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A. Mt s khi nim c bn: I/ Tn hiu s: 1.

nh ngha: Tn hiu s l mt tn hiu trong cc thng tin ban u c chuyn i thnh mt chui cc bit trc khi c truyn. Tn hiu s bao gm ch hai trng thi, c din t vi ON hay OFF hoc l 0 hay 1. Tn hiu s yu cu kh nng bng thng ln hn tn hiu analog.

Hnh 1: Tn hiu s 2. c trng: Tn hiu s c 2 c trng c bn: - C s mc (hay trng thi) c th c l mt s hu hn, v d k hiu l M. nu M=2 ta c tn hiu s nh phn hay hai mc (trng thi) , nu M=3, ta c tn hiu s tam phn hay ba mc (trng thi). Tng qut l tn hiu M-ary. - C thi gian tn ti, thng k hi l Ts (Symbol Time-interval). II/ Ngun tin v tn hiu ngun: Ngun tin trong h thng truyn tin l ni to ra hoc cha cc tin cn truyn i. Ngun tin c th l s hoc tng t.

Mt ngun tin s to ra mt tp hu hn cc on tin c th c.Vd: my ch. Mt ngun tin tng t to ra cc on tin c xc nh trn mt dy lin tc.Vd: microphon. Mt h thng truyn tin s l mt h thng truyn tin tc t mt ngun s hoc mt ngun tng t c ri rc ho, s ho ti b thu. Mt h thng truyn tin tng t l mt h thng truyn tin tc t mt ngun tng t ti b thu. Trong cc h thng truyn tin in t, tn hiu l i lng vt l mang thng tin v thng c biu th di hai dng: tn hiu tng t v tn hiu s. Thc cht, mt tn hiu s hoc mt dng sng s c nh ngha nh mt hm thi gian c mt tp ri rc cc gi tr v mt tn hiu tng t hoc mt dng sng tng t l mt hm thi gian c lin tc cc gi tr. Gi tr tin tc trong cc h thng truyn tin in t thng c biu th di dng in p u(t), hoc dng in i(t), lin tc hoc gin on.

Hnh 2: M t dng tn hiu tng t v s

Khi mt ng truyn tin c thit lp truyn tin t ngun tin n ni nhn, mt dy cc phn t c s ca ngun tin s c truyn i vi mt phn b xc sut no , dy ny c gi l on tin. Smax Ngun tin c th l ngun tin nguyn thu hoc c s b x l. Cc ngun tin nguyn thu phn ln l nhng hm lin tc theo thi gian f(t) hoc l hm bin i theo thi gian cng cc thng s khc. Phn ln cc tin nguyn thu mang tnh lin tc theo thi gian v mc, ngha l c th biu din mt thng tin no di dng mt hm s s(t) tn ti trong khong thi gian (t1; t2) vi cc gi tr bt k trong phm vi (Smin; Smax) nh hnh 1.3.

Hnh 3: Hm s(t) ca ngun tin nguyn thu lin tc Cc ngun tin nguyn thu c th c a trc tip vo knh truyn i hoc c th qua cc php bin i x l trc khi a vo knh truyn tin s phi c s ho hoc m ho. Php bin i tn hiu ngun tng thch vi knh truyn c gi l php iu ch. III/ iu ch v gii iu ch: 1. iu ch:

iu ch tn hiu l qu trnh bin i mt hay nhiu thng s ca mt tn hiu tun hon theo s thay i mt tn hiu mang thng tin cn truyn i xa. Tn hiu tun hon gi l sng mang. Tn hiu mang thng tin gi l tn hiu c iu ch. u thu b gii iu ch s da vo s thay i thng s ca sng mang ti to li tn hiu mang thng tin ban u. Cc thng s ca sng mang c dng trong qu trnh iu ch c th l bin , pha, tn s. V d: tn hiu ting ni c tn s thp, khng th truyn i xa c. Ngi ta dng mt tn hiu hnh sin c tn s cao ( c th truyn i xa c) lm sng mang. Bin i bin ca tn s sin theo tn hiu ting ni. u thu ngi ta da vo s thay i bin ca tn hiu thu c ti to li tn hiu ting ni ban u. Cc phng php iu ch: Cc phng php iu ch cao tn thng dng vi tn hiu lin tc iu ch bin AM (Amplitude Modulation) iu ch n bin SSB (Single Side Bande) iu tn FM (Frequency Modulation) iu pha PM (Phase Modulation) Vi tn hiu ri rc, cc phng php iu ch cao tn cng ging nh trng hp thng tin lin tc, nhng lm vic gin on theo thi gian gi l manip hay kha dch. Gm cc phng php sau: Manip bin ASK (Amplitude Shift Key) Manip tn s FSK (Frequency Shift Key) Manip pha PSK (Phase Shift Key)

