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PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY FOR ENGINEERS .
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STEPHENS PUBLISHING 1909 COMPANY D .PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY FOR ENGINEERS BY FREDERICK HANLEY SEARES 111 Professor of Astronomy in the University of Missouri and Director of the Laws Observatory COLUMBIA. MISSOURI THE E. W.
HANLEY SEARES .BY FREDERICK.
The volume is incomplete in that it includes no discussion of the a question fundaprinciples and methods of the art of numerical calculation mental for an appreciation of the spirit of the treatment.PREFACE result of several years' experience in presenting to students of engineering the elements of Practical Astronomy. Chapter II blocks out in broad lines the solutions of the problems of latitude. edition will contain this paper. pp. 2. will characterize a later edition. Although the method and the extent of the discussion have been designed to The following pages represent the meet the specialized requirements of such students. while Chapters VVII consider in succession the special adaptations of the fundamental formulae employed for the reductions. The observational details of these solutions. 349367. azimuth. and time. with a few exceptions. as a preliminary The inconsistencies of the work are due largely to the fact that the earlier pages were in print before the later ones were written. and yet the results are to be regarded as tentative. are presented in Chapter IV. In each instance the method used in deriving the final equations originates in the principles underlying the subject of numerical calculation. and time. and to the further fact that the manuscript was prepared with a haste that permitted no careful interadjustment and balancing of the parts. The main purpose of the volume is an exposition of the principal methods of determining latitude. it is hoped. it will afford an orientation sufficient for the purpose in question. it is intended that the work shall also serve as an introduction for those who desire a broader knowledge of the subject. The order of treatment and the methods proposed for the solution of the various problems have been tested sufficiently to establish their usefulness. Though the discussion has thus been made to place before the student the somewhat narrowly restricted. for others. the limit of precision is that corresponding to the engineer's transit or the sextant. Generally speaking. and in the Engineering Quarterly of the University of Missouri. But these can scarcely be attained without some knowledge of the salient facts of Descriptive Astronomy. v. an attempt has been means of acquiring correct and complete notions of the fundamental conceptions of the subject. 171192. Chapter III is devoted to a theoretical consideration of the subject of time. It is not customary to introduce historical data into texts designed for the use of professional students. pp. for they possess neither the completeness nor the consistency which. in a revised form. Difficulties inherent in this defect may be avoided by a careful examination of an article on numerical calculation which appeared in Popular Astronomy. azimuth. For those who possess this information. but the author has found so much that is . the first chapter will serve as a review. 1908. The final chapter.
but a considerable number of errors have already been noted.vi PREFACE helpful and stimulating in a consideration of the development of astronomical instruments. For these the reader is referred to the list The of errata on page 132. methods. in checking the calculations. S. F. UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI. purpose the "Constellation Charts" published by the editor of Popular Astronomy. 1909. Harlow Shapley. and in reading the proofs. . To exclude to disregard the most effective historical a full appreciation of the significance and bearing means of giving the student Brief though they are. most of the examples have been printed in The better to illustrate both the application of the formulae involved detail in order and the operations to be performed by the computer. are as serviceable as any. it is hoped that these sections 6f scientific results. SEARfS. Haynes and Mr. and far less expensive than the average. this For acknowledgments are due to Mr. for My much valuable assistance in preparing the manuscript. Care has been taken to may incline the reader numerical solutions for secure accuracy in the text as well as in the examples. LAWS OBSERVATORY. use of the text should be supplemented by a study of the prominent constellations. H. of the Department of Astronomy of the University of Missouri. Minnesota. material from scientific instruction toward wider excursions into this most fascinating field. and theories that he is disposed to offer an apology for the brevity of the historical sections rather than to attempt a justification of their introduction into a work mainly technical is in character. Northfield. June. E.
9. 1 . 6. 28. basis of time measurement Apparent. Characteristics of the three systems. 4' ' interpretation Relation of the problems of practical astronomy to the phenomena of the heavens Coordinates and coordinate systems 5 7 8 Ifr 7. 4. to find the corresponding mean solar time. azimuth. solar time Mean solar time Sidereal time ". Refraction Parallax CHAPTER II FORMULAE OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES GENERAL DISCUSSION OF PROBLEMS 1 0. PAGE. 15. Method of treating the corrections in practice 15 16 18 * 8. 36 36 36 . 24.CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL SPHERE COORDINATES . 37 38 38 39. 22. 17. 9. to find the corresponding local time at any 25. and the declination and zenith distance of an object. and vice versa Transformation of azimuth and altitude into right ascension and declination. and vice versa Relation between the values of a time interval expressed in mean solar and sidereal units Relation between mean solar time and the corresponding sidereal time The right ascension of the mean sun and its determination Given the mean solar time at any instant to find the corresponding sidereal 40 42 44 44 47 time Given the sidereal time at any instant to find the corresponding mean solar time vii 48 . and parallactic angle Application of transformation formulae to the determination of latitude. . 21. 23. or true. and vice versa Given the latitude of the place. Changes in the coordinates Summary. azimuth. of spherical trigonometry Relative positions of the reference circles of the three coordinate systems Transformation of azimuth and zenith distance into hour angle and declina'. 2. 26. 5. Transformation of hour angle into right ascension. The results of astronomical investigations The apparent phenomena of the heavens Relation of the apparent phenomena to their ' 1 '. other point Given the apparent solar time at any place. . to find its hour angle. The 20. 27. 16. The fundamental formulae 21 23 tion 13. and time 29 2? 31 31 32 CHAPTER HI TIME AND TIME TRANSFORMATION 1 1 8. 30. The tropical year The calendar Given the local time at any point. 1 1 12. 29. 25 dis Transformation of hour angle and declination into azimuth and zenith tance 14. 3.
viii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER IV INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USE
PAGE.
31.
Instruments used by the engineer
TIMEPIECES
50
32. 33. 34. 35.
Historical
50
51
Error and rate
Comparison of timepieces The care of timepieces
52
58
THE
36.
ARTIFICIAL HORIZON
59
Description and use
THE VEHNIEB
37. 38.
Description and theory Uncertainty of the result
59 60
THE
39.
ENGINEER'S TRANSIT
61 62
,.
Historical
40.
41
.
Influence of imperfections of construction and adjustment Summary of the preceding section
71
71
42.
43.
The
level
44.
45.
Precepts for the use of the striding level Determination of the value of one division of a level
72 73
77
46.
47.
The measurement of vertical angles The measurement of horizontal angles The method of repetitions
80
81
THE SEXTANT
48.
49.
50.
5
1
.
Historical and descriptive The principle of the sextant
85
86
Conditions
fulfilled
by the instrument
87 88
89
52. 53.
Adjustments of the sextant Determination of the index correction Determination of eccentricity corrections
Precepts for the use of the sextant
90 91 91
54. 55.
The measurement
of altitudes
CHAPTER V
THE DETERMINATION OF LATITUDE
56.
Methods
1.
95
MERIDIAN ZENITH DISTANCE
96
57.
58.
Theory Procedure
2.
96
DIFFERENCE OF MERIDIAN ZENITH DISTANCES
TALCOTT'S METHOD
97
98
59.
60.
Theory
Procedure
3.
ClRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES
99
61
.
Theory
Procedure
62.
101
CONTENTS
4.
ix
ZENITH DISTANCE AT ANY HOUR ANGLE
PAGE.
102 103
5.
63.
Theory
Procedure
64.
ALTITUDE OF POLABIS
104 105
65.
66.
Theory Procedure
.
.
67.
Influence of an error in time
106
CHAPTEK VI THE DETERMINATION OF AZIMUTH
68.
Methods
1.
108
AZIMUTH OF THE SUN
109
69.
Theory
Procedure
2.
70.
110
AZIMUTH OP A CIBCUMPOLAK STAR AT ANY HOUR ANGLE
110
112
3.
71. 72.
Theory Procedure
AZIMUTH FROM AN OBSERVED ZENITH DISTANCE
113
.
73.
74.
Theory Procedure
113
75. 76.
Azimuth
of a
mark
114 114
Influence of an error in the time
CHAPTER VII THE DETERMINATION OF TIME
77.
Methods
1.
116
THE ZENITH DISTANCE METHOD
117 llg
78.
79.
Theory Procedure
2.
THE METHOD
OF
EQUAL ALTITUDES
118 119
80.
Theory
Procedure
3.
81
.
THE MERIDIAN METHOD
120 123
82.
Theory
Procedure
4.
83.
THE
POLABIS VERTICAL CIRCLE METHOD
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TIME AND AZIMUTH
84.
Theory
Procedure
126 129 J32
85.
ERRATA INDEX
In all cases the form of the path is such as would be produced by attractive forces exerted mutually by all members of the solar system and varying in accordance with the Newtonian law of In addition to the motion of revolution. Venus. comparatively speaking. results of astronomical The the astronomer have shown and with these we must perhaps include comets and meteors. . The paths traced out in the motion of revolution are ellipses. some of the satellites at least. One focus of each elliptical orbit coincides with the center of the body about which the revolution takes place. meteors. and the nebulae. The planets are eight in number. are extremely small bodies so small that they are all telescopic objects and many of them can be seen only with large and powerful instruments. Thus. the sun. and gravitation. and rotates on its axis once during each revolution. thousand miles. Nevertheless. and a considerable addition to the number already known is made each year as the result of new discoveries. The planetoids. In order from the sun they are Mercury. in the case of the planets and planetoids. Although one of the smaller bodies of the solar system it is. form. This revolves about the earth with a period of about one month. also known as small planets or asteroids. revolve about the sun. Uranus. and planetoids form the solar system. The sun is the central and dominating body of the solar system. The investigations of that the universe consists of the sun. which vary slowly in size. Mars. largely if not wholly gaseous in constitution. nearly circular in form. the stars. on account of its nearness. With but few exceptions their paths lie between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. considered collectively. planets. number six hundred or more. satellites. The only satellite requiring our attention is the moon. The planets and planetoids. Most of them are of comparatively recent discovery. they are small. constitute the stellar system. one of the most striking. It is an intensely heated luminous mass. ninety for their collective mass is but little more than one onethousandth that of : the sun. one of the foci of each orbit coincides with the sun. planets. Earth. investigations. while for the satellites. of comets. The sun. Their distances from the sun range from thirtysix million to nearly three thousand Their diameters vary from about three thousand to nearly million miles. I INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL SPHERE COORDINATES. Jupiter.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY FOR ENGINEERS CHAPTER 1. and position. and Neptune. the coincidence is with the planet to which they belong. which are relatively cool. and relatively to the planets. satellites. its attendant planets. and planetoids. The satellites revolve about the planets. Saturn. The stars and nebulae. rotate on their axes with respect to the stars.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY solar and stellar systems are by no means coordinate parts of the On the contrary. includand planetoids. not very different on the portion average from the other stars whose total number is to be counted by hun The universe. the former. . planets. is but an insignificant of the latter. and the space containing the entire solar system. vast as it is. To obtain a more definite notion dreds of millions ing sun. satellites. of the relative size of the : OBJECT . for the sun is but a star. and stars. planets. and to make its dimensions more readily comprehensible let the scale be fixed by assuming that the sphere representing the sun is two feet in diameter. The corresponding diameters of the remaining spheres and their distances from the central body are shown by the following table. is incredibly small as compared with that occupied by the stellar system. We shall thus have a rough model of the universe. two systems consider the following illustration Let the various bodies be represented by small spheres whose diameters and mutual distances exhibit the relative dimensions and distribution through space of the sun.
some of which resemble closely the delicate highlying clouds of our own atmosphere. are to be found among them. jects are so great that is To the casual observer there is not a great deal of difference in the ap pearance of the stars and the planets. that any shift in position can be detected even for those which move most rapidly. In ancient times the fundamental difference between them was not known. and voluminous masses of extraordinarily complex structure. for there is evidence indicating that the stars have been formed from the nebulae through some evolutionary process the details of which are as yet not fully understood. and they were distinguished only by the fact that the planets change their positions. The nebulae are to be counted by the hundreds of thousand's. Their distances are of the same order of magnitude as those of the stars. indeed. and of the satellites relative to their primaries. The distances of these obit is only when the utmost refinement of observation employed and the measures are continued for months and years. The brightest are barely visible to the unaided eye. produce rapid changes in their positions as seen from the earth. and. a moving or wandering star. The development of this conception of the structure of the universe forms the major part of the history of astronomy during the last four cert . that in many instances two or more stars situated relatively near each other revolve about their common center of gravity thus The discovery and study of these forming binary or multiple systems. The greater size and luminosity of the former is offset by their greater distance. They are irregularly distributed throughout the heavens. Minute disc like objects.interesting and important lines of modern astronomical investigation. while the faintest tax the powers of the largest modern telescopes. sist of by the fre They conwidely extended masses of luminous gas. rings. but to the observer on the earth. double branched spirals. With minor exceptions. The stars are also in motion and the velocities involved are very large. while what appeared to the early observers as the distinguishing characteristic of the stars is shown quent use of the expression fixed stars. structure. however. there appears to be an intimate relation connecting these two classes of objects. amounting occasionally to a hundred miles or more per second of time.IXTKODUCTION 3 We do know. and brightness. In fact the word planet means literally. the configuration of the constellations is the same as it was two thousand years ago when the observations upon which are based the earliest known record of star positions were made. and present the greatest imaginable diversity of form. The distances separating the various members of the solar system are such that the motions of the planets and planetoids with respect to the sun. apparently of simple chemical composition. while relatively to each other the stars are apparently fixed. their relative positions remain sensibly unchanged. systems constitutes one of the most. The preceding paragraphs givo the barest outline of the interpretation' which astronomers have been led to place upon the phenomena of the heavens.
rising in the east. but occurs some entire circuit is . The surface of the vault is strewn with points of light whose number depends upon the transparency of the atmosphere and the brightness of the moon. more The apparent phenomena of the heavens. descending toward the west. and the resulting motion of the celestial bodies is called the Diurnal Motion or Diurnal Rotation. moon. Observations upon successive nights show A conthat the position of this object changes with respect to the stars. Those of different brightness. are the only bodies to be seen in the celestial vault. daylight appearance of the heavens is not unlike that of the night except that the sun. They too seem to be carried along with the celestial sphere in its rotation. Its radius is indefinitely great. Kepler. and disappearing beneath the horizon only to rise again in the east.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY turies. and Newton. one far earlier in its historical origin. a fact most easily verified in the case of the moon. in the northern heavens describe arcs of circles in a counterclockwise di about a common central point some distance above the horizon. The phenomenon can be described by assuming that each individual point is fixed to a spherical surface which rotates uniformly from east to west about an axis passing through the eye of the observer and the central rection The surface to which the lightpoints seem atpoint mentioned above. Although the scheme outlined above is the only theory thus far formulated which satisfactorily accounts for the celestial phenomena in their more intricate relations. A few hours observation shows that the positions of the points are slowly shifting in a peculiar and definite manner. moves eastward tinuation of the observations will show that it apparently over the surface of the sphere along a great circle at such a rate that an completed in about one month. elementary devices which can be used for significant features are their description. its Many have contributed toward the elaboration of its details. Those in the east are rising from the horizon while those in the west are setting. A similar phenomenon in the case of the sun manifests itself by the fact that the time at which any four minutes given star rises does not remain the same. This theory bears the name of the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy. which also accounts for the more striking phenomena. tached is called the Celestial Sphere. but due to Copernicus. there is another conception of the universe. but is never more than two or three thousand. Its period of rotation is one day. as its central idea is immediately suggested by the most casual examination of the motions of the celestial bodies. and. and occasionally Venus. The but if careful observations be made it will be seen that these bodies can not be thought of as attached to the surface of the sphere. Their distances from each other remain unchanged. The observer who goes forth under the starlit sky finds himself enclosed by a hemispherical vault of blue which meets in the distant horizon the seemingly flat earth upon which he stands. 2. The system moves as a whole. we shall now turn to a consideration of these motions and the simple.
