trnh gii iu ch v gii m. u ra gii m cui cng l quyt nh cng da
trn xc sut bt ngoi lai ) ; ( O u P
i
t
cng l xc sut hu nghim tng v ) ; ( I u P
i
t
khng c s
dng.
Trong b gii m ny ta s dng thut ton logmap. Tng log trong cng thc (**) c
xp x bng php tnh cc i nh tra bng s lm gim ng k s phc tp ca h thng.

3. Kt lun
OFDM l mt trng hp c bit ca phng thc pht a sng mang theo nguyn l chia
dng d liu tc cao thnh cc dng d liu tc thp hn v pht ng thi trn mt s cc
sng mang c phn b trc giao nhau kt hp vi kt cu n gin ca b m BICM-ID l c
s l thuyt cho vic thit k m hnh c thit k trn hon ton thch hp cho cc h thng
thng tin di ng th h mi. Kt qu nghin cu h thng Adaptive OFDM-BICM-ID nh vy s
c trnh by trong ni dung cc bi bo khc.

TI LIU THAM KHO
[1] Zhang Zhao-yang, Lai Li-feng,2003 A novel OFDM transmission scheme with leng - adaptive
CyclicprefixJournal of Zhejiang University Science ISSN 1009-3095.
[2] A. J. Viterbi and J. K. Omura, Principles of Digital Communication and Coding. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1979.
[3] S. Benedetto and E. Biglieri, Principles of DigitalTransmission With Wireless Applications. New
York: Kluwer Academic, 1999.

Ngi phn bin: TS. Phm Vn Phc