Hnh 4: S m t qu trnh iu ch v gii iu ch s. Gi s c 1 mang hnh sin nh sau: ( ) Trong : + : bin ca sng mang + + : tn s gc ca sng mang : tn s sng mang ( ) (2.1)

+ ( ) : pha ca sng mang Ty theo tham s c s dng mang tin: c th l bin ( ) hay t hp gia chng m ta c cc kiu iu ch khc nhau. 2. Gii iu ch: Gii iu ch l qu trnh ngc li vi qu trnh iu ch .Trong qu trnh thu c c mt trong cc tham s : bin , tn s,pha ca tn hiu sng mang c bin i theo tn hiu iu ch v ty theo phng thc iu ch m ta c c cc phng thc gii iu ch thch hp ly li thng tin cn thit. Cc phng php gii iu ch: , tn s , pha

V phng php gii iu ch ni cch khc l php lc tin, ty theo hn hp tn hiu v cc ch tiu ti u ve sai s ( chnh xc) phi t ddeocj m chng ta c th c cc phng php lc tin thng thng nh: Tch sng bin Tch sng tn s Tch sng pha B.iu ch s: II/ iu ch s theo tn s tn hiu FSK (Frequency Shift Keying): 1.iu ch: a) Khi nim: FSK ( vit tt ca Frequency Shift Keying), ting Vit gi l iu ch s theo tn s tn hiu. Tn hiu FSK c dng sng dao ng vi tn s khc nhau, mi bit c c trng bi tn s khc nhau ny ca tn hiu. FSK c th xem nh tn hiu trc giao. Cc s tn hiu ch yu u s dng cho truyn s liu s tc thp, l do dng rng ri cc Modem s liu l tng i d dng to tn hiu v dng gii iu ch khng kt hp. Nh tn gi, tin tc s c truyn i mt cch n gin bng cch dch tn s sng mang i mt lng nht nh tng ng vi mc nh phn 1 v 0. b) Nguyn tc iu ch FSK: Gi s c sng mang: x(t) = a.cos[ct +(t)] = a.cos[(t)] Ta gi nguyn bin, pha v ch thayi tn s: vi (t) =ct+(t)

( )

( )

Trong : i l tn s tc thi
( )

l s thayi tn s vi tn s sng mang.

Ta gi l iu tn khi
( )

( )

s(t) l tn hiu sin l h s iu tn Suy ra: ( ) Suy ra: y(t)= a.cos[ ( ) ( )

Trong trng hp iu ch s FSK th s(t)=2

Khi y(t) = a.cos( Tn s ng vi mt bit no : -i vi bt 0 tn s sng mang l , ta c ) = a.cos( )

-i vi bt 1 tn s sng mang l , ta c rng bng tn khi iu ch FSK c tnh l: ( Trong : ) ( ) ( )

l rng bng tn. l rng xung

rng bng tn khi iu ch FSK ph thuc vo dch tn cch gia hai tn s v v rng bit s liu

, tc l khong

c) FSK- mt dng FM, ch s iu ch ( ch s bin iu): Trong k thut FSK ngi ta nh ngha h s h: | |

Ta c th thy h s h chnh l ch s bin iu (modulation index) mf trong k thut FM c in.

l di tn cc i;

l tn s tn hiu iu ch

p dng vo trng hp FSK | |

Vy Nhc li, ph tn ca tn hiu iu ch FM ty thuc vo h s Bessel, tc ty thuc vo ch s bin iu. Mt cch tng qut, h cng ln th xut hin cng nhiu h s Bessel, ph tn cha cng nhiu ha tn, nhng iu ny xy ra khi br nh, tc tn s c bn nh, nh vy cc ha tn s nm st li vi nhau nn bng thng ca tn hiu khng nhng khng tng m cn c th gim. Tuy nhin t c hiu qu cao ngi ta thng chn h<1. d) Bng thng FSK:

Trong : br l tc bit l thi gian ca mt bit ca tn hiu truyn (di nn). Tn s ln nht ca tn hiu, tng ng vi bin i lin tc gia bit 1 v bit 0, l:

Vy tn s c bn ln nht ca tn hiu di nn bng tc truyn bit. Tn hiu FSK tc thi c th vit: ( Trong ) ( ) bin 0 hoc 1

c trng cho tn hiu hnh vung c tn s c bn

ty thuc trng thi d liu iu ch.