The direction of motion is opposite. As already explained. but the planets themselves are not confined to the neighborhood of the sun. moon. The paths of the others also lie near the ecliptic. oscillating from one side to the other in paths which deviate but little from the ecliptic. rotates from east to west. The celestial bodies purely an optical phenomenon and has no real though differing greatly in distance are all so far from the observer that the eye fails to distinguish any difference in The blue background upon which they seem projected is their distances. l h 4&m . Two of them. being greatest in of rising of the stars. due partly to reflection. and planets to revolve about the earth in paths which are either circular or the result of a combination of uniform circular motions. but its average is such that a circuit of the sphere is completed in one year. the planets. never depart far from the sun. 5 star rising two hours after sunset on a h given night will rise approximately l 56 after sunset on the following The average intervals for succeeding nights will be l h 52 m . The sun. the sphere itself rotates on its axis with a uniform angular velocity. It supposes the sun. moon. and their connection with the scheme outlined in Section 1 is not difficult to trace. in general. With careful attention it will be found that a few of the starlike points of light. and the planets therefore appear to move over the surface of the celestial sphere with respect to the stars. to be the central body of the universe. Relation of the apparent phenomena to their interpretation. concentric with the earth and enclosing the remaining members of the system. and regards the stars as attached to the surface of a sphere. Its path is a great circle called the Ecliptic. the stars . The re3. Mercury and Venus. Its motion in one day is approximately one degree. which corresponds to the daily change of four minutes in the time This amount varies somewhat. While the sun. These elementary facts are the basis upon which the theory of Ptolemy was developed. This motion is called the Annual Motion of the Sun. January and least in July. completing a revolution in one day. fixed in position. The celestial sphere rs existence.. lation of the apparent phenomena to the conception of Ptolemy is obvious. It assumes the earth. and planets move over the surface of the sphere. respectively. That the stars rise earlier on successive nights shows A that the motion of the sun over the sphere is toward the east.INTRODUCTION earlier for each successive night. which. are exceptions to the general rule which These are rigidly fixes these objects to the surface of the celestial sphere. to that of the diurnal rotation. l h night. They have a general progressive motion toward the east. m etc. moon. the wandering stars of the ancients. in paths which lie in or near the ecliptic. 44 . and party to selective absorption of the light rays by the atmosphere surrounding the earth. The various motions proceed quite independently. but their paths are looped so that there are frequent changes in di rection and temporary reversals of motion. half a dozen more or less. Their motions with respect to the stars are complex.
as the fixed member of the system and describing the phenomena in terms of motions referred to it. exceptions. when a detailed description of the motions of the planets and satellites is required. Finally. which makes the earth the central body of the this be done. or by choosing another body. A and B. and their motions produce marked changes to the stars. there more obvious phenomena of the heavens are concerned no contradiction involved in either of the conceptions which have been devised for the description of their relations. the conception universe comes into open conflict with the fundamental principles of mechanics. the sun. In so far as the is can give rise to contradiction so lie long as the problem remains one of motion. the Copernican system is the more useful by far. and we might . We may think of A as fixed and B moving. The former method of procedure is the starting point for the system of Ptolemy.6 PRACTICAL ASTKOXOMY are so distant that. which at first glance seems to carry with it all the celestial bodies. and the complex motions of the planets are due. or we may think of B as fixed and A in motion. Though two ways choice of route is open before us. in either of two ways. is but the result of the axial in their The annual motion rotation of the earth. the sun. planets. Both methods are correct. Given two points. So. both leading to the same goal. The monthly motion of the moon is a consequence of its revolution about the earth. we may describe the variation in their distances and directions. are changing. The problems of practical astronomy are among those which can be more simply treated on the basis of the geocentric theory. even for the On the other hand. lies the essence of the various socalled proofs of the correctness of the Copernican system. the changes are almost vanishingly small. and the direction of the line joining them. the Both methods are correct. and hence neither latter. and attempt consideration of the phenomena If their explanation as the result of the action of forces and accelerations. and each is capable of giving an accurate description of the change in relative distance and direction. in the case of the celestial bodies. and satellites are relatively near. either by assuming the earth to be fixed with the remaining bodies in motion. and herein . by no means a matter of indifference. partly to their own revolutions about the sun. for that of Copernicus. for one is much more For the discussion of many questions the conception of a fixed earth and rotating heavens affords a simpler method of treatment but. their individual motions produce no sensible variation in their relative positions. That such is the case arises from the fact that we are dealing with a question concerning changes of relative distance and direction. With the heliocentric theory there is no such conflict. the direct than the other. and.. although the the geocentric theory presents no formal contradiction unless we pass beyond as a case of relative motion. and partly to the rapidly shifting position of the observer. the diurnal rotation of the celestial sphere. mutual distances and in their positions with respect of the sun in the ecliptic is but a reflection of the motion of the earth in its elliptical orbit about the sun. barring a few exceptional cases. we can describe the fact that their distance apart.
the solution of these four fundamental problems can be connected directly with certain fundamental celestial phenomena. rotation of the celestial sphere can therefore be made the basis measurement. For the sake of simplicity. The latitude of a point on the earth may be defined roughly as its (a) 4. precise . Time measurement is based upon the diurnal rotation of the earth. the determination of the azimuth of the (b) The azimuth point becomes but a matter of instrumental manipulation. The latter can be accomplished by purely mechanical means. it . the latitude at once becomes known. upon the orientation of the vertical plane passing while the determination of time and longitude involve the posi tion of the sphere as affected by diurnal rotation. portant always to bear in mind the more elaborate scheme and be ever ready to shift our viewpoint from the relatively simple. concerned are the determination of latitude. outlined above. As will be seen later. although such phenomena are occasionally used for the purpose. and for our present purpose. must ever be the delight jestic structure whose proportions and dimensions and wonder of the human mind. time. elemento the more matary conceptions which form a part of our daily experience. we have The solution of the longitude problem therefore involves the application of the methods used for the derivation of time. Relation of the problems of practical astronomy to the phenomena The problems of practical astronomy with which we are of the heavens. is convenient. upon its inclination to the direction of the plumb line. of a point is the angle included between the vertical the rotation axis of the celestial sphere and the vertical plane containing plane through the object. If the inclination of the axis to the plumb line can be determined. It can be shown that this is equal to the complement of the inclination of the rotation axis of the celestial sphere to the direction of the plumb line at the point considered. To determine the time at any instant. therefore. angular distance from the equator. the determination of the difference in longi(d) tude of two points is equivalent to finding the difference of their local times. through the latter. depend upon the position of the rotation axis of the celestial sphere. quite independently of any astronomical phenomena. In brief. we shall make use of ideas which are not universally applicable throughout the science of asbecause it tronomy. If the orientation of the vertical plane through the axis of the sphere can be found. . W>e shall speak of a fixed earth and rotating heavens in so doing. the former. of The time only to find the angle through which the sphere has rotated since some specified initial epoch. azimuth. and longitude.INTRODUCTION "' have proceeded to an immediate consideration of our subject from this of emphasizing the character primitive standpoint but for the importance of what we are about to do. (c) which appears to us in reflection as the diurnal rotation of the celestial sphere. Both latitude and azimuth. together with some means of comparing the local times of the two places. it is imbut.
from the circles of reference are its coordinates in this case. and we : are immediately led to the detailed consideration of our subject The solution of our problems requires a knowledge of the position of the axis of the celestial sphere and of the orientation of the sphere about that axis. It is evident from the the North Pole and the South Pole. the stars for example. The designation of the position of a point on the surface of 5. respectively. produced indefinitely in both directions. The plane through the point of observation. in the Nadir. a plane through the center of the earth perpendicular to the direction of For many purgravity will also cut the celestial sphere in the horizon. in the establishment of coordinate systems for the celestial sphere. We meet at the outset a difficulty in that the sphere and its axis have no objective existence. pierces the celestial sphere above in the Zenith. The Direction of the Plumb Line. Position is a relative term. the Meridian. Its plane coincides with the plane of the terrestrial meridian through the point of observation. Since our observations and measurements must be upon things which have visible existence. perpendicular to the direction of the plumb line. or the Direction due to Gravity. from the known location of these objects on the sphere. cannot specify the position of any object without referring it. The vertical circle passing through the celestial poles is called the Celestial Meridian. Since the radius of the celestial sphere is indefinitely great as compared with the radius of the earth. This raises at once the general question of coordinates and coordinate systems to which we now give our attention. Great circles through the zenith and nadir are called Vertical Circles. Our first step. therefore. Their planes are perpendicular to the horizon plane. derive the position of the sphere and its axis. to some other object whose location is assumed to be known. We a sphere is most conveniently accomplished by a reference to two great circles that intersect at right angles. relations between the phenomena and their interpretation traced in Section 3 that the axis of the celestial sphere must coincide with the earth's axis of rotation. either explicitly or implicitly. We must make our measurements upon the various celestial bodies and then. The called the celestial sphere is North Celestial Pole pierced by its axis of rotation in two points and the South Celestial Pole. Coordinates and Coordinate Systems. we are forced to an indirect method of procedure. For example. it cuts the celestial sphere in a great circle called the Horizon. longitude and latitude.8 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT A word more. is the definition of the points and circles of reference which will form the foundation for the various systems. . Produced indefinitely in all directions. is called the Horizon Plane. poses it is more convenient to consider this plane as the horizon plane. and below. the position of a point on the earth is fixed by referring it to the equator and some meridian The angular distance of the point as that of Greenwich or Washington. or more briefly. or simply.
Small circles parallel to the horizon are called Circles of Altitude or celestial Almucanters. The Summer Solstice lies to the north of the celestial equator. The coordinate systems most frequently used in astronomy present certain features in common. the Autumnal Equinox. respectively. sometimes more convenient to use as secondary coordinate the distance of the object from one of the poles of the fundamental great circle. The equator are the Equinoxes. The already denned as the great circle of the celestial sphere followed by the sun in its annual motion among the stars. Great circles through the poles of the Circles. the Winter Solstice. North. One of these. that at which it passes from the north to section of the ecliptic and the celestial the south. form the reference circles of the system.is vertical circle intersecting the meridian at an angle of ninety degrees The intersections of the meridian and prime called the Prime Vertical. The fundamental great circle and the principal secondary intersect in two points. respectively. In practical astronomy three systems of coordinates are required. Great circles perpendicular to this are called Secondary Circles. The intersection from which the primary coordinate is measured. The Solstices. called the Principal Secondary. At the basis of each system is a Fundamental Great Circle. Vernal and Autumnal. The details are shown by the following table. and a clear understanding of the underlying principles will greatly aid in acquiring a knowledge of the various systems. The plane of the celestial equator coincides with the plane of the terrestrial equator. and the direction of measurement of both coordinates. sphere are called Hour great circle equatorial to the poles of the celestial sphere is called the Celestial Equator. The vertical with the horizon are the cardinal points. to the south. ecliptic. is inclined to the The points of intercelestial equator at an angle of about 23 degrees. South. points on the ecliptic midway between the equinoxes are called the Summer and Winter. Thus in System I we shall frequently use the distance of an object from . must be specified. Small circles parallel to the celestial equator are called Circles of Declination. The Secondary Coordinate is measured along the secondary passing through the object from the fundamental great circle to the object itself. The Vernal Equinox is that point at which the sun in its annual motion passes from the south to the north side of the equator. The Primary Coordinate is measured along the fundamental great circle from the principal secondary to the secondary passing through the object to which the coordinates refer. and the fundamental great circle. and West. The symbol used to designate each coordinate It is is written after its name 'in the table. East.
10 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY COORDINATE SYSTEMS. SYSTEM .
COORD1XA TES 11 Point .
on the contrary. is the coordinates but azimuth. 1 phenomenon The which is under which the object observed. remain practically constant for considerable intervals of time. a The bending of the light rays by known as Refraction. the final results being derived from the observed data by a process of coordinate transformation to be developed in Chapter II. at least. The latter circumstance renders right ascension and declination an advantageous means of expressing the positions of bodies not fixed on the sphere. Its determination in the case of a celestial body affords convenient methods of solving two of the fundamental problems with which we are concerned. In the third system. is of great importance. like the stars. In the first The method of determining its system. altitude is the most The observational part readily determined of all the various coordinates. The magnitude of the . but. the reference circles share in the diurnal rotation. For the nearer bodies. that azimuth and position of the earth in its orbit. Right ascension and declination are therefore convenient for listing or cataloguing the positions of the stars. altitude. depends upon the conditions The allowance for its influence is there made by each individual observer. unless the point of observation is shifted. Such a list of positions is called an Ephemeris. Although not absolutely fixed on the sphere. If the time intervals separating the successive epochs for which the coordinates are given be properly chosen. altitude are of special service in surveying and in geodetic operations. latitude and time. therefore. The positions of all such objects are rapidly and constantly changing with respect to the circles of reference.. by a series giving the right ascension and declination for equidistant intervals of time. for any given instant. For celestial bodies. of the determination of latitude and time is therefore frequently based upon measures of altitude. Since the fundamental circle in the first system depends only upon the direction of the plumb line. an additional introduced by their motions over the sphere and the changing It appears. the reference circles are fixed for any given point of observation. the instrument required for the measurment of altitude is extremely simple. In consequence. their motions are so slow that the coordinates of objects. we have only to replace the single pair of coordinates which suffices for a star. both in construction and use. affects all of amount fore of the refraction. but complexity is that their range of advantageous application in connection with celestial bodies is limited. the position can be found for any intermediate 'The azimuth of objects near the horizon is also affected by refraction. altitude of terrestrial objects are therefore constant. But in spite of this disadvantage. viz. they are continuously varying. The azimuth and as a result of the diurnal rotation. For such objects of time. for not only are the azimuth and altitude of a celestial object constantly changing. amount will be discussed in Section 8. Catalogues of this sort are not only serviceable for long periods but can also be used at all points on the earth. their values are different for all points on the earth. which. change in the coordinate is very small. always small. are sensibly fixed. however.12 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT the earth's atmosphere.
necessary to examine the character of the variations produced by the slow motion of the reference circles mentioned The mutual attractions of the sun. the interval can be increased to several days. The interval selected for the tabula determined by the rapidity and regularity with which the coordinates change. For the more distant planets." It is in the coordinates above. During this interval the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic never deviates greatly from its mean value of about 23^. which. together with the right ascensions and declinations of the brighter stars. one day intervals are sufficient. Collections of ephemerides of the sun. The result is a vibratory motion of the equator about a mean position called the Mean Equator. The motion of the equator combined with that of the ecliptic produces an oscillation of the equinox about a mean position called the Mean Vernal Equinox. and the planets produce small changes in the positions of the equator and ecliptic. The change in the given position. Consequently. the axis for it to return to its original position. Precession is that part of the change in the coordinates arising from the progressive westward motion of the mean vernal equinox. As the does not remain absolutely parallel to a but describes a conical surface. For stars near the pole it is much larger. in turn. and a transverse nod back and forth with respect to the pole of the ecliptic. The actual motion of the pole is very complex. and bears the title "American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. The resulting changes in the right ascension and declination are divided into two classes. are published annually by the governments of the more important nations. amounting in . respectively. of the precession and nutation depends upon the position For an object on the equator the maximum value of the precession in right ascension for one year is about fortyfive seconds of arc or three seconds of time. moon. while Nutation is the result of the oscillatory or periodic motion of the true vernal equinox with respect to the mean equinox. and ecliptic as center. The amount of the star. the celestial pole appears to move over the sphere in a path closely approximating a circle with the pole of the The direction of the motion is counterclockwise. but for the moon the positions must be given for each hour. direction of the axis takes place very slowly. That of the equator is best understood by tracing the changes in position of the earth's axis of rotation. moon'. called precession and nutation. about 26000 years being required earth in its moves initial orbit. the radius of the circle equal to the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic. the mean equator itself slowly revolving about a line perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic. The motion of the ecliptic is relatively unimportant. has a slow progressive motion toward the west. and the planets. That issued by our own is prepared in the Nautical Almanac Office at Washington. but its characteristic features are the progressive circular component which causes it to oscillate or component already mentioned. In the case of the sun.COORDINATES instant tion is 13 by a process of interpolation. whose motions are relatively slow.
and the planets can be expressed by means of an ephemeris giving the right ascension and declination for equidistant intervals of time. on the contrary. and can always be treated as a correction.14 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Polaris. The displacement due to the earth's rotation is in : of course altogether inappreciable. and is included with the effect of the object's own motion in the ephemeris which expresses its positions. the observer's velocity. a shift in the position of the earth from one side of its orbit to the other. it is possible to assume that the motion is uniform and along the arc of a great circle. the actual change in his position due to the diurnal and annual motions of the earth causes a change in the coordinates called Parallactic Displacement. For the stars the matter is much and that of the observer. For the nearer bodies the parallactic displacement due to the earth's annual motion is large. The motion of the observer may affect the position of a celestial object tion into the interval/ initial /' epoch and its two ways First. and does not exceed 20" for any of the the case of stars.000. Parallactic displacement is usually called Parallax. the fact that the observer is in motion at the instant of observation may produce an apparent change in the direction in which the object is seen. in declination There remains to be considered the effect of the object's own motion the changes arising from the motion of such objects as the sun. In the case of the stars. expressed in years. the distances are so great that the maximum known parallactic displacement due to the earth's annual motion amounts to only threequarters of a second of arc. moon. a distance of more than 180. Second. appears different from that when the observer is at rest.is called Aberration. depends on the distance over which the observer actually moves. in the same way that the direction of the wind. The variation arising from the rotation of the earth on its axis is far smaller. Parallactic displacement. is e The annual precession example. depends only upon except as position may determine the direction and magnitude of the motion. We have already seen how Their motions over the sphere are so slight as to be entirely inappreciable in the vast majority of cases. and for those in which the change cannot be disregarded. of.000 miles. for . it is desired to find their values as affected by proper any instant. For all but a few. as noted from a moving boat or train. and motion for any other instant f. and not at all upon his position. and is Aberration carefully to be distinguished from the parallactic displacement. /. it is only necessary to add to the given coordinates the products of the proper motion in right ascension and declinasimpler. The change in one year is called the If the right ascension and declination are given for star's Proper Motion. in so far as the position is dependent upon the star's own motion. and. when so spoken the correction which must be applied to the observed . signifies specifically. reveals no measurable change in the coordinates. The change thus produced . The position of a star for a given proper motion are therefore all that is required for the determination of its position at any other epoch. to about <W relatively small.
and consequently. The secondary coordinate. Method of treating the corrections in practice. Hour angle. for the same instant. are not only different for each successive instant. Right ascension and declination are affected by all. and diurnal aberration arise in practice in connection with azimuth and altitude. For the stars. annual aberration. precession. for telescopes. in consequence. One pair of values serves to fix the position of a star for a long period of time. and The rotation of the earth to zero when the two directions coincide. and refraction. parallax. The corrections to which the coordinates are subject are proper motion. is for mounting tigations. but change as the For celestial objects they observer moves over the surface of the earth. but for the sun. The amount of the displacement is a maximum when the its is at right angles to the direction of the star. apply with equal force here. and In all cases these three are of these three the last is usually negligible. diurnal aberration. to a certain degree. their calculation and application are left to the observer. It is also the basis for the construction of the equatorial or vice versa. Since it is impracticable to include catalogue and ephemeris positions of right ascension and declination. that the azimuth and altitude of terrestrial objects are constant for a given point of observation. the center of the earth. therefore. the moon. equal on its axis produces a similar displacement. the properties of those of both and altitude. there remains to be considered. It is to be remembered. in them . Right ascension and declination are sensibly the same for all points on the earth. nutation. but only planetary parallax. server's motion. stellar or planetary as the case may be. : Aberration is due to the fact that the velocity of the observer is a quantity For all of appreciable magnitude as compared with the velocity of light. however. of prime importance in the solution of the problems of practical astronomy. stars not lying in the direction of the earth's orbital motion. is the same as in System III. refraction. are used in the construction of catalogues and ephemerides. dependent upon local conditions. like azimuth which varies continuously and rapidly. it serves as an intermediate step in passing from System I to System III. is a coordinate Systems I and III. they are different for different points of observation. the standard position is the center of the sun for all other bodies. that observations. and the planets an ephemeris is required. and is dependent on the position of the observer on the earth. the telescope must be inclined slightly in advance of the star's real position in order that rays may pass centrally through both objective and eyepiece of the The star thus appears displaced in the direction of the obinstrument. the form most commonly used in astronomical inves 7. proper motion. The Diurnal Aberration is so direction of the motion minute. declination. but also. Summary. and. it requires consideration only in the most refined The coordinates of the second system possess. as affecting such positions. and the remarks conThe second system cerning it made above.C O ORDINA TES 1S coordinates of an object in order to reduce them to what they would be were the object seen from a standard position.
intermediate to the ephemeris epochs can be found by interpolation. The apparent right ascension and declination are given for each star for every ten days throughout the year. for example. Such catalogues usually contain the data necessary for the determination of the precession corrections which must be applied to the coordinates in deriving the mean place for catalogues also contain the value of the proper any other epoch. by proper motion and precession. nutation. The true place of an object at any instant The apparent place of an object at any instant is equal to the true place at that instant plus the effect of annual aberration.16 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY precession. the special calculation of the various corrections necessary for the formation of apparent places is avoided entirely in the discussion of all ordinary observations. and the planets. true place. and refraction. parallax. The nutation and annual aberration corrections are found from data given by the various annual ephemerides. and are referred to the mean equator and equinox for the beginning of some year. The mean place is affected is its position referred to the true equator and true equinox of that instant. to the instantaneous positions of the actual equator and equinox. Apparent positions are also given by the ephemeris for the sun. With this arrangement. their collective effect. 1855.. that is. the mean equator and mean equinox of that instant. 8. or with the catalogue positions mentioned above. the resulting change in velocity . diurnal aberration. but he has occasion to calculate specially only those which depend upon the local conditions affecting the observations. and stellar parallax. The observer must understand the origin and significance of all of the changes which occur in the coordinates. The velocity of light depends upon the density of the medium which it traverses. annual aberration. that we have different kinds of positions or places. and apparent place. but the engineer is rarely concerned with these. the influence of the individual variations. it is sometimes necessary to know. known as mean place. The ephemerides themselves contain mean places for several hundred of the brighter stars. The first we disregard on viz. The positions to be found in star catalogues are mean places. It expresses the location of the object as it would appear to an observer situated at the center of the earth. the moon. Modern motion when appreciable. The mean place of an object at any instant is its position referred to for the others. Refraction. and It thus happens sometimes.0 or 1900. for apparent places are also given for the ephemeris stars. The last is so As rarely of significance in practical astronomy that it can be disregarded. There remains for neer only refraction and parallax. and these are all that he needs. The following is a brief statement of the methods by which their numerical values can be derived. Positions for all of these bodies for dates for suitably chosen intervals. in order to use the ephemeris intelligently. The true place is equal to the mean place plus the variation due to the nutation.0. When a luminous disturbance passes from a medium of one density into that of another. the consideration of the engiaccount of its minuteness.
For the case of two media of homogeneous density. in turn. which. the phenomenon of refraction the earth. They pass from a region of zero density into one whose density gradually increases from the smallest conceivable amount to a maximum which occurs at the surface of rays undergo a change in direction as indicated above. is imperfect. Various hypotheses concerning the relation between density and altitude have been made. the direction of bending is away from is the normal. The light rays from a celestial object which reach the eye of the observer must penetrate the atmosphere surrounding the earth. for although the differences between the corresponding numerical results are That generally used is due to Gylden. each of which gives rise to a distinct theory of refraction. the ray is bent toward the normal. effect is to increase the The simple. The latter is determined by the density of the different strata. and the temperature of the air and the barometric pressure at the point of observation. forms the basis of an elaborate mathematical discussion which results in an expression giving the refraction as a function of the zenith distance of the object. the determination of the refraction involves the interpolation and combinationof a half dozen logarithms. unless the direction of incidence is normal to The the bounding surface. of the altitude. more or less. without sensibly changing their azimuth unless they are very near the horizon. disadvantages overcome. perpendicular to the surface separating the two media. from one medium into another of different density undera light ray passing goes a change in direction. but also by the refraction which it suffers is at each successive point in its path through the atmosphere. but for many purposes a simpler procedure will suffice. but here. it is extremely complex and its amount difficult of determination. incident ray. our knowledge of the constitution of the atmosphere. an assumption must be made concerning the nature of the relation connecting density and altitude. is a function This brings us to the most serious difficulty in the problem. This. To proceed. the highest precision is desired these tables or their equivalent must be used. the approximate expression. and can be found in the theory more comprehensive works on spherical and practical astronomy. This expression is complicated and cumbersome. When . and the normal to the bounding surface at the point of incidence lie in a plane. combined with the fundamental principles enunciated above. With this arrangement.REFRACTION shifts the direction of the 17 wave front. The course of the ray which reaches the observer is affected not only by its initial direction. The altitude of all celestial bodies. unless the direction of propagation is Stated otherwise. When the density of the second medium greater than that of the first. the refracted ray. in a measure. by the reduction of its various parts to tabular form in accordance with a method devised by Bessel. are known as the Pulkova Refraction Tables. The tables based upon this slight. This change in direction is called Refraction. especially in its upper regions. For example. When the conditions of density are reversed.
The parallax of an object is equal to the angle at the object subtended by the line joining the center of the earth and the point Fig. in Fig. Thus. the error will seldom exceed a tenth of a minute of arc. the earth. whence = 57" tan z'. b is the barometer reading in inches. (4) The values of r given by (4) can be derived from columns three and eight of Table I with either the apparent altitude or the apparent zenith distance as argument. respectively. i. 1 can be used for the calculation of the refraction. The error of the result less exceed one second. the zenith. the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. The refraction is given in seconds of arc. University of Wisconsin. .5 inches. 2 of observation. z. Their difference. The Z and z are the apparent and geocentric zenith distances. 9. In this expression. Bulletin of the Series. the circle represents a section of the earth C is the center of coinciding with the vertical plane through the object. Science p. For altitudes greater than 20 and normal atmospheric conditions. . 2. For 6=%9. and / =50 will rarely of (3) is 57". (3) derived empirically from the results given by the theoretical development. the point of observation.18 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 983* tan 2'. r. /. and B the object. is the parallax of B. Parallax. For rough work the matter can be still further simplified by using mean Fahr. v.when the altitude is not than 15. the observed or apparent zenith distance. which is equal to the angle /. 60. angles z' 'This form was derived by Comstock. the coefficient values for b and /.
altitudes. and the planets (pp. of p varies with the distance of the object. The parallax depends upon p the radius of the earth. The therefore. write We /=sin. whence change /= The 878 sin z'. On this the parallax in azimuth is zero. respectively. however. for the basis plumb line does not point toward the center of the earth. except at the and at points on the equator. is to increase zenith distances and decrease parallax. coefficient is p / r. The actual parallax in zenith distance poles is therefore slightly different from that given by (9). It is tabulated American Ephemeris for the sun (p. From the triangle OCB The angle / does not exceed a few seconds of arc for any celestial body therefore excepting the moon. just the opposite of that produced by refraction. (9) error of this expression never exceeds 0''3. and consequently the angle OBC. coincide with the vertical plane through B\. in p is so slight that we may use its mean value of 8"8. in general. whence it results that the radius.PARALLAX 18 We havethe relations z = z' p. can be derived from the fifth and tenth columns of Table I with the apparent the mean altitude or the apparent zenith distance as argument. 21&249). (5) (6) altitudes. Denoting value by/ we have (8) /=/ The value in the sin*'. there . (7) The horizon. and in addition. do not. Actually. the value of the parallax when its the body is the called the Horizontal Parallax.s'. The preceding discussion assumes that the earth is a sphere. and the zenith distance z' or 2. the earth is spheroidal in form. For approximate work the solar parallax is conveniently combined with The difference of the two corrections refraction given by (4). The values of / corresponding to (9) can be interpolated from columns four and nine of Table I. the moon (page IV of For the sun. For this its maximum value is about 1. the each month). r the distance where ft' and h are the apparent and geocentric effect of of the object from the earth's center. 285). />.
the development of the expressions which give the corresponding corrections is omitted. the influence of both refraction and parallax is confined to the coordinate altitude. and the limits of precision here considered. zenith distance.5 h' Thermometer.20 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT a minute component affecting the azimuth. of the two corrections. it should be remarked that the apparent zenith distance used for the calculation of the parallax is the observed zenith distance freed from is refraction The that is. zenith distance thus corrected serves for the calculation of the parallax. and declination are all affected by both refraction and parallax. . Barometer. as these coordinates do not appear as observed quantities in the problems with which we are concerned. or its alternative. therefore. that it requires consideration only in the most precise investigations. refraction is to be applied first. however. 29. The influence of the spheroidal form of the earth is so slight. . Finally. For the first system of coordinates. 50 Fahr. but.. Hour angle. right ascension. TABLE I. MEAN REFRACTION AND SOLAR PARALLAX in.
b. coinciding with the side c. B. and C'. set of rectangular axes can be derived from the c. y. first by rotatfirst about the Zaxis through the angle 21 The coordinates of the . . r sin a sin B. be any spherical triangle. r sin b cos A. construct a set of rectangular coordinate axes. at the coordinates of preferred to this system be x\ /. (10) Construct a second set of axes. and the axis passes through the vertex B. We then have x y d The second ing the first = = =. the different systems should therefore receive careful attention. XYZ. the XY plane X axis passing through the vertex A. Transform ations of coordinates are of fundamental importance for the solution of most The relations between of the problems of spherical and practical astronomy. Their values in terms of XY X the parts of the triangle and the radius of the sphere are x y cos B. Fig. and c With the center of the sphere. and z. as origin . a brief exposition of the fundamental formulae of spherical trigonometry is introduced at this point. tangular coordinates of the vertex Cbe x. and the with the origin 0. Denote its angles by A. such that the plane Let the reccontains the side c. and. and /. z =. 10.CHAPTER II FORMULAE OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES GENERAL DISCUSSION OF PROBLEMS. Let XYZ 1 . The more complicated transformations require the solution of a spherical triangle. = r sin a rcos<z. because of this fact. Let ABC. 0. 3. The fundamental formulae of spherical trigonometry. and its sides by a. r sin b sin A. r cos i>.
provided the algebraic sign of the sine of the required side. and dropping the Substituting into equations (12) the values of x. and are independent of the rectangular coordinate axes introduced for their derivation.22 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY in system can therefore be expressed the relations terms of those of the second by means of y = x sin c +y cos z = z. (12) and (n). A. and an angle opposite one of them. but. and apply to all spherical triangles. that in which the given parts are two sides of a spherical triangle. to find one or more of the angles. 3 are all less than 90. x = x'cos c y sin c. Otherwise there will be two solutions. Although the parts of the triangle in Fig. Equation (16) affords a theoretically accurate solution of the problem. the application of expressions of this form is limited on account of the necessity of determining the angles from . two others occur in connection with the problems of practical astronomy. 13 and 14). x'. c. Cal. and z from (to) common factor r. and that in which the three sides are given. Thus. to find the third side. y. They determine without ambiguity a side and an adjacent angle of a spherical triangle in terms of the two remaining sides and the angle included between them. 2. they should be transformed so as to reduce the addition and subtraction terms in the right terms (Num. the ordinary logarithmic tables. (16) Similar expressions for the angles B and Ccan be derived by a simple permu tation of the letters in (16). mental formulae of spherical trigonometry. From them all other spherical trigonometry formulae can be derived. A solution for the third case can also be found by a rearrange ment of the terms of (13). we obtain the desired relations cos a a cos B a sin B cos b cos c \ sin b sin c cos sin b cos c cos sin sin = cos b sin c sin b sin A. cos A = cos asin bcos bc cos c rT sin . practically. the method of development and the results are These relations are the fundageneral.y. Equations (i3)(is) are conveniently arranged as they stand if addition For use with subtraction logarithms are to be employed for their calculation. viz. (13) (14) (15) A. These equations express relations between five of the six parts of the spherical triangle ABC. or of the sine or cosine of the required angle.. the details of which will be considered in connection with the determination of latitude. . be known. pp. The first of these can be solved for those cases which arise in astronomical practice by a simple transformation of (13). members of (13) and (14) to single Aside from the case covered by equations (i3)(i5).
s and sc. angles of a spherical triangle from the three sides are tan s = % (a + b + c b. and C can be interpolated from their tangents (Num. .SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY For numerical calculation it is important to have formulae such that the angles A. The desired relations can be derived by a transformation Col. The angle which is constant and equal to the complement of the latitude of the place of observation. When the three angles of a spherical by it is advantageous to introduce triangle are to be determined simultaneously. The transformation of the coordinates of one system into those of another requires a knowledge of the relative positions of the reference circles of the various systems. g we find tanj^ 2 yB A = sin K . B tan 2 y C= is IS . The proof of this statement can be derived from Fig. (a a permutation of the letters of (17). In the case of Systems I and II the principal secondary circles coincide fundamental great circles are inclined to each other at an by definition. ). 12 and 1618). B. . = in sin 5 sin . which represents a section through the earth and the celestial sphere in the . . pp. 3 and 14). Spherical Trigonometry. Two one 11. r. and check by sin (sl>) sin (sc) sin (sa) . defined by the relation _ sin (sa) sin (s6) sin (sc) Substituting (18) into (17). The ambiguity solutions are possible.. their cosines. . (16). (19) (s. of the halfangles of the triangle is known.a) The expressions and tan J4<7are similar in form. sin s If If ]^ Check: tan %A tan y. which = # + + B C the auxiliary K. 4. the complete formulae for the calculation of the three Collecting results. Form s  a. removed if the quadrant of Relative positions of the reference circles of the three coordinate systems.' (sa) Sin J and can be derived Similar expressions for b s c). giving of (Chauvenet.
by But. of the point (21) whence H'E = 90 (22) which was to be proved. The principal secondary of the third system does not mainis . the terrestrial meridian of 0. further. Fig. 4 Now. It is to be noted. the poles of the celestial sphere./ and/'. HH' and EE\ the lines of intersection of the planes of poles of the earth. the zenith and the nadir. with the meridian plane. the celestial equator. and TV are the Z and P'. that Arc and ZP 90 iff = Colatitude <f.* 0. It is also equal to the altitude of the pole as seen from the given point. which cuts the terrestrial P meridian in ee. the latter being greatly exaggerated with respect to the former. The outer circle represents the celestial meridian. horizon and equator. It thus appears that the second system can be derived from the first by rotating the first about an axis passing through the east and west points. definition the arc eO measures the latitude. through an angle equal to the colatitude of the place. respectively. of. viz. (23) Arc HP = (24) From (21) and (24) it follows that the latitude of any point on the earth equal to the declination of the zenith of that point. ip. O.. Systems II and III have the same fundamental great circle. and the inner.24 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY plane of the meridian of the point of observation. The plane of the celestial equator coincides with that of the terrestrial equator.
the point where the meridian of M. while. It follows. ascension of the observer's meridian. 5 represent an orthogonal projection of the celestial sphere upon is the north celestial pole. An parts of the triangle ZPO inspection of the notation of p. the plane of the equator as seen from the North. intersects the celestial equator. that the third system can be derived from the second by rotating the second system about the axis of the celestial sphere through an angle equal to the sidereal time. It is at once evident that the transformation of azimuth and altitude into hour angle and declination requires a knowledge of the latitude. both latitude and sidereal time It is scarcely necessary to add that the reverse transformations are required. demand the same knowledge. Transformation of azimuth and zenith distance into hour angle 12. or the 0. I. therefore. shows that the . 6 triangle ZPO. The arc of the principal secondary of the third system with respect to that of position P MBV This arc is equal to the hour angle of the vernal equinox. therefore measures the instantaneous the vernal equinox. and thence into the position of the third. can be designated as shown in Fig. It is called the Sidereal Time right thus have the following important definition: The sidereal time at any instant is equal to the hour angle of the the first. Finally. I is reproduced in Fig. and V. The transformation requires the solution of the spherical The essential part of Fig. a knowledge of the sidereal time. of hour angle and declination into right ascension and declination.RELATIVE POSITION OF COORDINATE SYSTEMS tain a fixed position with respect to that of the first. n. It is also equal to the right ascension of the observer's meridian at the instant considered. = We vernal equinox at that instant. upon an enlarged scale. Fig. n 6. but rotates clockwise direction as seen from the north side of the equator. 25 in a uniformly Let Fig. the third system can be derived from the first by rotating the first into the position of the second. to pass from azimuth and altitude to right ascension and declination. and declination. the transformation of coordinates involves the determination of the changes arising in the coordinates as a result of a rotation of the various systems in the manner specified above. p. Briefly stated.
it is seen that the transformation involves the determination of the side it and the adjaquestion 90 cent angle t in terms of the other two sides. <p <f> cos A. defined by m m sin are introduced mcosM = M= sin z cos A. Cat. (29) In formulae (26)(28) we have 3. = m sin (tpM). 90 and z h. (<p cos z. (26) (27) (28) ip <p To adapt auxiliary quantities these formulas for use with the ordinary logarithmic tables. Fig. A = i8oA. to be known. 6. 14). p. sin 3 = sin z sin A. unknown quantities. t and in (29). Substituting these relations into (26) and (27) and collecting results. (Num. five three equations for the determination of two equations are given for the determin . 3. the and M.'26 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Assuming the latitude. The substitution of (25) into (13).M). and 90 y> the angle 180 A included between them. cos z. and it is only necessary to make the following assignment of parts: a * c = 90 = *. have for the calculation we m sin M = m cos M = cos 3 sin cos 3 cos t t sin z cos A. (14). (25) 90 <p. cos A. and (15) gives sin 3 t t cos 8 cos cos 3 sin = cos z sin sin z cos = cos z cos + sin z sin = sin z sin A. = m cos . Equations (i3)(i5) are directly in = = applicable. y>.
pp. for the other. The addition of this result to log cos must agree with the value of log mcosM from the second of (29). and log cos 3 having been found. In practice. respectively. M.ORDER OF SOLUTION 27 In both cases one more condition ation of the four unknowns. since 3 must always lie between +90 and 90. pairs of values of It is immaterial. sin M. values of log cos 3 and log sin 3 must correspond to the same angle. more precise in the long run. along with z and A. the next step is the determination of log sin 3 from the last of (29). negative. and second equations. and tanM. there will always be two and m satisfying these equations. The values M. The interpolated values must agree with those resulting from the last three equations of (29). gives log m. m will be pos M of sin M and cos M the m same as those of the righthand (29). With the value of d thus derived. which makes it possible to determine /and cos 8 by an application of the process employed for finding m and M. in any specific case. of two units in the last place of decimals. /. which affords a The subtraction of log sin from log m sin partial check. This affords a third partial check. the quadrant being fixed by a consideration of the algebraic signs of any two of the three functions. 22. and check by The comparing the other function with the value interpolated from the tables with the calculated d as argument. Cal. For one. The former method is shorter. so far as the final values of / itive. and 3. It is to be noted that this limitation upon the sign of cos<J removes the ambiguity existing in the solution of the general spherical triangle which was mentioned on p. and log cos The difference of the last two must equal log tan M. the latter. log sin M table. The algebraic sign of cos 3 is necrighthand essarily positive. the first method is usually In applying the checks it is to be noted that the accumulated error of calculation (Num. which fixes the quadrant of /. it affords a means of testing the accuracy of The order first of solution two equations. is available than is required for the theoretical solution of the problem. Great care must bf . M M M of M and m thus derived are to be substituted. although not necessarily so sufficient. determine Whatever the values of z and A. a point of great practical importance. we assume that M and m from the is as follows: First. of The Mh are interpolated with a single opening of the M. The left members of the third and fourth of (29) are of the same form as the first two. into the members of the last three of (29) for the completion of the calculation. which is found by subtracting log cos 3 from log sin 8. m. is always positive. The hour angle. from which the angle determined. as the numerical solution. 4 and 12) may produce a disagreement of one. which of the two solutions we adopt. members of the first difference of the logarithms of the righthand members of these equations equals log tan M. care being taken to apply the checks at the points indicated above. The determination of 3 and the application of the check can be accomplished in either of two ways: We may interpolate 3 from the smaller of the two functions logcosiJ and logsincJ. and 8 are concerned. which gives a second partial check. or we may interpolate d from log tan 3. log sin 3 and log cos <J are interpolated from the table. cosJ/. For simplicity. This makes the algebraic signs however. and in rare instances. /.