Hnh 2.1: Ph tn ca tn hiu FSK Ngi ta thng chn bng thng FSK nh sau: ( ) ( )

Ngoi ra thit k b gii iu ch c li v mt kinh t ngi ta chn tn s trung tm ca FSK v khong cch cu hai tn s v nh sau:

| Th d:

Mt modem FSK vn tc 600 bps s dng tn s mark l 1500 Hz v tn s space l 2000 Hz. Tnh tn s fFSK v bng thng ca knh FSK fFSK l tn s trung tm gia fm v fs : = (1500 + 2000) / 2 = 1750 Hz Bng thng BW xc nh bi : = (2000 -1500) + 2(600) = 1700 Hz. Nhng gi tr ca khng ? v ny c lm cho vic thit k b gii iu ch kinh t

iu kin u tin l 1800 Hz iu kin th hai l | e)S iu ch: |

, iu ny khng tha v 1750 Hz < 3(600) = tha v 500 Hz > 2/3(600) = 400 Hz

FSK- trng hp ring ca FM. Tn hiu FSK c dng:


( )

[(

) ]

vi

- l tn s sng mang trung tm. - l di tn, t l vi bin v cc tnh tn hiu nh phn ng vo. V d

bit 1 l +1V, bit 0 l -1V, to nn di tn tng ng + Tc dch tn sng mang bng tc bit vo (bps). (tn s ) ng vi logic 1 nh hn (

) ng vi logic 0.

Tc thay i tn s ra gi l baud. Trong FSK tn s bit vo bng tc baud ra.

Hnh 2.2: Dng sng FSK Phng php iu ch FSK cho php to tn hiu FSK dng sin vi hai tn s: -Khi Data bit = 1, iu khin kho K v tr ni sng mang tn s FSK. -Khi Data bit = 0, iu khin kho K v tr ni sng mang tn s FSK. => S : vi li ra vi li ra

Hnh 2.3: Phng php iu ch FSK. s iu ch FSK kiu (2.3.b), s dng my pht iu khin bng th VCO (Voltage Control Oscillator). ng dng trng thi 0 hoc 1 ca ti liu, VCO s pht hai tn s v tng ng.

-Trn hnh (2.3.c) l s iu ch s dng cc b chia vi cc h s chia khc nhau: N v: M. Data bit s dng iu khin chn h s chia. V d, khi Data bit

= 1, b chia c h s chia N, to chui xung ra c tn s Data bit = 0, b chia c h s chia M, to chui xung ra c tn s -Gin tn hiu FSK cho trn hnh (2.3.d) 2. Gii iu ch:

. cn khi .

Mch ph bin nht ca b gii iu ch cc tn hiu FSK l vng kho pha (PLL). Tn hiu FSK li vo ca vng kho pha ly hai gi tr tn s. in th lch mt chiu li ra ca b so pha theo di nhng s dch chuyn tn s ny v cho ta hai mc (mc cao v mc thp) ca tn hiu li vo FSK. Tng qut, b PLL l mt h thng hi tip gm 3 b phn chnh: mt mch so pha, mt lc h thng v mt VCO. PLL l mt vng kn, tn hiu ra t VCO t ngh kha bi tn hiu vo. Bng cch so snh pha ca tn hiu ra t mch VCO v tn hiu vo, s sai pha s c bin i thnh i th mt chiu, in th ny s iu khin VCO to mt tn hiu ra lun lun c pha v tn s ca tn hiu vo. B gii iu ch PLL c km theo mt mch lc thng thp ly i nhng thnh phn cn d ca sng mang v mt mch to li dng xung khi phc dng xung chnh xc nht cho tn hiu iu ch. Gii iu ch FSK c th thc hin trn c s hnh 2. Tn hiu FSK cha hai thnh phn tn s c gii iu ch bng s vng gi pha (PLL).

Hnh 2.4: Phng php gii iu ch FSK. MSK (Minimum Shift-Keying FSK) l mt dng k thut iu ch FSK c pha lin tc. MSK chnh l FSK trong tn s mark v space c ng b vi vn tc bit. ong b y c ngha l c quan h thi gian chnh xc ca hai tn hiu. Hai tn s ny c chn sao cho cch tn s gia ng bng bi s l ca phn na vn tc bit [ v ( ); n l s l], iu ny to ra mt s thay i lin tc v pha khi tn hiu chuyn i bit 1 v 0.

Hnh 2.5: MSK

Hnh 2.6: S chung ca iu ch v gii iu ch FSK

Hnh 2.7: iu ch FSK. FSK c dng rng ri trong truyn s liu. Trong FSK bit 1 c truyn i bi tn s fm v bit 0 bi tn s fs v d, trong h thng truyn s dng tiu chun ca hng Bell bit 1 c truyn bi tn s 1070 Hz (fm) v bit 0 bi tn s 1270 Hz (fs). 3. u im, nhc im ca iu ch, gii iu ch FSK: a) u im: - Dng nhiu hn hai tn s. - c s dng truyn d liu tc 1200bps hay thp hn trn mng in thoi - Bng thng c dng hiu qu hn.

- t li hn so vi ASK. - C th dng tn s cao (3-30MHz) truyn trn sng radio hoc cp ng trc. - Mi phn t tn hiu c biu din nhiu hn 1 bt d liu. - Ch yu dng trong modem truyn d liu v trong truyn v tuyn s. - i hi phc tp ca mch mc trung bnh. b) Nhc im: - Truyn s liu tc thp. - Tin tc s liu c truyn i n gin bng cc dch tn s song mang mt lng nht nh tng ng vi mc nh phn 1 v 0 - Cng ngh ch to phc tp hn ASK. - Hiu qu ph thp. - Kh nng p ng tn s ca mi trng l mt mt hn ch ln ca FSK. - Tn s tn hiu tng i cao, iu ny mt mt dn n kh nng gy nhiu mnh i vi bn ngoi, mt khc hn ch vic tng tc truyn. III/ iu ch s theo phase tn hiu PSK (Phase Shift Keying): 1. nh ngha: a) iu ch PSK: Kho dich pha (PSK phase shift keying) l mt dng iu ch gc, bin khng i. Kho dich pha cng tng t nh iu ch pha thng thng ch c khc l PSK th tn hiu co l tn hiu nh phn v pha u ra l c s lng gii hn. iu ch PSK l mt phng php hiu qu nht truyn tn hiu s. C th ni phng php PSK l phng php iu ch trit sng mang do bng

thng ca tn hiu PSK nh hn bng thng ca tn hiu FSK nu dng cng mt tn hiu di nn. Nhng my thu phi c mch dao ng to sng mang thc hin vic gii iu ch; tn hiu dao ng ny phi c cng tn s v pha ca sng mang my pht. b) Bng thng: Ta xt trng hp n gin nht l PSK nh phn (Biphase PSK) c minh ha trong hnh 3.1. (Nu l PSK a pha th thay tc bit bi tc baud)

Hnh 3.1: PSK nh phn Trong PSK pha ca sng mang thay i gia hai tr s 0o v 180o, hiu in th tc thi PSK c th vit: ( Biu thc bng thng l : ( ) ( ) tng t nh ) ( ) v c thay bi nn

nhng hai tn s

Nh vyh c) C s ton hc:

nu iu ch cng tn hiu di nn.

PSK l phng thc iu ch m pha ca tn hiu sng mang cao thn bin i theo tn hiu bng tn gc. Gi s tn hiu sng mang c biu din: ( ) ( )

Biu thc ca tn hiu bng gc: s(t) l tn hiu dng nh phn (0,1) hay l mt dy NRZ (Non-Return Zero). Khi , tn hiu iu pha PSK c dng: ( ) Trong : Biu din tn hiu: ( ) * *, ( ) t { ( ) ( ) ( ) *, ( ) *, ( ) ( ) ( , ( ) - + - + - + ) ( ) ( ) ( + ) *, ( ) - + ( ) * , ( ) + (3.1)

l s sai pha gia cc pha ln cn ca tn hiu.