For the first. Example object is 97 14' 12" and and declination.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY exercised with the algebraic signs of the trigonometric functions and in assigning the quadrants of the angles. The only differences which occur are to be found in the details of the combination of the quantities which enter into the right members 1. although the majority of the numbers appearing Its omission saves time and produces no confusion. Otherwise. in this case. is in the second column. of the two groups of equations. the azimuth of an its zenith distance 62 37' 49". 3 is determined from log tan 3. The arguments tor the check quantities. sin 5 and cos 5. an erroneous computation may check. The calculation of t and 8 from equations (26)(28) with the aid of additionsubtraction logarithms is accomplished by an application of the method used for the solution of the last three of (29). in the computation are logarithms. The check quantities must agree both in absolute magniapparently tude and algebraic sign. need not ordinarily be written down. For a place of observation whose latitude is 38 56' 51". is smaller than log cos d. using additionsubtraction logarithms. made with the ordinary tables. In the calculation of (29). They are inserted here In order to illustrate the application of the control. which. The abbreviation /o^is not prefixed to the arguments. appears column. . that for equations (29). <5 is derived from log sin 3. Find the corresponding hour angle The in the first calculation for equations (z6)(28).
the latter. thus reducing the two problems to the same type. two sides and the included angle are given. (30) <p. n cos sin z sin /. (34) (<p (<p The two groups (3i)(33) and (34) give the required transformation. /. These are of the same general form as (26). n sin 3. to find the remaining side. (14). cososin/ 1 . with the exception that the sine and cosine of z are interchanged in the left members of (3i)(34) as compared with the corresponding functions of d in (26)(2 9 ). With the following assign ment of parts a b = = 90 c = 90 z. The unknowns are involved in the same manner in both cases. . cos z = n cos N). In Fig. As before. (15). It is better. Transformation of hour angle into right ascension. the transformation of the coordinates of one of these systems into those of the other requires only a knowledge of the relation between hour angle and right ascension. we find by substituting into cos 2 z cos A (13). versa. and (28). 25. Applying the we derive N = sin N = cos d cos A = cos d sin sin z cos A = sin N). let be the intersection of the hour circle through celestial body with the celestial equator.TRA NSFORMA T1ONS 29 Transformation of hour angle and declination into azimuth and 13. The former can be used with additionsubtraction logarithms. to use equations of the same form as those appearing in the preceding section. with the ordinary tables. In the solution of (3i)(33) and (34). p. This eliminates the ambiguity attached to the solution of the general spherical triangle. A B and <p = t. sin = = sin d sin \ cos o cos <f> cos/. then have by definition B We any . zenith distance. I= same principle as before. (31) (32) (33) sin <Jcos^> + cosd sin ycost. however. since z is always included between o and + 180. 5. The transformation can be effected by solving (29) in the reverse order to that followed in Section 12. and vice 14. 180 A. the quadrant of A is fixed by the fact that sin z is necessarily positive. Since the coordinate declination is common to Systems II and III. (27). (29) A comparison of these equations with groups (26)(28) and shows that the same arrangement of calculation can be used for both transformations.
the point /. II. I. 5. The calculation by equations (3l)(33) i* in the first column. The same can be derived from Fig. that by equations (34). Example 2. the hour angle of an h m 8 31' 47". = = Right ascension of object. In a place of observation whose latitude is 38 58' 53". and its declination zenith distance. Find the corresponding azimuth and object is 2o i9 4i8.30 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Arc Arc VM Arc MVB MB = Hour angle of object. p. (36) result Equations (35) and (36) express the required transformations. in this figure. t = 20" I9 m 418 = 8 = 38 ? 3 = 304 31' 47" 55' 27" 58 53 tint . = 9= Sidereal time. correspond ing to B in Fig. in the second. t whence (35) a.
TRANSFORMATIONS
Example
when
3.
31
What
is
Is
the right ascension of an object
whose hour angle
it I7 h 2i
m 34!6,
the sidereal time
(35)
2i h i4 ni 52!8?
By equation
/
= 2i b i4 n 52!8 = 17 21 34.6 = 3 S3 18.2,
Ans.
8 h i2 m 34!8,
Example
when
4.
What
is
is
the hour angle of an object whose right ascension
is
the sidereal time
(36)
By equation
a
t
= & 6m 28'7 = 8 12 34.8
53 539> Ans.
Transformation of azimuth and altitude into right ascension and 15. declination, or vice versa. These transformations are effected by a combination of the results of Sections 1214. For the direct transformation, determine / and 8 by (26)(28) or (29), and then a by (35). For the reverse calculate / by (36), and then A and z by (3i)(33) or (34).
Example 5. What is the right ascension of the object whose coordinates, at the sidereal lime I7 h 2i ln i6*4, are those given in Example I?
The hour angle found in the solution of Example i by equations (26)(28) is 4 h47 m 46'4. h m This, combined with ff I7 2i i6!4 in accordance with equation (35^, gives for the required ll nl right ascension I2 33 3o!o.
=
Example 6. At a place whose latitude is 38 38' 53", what are the azimuth and zenith distances of an object whose right ascension and declination are 9 k 27 ra i4'2 and 8 31 '47", reh m . spectively, the sidereal time being 5 46 56o?
By equation
tions (39) gave
2oh i9 m 4i8. We have, further, t 8 (36;, / These quantities are the same as those appearing in Example
=
=
31 '47"
2.
and
A
= 300
10' 29", z
= 69
The
<f 38 38' 53". solution by equa
=
42' 30".
Given the latitude of the place, and the declination and zenith 16. distance of an object, to find its hour angle, azimuth, and parallactic angle. We have given three sides of the spherical triangle ZPO, Fig. 6, p. 26,
to find the three angles, the parallactic angle being the angle at the object.
The
is
parallactic angle
is
not used
in
engineering astronomy, although
its
value
frequently required
in practical
astronomy proper.
Equations (20) are directly applicable for the solution of the problem. Assigning the parts of the triangle as in (30), and, further, writing the angle C q parallactic angle, we have for the calculation.
= =
32
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY
a
=
z,
b
s
= 90 c = 90 = (a + b +
3,
if,
'A
c),
Check:
2
(sa)
sin
+
(si>)
+
(s
c)
=
s,
=
(ja)sin (j)
sin (j<r)
w
q=
f
K
sin (.y<z)'
sin (J^)'
T,
tan
K
sin (jc)'
Yi
Check:
Object {
tan J4 ' cot
of meridian,
/A
l
2
tan /^ ^
in
=
^
a
}
^
/,
% A, % q
{ ge
^" d }
quadrant
In engineering
all
required. formulae are
that
is
astronomy the determination of the hour angle, t, is usually For this case it is simpler to use equation (17). The
=
2,
b
= 90
2
b
d,
c
c).
= 90
(s
<f,
s
=y
(5
(a
+ +
(s
Check:
tan .
 a)
f
+
in

b)
+
in

c)
=
s,
(38)
%
=
(**)
(j,)
a)
sin s sin (s
ject
2 y t is to be taken in the first or second quadrant according as the obwest or east of the meridian at the time of observation. For those cases in which the object is more than two and onehalf or three hours from the meridian, equation (16) written in the form
where
is
cos*
cos z  sin 
<?sin
if
a>
,
cos 3 cos
(39)
will usually give satisfactory results.
trol
upon the value of
is
/
given by
(38).
In any case, (39) affords a valuable conThe numerator of the right member of
(39)
readily calculated by
means
of additionsubtraction logarithms.
17.
Application of transformation formulae to the determination of
It was latitude, azimuth, and time. the fundamental problems of practical
shown
in
Section 4 that the solution of
astronomy requires the determination of the position of the axis of the celestial sphere and the orientation of the sphere as affected by the diurnal rotation. In practice this is accomplished indirectly by observing the positions of various celestial bodies with respect to the horizon, the observed data being combined with the known position of the bodies on the sphere for the determination of the position of the sphere itself. The means for effecting the coordinate transformation hereby implied are to be found in the formulas of Sections 1216. Although the most advantageous determination of latitude, azimuth, and
time requires a modification of these formulas, it is, nevertheless, easy to see that the solution of the various problems is within our grasp, and that the
TRANSFORMA TIONS GENERAL DISCUSSION
Example 7. For a place whose latitude Is 3S56'si", find the hour angle, azimuth, and parallactic angle of an object east of the meridian whose declination and zenith distance are
8 16' 14" and 54 16' 12", respectively.
If
Equations (37) are used for the solution, which is given below in the column on the left. only the hour angle were required, equations (38) or (39) would be used. As an illustration of the application of these formula;, the problem is also solved on this assumption. The first ten lines of the computation for (38), being the same as that for The (37), are omitted.
remainder of the calculation for (38) occupies the upper part of the righthand column. The solution by (39) is in the lower part of this column. The object is rather too near the meridian for the satisfactory use of equation (39), although it happens that the resulting value of
the hour angle agrees well with that from (37) and (38).
8
1
6'
14"
51 '2
b
c
38 54 98
5i
5
16
16
3
(s6) (ic) cosec (sa)
In
sin
8.78890
9.88892
0.13218
14
cosec
tan*
s
t
0.00927
8.81927
9.40964,
165
35' 46"
ii
9
35
y
2i
s
s
23
101
35
47
3"
48
Ck.
 a  c
47
3
36
34
33i
32
s6
i
3i
50
44
39
sin (s  a) sin (i*)
9.86782 8.78890
sin (s
c)
s
9.88892 0.00927
855491
cosec
2 log /T A" log
9.27746*
tan
%t
tan )4
t
K cosec
cot Yi A tan q cot A tan
%
%
s
34
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT
all
intimate relation to
culation.
of the other kinds of time, so that,
if
the sidereal time
has been found, the determination of the others becomes but a matter of cal
would be complicated. It is simpler to deterA, and assuming for the calculation of each that one or separately, <p, both of the others are known.  a. Let it For example, equation (31) is a function of 2, <J, <p, and /
Practically, such a solution
mine
=
be assumed that the zenith distance of a star of known right ascension and declination has been measured and that the time of observation has been noted. The substitution of the resulting data into (31) leads to the determination of the only remaining unknown, namely, the latitude, (p. Again, the elimination of z from (32) and (33) gives an expression for
as a function for
d,
be assumed that <p and 6 are known. <p, The azimuth of a star of known right ascension and declination can therefore be calculated. The calculated azimuth applied to the observed difference in .azimuth of star and mark gives the azimuth of the mark.
and
t
=d
A
a.
Let
it
Finally, equations (38)
z,
(f,
and
3.
If
and (39) express the hour angle, t, as a function of the zenith distance of a star of known right ascension and decin
lination be
measured
a place of
known
t
culated.
Equation
(35), in
the form
= +
latitude, the
a,
hour angle can be calthen gives the sidereal time of
observation.
knowledge of the time;
solutions thus outlined require, for the determination of latitude, a for the determination of time, a knowledge of the latFor the first two, time and itude; and, for azimuth, both time and latitude. If each is latitude, it might appear that the methods proposed are fallacious.
The
required for the determination of the other, how can either ever be determined? The explanation is to be found in the fact that the formulas can be arranged
in
such a
way
that an
approximate value for either of these quantities
suffices
for the determination of a relatively precise value of the other. Thus, a mere as to the time will lead to a relatively accurate value of the latitude, guess which, in turn, can be used for the determination of a more precise value of the
time. The process can be repeated as many times as may be necessary to secure the desired degree of precision. The principle involved in the procedure In thus outlined is called the Method of Successive Approximations.
numerical investigations
it
is
of great importance.
The method
amounts,,
practically, to replacing a single complex process by a series, consisting of Ordinarily, the success of the repetitions of some relatively simple operation.
method depends upon the number
must be made
in
of
order to arrive at the desired result.
repetitions or approximations which If the convergence is
rapid, so that one or two approximations suffice, the saving in time and labor as compared with the direct solution is frequently very great. Indeed, in some
instances, the method of successive approximations is the only method of procedure, the direct solution being impossible as a result of the complexity of the relation connecting the various quantities involved.
and azimuth. problems of There remains the formulation a detailed development. for the precision required may vary within wide limits. of the details. it is to be remembered that the various problems are not merely to be solved. one must constantly bear in mind the results which will be established in the two following chapters. For many purposes approximate results will suffice. and with a minimum expenditure of labor. time. if an intelligent arrangement of the methods is to be accomplished. renders the question one of some complexity. 35 for the solution of the and azimuth has been outlined. in astronomical work of the highest precision. On the other hand. no means should be overlooked which can in any way contribute toward an elimination or reduction of the errors of observation and calculation. Chapter IV is therefore devoted to a discussion of various astronomical instruments. .GENERAL DISCUSSION The general method of procedure latitude. their definition and their relations. Chapter III will be devoted to this must also consider the various astronomical instruments that question. but they are to be solved with a definite degree of This requirement precision. In arranging the details of the methods for the determination of latitude. time. and it is then desirable to sacrifice accuracy and thus reduce the labor involved. The problems with which we have to deal therefore present themselves under the most diverse conditions. as well as those already obtained in the discussion of the principles of numerical calculation. But. and. we must consider the subject of time We find application in engineering astronomy their characteristics and the con ditions under which they are employed. before proceeding to in its theoretical aspects the different kinds of time. since the nature of the data obtained through their use will influence the arrangement of the solutions.
based upon the motion of a fictitious body called the mean sun. The rotation of the earth is the measurement of time. or True. which is but. Solar Time=A. motion along the ecliptic is also like is wise variable. the rotation referred to three different things: the apparent. and Sidereal Time. Mean Solar Time. The instant of transit of the apparent sun is called Apparent Noon=A. Actually. it one of the The earth's motion is such that the radius vector with the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal times.CHAPTER 18. Solar Day=A. N. but also on account of the fact that the angle of projection changes. 19. earth revolves about the sun in an elliptical orbit. the same length. 20. on the average. In practice. as the basis of time measurement. nor are apparent solar days of not. have. sun across the same meridian between two successive transits of the apparent. T. The projection into the equator of the a reflection of the earth's orbital motion. D. the mean sun is so chosen that its right ascension differs as little as possible. and the vernal equinox. or true. Since motion is relative. being o degrees at the solstices. we We : Apparent. sun. not only because the ecliptical motion is variable. or True. subdivided into 24 hours. S. considered to 'be fixed. it is several different kinds of time. is The apparent. III TIME AND TIME TRANSFORMATION The basis for the basis of time measurement. interval The It is The In astronomical practice the apparent solar day begins at apparent noon. Since the connecting distance of the earth from the sun varies. a uniformly varying quantity. a mean sun. we must specify the object to which the rotation obvious that of the earth we may have is is referred. S. The mean sun is an imaginary body supposed to move with a constant angular velocity eastward along the equator. sun is called an Apparent. equal to the hour angle of the apparent. ecliptic.T. The adoption everyday life would bring with of such a time system for the regulation of the affairs of it many inconveniences. Solar Time. Mean Solar Time=M. or true. such that it completes a circuit of the sphere in the same time as the apparent.S. and about 23^ degrees at the equinoxes. Apparent solar time is therefore. On this account there has been devised a uniformly varying time. Apparent. or true. it follows that the angular velocity of the earth in its orbit is variable. sun. or True. or true. the sun itself occupying foci of the ellipse. Hence. By referring to different objects. 36 . accordingly. the angular motion of the sun along the variable. howturn the matter about and take the apparent diurnal rotations of these objects with reference to the meridian of the observer. three kinds of time fictitious object called the ever. from that of the true sun. which are counted continuously from o to 24. the first of which would be the impossibility of constructing a timepiece capable of following accurately the irregular variations of apparent solar time. or true. solar time at any instant at that instant. Further.