Vy, tn hiu iu pha l tng ca hai tn hiu iu bin vung gc nhau. 2. iu ch pha 2 trng thi 2-PSK T biu thc (3.1), vi n=2, th ta c kiu iu ch 2-PSK hay cn

gi l PSK nh phn BPSK. Tn hiu 2-PSK c dng: ( ) 2 ( ) 3

Hnh 3.2: Tn hiu 2-PSK

a) iu ch Tn hiu bng gc s(t) l xung NRZ lwongz cc v s iu ch ny s dng mt trong hai pha lch nhau 180o v c gi l PSK nh phn (BPSK). + Vi cc bit 1: + Vi cc bit -1: ( ) ( ) 2 2 3 3

Nh vy, bin ca tn hiu BPSK khng i trong qu trnh truyn dn, nhng b chuyn i trng thi.

Hnh 3.3: Biu vector BPSK. Trong BPSK, ng vi tn hiu vo l cc in th biu din cc logic 1, 0 ta c tn hiu ra l cc sng mang hnh sin c pha lch nhau 180 Gi s logic 1 c c trng bi in th +Vdc v logic 0 bi -Vdc b phn chnh ca mch iu ch gm mt mch nhn v mt mch dao ng to sng mang cosct. Tn hiu logic v sng mang c a vo mch nhn v ta c tn hiu +cosct hoc -cosct ng ra ca mch ny. my thu, sng mang uc tch t tn hiu vo, sau trn vi tn hiu vo cho ra tn hiu c dng cos2ct hoc cos2ct. Phn tch cc tn hiu ny ta thy chng gm thnh phn mt chiu v ha tn bc hai: ( )( ( )( ) )

Cho vo mch lc h thng, ta c ng ra cc thnh phn dc c cng cc tnh vi d liu vo.

Mch iu ch vng (ring modulator) l mt kiu mu ca mch nhn c m t (hnh 3.4). Cc diod A, B, C, D dn hay ngng ty thuc hiu th t vo ng X,Y trong lc tn hiu vo ng RS ch khin cc diod dn mnh hay yu m thi. Sng mang c a vo ng RS, d liu c a vo ng XY. Gi s bit 1 khin X dng hn Y v ngc li cho bit 0. -Khi d liu l bit 1 diod A v D dn in, ng vi bn k dng ca sng mang diod A dn mnh hn diod D, dng in chy trong na trn ca bin th ra ln hn, ta c tn hiu ra cng pha sng mang vo. - Khi d liu l bit 0 diod B v C dn in, ng vi bn k dng ca sng mang diod B dn mnh hn diod C, dng in chy trong na trn ca bin th ra ln hn nhng c chiu ngc li (t di ln), ta c tn hiu ra ngc pha sng mang vo. -Khi khng c sng mang hoc khng c d liu vo s khng c dng in ng ra.

Hnh 3.4: Mch iu ch vng b) Gii iu ch Tn hiu 2-PSK c tng hp vi sng mang chun thng qua b lc thng thp loi b thnh phn hi bc cao cho ta thu c tn hiu ban u.

Hnh 3.5: S nguyn l gi iu ch tn hiu 2-PSK. Pha ca tn hiu sng mang chaane bng vi pha ca tn hiu thu nhn c, nn nu tn hiu thu l: ( ) . / ( ) vi ( )

Th tn hiu chun l:

v tn hiu gii iu ch l:

( )

3. iu ch pha 4 trng thi 4-PSK T biu thc (3.1), vi n=4, Tn hiu 4-PSK c dng: ( ) 2 ( ) 3 th ta c iu ch 4-PSK hay QPSk.

Tn hiu bng gc s(t) l xung NRZ lng cc nh 4 gi tr a) iu ch S nguyn l b iu ch 4-PSK s dng mt trong 4 pha lch nhau 90o, c gi l 4-PSK hay QPSK.