. being affixed to the time in order to avoid ambiguity. 8. actually. 105. Oct. is supposed to change 12 hours before the transit of the mean sun. is S. its If each local to regulate its affairs in accordance with own mean traffic. M. mean solar day is the standard In astronomical practice the mean solar day begins at mean noon. points within lY? degrees of longitude of a standard meridian use the local boundaries hour are quite irregular. respectively. 25. 6. The standard meridians for the United States are 75. The interval between two successive transits of same meridian is 37 to the hour angle of the the mean sun across the called a Mean Solar Day=M. but from o to 12. The astronomical date therefore changes at noon. The system thus defined is called Standard Time. D. and the unit for the measurement of time. is to the astronomical date. or P. and from the local mean solar time of the meridian of Greenwich. For example the civil date 1907. confusion would all arise. and 8 hours. ioh A. and Pacific. all Although. The corresponding standard times are Eastern. Mean of the same length. equinox . and 120 degrees west of Greenwich. 90. 8 did not begin until the calendar. The instant of transit of the solar time is mean sun called Mean Noon=M. M.) The interval between two successive transits of the true vernal across the same meridian is called a Sidereal Day=S. The sidereal time at any instant is equal to the hour angle of the true vernal equinox at that instant. (See p. a uniformly varying quantity and all mean solar days are Mean solar time is the time indicated by watches and clocks. by an exact number of hours. 22 h The astronomical day equivalent . the Calendar Date. and differ among themselves. throughout the civilized world. It is subdivided into 24 hours which are numbered continuously from o to 24. 21. in most countries. 7. But since a change of date during the daylight hours would be inconvenient and confusing for the affairs of everyday life. mean sun was on the meridian on Oct. all To especially in connection with railway points within certain limits of longitude use The meridians selected for this purpose are an exact multiple of 15 degrees from the meridian of Greenwich. Oct. the letters A. it is evident that at solar time for different places not on the same meridian place were to attempt any instant the mean is different. Mountain. theoretically. solar time. at the midnight preceding the astronomical change of date. and then again from o to 12. or Civil Date. 1907.DEFINITIONS The Mean Solar Time at any instant is equal mean sun at that instant.e. M. 8 of the From the manner of definition. the separating adjacent regions whose standard times differ by one mean Sidereal Time. These are slow as compared with Greenwich mean solar time by 5. N. 7. avoid this difficulty the time of the same meridian. with the result that all timepieces referred to them indicate at any instant the same number of minutes and seconds. generally. Further. i. solar time of that meridian. the hours of the civil mean solar day are not numbered continuously from o to 24. Oct. D. Central.
0. thus for 1909. During this interval the mean sun makes one circuit of the celestial sphere from in equinox to equinox again. all The importance sidereal days are of the same length. in general. but practically it may be considered as such. has already been shown in Sections 11 and 14. 22. coincide with the beginning of the calendar year. (40) In accordance with a suggestion due to Bessel. Hamilton in California. send out daily over the wires of the various tele graph companies. S. a uniformly varying quantity. S. D. and used for the correction of the mean solar timepieces of the observatory. C. Certain observatories. Since the precessional and nutational motions of the true equinox are not uniform. The true sidereal time thus obtained is transformed into mean solar time by calculation. The symbol for this instant is formed by affixing a decimal point and a zero to the corresponding at the instant year number. and the Lick Observatory at Mt. therefore have the important relation: whence it We One Tropical Year=3652422 M. the beginning of the tropical year is indicated by This epoch is independent of the position of the observer on the earth 1909. for sidereal time is more easily determined than either apparent or mean solar time. sidereal time is not. D. These signals reach every part of the country. for the variations in the motion of the equinox take place so slowly that. and does not. which ordered that Calendar. in particular the United States Naval Observatory at Washington. series of time signals which indicate accurately the instant of mean noon. is The usual order of procedure in time determination as follows: Every observatory possesses at least one sidereal timepiece whose error is determined by observations on stars. the tropical year begins when the mean right ascension of the mean sun plus the constant h part of the annual aberration is equal to 280 or i8 40"'. and serve for the regulation of watches and clocks generally. D. although the difference between the two never exceeds a fractional part of a day.2422 revolutions with respect to the observer's meridian. Several different kinds of years are employed astronomy. strictly speaking. of sidereal time in the transformation of the coordinates of the second system into those of the third. for the purposes of observational astron omy.2422 S. The Tropical Year.38 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The instant of transit of the true vernal equinox is called Sidereal Noon=S. Its length is 365. sphere itself.=366. It also plays an important role in the determination of time generally.2422 M. and vice versa. The Tropical Year is the interval between two successive passages of the mean sun through the mean vernal equinox. origin in The fractional parts of a For chronological purposes the use of a year involving day would be inconvenient. The most important are the tropical and the Julian. That actually used has its a decree promulgated by Julius Caesar in 45 B. 23. N. . in a direction opposite to that of the rotation of the follows that during a tropical year the equinox must complete 366.
0003 day or 26". = the time of the western place. a slight modification in the method of counting Gregory XIII. which. The Gregorian calendar was soon adopted by all Roman Catholic countries and by England in 1752. This period is called a Julian Year. The Julian system thus modified is called the Gregorian Calendar. differs from the Gregorian by 13 days. In order to avoid the gradual displacement of the calendar dates with respect to the seasons resulting from the accumulation of this difference. at present. The accumulated days in 400 years. i. the Julian Calendar. Te We then have the relations: = Tw +L (41) . these The extra day of the fourth year was to be followed by a fourth of 366 days.e. where it was at the time of the Council of Nice in 325 A. All years revised rule for the determination of leap years is as follows: the century whose numbers are exactly divisible by four are leap years. The years of designation bissextile. The difference between the Julian and the tropical years is about ii m . modern system the extra day in leap years appears as the 2Qth of February. In consequence the calendar year was 365^ days. 365 days Roman system. as the Julian year is longer than the tropical. and.THE CALENDAR 39 the calendar year should consist of 365 days for three years in succession. mean solar. excepting These are leap years only when exactly diiisible by four hundred. 24. twice the sixth day before the calends of March in the introduced by counting such years were long distinguished by the Years. and the calendar based upon it. it follows that at any instant the difference between two local times is equal to the angular distance between the celestial meridians to which But this is equal to the angular distance between the the times are referred. and sidereal time. Gregory therefore ordered that the century years. The average length of the Gregorian calendar The In the year differs from that of the tropical year by only 0. time at Given the local time at any point. to find the corresponding local From the definitions of apparent solar. the Julian calendar falls behind the seasons by this amount. other years are common years. their difference of longitude. = longitude difference of the two places. although they are now called Leap With this arrangement the average length of are Common Years. Russia and Greece and other countries under the dominion of the Eastern or Greek Church. point. D. all of which are leap years under the Julian rule. should not be counted as such unless the year numbers are exactly divisible by 400. At the same time it was ordered that 10 days should be dropped from the calendar in order to bring the date of the passage of the sun through the vernal equinox leap years difference was introduced in 1582 by Pope amounts approximately to three back to the 2ist of March. any other geographical meridians of the two places. still use the Julian Calendar. Let Tt TV L = the time of the eastern place. All years.
Given. E is = S. . and vice versa. whence M. Example 9.A. The equation of time varies irregularly m It is somethe year. A. S..M. 12 Oct. T.74 Ans. T. mean solar. 12 6 i8 o A. 3 5 h I4 m 21" 8 6 16 5 5 22 Ans. 10 astronomical / j ^^ 25. corresponding Columbia mean solar lime. Oct. S. A. t and the definitions of mean solar and apparent solar time. 1907.. A. Given. S. 12 o o o o \ / P.85 57. Oct. of M. Greenwich mean sponding Washington mean solar time. From equation (36). find the corresponding Greenwich mean 7V= i2 h H m L Te = 6 = 18 16141 9 23 18. to find the corred a. T. and sometimes negative. The ascension of the apparent sun is calculated from the known orbital motion right of the earth.M. Oct. R.M.M.M. = II oh ii 3 m i6'i8 18. R. Oct. sun sometimes smaller and sometimes greater than that of the mean sun. find the Te L = 1907. S. S. Oct. L Example 10. Oct. find the corre Te = 1907. R. Given. 6 = TV = 1907. of A. TV = L Te = = 1907. civil Example 11. of A. 9 53 53 23 7\v= 1907. T. h h s Given. solar time 1907. find the corresponding Greenwich mean solar time. or sidereal. 12 Oct.40 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Equations (41) are true whether the times be apparent solar. II 6 h 18 18 o" A. S. central standard time 1907. ii 57. Oct. The difference S.33 P. T. A. its maximum absolute value being about i6 throughout times positive.85 A. A. central standard time 1907.33 34. Example 8. civil and astronomical. The right ascension of the mean sun is known from its manner is . S. A. we find = M. Oct. civil Oct. mean solar time I2 h I4 m 16:41. of M. Columbia solar time. astronomical astronomical 600 18 18 18 o Oct. since the right ascension of the apparent called the . sponding mean solar time. n oh 3 i6i8 P. S. Given the apparent solar time at any place. 6 3 h I4 m 21". =d = = M. astronomical and civil. T.M. (42) Equation of Time. R.
164) (to be subtracted from A. 15 h 52"" 14511. N. Change in M.2 18 14 E for Gr. Oct. S. M. the corresponding Greenwich time must be calculated before the interpolation is made. on page II. astronomical L Columbia M. 1907. Note that for each date the difference of the right ascension of the apparent.06 1907. sun in column two of page II. and for Greenwich mean noon. Given. find the C. Oct.) i 13 2 57. M. A. T. Greenwich apparent solar time 1907. i Example 13. 15 I3 2h 6 m 12506. 14. p. Change Gr. whose values are tabu In the American Ephemeris they are given for instants of Greenwich apparent noon on page I for each month.. Gr. 1907.S. latter when apparent solar time is to be found from a given mean solar time. A. S. 15 i 13 ) 56588 1. 1907. Oct. for Gr. or true. 1907. and the right ascension of the mean sun in the last column of the same page.3 53. S.11 (Eph. M. N.M.T. p. h 52"" 14" S. Gr.) Gr. p.95 12.11 12. T." which immediately folprinted low those containing the equation of time.) 15 S. and the lated in the various astronomical ephemerides. Oct. 15 corresponding Greenwich mean solar time. T. Oct. 15 1907. If the time to be converted refers to a meridian other than that of Greenwich. T. S. S.9 Ans.TIME TRANSFORMATION of definition. 1907. T. Oct. E during M. 1907.M. Oct. find the corresponding Greenwich apparant solar time. Oct.15 52 Ans. not given in the American Ephemeris. N.20 57. Oct. 15 26 i 13 Gr.63 (Eph.06 14. 41 This data suffices for the calculation of . E for Gr. is equal to the corresponding value of E. h standard time 1907. 20 Example Given. Oct.9 12.95 14. 20 nh 23 5 i8 m I2!2 A. S. 165) E (to + Columbia A. Oct. 15 52 6 Ana. but the column is headed by a precept which indicates whether it is to be added to or subtracted from the given time. 165) in E (to be added to M. Oct. in accordance with the Example 12. central n i8 m 1252 A. T. definition. in the columns headed "Difference for i Hour. 19 9 8 1907. 19 23 23 2. be added to Columbia M.o 54. Given. The former page is used when apparent time is converted into the corresponding mean solar time. find the m ' E Change in E during 2h 6m 12' f 56*75 1. T. S. T. A.S.07 (Eph.001. Values of E for times other than The algebraic sign of containing its values E is Greenwich apparent noon and Greenwich mean noon must be obtained by interThis operation is facilitated by the use of the hourly change in E polation.39 i. . 20 18. T. T. Greenwich mean solar time 1907. corresponding Columbia apparent solar time. 1907. Oct. 1907. 20 E during 5 h i8 m 12* 58.
T. from (40) /s = =/m + 365^422 366. from Columbia A. 19 23 h L 69 33 14 15 23 5459 18.3 L C. S. 20 for Gr. Oct. connecting f 26. 1907. 20 5 58. T. S. T. find the corresponding central standard time.42 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Example 15..3 13. = 23 S. Oct. A we find solar units. = IIl24 = 2365555 D.2422 (43) IT _ 366. S. S.o 1907. Change in JE during 5 33 h m 13' +2. 1907. Columbia A. 1907. 12. S. T. Gain of 6 on M. Oct. T. S. Hence Gain of on M.52 E (to be sub. by supposing 7S 24 o h = 24 h we obtain from (46) m O5ooo Sid.) Columbia M.2422 (43) /m = Ia  (44) Writing ' 11T= 365. Oct. S. T.2 E Gr.909 h . solar = the value of any interval / in mean 7m = the value of /in sidereal units.M. Oct. S. = 1124 = 235. A. 19 23 h 23 m f4"9. N. in i i M. mean Relation between the values of a time interval expressed in and sidereal units. = 24" h m 3 565555 Sid. Ans. Oct.9 i8. Given Columbia apparent solar time 1907. 56"" 45091 M. D.2 A. S. in S. 19 1907. A.2422 and (44) become 7S 7m = /m + Ill/m =7 5 (45) (46) 1 17s Assuming 7m = 24 b we find from 0:000 (45) 24" o Similarly. m M. 20 23 II 8 9 18 53. Equation (40) is the fundamental relation If we let the units of mean solar and sidereal time. T.50 i.
Gainof0onM. =10 (i = 0*016 = 0. 1/60). the contains the numerical values of II/s. l/6o).0037 Error value Equations (45) and (46) may be used for the conversion of the in mean solar units into its corresponding value of a time interval expressed The calculations are most conveniently made in sidereal units. while arguments being the values of the first /s and 7m. II by Tables II and III printed at the" end of the American Ephemeris. Table Ans. In case tables are not available the conversion can be based upon equations is (47) or (48).ini For many purposes these expressions imate relations: IIl24 h hour hour = IIIi" = 918565 = III =9. and the second the argu ment which to be used for the interpolation. 1/70).081 Error Error = 0. or more simply. 17.29 2O.8296 may be replaced by the following approx 1124 IIIi III = = 4 4 m (i (l (i 1/70). respectively.72 1.41 1/60X10*78= II/s 201. Table Ans. =10. as follows: = 20*478 io*/s = 204*78 = 3. 16. It will be observed that factors of is H/ and III/m indicate the table. Table Table III gives those of III/m.0006 Error = 0. Given the sidereal interval 20" 28 m 42*17. II) The calculation of II/S by the last of (49) /. = 2O = 11 28 m 42*17 3 25 is II/S /m = 2O 21. value thus found differs onlyo'oi from that derived from Table III of the Ephemeris. not Example interval.37 = 3 m 2 "37 . S. provided the highest precision required.73 = 2 m 40!73 IO"/m find The Interval.88 (Eph. S. upon (49). (45) /m fs = = I6"1 18 2 21*20 40. III) The calculation of III/m by the third of (49) as follows: /m = 16*306 I/7oXio*/m = 163106 = 2. Given the mean solar interval toMS" 1 21*20.33 Ill/m = 160. in I M.92 is III/m = 16 21 (Eph. and vice versa. S.S.RELATION OF SIDEREAL AND SOLAR INTERVALS and further Gain of 43 on M.T. Example By Eq. T. find the equivalent sidereal By Eq. the equivalent mean solar (46) /.
and.From equation (50) it is seen that the gain of sidereal on mean solar time during any interval is equal to the increase in during that interval. the right ascension of the mean sun. we find M=6 R R (50) in which its hour represents the right ascension of the mean sun. Jan. thus appears that the increase in the right ascension of the mean sun is not which t is proportional to the increase in the time. it follows that the increase in the right ascension of the mean sun one mean solar day is sensibly 236. indeed. From this it follows that the methods given in Section 26. now turn our attention to a consideration of the methods which are avail We able for the determination of this quantity. Its change in one day is therefore very small. as the same is true of the term involving 2 t in (51). Equation (50) therefore expresses a relation between mean solar time and the cor M responding sidereal time. . shows that s which are approximately}. Relation between mean solar time and the corresponding sidereal time. M. as given by equation (51). In Section 14 it was shown that the relation connecting the hour angle of an object with the sidereal time is t= to the 6 a where a represents the right ascension of the object. a fact already indicated in Section 21. a (51) in It reckoned in Julian years from the epoch 1900. is The shown in RG = 18" 38 m 45 ! 836 + (236:555 X 365. we have exact numerical agreement between the change in the latter for one mean solar day. which can be made the basis for the conversion of the one into the other. T. This.25)' + osooooo93* + nutation in right ascension. Applying this equation mean sun.44 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT 27. B 555. right ascension of the mean sun and its determination. and. however. It works on theoretical astronomy that the right ascension of the mean sun at any instant of Greenwich mean time is given by the expression 28. can equally well be applied to the determination of the increase in R. including Tables II and III of the Ephemeris and the approximate relations (49). at the instant to which the given time refers. The transformation requires a knowledge of R. and the gain of the former during the same period as shown by the in R first of (47). is equal by definition to the mean solar time. and angle. The nutation in right ascension oscillates between limits strictly (50). The latter. in connection with equation sidereal time is not a uniformly varying quantity. oa o h Gr. provided only that the interval for which the change is to be calculated is small enough to render the variations in the last two terms of (51) negligible.I s and I with a period of about 19 years.
and are to be found in the last column of page II for each month. Denoting terms of (51) we have for Greenwich mean noon of any other date Ro computed from (51) R = R00 + where UW (54). the uncertainty in R derived from (56) will be only from the neglect of the variation in the last terms of (51). and if Ri. o the error will never exceed o. or their equivalent. by the use of Tables IIIV. M. If the precise value of 8 M be used. determi any instant at any place when the value of Ro for the preceding mean noon is known. at a point whose longitude west of Greenwich is L is given by is L R= or XL + HIM. = Ro + UIL + + M).'3 or III. If an Ephemeris is not available the values of R can still be found. (54). and can then be added mentally to the value of Ro as the latter is taken from the Ephemcris. (54) suffice for the Equations (52) and (53). its precise numerical values are tabulated in the various astronomical ephemerides for every day in the year. (56) value of D may be to the tabular number standing opposite obtained from Table III by adding the day of the the name of the month in The is conveniently expressed in decimals of a day by means of Table value thus found is to be combined with D. For a given place the term IIIZ is a constant. 111(1) (55) D indicates the o. approximately at least. number of mean solar days that have elapsed since the preceding Jan. page 46. Further. Its value can be calculated once for all. (53) R=R + nation of IIIZ + HIM./? at any mean time. that arising .RIGHT ASCENSION OF MEAN SUN 45 To facilitate the solution of problems in which R is required. O (52) equal to the time interval separating mean noon of the place from the preceding Greenwich mean noon. the value of . The quantity HIM may be at R derived from Table III of the Ephemeris with as argument. it follows from the preceding paragraph that RL for = R + IIIZ. 236. viz. In the American Ephemeris they are given for the instant of Greenwich mean noon. If these tabular values be represented by Ro. If care be taken to count D from the nearest Jan. question. represent the right ascension of the mean sun at the instant of mean noon for a point whose longitude west of Greenwich is L. Substituting (55) into R The month IV.. The first of these contains M the values of for the date Jan. o for each of the years these by Roo and neglecting the variations in the last two 19071920. 555.
o d o h GR. Year .46 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY TABLE II RIGHT ASCENSION OF THE MEAN SON FOR THE EPOCH JAN. M. T.
at that instant. The right member of (58) therefore expresses the sum of the sidereal time of the preceding mean noon and the number of sidereal hours.34 48. nearest Jan.7 2. Given the mean solar time at any instant to sponding sidereal time. (58) RL = Ro + lllL. 1 1 9 21 m i8'33 ll\L lllAf Af=8 14. Equation (58) may be interpreted as follows: of the ^L is the right ascension mean sun at the preceding mean noon for a place in longitude L west of therefore also equal to the hour angle of the vernal equinox i. place considered. 93) (Eph. p. together D> somewhat greater uncertainty is permissible. the result may be more m 1/70) for III. o.TRANSFORMATION OF MEAN SOLAR INTO SIDEREAL TIME 04.e. 21 6m 2<ji Columbia M. If D be reckoned from the expeditiously found by using 4 (i o as above. From equation (50) we find corre = M+R Introducing the value of (57) R from (53) we have = M+i + where UIM. i8 h 37 i 51 (Table II) 0.7 (Table II) lllL III(Z> f M) = R= 59 3 49. It is M is the equivalent sidereal interval. (59) Equations (59) and (58) solve the problem. ^? = i8 h = 10 5 36 i 05 0. (D + M) = i67<)348 m 4 (D + M) = 6697392 m 1/70 X4 (> + M) = 9TS63 Example 2 By Equation (Tables (56) o (1907) and IV. the corresponding error will not exceed 3".7 5' 19. Table III) Ans. and seconds that have elapsed and by (45) M+IIIAf . <1 1909. Now Greenwich. Sept.1 6 12 35 Jf= m 3 5'2i.67 22. with the value of Roo for l\\z following Jan. T. = ioi = = = The +o li 8io(Table8lIIandIV)^?oo (1910) IIl(Z is I2 h loodtgo 4oo?76o S725 = = + M) = III/. precise value given by (54) 29. Table III) (Eph. Find the right ascension of the mean sun for the epoch 1907.00 = R=5 III 36 (Eph. T. Find the right ascension of the mean sun for the epoch S. minutes. June 16 S. If a Example 8 h 2i m 1400 18. By Equation /. = 6h ^?o = Sh = (54) 34 i i m 25*'0 0. 34 find the Ans. to the sidereal time of the preceding mean noon at the is the mean time interval since preceding mean noon. 47 This requires that for 183* the negative value of Table III be employed. Columbia M..
The uncertainty in the sidereal time thus found will be the same as that of derived from (56). designed for use at the meridian of Columbia. Nov.7 2 8 54 10 43. find the corresponding sidereal time.1 i 0. In case the Ephemeris is not at hand.23 55. Example 20.4 55 Ans. By equation m (60) i8 h 4 (i 1/70) (Z> + . 5 8 Ans. The maximum error in the value of (60) is i. Given Columbia mean solar time i6 h 27 (58) and (59) i6 h 27"" 32517 32517 on 1909. In such cases the following. m plus the constant term IIIL. (60) term in the right member of this formula is the average value of . M=6 Substituting as in Section 29 R we have RL M=O or IUM X I. 16. By equations M= Xo III/. is the sidereal time corresponding to the mean time. Oftentimes a rough approximation for 6 is all that is required.532 = IIIL = lll(D + M) = = Koo M= i6 h 27"" 32:2 18 37 5. by the equation. as indicated R may R be obtained from (56) and substituted into (57) for the determination of 0. which for Columbia may be taken equal to i The expression can be adapted for use at any other meridian by introducing the derived from appropriate value of IIIL. mean Given the sidereal time at any instant to find the corresponding solar time. m 7.W) = # = M= 16 2 37T7 27. 30. We make use of equation (50).5 547 10.48 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT In other words it since noon. is useful : 0= The J?oo first i8"37'?7 + M + 4m (i i//o) (D + M).05 10 Aas. M. (61) . viz. By equations (56) and (57) 1/70 X 4 m OD + = m 4 (Z> + A/) = D\M 45 d +o d 686 44*314 i77?256 M)= 2.67 111M= 2 42. = IS = = 8 39 i 3998 0.
= 9 38. as before.72 18. the mean Given. Ans.TRANSFORMATION OF SIDEREAL INTO MEAN SOLAR TIME common Multiplying equations (45) and (46). sponding central standard time. is the given sidereal time.M.82 M= 34o 19. factor 7m ft we find 49 member by member.05 A. and dropping the (I + III)(I II) = I Combining this with (61) we find M= d where. S. (62) RL =R + III/.e. Equation (62) is susceptible of an interpretation similar to that given (58) in the preceding section. 1908. The right member of (62) therefore expresses the number of mean solar hours. May 12. minutes. To find the equivalent mean time interval we must. and seconds that have elapsed since the preceding mean. Columbia sidereal time i h 7 m 19*27. RL 11(0 RL). (63) Equations (63) and (62) solve the problem. and RL the sidereal Since time of the preceding mean noon. Example 21. noon. May 13. subtract from d ^L the quantity 11(0 RL). find the corre By equations 9 = RL = RL = RL) = (62) and (63) 25. 6 RL is the sidereal interval that has elapsed since noon. solar time corresponding to the given 0.33 (Eph. T. .46 jii jm 19*28 20 46 3 3 21 53. Table II) 21 L= 43 9 52 C. i. in accordance with equation (46).
with important modifications in the escapement mechanism introduced by in 1713. 50 With an accurate portable timepiece. however. the Dutch physicist and astronomer. time and azimuth are the watch or engineer chronometer. . tachment is is treated separately before the discussion of the transit In consequence. and it 1637. the construction and theory of this atand sextant undertaken. It remained for Huygens. Netherlands established large money prizes for a successful solution. and the tude.000 for a method which would give the longitude of a ship within half a degree. and in 1714 that of Great Britain offered a reward of 20. Contrivances for the measurement of time have been used since the beginning of civilization. not so much for the work of the astronomer as for that of the navigator. The instruments employed by the for the determination of latitude. fulfill all the requirements that may be demanded of a timepiece. TIMEPIECES 32. Graham opment which. It can not be transported from place to place. made the clock an instrument of precision. Since then its develin design and construction has kept pace with that of other forms of astronomical apparatus. How means may be.CHAPTER 31. and it does not. matter was of such importance that the governments of Spain. The pendulum clock must be mounted in a fixed position. The following pages give a brief account of the theory of these instruments and a statement of the methods to be followed in using them. The pendulum seems first to have been used as a of governing the motion of a clock by Biirgi of the observatory of Landgrave William IV at Cassel about 1580. The use of both the engineer's transit and the sextant presupposes an under standing of the vernier. was not until some years later that his idea found material realization in a clock ever this constructed by his son Vincenzio. The most difficult thing in finding the position of a ship is the determination of longi At that time no method was known capable of giving this with anything more than the roughest approximation. France. though it is not certain that the principle employed was that involved in the modern method of regulation. blind and enfeebled. Some sixty years later Harrison and Graham devised methods of pendulum compensation for changes of temperature. By the beginning of the eighteenth century the need of accurate portable timepieces had become pressing. but it was not until the end of the sixteenth century that they reached the degree of perfection which made them of service in astronomical observations. although the question had been attacked The by the most capable minds of the two centuries immediately preceding. the method now used was certainly suggested by Galileo about but Galileo was then near the end of his life. and in 1657 give it an application that attracted general attention. and the engineer's transit or the sextant. IV INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USE Instruments used by the engineer. Historical. the artificial horizon. to rediscover the principle. therefore.
TIMBI'lECES
51
which could be set to indicate the time of some standard meridian before beginning a voyage, the solution would have been simple. Notwithstanding the stimuIn 1735 Harrison lus of reward no solution was forthcoming for many years. succeeded in constructing a chronometer which was compensated for changes of temperature; and about 1760 one of his instruments was sent on a trial voyage
to Jamaica.
Upon
return
its
variation
its
values of the longitudes based on
error.
was found to be such as to bring the readings within the permissible limit of
The
under the action of no forces, but
ideal timepiece, so far as uniformity is concerned, would be a. body moving The in practice this can not be realized.
modern timepiece of
but
falls
precision is a close approximation to something equivalent, short of the ideal. Thus far it has been impossible completely to nullify
the effect of certain influences which affect the uniformity of motion. Changes in temperature, variations in barometric pressure, and the gradual thickening of the oil lubricating the mechanism produce irregularities, even when the skill of the designer and clockmaker
No timepiece is perfect. is exercised to its utmost. can say only that some are better than others. Further, it is impossible to set a timepiece with such exactness that it does not differ from the true time
We
by a quantity greater than the uncertainty with which the latter can be determined. Thus it happens that a timepiece seldom if ever indicates the true time; and, in general, no attempt is made to remove the error. The timepiece is started under conditions as favorable as possible, and set to indicate approximately the true time. It is then left to run as it will, the astronomer, in the meantime, directing his attention to a precise determination of the amount and the rate of change of the error. These being known, the true time at any instant is easily found.
33. Error and rate. The error, or correction, of a timepiece is the quantity which added algebraically to the indicated time gives the true lime. The error of a timepiece which is slow is therefore positive. If the timepiece is fast the
algebraic sign of its correction is negative. The error of a mean solar timepiece is denoted by the symbol J7"; of a To designate the timepiece to which the correction sidereal timepiece, by Jt).
refers subscripts
.
may be
;
added.
Thus
the error of a Fauth sidereal clock
.
may
Sometimes be indicated by Jti f of a Negus mean time chronometer, by J7*N it is convenient to use the number of the timepiece as subscript. If 6' be the indicated sidereal time at a given instant, and JO the corresponding error of the timepiece, the true time of the instant
will
be
(64)
= 0' + JO'.
The analogous formula
for a
mean
solar timepiece
is
T= T + JT'.
The
daily rate, or simply the rate, of a timepiece
is
(65)
the change in the error
during one day.
52
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY
If the error of a timepiece increases algebraically, the rate is positive; if
it
decreases, the rate
negative. The symbols fid and dT with appropriate suband mean solar timescripts are used for the designation of the rates of sidereal The hourly rate,>. the change during one hour, is somepieces, respectively.
is
times more conveniently employed than the daily rate. It is convenient, but in no wise important, that the rate of a timepiece should be small. On the other hand, it is of the utmost consequence that the rate should
be constant; for the
to
reliability of the
instrument depends wholly upon the degree
which
this condition is fulfilled.
Generally it is impossible to determine by observation the error at the instant must therefore be able to calculate its for which the true time is required. If the rate value for the instant in question from values previously observed.
We
is
constant this can be done with precision; otherwise, the result will be affected
by an uncertainty which will be the greater, the longer is the interval separating the epochs of the observed and the calculated errors. If Jt} and Jt)' be values of the observed error for the epochs / and /', the
daily rate will be given
by
in
which /' /must be expressed in days and fractions of a day. The rate having thus been found, the error for any other epoch, t". may be calculated by the formula
JQ"
= J6' + 3d(t"
clock was
t')
(67)
27561
Example
22.
The
error of a sidereal
+5
sidereal time, and 5 33510 Feb. 14 at 7^6 sidereal time.
+
on
1909, Feb.
n,
at 5^2; find the daily rate,
on 1909, Feb. 3, at 6'.'4 and the correction on
We
have J0
= + 5 m 2761,
/'
J0'=
/
+ 5 m 33">
5^2
3
d
and
=
i i
d
6^4
=7
d
22l'8
=
7<
1
95.
Equation (66) then gives $0
= + 5H9/79S =
7*16,
t'
f
0:69,
which
is
the required value of the rate.
To
find the error for Feb. 14, t"
we have
d
= i4
7^6
nd
5^2
=
3'!
2 l'4
=
3<?i,
whence by equation
(67)
40"
'=
+ 5 m 3351 + 3.1 X 0569 = +
5"'
35524.
Ans.
34. Comparison of timepieces. It is frequently necessary to know the time indicated by one timepiece corresponding to that shown by another. The determination of such a pair of corresponding readings involves a comparison of the two To make such a comparison the observer must be able accurately timepieces.
to follow, or count, the seconds of a timepiece without looking at the instrument. It is desirable, moreover, that he should be able to do this while engaged with
other matters, such as entering a record in the observing book,
etc.
CLOCK COMPAR/SONS
;
53
Pendulum clocks usually beat, or tick, every second and chronometers, every The beats of the ordinary watch are separated by an interval of a With each beat the second hand of the timepiece moves fifth of a second. forward by an amount corresponding to the interval separating the beats a whole second space for the clock, a half second space for the chronometer, and
half second.
second for the watch. two timepieces coincide, observer has only to pick up the beat from at the other and note the hour, minute, and time on the first. After noting the reading
a fifth of a
If the beats of
a comparison
is
easily
made.
The
one, then, following mentally, look second corresponding to a definite
of the second, the observer should look again at the first before dropping the count, to make sure that the indicated number of seconds and the count were in agreement at the instant of comparison
If the beats of the timepieces
do not coincide, and
it
is
desired to obtain a com
parison with an uncertainty less than the beat interval, the observer must estimate from the sound the magnitude of the interval separating the ticks. He will then
note the hour, minute, second, and tenth of a second on the second timepiece corresponding to the beginning of a second on the first.
When
a watch
is
to be
should be taken from the
latter.
compared svith a clock or a chronometer, the count The tenths of a second on a watch corresponding
to the beginning of a second on the clock or chronometer may be estimated by noting the position of the watch second hand with respect to the two adjacent second marks at the instant the beat of the clock or chronometer occurs. The
comparison will then give the hour, minute, second, and zero tenths on the clock or chronometer corresponding to a certain hour, minute, second, and tenth of a. second on the watch.
and a mean solar timepiece are to be compared, a very precise be obtained by the method of coincident beats. It was shown in Section 26 that the gain of sidereal on mean solar time is about ten seconds per hour,
If a sidereal
result
may
The ticks of a solar and a sidereal timepiece, each beating seconds, must therefore coincide once every six minutes. If one of the timepieces beats half seconds, the coincidences will occur at intervals of three minutes. comparison is made by noting the times indicated by the two instruments
or one second in six minutes.
A
If carefully made, the uncertainty of the comparison will not exceed one or two hundredths of a second.
at the instant the beats coincide.
1907, Oct. 29, five comparisons of a watch were made with the Fauth Laws Observatory. The means of the comparisons are Or = iS h 23 m o'oo, and 7 w = 4 h 3 nl i6i2 P.M. The error of the Fauth clock was 29172, and the longitude west of Greenwich is 6 h 9 m Find the error of the watch referred to central standard
Example
1
23.
On
sidereal clock of the
18*33.
time.
From Of and J(t r find by (64). The sidereal time is then to be transformed into C. S. T. by (62) and the first of (41;. The resulting C. S. T. compared with 7"w gives the error of
the watch.
54 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY .
are omitted. together with the constant value 7C 15. R are thus led to the following grouping of the comparisons: i and 16. 3 and and 30. T. a precise value of the watch time corresponding to the first chronometer reading. The 15 values of 7 substituted into equation (a). The two values of J7"c. and it is important to arrange the calculation so that any irregularity in the relative rate will be revealed. 23. The mean of the resulting values of will then be the final result. and the average uncertainty of a single comparison. The reduction will then give not only the quantitative value of the final result. from (b) that the precision of R increases with the length of this interval. S. The into C. The first of these would depend upon data secured during the first 15 minutes of the observing period. consider the resultant error of observation in when derived from equation (a). R = relative rate of watch per minute. . To obtain a criterion for the most advantageous arrangement. The solution of the first part of the problem may therefore be accomplished by grouping the comparisons in pairs and applying equation (a). it follows It is desirable for the sake of symmetry in the reduction that the separate values of should be of the same degree of precision.. or. and for the derivation of the final result of 7W which . But. therefore. Thus. upon those obtained during the last 15 minutes. and soon. to find the rate per minute of the watch referred to the chronometer. while the intermediate values of /.' would correspond to various intermediate 15minute intervals. if /c 7w then = interval between two chronometer times. the second. by subtracting the 18 ... since 7C is assumed to be constant throughout. at The interval between any two chronometer readings minus the difference between the corresponding watch readings is the loss of the watch as compared with the chronometer during the interval. Any irregularity in the rate will therefore reveal itself in the form of a progressive change in the separate values of /?.n present a satisfactory agreement. Example 26. we adopt the simpler procedure of forming the mean of the values we then substitute into (a) with /c = I5 m We thus find mean 7W = I4 m 57*65. equation (a) shows that constancy of 7W will be quite as satisfactory a test of the reliability of the timepieces as constancy in R. 7"w = the last. The quotient of the loss by the interval in minutes is a value of the relative rate per minute. 2 and 17. would give 15 separate values for R. chronometer made Given thirty comparisons of a Wallham watch and a Bond sidereal intervals of one minute. = interval between two watch times. to calculate the separate values of the relative rate. the ath comparison is paired with the(is The )th. but at the same time will throw light upon the reliability of the instruments employed. whence the mean relative rate of the watch referred to the chronometer is 05157 per minute of . Denoting the influence of the errors in the observed watch times upon the interval 7W by e we find for the error of /? Since c is independent of the length of the interval separating the comparisons.CLOCK COMPARISONS The second and details of the conversion of 55 third comparisons are reduced by the method used for Ex.. 15 We + T second from the seventeenth. in general. chronometer time. It is not necessary. The first of these is derived by subtracting the first from the sixteenth.. The selection of the comparisons for the formation of the pairs K R requires careful attention if the maximum of precision is to be secured. fourth column of the table gives the values of 7W corresponding to this choice..