Hnh 3.6: S nguyn l iu ch tn hiu QPSK. Tn hiu bng gc c a vo b bin i ni tip thnh song song, u ra c hai lung s liu c tc bit gim i mt na, ng thi bin i tn hiu n cc thnh tn hiu . Hai sng mang a ti hai b trn lm lch pha nhau

90o. Tng hp tn hiu u ra 2 b trn ta c tn hiu 4-PSK. Tn hiu ra 2 b trn: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) vi ( ) ( )

Tn hiu ra 4-PSK l :

Hnh : Tn hiu 4-PSK

Hnh: S khi mch iu ch PSK 4-pha Mch chia bit (bit splitter) : chuyn dng d liu vo theo hai ng I (Inphase) v Q (Quadrature). Nhng bit vo ng I s iu ch sng mang c pha ban u v nhng bit vo ng Q s iu ch sng mang c lm lch pha 90. -V cc d liu vo c th l bit 1 hoc 0, nn tn hiu ng ra mch nhn I c th l sinct hoc - sinct v ng ra Q c th l cosct hoc -cosct, cc tn hiu ny c tng hp mch tng cho ra 1 trong 4 tn hiu m t (hnh 3.7) Th d: vi cc bit ng vo ab=01, tn hiu ng ra l - sinct + cosct, tn hiu ny c th thay th bi tn hiu duy nht c pha l 135.

Hnh 3.7: Tn hiu QPSK Bng A tn hiu iu ch 4 pha: Knh I Q Gi tr nh Hiu phn th 1 + 0 1 + 0 Tn hiu ra t mch cn bng sinct-sinct sin(ct + /2) = cosct -sin(ct + /2) =-cosct

b) Gii iu ch

Hnh 3.8: S nguyn l gii iu ch pha 4-PSK.

Hnh 3.9: Mch gii m PSK 4-pha Mch phc hi sng mang s cho li sng mang sinct t tn hiu nhn c, tn hiu ny c cho thng vo mch nhn ng I v c lm lch pha 90 trc khi vo mch nhn ng Q, tn hiu ra cc mch nhn c a vo mch lc h thng loi b thnh phn tn s cao, cc thnh phn DC s c tng hp mch tng cho li dng d liu. Gi s tn hiu vo l tn hiu nhn c trong th d trn: cosct - sinct Tn hiu ra mch nhn ng I l: sinct ( cosct - sinct) = 1/2sin2ct - 1/2(1-cos2ct) Tn hiu ra sau mch lc l in th dc -, tng ng bit 0 Tn hiu ra mch nhn ng Q l: cosct ( cosct - sinct) = -1/2sin2ct + 1/2(1+cos2ct) Tn hiu ra sau mch lc l in th dc+, tng ng bit 1.

Mch t hp bit s cho li d liu nh pht : 01 (vit theo th t ab). Tc truyn thng thng ca QPSK l 2400 bps v vy mch iu ch tc ca knh I v Q l 1200 bps. Tc bin i ln nht ca tn hiu tng ng vi chui lin tip cc bit 1 v 0, chui ny c biu din bi tn hiu hnh vung tn s 600 Hz, tn hiu hnh vung bao gm tn s c bn v cc ha tn bc l. Trong qu trnh iu ch xut hin cc bng cnh cha cc ha tn ny, mch lc BPF c nhim v loi b thnh phn tn s ny. Hiu sut bng thng: l t s vn tc bit (bps) trn bng thng yu cu (Hz). Thng thng khi vn tc bit tng th bng thng tng, tuy nhin trong cc cch iu ch khc nhau t s hai i lng ny c th khc nhau, do ngi ta dng hiu sut bng thng nh gi cht lng ca h thng (hiu sut cao ng ngha vi tn dng c bng thng) Vi cch iu ch ASK, gi s vn tc bit l 2400bps, tn s c bn l 1200Hz, bng thng cn thit l 2400 Hz vy Hiu sut bng thng = Vi cch iu ch PSK 4 - pha nu vn tc bit l 2400bps, mch iu ch vn tc ca knh I v Q l 1200 bps, tn s c bn l 600Hz, bng thng cn thit l 1200 Hz vy Hiu sut bng thng =

4. iu ch pha 8 trng thi 8-PSK:

T biu thc (3.1), vi n=8, hiu 8-PSK c dng: ( ) 0

th ta c sng iu ch 8-PSK. Tn

( ) 1

Tn hiu bng gc s(t) nhn 8 gi tr. a) iu ch B iu ch 8-PSk l s kt hp tn hiu ca 2 b tn hiu iu ch 4-PSK. Sng mang ca 2 b iu ch c mt s sai pha 45o. Mt b m ha bin i tn hiu c to ra t tn hiu bng gc s(t) sau khi i qua b SPC thnh cc tn hiu iu ch. Tng hp cc tn hiu ra ca hai b iu ch 4-PSK ta c tn hiu 8-PSK.