.56 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT WATCH AND CHRONOMETER COMPARISON No.
not known and cannot be found. and 16. 1 is the m required precise watch reading corresponding to the first chronometer reading. for the calculated value of and the mean TV will the first R differ but little from the quantities they are taken to represent. and the watch times. TV. as a measure of the precision of the observations.. Example 27. the mean of all the corrected readings.. Af be used for the formation p. an approximation for uals will equal the negative value of the remainder the value used as a mean. iff. 26. = A/ 7"w (c) are in the last It is The values of i< formed in accordance with A of valuable control may be applied at this point. shown that if the exact value algebraic sum must be zero. 3 and 4. The comparisons are in the second and third columns of the table. To determine the average uncertainty of a single comparison of two time Bond sidereal chronometer with those of a time clock are taken as the basis of the investigation.. to the five th reading. The average of the errors would then indicate the precision of the comparisons. for. Denoting the residuals by r. easily is in used. The average residual. of the residuals. The residuals will differ but little from the corresponding errors. i and 30. consider the corrected watch has been used in applying the corrections for rate. and the mean of the corrected watch times by A/ we have (0 .. and.oi. To accomplish this we have only to add to the readings. the algebraic sum of the residthe division which gives as quotient In the present case the algebraic sum of the residuals is fo. or. The differences between each corrected watch time and the mean of them all are called residuals. The principles illustrated in the preceding reduction find frequent application in the treatment of the data of observation. i)/f. and readings. (Num. . comparison. the quantities o/?. compared with the errors The mean of the values of TV. ingly. o' 45 o'oo.. the less will be the i. the smaller their variations among them.CLOCK COMPARISONS 57 would then have given a precise value of the watch time corresponding to the first chronomThe given problem may be reduced to this case by correcting each watch eter reading. is 0509. and for the true value of We must watch reading. M column of the table. . io h 25 m 25579. in column six. the grouping of the observations for the determination of the mean value of R should be examined. Although the average of the residuals will not exactly equal the average of the errors. barring a constant systematic error. 17. The method used for the reduction is similar to that employed in Ex. nevertheless. Ten successive coincidences of the beats of a & Rupp mean . . it may be accepted. accorduse for the true relative rate the value calculated above. etc. In particular. Comp. which checks the formation of the mean and ihe residuals... Since the chronometer beats haltseconds and the clock seconds..or.e. ( in order.. \R. their however. In general. The values of these corrections are column results are given to of the table. the remainder is o. . and the student should investigate for himself the precision of the result when such combinations of the comparisons as 15 I and 2. 29 and 30. But the true values of R and of the first comparison are we therefore proceed as best we may. These two places of decimals in order to keep the errors ot calculation small as of observation.If the true value of if the true value of the first watch reading were known.) If... in 29^?. 2 and 28. corrected for rate. 2 and 3. The example is typical and the methods followed in the discussion should receive careful attention. 79 and 30. it is evident that the more accurate the observations. average residual. the actual error of this and of each of R the remaining readings could at once be found by forming the difference between the true value and each of the corrected watch times. i and 2. without This we may accept as the average uncertainty of a single regard to algebraic sign. selves. the interval between the successive coincidences is that required for the clock to lose Gregg pieces by the method of coincident beats.. reading by the effect of the rate during the interval separating it from the first observation. To obtain a notion of the uncertainty of a single comparison. are employed in place of that actually used.
the corresponding average uncertainty of a comparison is Since the clock o'ooS. g7. The variations in the values of 7" represent the influence of the errors of observation. in column six.58 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Denote the true value of this interval by I. if. Their mean is n m I4' 55!2. . The numerical values of the corrections are from the readings. To ex0:5 as compared with the chronometer. 2/. in order. No. used for 7 is onefifth of the average of the intervals between the th and the (j5)th clock readings. i" in 358*. The average residual for the reduced clock readings is 2*94. and the reduced clock readings themselves. . whence 7= 2 59!O4. hibit the influence of" the errors of observation we find what the clock readings would have been had they This is done by subtracting all been made at the same instant as the first. o7. COMPARISON BY COINCIDENT BEATS. . which . . The individual values of these intervals are in column four. The value to be in column five. may loses be accepted as the average uncertainty of the time of a coincidence.
the graduation nearest the zero of the scale marking the zero of the vernier. Strictly speaking.IHtlilZON AND VERXIEli 59 chronometer. It is important that the plates of glass should be carefully selected in order that the light rays traversing them may not be deflected from their course. Any given object and its image will be situated with mercury. It takes its name from use. should be kept in a fixed position with respect to the points of the compass. Pierre Vernier. or length. Usually this not occur. The angular distance between the object and its image is therefore twice its apparent altitude. It can also be used to advantage with the engineer's transit for the elimination of certain instrumental errors. . scale. its its and In inventor. by turn THE VERNIER 37. but for distant objects the error is insensible. the arrangement being such that the angle. the desired reading will of the vernier. The vernier slides along the scale. The on the same vertical circle. to scales for the purpose of reducing the uncertainty of measurement. The measurement of the distance between the object and its image therefore affords a means of determining the altitude of a celestial body. so far as possible. THE ARTIFICIAL HORIZON 36. to be measured corresponds to the distance between the zeros of the scale and of the vernier. who in 1631 described its construction usual form the graduations are such that the total number of vernier divisions. The vernier is a short graduated plate attached Description and theory. this is true only when the eye of the observer is at the surface of the mercury. and the vernier is then used to measure the fractional part of the scale division included between the last preceding scale graduation and the zero tion of the scale. The artificial horizon is usually provided with a glass roof to protect the surface of the mercury from disturbances by air currents. The difference between the values of a scale and a vernier division the least reading = is called / of the vernier. The artificial horizon consists of a shallow dish force of gravity brings the surface to a horizontal position. is equal to i divisions of the scale. The effect of any nonparallelism of the surfaces may be eliminated by making an equal number of settings with the roof in the direct and reversed position. and the angular distance of the image below the surface will be equal to that of the object above. filled Description and use. If d d' = value of one division of the = value of one division of the vernier. which we may denote by n. and the high reflective power of the metal makes it possible to see the various celestial bodies reflected in the surface. reversal being accomplished ing the roof end for end. and in this connection the artificial horizon is a valuable accessory to the sextant. When the zero of the vernier stands opposite a graduais given directly by the scale.
find a pair for which the interval differs from zero by an amount equal to. it follows that the interval between the second pair of graduations will be v 2/. Uncertainty of the result. for the ) d = nd' whence '**. In practice the actual counting of the number of divisions between the zero of the vernier and the coincident pair is avoided by making use of the numbers stamped on the vernier. Usually one or two divisions precede the zero and follow the last numbered graduation of the vernier. Denote its value by i'. and are therefore to be disregarded in the determination of /. (69) we disregard s and use = n'l. beginning with the zero of the vernier and proceeding in order in the direction of increasing readings. The value of the corresponding interval will be v '/=. The latter may be fixed at O. The product of this number into the reading is the value of v.osd. The maximum error of a reading made with a perThe uncerabsolute value is 1/2. By proceeding far enough we shall on. a quantity so small that the graduations will nearly. Now. I. therefore. They are added to assist in the selection of the coincident pair when coincidence occurs near the end of the vernier. gain in precision resulting from the use of the vernier may be found by comparing the uncertainty of its readings with that arising when the scale alone is used. we count the number of vernier from the zero of the vernier to the vernier graduation which most nearly least coincides with a graduation of the scale. and so /. The least reading of the vernier is (68) therefore i/tith of the value of a scale division.60 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY method of graduation described above. if not quite. tainty . The first interval is the one whose magnitude is to be determined by the vernier. 38. than 1/2. (70) To divisions determine the value of v. constructed vernier is whose fectly of the result is therefore 1/2. and we therefore find p In practice = v V+*. that between the third v each successive interval decreasing by /. as experience shows that this The . Since a vernier division is less than a scale division by the least reading. consider the intervals between the various vernier graduations and the nearest preceding graduations of the scale. (n i then. Suppose this pair to be n' divisions from the zero of the vernier. These give directly the values of n'l corresponding to certain equidistant divisions of the vernier. These do not form a part of the n divisions of the vernier. or less coincide. The final result is the sum of v and the reading corresponding to the last scale graduation preceding the zero of the vernier. for an arbitrary setting of the vernier.
It is therefore I divisions of the must be rigorously fulfilled if reliable results are to be obtained. . that a vernier is of no advantage unless the number of its divisions is in excess of ten. With a carefully graduated instrument. and then examining whether the r ) st (+ vernier graduation stands exactly opposite graduation of the scale. and. they were constructed instruments of Tycho Brahe. The condition that divisions of the vernier equal . The inverse ratio of the two uncertainties may be taken as a measure of the increase in precision. by estimating the magnitude of e. for his . will affect the result. until the latter half of the sixteenth century. The principle involved did not appear in western Europe.i scale /. all lie. possible to estimate s in fractional parts of the least reading. preferably. according as is positive or The precision to somewhat beyond the e compare The sum of the two intervals to be compared is negative. use of a magnifying lens usually shows that none of the vernier graduations exactly coincides with a graduation of the scale. as a quarter of a century was still to elapse before the construction of the first telescope. to push the limit given above. there was no need for moving them from place to place as they were intended solely for astronomical observations. Information may thus be obtained as to the accuracy with which the graduation of the instru ment has been performed. however. and were provided with index arms fitted with sights for making the pointings. in the same plane as the scale. the spirit level not yet having been invented. whence we find that the result given by the vernier is approx imately . The adjustment for level was accomplished by means of a plumb line. In many instruments.//io times as precise as that derived from an estimate of the fractional parts of a scale division. The instruments were large and necessarily fixed in position and. should the line of sight perpendicular to the scale. therefore. Though primitive in design. the plate being beveled to a knife edge where it touches the scale. To do so it is only necessary with the interval between the next following pair of graduations. however. or with that of the pair immediately preceding. With this arrangement the greatest care must be exercised in reading to keep The vernier should fit positions. Magnification of the object was impossible. The combination of a horizontal measurement of azimuth and altitude is known circle with a vertical arc to have been used by the Persian astronomers at Meraga in the thirteenth century. and it is possible that a similar contrivance was employed by the Arabs at an even earlier date. for the Historical. in snugly against the latter. The matter should be tested for different parts of the scale by bringing the zero of the vernier into coincidence with a scale graduation. it rests on top. it is possible. There it found its first extensive application in the who constructed a number of "azimuthquadrants" famous observatory on the island of Hveen. The vertical arcs of Tycho's instruments were movable about the axis of the horizontal circle. It appears.UNC&RTAINTT OP VEKXIER HEADINGS is 61 approximately the uncertainty of a careful eye estimate of the magnitude of r. Otherwise an error due to parallax THE ENGINEER'S TRANSIT 39. indeed.
thus making it possible The universal instrument was to measure angles by the method of repetitions. They are of interest not only on account of the re markable they series of results they yielded in the hands of Tycho. None of these modern instruments is the invention of any single person. but also because modern altazimuth. The rotation axes of the horizontal 2. the fol lowing conditions. . Certain attachments. then practically complete. Auzout. it is desirable that the instrument used in the solution of these problems should possess features not always present in the modern instrument. and Picard. which appears first to have been made in a portable form by John Sisson. time. notably the compass any and the telescope level. the student is referred standard work on surveying. At the beginning of the nineteenth century the design and construction were greatly improved by Reichenbach. : circle and the alidade coincide. The telescope. and should be provided with two verniers situated 180 apart.62 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY with the greatest care. an Englishman. The the corresponding axes of rotation. and were capable of determining angular distances with an uncertainty of only i' or 2'. in 1660. A Influence of imperfections of construction is that the student familiar with the and adjustment. and shade glasses for use in solar observations are a convenience. are not required for the determination of latitude. are satisfied 1. first constructed during the early years of the seventeenth century. In particular. It is assumed methods by which the engineer's transit may be adjusted. the theodolite. In the instrument fulfilling the ideal of construction and adjustment. but rather a combination of inventions by various individuals at different times. and the lines joining the zeros of the verniers pass through the axes. and a variety of other instruments. it becomes of importance to determine the influence of the residual errors in construction and adjustment. though not an absolute necessity. among others. 40. by Thevenot. to a detailed description of the engineer's transit. the engineer's transit. The vernier was invented in 1631. On the other hand. and that observations will not be undertaken until the various adjustments have been made with all possible care. and the transition to the engineer's transit required only the addition of the compass and such minor modification as would meet the requirements of precision and portability fixed by modern engineering practice. The planes of the circles are perpendicular to the corresponding axes of rotation. diagonal prism for the observation of objects near the zenith. centers of the circles lie in 3. Slow motions were introduced by Hevelius. the universal instrument. For and azimuth. and the spirit level. the vertical circle should be complete. was embody the essential principle of the adapted to sighting purposes through the introduction of the reticle by Gascoigne. But since an instrument is never perfect. and to establish precepts for the arrangement of the observing program such that this influence may be reduced to a minimum. All these were combined with the principle of the early azimuthquadrant to form the altazimuth. about the middle of the eighteenth century. who also added the movable horizontal circle.
.e.. on the other hand. is the angle OCF. is perpendicular to the hori zontal axis. the zero of the The distance aC=e graduations. 1 A BRRO/tS 63 4. it is structed instruments therefore insensible. is responsible for the re mainder. and /?. is No. It in Section 47. i. when the line of sight is horizontal. circles to the axes can be shown that the error due to lack of perpendicularity of the In well conis of the order of the square of the deviation.M/A'. ' l . the instrument maker to see that the first three of these conThe observer. and F t and V'> the< zeros of the verniers. 2. In Fig. the point where the rotation axis intersects the plane of the circle. The The horizontal rotation axis is perpendicular to the vertical axis.... No. respectively. 7. be rotated in order ively. 6. I is method of repetitions.SV/iY.. are / =A and OaV. 3. The vertical axis of rotation is truly vertical when the plate bubbles are centered.. It is The vertical circle reads zero the task of ditions are satisfied.V. 7. of importance only in the measurement of horizontal angles by the The error arising in such measures from noncoincidence of the vertical axes may be eliminated by the arrangement of the observing pro gram described No. O. Fig.=A. 7 let C be the center of the graduated circle OV^^ a. If the third condition not satisfied the readings will be affected by an error called eccentricity. and of F. l 1 l . the line through the optical center of the objective and the middle intersection of the threads. A and A. are therefore to be regarded . that the zeros of the verniers may move from O to the positions indicated. is the eccentricity of the circle. OCV Denote these by R. respectThe angles through which the instrument must. 5. The perpendicular distance of a from the The reading of F. line of sight.V X . line joining V and V is the eccentricity of the verniers.1 /.
E.=R + /*. which represents a projection of the celestial sphere on the plane Then. + # (. greater than two. u and 2 are tne corrections for eccentricity for the points O. + % (E. ^^inclination of the horizontal axis to the horizon plane. Nos. the intersection of the horizontal axis produced with the celestial sphere O is seen at the intersection of the threads. The last terms . = *. It can be shown that the eccentricity will also be eliminated by combining the means of any number of verniers. . and the equation shows that this angle is equal to the difference in the means of the vernier readings for the final and initial positions. The mean of (71) and (72) y> (A. let Z be the zenith.'/ where are of the order of tt"/r r the radius of the circle.) . t + A. let To investigate the effect of *=inclination of the vertical axis to the true vertical. y=inclination of the horizontal axis to the vertical axis. of the horizon. vernier with the means of the minutes and seconds of the two readings.64 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY as the angles which determine the positions of the verniers with respect to and 2 with the vernier for the pointing in question. is easily shown that the eccentricity f (73) ar>d (74) are entirely insensible in a well constructed instrument. . Z' the intersection with the celestial sphere of the vertical axis produced. 8.') It we have the analogous equation (74) 2 = #(*/+*.) + E.) = % (R + R.') +.#(*. The sides of the triangles when ZAZ' .). 4 7. O an object whose zenith distance is and A in Fig. The eccentricity is therefore eliminated by combining the means of the readings of both verniers.^(A +A = #(/?. The quantities b and c are the errors in level and collimation. (72) where and Vz . difference of (73) and (74) is therefore e' is and of the verniers and .+*. is V^ . r=inclination of the line of sight to the horizontal axis. respectively.).) . uniformly distributed about the first In practice it is sufficient to use the degrees indicated by the circle. are A. t t) (75) The left member of (75) is the angular distance through which the instrument is rotated in passing from the first position to the second. (73) For any other pointing of the A. 90 90 f . residual errors in Nos. 4 6. The relations connecting t A A readings. The XW+A. R l and R s. telescope. . Horizontal Angles: In the measurement of horizontal angles an error of adjustment in No. + t .' .').+*. 7 has no influence.
is /. referred to ZP. (76) (77) In a carefully adjusted instrument i. (81) no errors of adjustment. determined by the angle through which it must be rotated to bring A from coincidence with ZP would be AT to 90. its actual position. K and / be the directions of ZA. Finally. the direction of A referred to P The direction given by the instrument. spect to A. ZO. and b are very small. j. let k. f cos/sin /cos/. respectively. and Z'A. Equations (76) and (77) thus reduce to (78) (79) Equation (13) applied to triangle sin c ' ZAO gives sin za cos (AT = sin cos za + cos (80) Since c and 90 K + k are c also very small. Applying equations (13) and (15) to triangle ZAZ\ we find sin b cos b sin = sin/cos = cos/ sin / /.INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS 65 and ZAO have the values indicated in the figure. the difference 5 K Since the verniers maintain a fixed position with re/ 90 represents the effect of the residual errors . and we may neglect their squares as insensible. equation (80) f (90 may be written = b cos 2 90 K + k) sin z a a or K Were there k = b cot z + c cosec z .
simi larly to equation (80). = 180 ZO' A'ZO' in of AZO in 8.. c. either C. j. we have amount of the error { R. The sides of s . Since the the horizon as horizontal axis ment move is not truly horizontal.=j where (84) z'cos/. and as far below made in the same position reflected image. If the instrument be provided with a striding level. K A'ZO' are The angle at k' where fe' is the direction of ZA' referred to ZP.. and the component of i in the direction of the line of sight.). reflected in a dish of mercury.66 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY circle readings. therefore. To investigate the effect of the errors for a pointing on O' we must therefore A consider the triangle ZA' ^is place = ZA = gob. (82) refers to that position of the instrument for which the vertical circle is on the right as the observer stands facing the eyepiece (C. (83) C. . C. for settings on any object is free from the influence of j. and C. R be the actual horizontal circle reading. More over. vertical circle The through O. L.) cot*. we find by a which the value of b is precisely similar investigation for circle left (C. both observations being of the instrument. R. and axis to the plane of the horizon for C. or C. L. viz. L. the value for a perfectly adjusted instrument. it will be necessary to rotate the instruwill thus down to 0'. from (78) and (83) t R = %(R+R + zcos/cot2 o ) . the component of i parallel to the horizontal axis. R. If. and R . the values of b and b l Their substitution into (85) will then give the horizontal circle reading completely freed from i. substituting the values of b and b. is small. O'. t R is . (84) the circle reading less 180. whence it follows given by (81). We then find. for objects near the horizon the effect of i cos /. R. and Fig..).. sin /. a. A'0' = A0 = go+c. (82) Assuming that equation given by equation (78). the inclination of the horizontal The mean of equations (82) and is *. b. slightly about the vertical axis in turning from a small amount to a new position A'. in = R + 6cots + ccosecs Q . is on the horizontal that the But by (79) l=k. sensibly.. L. and cThe readings may also be freed from the influence of b by combining the results of a setting on O with those obtained by pointing on the image of seen may be determined by observation. R. (86) It therefore appears that the mean of the readings of the horizontal circle taken C. (85) or. will be on the is above. for it appears in (86) multiplied by cot ". L.