Hnh 3.10: S nguyn l iu ch tn hiu 8-PSK. Biu vector ca iu ch pha 8 trng thi 8-PSK.

Hnh 3.11: Biu vector 8-PSK.

Hnh 3.12: S khi ca mch iu ch PSK - 8 pha Mch chia bit chia t hp 3 bt theo 3 knh khc nhau. Cc bit a v b theo knh I v Q xc nh cc tnh ca tn hiu ra mch bin i t 2 ra 4 mc, trong khi bit c xc nh bin ca in th dc. Khi a v b l bit 1 ng ra mch bin i c tr dng, ngc li khi a v b l bit 0. Bin ca tn hiu ra t mch bin i

lun lun khc nhau, bt c khi no mt mch nhn tn hiu c (hay ) cho ra tn hiu c bin th mch kia nhn tn hiu o li V 3 bit abc c lp vi nhau nn lun lun l 4 gi tr c th c ng ra cc mch bin i. knh I mch iu ch trn sng mang ban u (khng lm lch pha) nn 4 gi tr ng ra. Mch tng s tng hp tn hiu ra ca 2 knh cho ra mt tn hiu duy nht. Vi cch iu ch 8-PSK, 3 bit ng vi mt pha ca tn hiu ra nn vn tc baud bng 1/3 vn tc bit nn tha iu kin ca ng truyn, ngi ta chn vn tc bit l 4800 bps, vn tc baud l 1600 baud/s v bng thng knh truyn l 1600 Hz v hiu sut bng thng l 3bps/Hz. Vi fc=1700 Hz, bng thng chim mt khong t (fc- 800) =1700-800 = 900 Hz n (fc + 800) = 1700+800 = 2500 Hz, ph hp vi ng truyn ca knh thoi. b) Gii iu ch

Hnh 3.13: S nguyn l gii iu ch tn hiu 8-PSK. Gi s tn hiu thu c l: ( ) ( ) Vi ( ) 0 ( ) V ( ) ( ) ( )1

Tn hiu chun vo b trn: ( ) ( ) vi: ( )

Tn hiu c gi iu ch sau khi qua cc b lc thng thp: ( ) 0 ( ) 1

( ) ( ) ( )

0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 1

Sau b lc thng thp l cc b so snh nhm xc nh 4 tn hiu nh phn. Cc mch logic to ra 3 tn hiu nh phn t 4 ng vo bng cc x l logic thch hp. 5. PSK vi phn (Differential PSK, DPSK): Gii iu ch PSK yu cu phc hi tn hiu d liu my thu da vo sng mang c pha tuyt i bit. iu ny i hi my pht phi gi mt tn hiu my thu tham kho pha. Mt khc dng gii iu ch vng Costas my thu c th nhn c mt tn hiu nghch pha. khc phc cc khuyt im ny ngi ta dng phng php iu ch PSK vi phn. Nguyn tc ca PSK vi phn l dng s thay i ca d liu iu ch sng mang ch khng phi chnh d liu. thc hin vic ny ngi ta so snh d liu hin hnh vi d liu vo trc , nu hai tn hiu ny ging nhau ta c mt pha ca sng mang v nu chng khc nhau ta c mt pha ngc li. Ni thu v pht phi tha thun vi nhau v bit tham kho u tin trc khi pht d liu tn hiu c phc hi ng nh pht i.

Hnh 3.14: S khi ca mt mch DPSK. Ng ra ca cng EX-NOR l 1 khi hai tn hiu vo c cng logic 1 hoc 0 v l 0 khi hai tn hiu vo khc logic. Mch Flipflop D to thi gian tr ng 1 bit. Bng B cho kt qu iu ch DPSK vi bit tham gia l 1. Bng B: iu ch DPSK

(Hnh 3.15) l mch gii iu ch DPSK v kt qu gii iu ch tn hiu ra trong bng 7.2 cho ta li tn hiu truyn bng 7.3

Hnh 3.15: Mch gii iu ch DPSK Bng C: tn hiu gi m DPSK

IV/ iu ch bin vung gc QAM (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying): 1. nh ngha: iu ch bin vung gc QAM l phng php iu ch kt hp gia iu ch bin ASK v iu ch pha PSK. Trong phng thc iu ch ny, ta thc hin iu ch bin nhiu mc 2 sng mang m 2 sng mang ny c dch pha 1 gc 90o. Tn hiu tng c 2 sng mang ny c dng va iu bin va iu pha: ( ) ( ) , ( )- v ( ) ( ) , ( )-

Tn hiu s(t) l tng ca 2 thnh phn ss(t) v sc(t) v c biu din nh sau: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , ( )( ) , ( )-

Nh c bin thay i m cc trng thi pha ca sng mang cch xa nhau, do vy kh nng mc li s gim, y cng chnh l u im ca QAM. a) iu ch:

Hnh4.1: S nguyn l iu ch tn hiu M-QAM. B chuyn i SPC chuyn i tn hiu iu ch co thnh phn 2 chui tn hiu NRZ song song. B bin i 2/L c chc nng chuyn i chui NRZ thnh chui tn hiu c L= mc. Vi L=4 th M=16, ta c iu ch 16-QAM, v L=8

th M=64, ta c iu ch 64-QAM.

Hnh 4.2: Biu khng gian tn hiu 16-QAM.

Hnh 4.3: Biu khng gian tn hiu QAM nhiu trng thi. Mch iu ch QAM 8 pha. Trong iu ch bin vung gc c bin v pha ca sng mang u thay i

Hnh 4.4: S khi mch iu ch QAM 8 pha Trong mch iu ch ny a,b xc nh cc tnh ca tn hiu ra mch bin i, ring bit c uc a thng vo hai mch bin i m khng qua mch o nh PSK 8 pha, nu c =1 c hai ng ra c bin cao v nu c =0 c hai ng ra c bin thp. Nh vy, vi QAM 8 pha, cc tn hiu cc ng ra ca mch bin i lun c cng bin .

Hnh 4.5: Gin v tr cc im c trng cc tribit Cc tn hiu ra ca QAM 8 pha c 2 bin v 4 pha khc nhau. So snh cc cch iu ch QAM v PSK ngi ta thy QAM tt hn v mt t s tn hiu nhiu. Th d vi h thng QAM 16 pha xc sut li l 10-8 trong lc PSK 16 pha xc sut ny l 10-4. Do trong cc h thng truyn vi vn tc cao ngi ta thng dng cch iu ch QAM hn. Mch iu ch QAM 16 pha

Hnh 4.6: S khi Mch iu ch QAM 16 pha. Trong s , mch chia bit chia t hp 4 bit theo hai knh vo hai mch bin i 2 ra 4 mc, cc bit a,b xc nh cc tnh tn hiu ra v cc bit c,d xc nh bin . a,b = 0, tn hiu ra m c,d = 0 bin = 0,22 V. a,b = 1 tn hiu ra dng c,d = 1 bin = 0,821 V. Mi ng ra ca mch bin i c th c 1 trong 4 tn hiu 0,22 hoc 0,821. Mch LPF loi b cc ha tn. Cc tn hiu sau vo mch iu ch cn bng nh trong cc phn trc v ng ra ta c 1 trong 16 tn hiu, cc tn hiu ny nhn 3 gi tr bin v 12 gc pha khc nhau, khong cch cc gc pha l 30. Vi cch iu ch QAM 16 pha, mi 4 bit tng ng mt tn hiu ra nn vn tc bit bng 4 ln vn tc baud. Nu chn vn tc baud l 2400 baud/s tha bng thng ca knh thoi th vn tc bit l 9600 bps v hiu sut bng thng l 4

bps/Hz. Trong trng hp ny bng thng tn hiu trong khong t 500 Hz (1700 Hz - 1200 Hz) n 2900 Hz (1700 Hz + 1200 Hz).

Hnh 4.7: Gin 16-QAM. Trong gin trn gc A xc nh bi:

a) Gii iu ch Tn hiu M-QAM vo: ( ) Tn hiu chun: ( ) ( ) v ( ) ( ) .

Sau khi loi b thnh phn hi bc cao cc b lc thng thp ta s c: ( ) ( ) v ( ) ( )

Hnh 4.8: S nguyn l gii iu ch M-QAM. Bin ca tn hiu gii iu ch c L= mc, trong M l s trng thi

tn hiu. Tn hiu L mc c bin i bi b bin i ADC thnh n/2 tn hiu 2 mc, trong o L=2n/2 v M=L2. Vi 16-QAM th n=4, L=4 v vi 64-QAM th n=6, L= 8. T n tn hiu ny, b bin i PSC s to nn tn hiu gii iu ch.