+ A .f cosec s 5 . (90 in other words the mean is of the instrument. A'o 2 ( Their mean a. 8.R. R. is /?  A") + c cosec z C. finally.sin c + cos b cos c cos (ZAO). + AY). The true zenith distance of is z. (87) Equations (82) and (87) both refer to C.AZ' cos 6s\n(ca ) Z'AO by s. C. free . cot cosec s . Z0 = ZAO cos sa = sin /. if /?' 90 k' ^ cot sa circle \ c cosec sa . Vertical Circle Readings To investigate the influence of i. whence K and.' is the circle reading less 180 for C. R'b cot z + c cosec s =y J ' C. whence we find with all necessary precision. . ZAZ'.') a. Finally the combination of (88) A' and (90) gives K' =K(/?+ + A. he the horizontal A> reading for the setting on O' . and from Denoting the instrumental zenith distance triangle /.. L. C. consider again Fig. =A + . (90) Equations (88) and (90) show that the mean of the horizontal circle readings for direct and reflected observations of an object in the same position of the instrument is free from the influence of any adjustment error in level. we find =angle = sin /'sin /. This equation combined with (84) gives . j and c upon the readings of the vertical circle. C. direct and reflected. = 1 14 (A .INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS sin c sin <>7 bcos 5 ) cos b sin * cos (K '). that given by the vertical circle readings is equal to the From the triangle we find angle Z'AO.not only : of the readings. c L. . L. R. (89) in which /?. (88) By the same method we A' find from the l\ reflected observation. but from the collimation error as well.?= Angle ZAO. R. L. are ordinarily quite insen The squares and products of the errors of adjustment sible. for both positions from b.
(96) (97) /fz'sin/. are not read directly from the circles. (95) o z = 90 = go is r 1\ + / + /sin /. (94) ^=90r. is the instrumental zenith distance for C. C. (93) in which s. and i are very small.. C. R. i. (92) A similar investigation gives for the reversed position of the instrument = + . z = z + /sin /. R. and C. using the mercurial horizon. The ordinary angles s and engineer's transit reads altitudes. viz. or. . 7.e. however.68 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY' b. (98) to 360 For an instrument whose vertical circle is graduated continuously from o it is easily shown that the equation corresponding to (98) is = in ! % (v. Considering the triangle defined. R. i sin/ enters with i"ts full and (98) and (99) show that it cannot be eliminated even when readings taken C. the To free the results from z'sin/ reflected. (99) which v 1 t and v 3 are the circle readings.) + / si n /. C. the subscripts being assigned so that <i8o*. ?' sin/. residual error of adjustment in No.. c. R. C. Substituting (94) and (95) into (92) and (93) . positions of the instrument does eliminate the index error./. L. R. C. '. the readings will not be the true altitudes. The mean of (96) and (97) s = 90 iX(r + r. It therefore appears that the vertical circle readings are not sensibly affected by /. and / the reading izontal. are combined.)Hsin/. L. be the vertical circle readings when the line of sight is hor we have z = 90 r + /. since c 2. The component of i in the direction of the line of sight. L. but if there is any deviation from the condition expressed in No. The formation of the mean for the two value. L. and C. or the component of / parallel to the horizontal axis. L.. for they will include the effect of the index error. respectively. If r The and rt for C. C. we find for the reflected observation we may combine observations direct and A'ZO' previously cos (i 80 za ) = sin bs\n c + cos b cos c cos {ZA'O'} . L. 7.
give 5U = 90 %(r. Similar considerations for and reflected. L. L.INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS 69 whence. the formation of the means of the vertical circle readings for observations direct and reflected in the same position of the instrument eliminates not only the component of i in the direction of the line of sight. j and c is insensible. (104) In other words. thus partially neutralizing errors of graduation. reflected. by 180 (\ s' we s . R. observations direct in a single position of the and it reflected instrument are sufficient. L. The influence of t'cos/. which is the angle Z'A'O'.) ( 1 80 s') a = 2' the t. we shall have. R. the difference sin I' will be insensible. Nevertheless is desirable that measures be made both C.. R. ZZ' = triangle ZA'Z' the sides are ZA'=go find is'in b. or with sufficient approximation za z' isinl'. C. C. + r/). For an instrument with a vertical circle graduated continuously from o to it is easily shown as before that in (103) and (104) the sum of the circle readings must be replaced by their difference taken in such a way that it is less than 180. R 360. . for in this way different parts of the vertical circle are used. (101) This substituted into (ioo) gives C. C. (102) Since between from / by a quantity of the order of the errors. and / the ciris reading when the line of sight horizontal. (ioo) Now cle if r' be the vertical circle reading for C. Denoting the instrumental = zenith distance of 0'. neglecting products and squares of the errors of adjustment. and C. the true 2 zenith distance of O' is 180 angle ZA'O'. observations direct C. but the So index correction as well. Z'A'=go _/. and and denoting the angle ZZ'A' by /'we cos b sin (z' z ) = sin /'. similarly to (94).. far as the errors here considered are concerned. (103) C. R. R. = 90X(r+r'). so that when equations (96) and and are combined to form the mean we have simply (102) /' differs i sin / j s. find Angle In ZA 'Z' = 80 2.
and /. L. c. C. It is easily shown that if the instrument be rclevclled before observing in the reversed position. (107) which is free from b. thus assumes a A lt distant from position >by 90+^. the mean of the readings C.= where ference less than 180. assumed throughout y2(v l i'. The result is therefore free from both b and c.. within quantities of the order of the products and The same will be true. (105) where R and R 1 are the horizontal circle readings.) (1 08) as before the readings are to be taken in such an order that their difis that the pointings are always made by bringing the object accurately to the intersection of the threads.= %(R + R.70 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The precedirfg discussion assumes that the adjustments of the instrument remain unchanged throughout the observations. even though the plate bubbles squares of the errors. they be brought to the same position in the tubes that they occupied before. It is not always convenient to make use of the therefore desirable to be able to apply a artificial horizon. the elimination of the errors will. will be free from the errors in all of the ad justment under Nos. 4 7. and it is method of elimination which does not depend upon this accessory. in general. from triangle ZA^Z^. L. are not accurately centered during the direct observations. graduated continuously we have similarly. (106) which the vertical circle reading r is not the same as the r l of (97). If this is not so. z = 90 r^ I z'sin/. both for the horizontal and the vertical circle. and C. while (97) assumes that no change is made in the position of the vertical axis during the observations. even though the threads be respectively horizontal and vertical. for (106) presupposes that the instrument is relevelled after reversal. The mean of the new equation and (82) is simply new A R. provided. It is important that this be done. after reversal. be incomplete. That such will be the case follows from a consideration of Fig. 8. for observing at one side of the field is equivalent to introducing an abnormal value It is . its dimensions remaining unchanged. Again. The mean of (96) and (106) is in 1 ^0 = 90 For A(r\a circle l r. 2. we find for circle left analogously to (97). The triangle ZA^O leads to an equation differing from (84) only in that b t is replaced by b.). R.). the latter having been reduced by 180. The reversal and relevelling is equivalent to rotating the triangle ZAZ' about Zthrough the angle i8o+2c. and Z' a position Z t '.
See equation 6 (85). and C. The adjustits mounting should be such that the bubble stands at the middle of the tube when the base line is horizontal. Horizontal circle readings: Component of deviation of vertical axis from vertical in direction of line of sight. graduation error of vertical All errors under Nos. R. however. This method of procedure requires a knowledge of the theory of the striding level. however. L. to reduce (103) All errors in Nos. for both C. it is desirable to remove the effect of this error by measuring the inclination of the horizontal axis to the horizon and applying a suitable cor rection to the circle readings. 41. the horizontal reading will . L. 3. and collimation eliminated by forming mean of readings taken C. Nonperpendicularity of circles to axes usually has no sensible influence on circle readings. See Section 47. L. Owing to residual errors of adjustment.INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS THE LEVEL 71 of the collimation. The scale reading of the middle of the bubble for this position is called the horizontal the zero at the end. Correction for the latter may be made by tiplied by cots . and the scale includes a larger number of divisions. Noncoincidence of vertical axes enters only when the horizontal used by the method of repetitions. nonperpendicularity of axes. 4 7 excepting com ponent of deviation of vertical axis from vertical insensible or eliminated (98) or (99). See equation 7 insensible or eliminated from mean of See equations readings. 2. ment of the level tube within reading.. Error eliminated by proper arrangement of observing program. The adjustment of the engineer's transit with respect to the vertical is usually made by means of the plate bubbles. any residual error being eliminated by some one of the methods of Section 40. L. R. and (107) or (108). for both horizontal and vertical angles provided plate bubbles have same See equations (105) position in tubes for both positions of the instrument. observations with the striding level. 42. and C. one with the zero of the scale at the middle of the tube. L. All errors in in Nos. and C. Eccentricity of circles and verniers eliminated by forming means of readings of both verniers. See Equation (91). The preceding results may be summarized No. / index error of vertical circle Vertical circle readings: does not enter. 4 circle. and C. and C. R. Nos. No. 4 eliminated by forming mean of readings direct and reflected. and (104). No. Desirable to observe both C. the other with Theoretically the two forms are equivalent. R. circle is as follows: I. Component of deviation from vertical which is parallel to horizontal axis appears mulSee equation (86). See equation (75). The striding level is more sensitive than the plate bubbles. direct and reflected. its tube is It is made in two longer. R. in same position of instrument. Summary of the preceding section. The error in No.The level. 4 7. while pointings above or below the horizontal thread correspond to a modification of the index error of the vertical circle. In some cases. from mean direction of line of sight of readings C. 4 7 eliminated from mean of readings C. forms. All errors in Nos.
The inclinations to be measured should be small and the horizontal reading should correspond as closely as possible with the scale reading of the middle of the tube. Since h has opposite signs for the two positions of the level. and writing D=y we find 4 d. the readings of the ends of the bubble for two positions. Denoting by r'. ative. made in the direct and the is by combining readings easily accomplished reversed position. assume that all tions. let m' and m" of the bubble. sitive instrument. The points of contact of the level with the pivots upon which it rests must be carefully freed from dust particles. d= the angular value of one h = the horizontal reading. (112) from (in) ("3) This result depends only upon the readings of the ends of the bubble and the value of one division of the scale. The level is a senand great care must be exercised in its manipulation if precise results are to be obtained. whatever the position of the zero of the scale. reversal being Let made by turning the level end for end. and all toward the left. the mean of (109) and (no) is b=y (m' + m")d. Precepts for the use of the striding level. for any inclination of the base line. /". The convention regarding the algebraic sign is such that when b calculated from (113) is positive. negreadings increasing then find. 2 (in) in which the mean of the observed inclinations has been written equal to b. Its value must be determined and applied as a correcThe latter tion to the scale readings. Since b' and b" are two observed values of the same quantity. . division of the level scale. We b'=(m'h)d. 43. respectively. be the readings of Further. we find from the difference of (109) and (no) h=^(r' +/' /'/"). and is therefore free from the horizontal reading. and b' and b" the corresponding observed inclinathe middle Finally. toward the right are positive. b" = (m" (109) (i 10) K)d. (114) which may be used for the calculation of h when a complete observation has been made. or else its influence must be eliminated. for the level direct and reversed. even for the form in which the zero of the scale is at the middle of the tube. and r". /'. the right end of the level is high.7J PRACTICAL ASTRO NOMT not usually be zero.
for both r' and I" and r" and /' will be opposite in sign and approximately equal in absolute magnitude. respectively. which is an instrument consisting essentially of a rigid base carrying a movable arm whose inclination to the horizon may be varied by a known amount by means of a graduated micrometer screw. and the time of reading reversal for each observation should be noted.7 I2 m  +310 20.4 13. and. The determination of the change in the inclination of the arm of the level trier necessary to move the bubble over a given number of divisions gives at once the angular value of one division of the scale. most easily found by forming first the diagonal sums of the four readings written as above. to this end. the are 8'. made with a level whose zero point is in the middle of the tube.THE LEVEL The length 73 of the bubble. even though he depends entirely upon a simple centering of the bubble If the striding level is to be used. must equal r" which 6' represents the sum of the four readings.0 The ob44. server should be familiar with the sensitiveness of all the levels of his instrument. or the various levels may be attached separately for the investigation.\ + . gular The investigation of levels is most easily carried out with the aid of a level trier. in /". . should be about onethird the length of the tube. 15'" T=9 b 9. The values of Example first 28. /'. a knowledge of the anfor the adjustment. The instrument should be protected from changes in temperature. The entire transit may be mounted on the arm. second.'i6 and 0*032. is S following illustrates the record and reduction of level observations". it should be shielded from the rays of the sun. r' Mistakes in may be is avoided by noting that The following. value of one division of its scale is an essential. the length of the bubble. The right end of the bubble should always be read first. and from the heat of the reading lamp and the person of the observer.1 + io. with one whose zero is at the end. \ 6 = Sd. which is adjustable in the more sensitive forms. and ample time should be allowed for the bubble to come to rest before reading. a convenient form for the record: Time r' r r" r' r>' r" +/" 4/' "I S. The The observation was D 0=6 h + 14. careful attention being given to the algebraic sign.8 35.3 + 16. Determination of the value of one division of a level.
The bubble was run from the left to the right end of the tube and back again. A glance at the results in this variable. The fifth column contains the means of the quantities in the two preceding columns. and columns three and four. . column sufficient to show that the curvature of the level tube is ONE DIVISION OF A LEVEL LEVEL TRIER No. and column six. the differences between the th and the (6f)th readings column five. The length of the arm and the pitch of the are such that a rotation of the micrometer head through one division changes the inclination by i". The principle used in combining the observations is the same as that emmicrometer screw ployed in Examples 26 and 27. the micrometer head through four divisions at a time. tion of the readings taken with the level in the reversed position gave for d the values in column change A eight. The ends of the bubble level trier for the by moving were read for each setting of the micrometer. the corresponding bubble for level direct. Column two of the table gives the micrometer means of the end readings of the settings. Each of the displacements of the bubble in column six therefore corresponds to a in in inclination of 24". for both level direct and reversed. The quotients formed by dividing the displacements into 24" similar reducare the values of one division of the level for different portions of the tube. The following shows part of the reduction of observations made with a determination of the value of one division of a level. The means is for the two series are in the last column.74 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Example 29.
combined with (112) gives bi b = (rt . .ONE DIVISION OF THE LEVEL of the horizontal circle. 9 b. (117) The angle r ding to the equal to sd. ra) tan which. r ra will never exceed one degree. and b.). any position of the level. bi r ) tan (116) we have (r l the analogous equation i. For any other inclination. 75 whence the angular value of one division of the level i and the horizontal circle readings. let HC and in Fig. . the Fig. (US) The angle b is very small and. thus have finally as the expression for We d (118) r. L. l r is change where s in inclination is the change in the horizontal circle reading corresponThe latter. To express d as a function of HC inclination. deflection of the axis from the vertical. which is supposed to be attached with its axis perpendicular to the radius through L and parallel to the plane of the circle. however. 9 represent portions of the horizontal circles for the normal and the deflected positions of the vertical axis. may be written b. We may therefore use the approximate relation = (r with an error not exceeding o"oi. In the spherical right triangle HLC the angle //is equal to i. r) tan i. HLC. we find Arc//=90 whence from the triangle (r r. the corresponding may be determined as before. r tan /. if ra and r be the horizontal circle readings corresponding to the inclinations zero and b respectively. tan b = tan i sin (r rc ). the displacement of the bubble in scale divisions.. while that at L is 90 Now. and d the angular value of one division. for i equal two or three degrees.
while the latter is to be preferred for the long finely graduated tubes of sensitive levels. levelling screws. as rigidly mounted as possible. The bubble should be run from one end of the tube to the other and then back again. For very sensitive levels it should be less. taking care at the same time that the transverse plate Then change In the absence of a telescope level. the vertical circle reading by the angle i and.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT should be two or three degrees for the investigation of the If the ordinary transit levels. change the vertical circle reading by i. tubes with only a few graduations the former method is more convenient. The deflection was 3. tion of the value of one division of the striding level of a Berger transit. in both positions of the instrument. This precaution is necessary in order that the deflection may have no component perpendicular to the plane of the vertical circle. or by changing the circle readings by a definite amount. preferably on a desirable to check the constancy of i by deflecting through masonry pier. axis may be accomplished as follows: Level the instrument and center the The angle i telescope bubble. and observing the variations in the position of the bubble. The graduations of the tube are in two groups of three each. bring the telescope bubble back to the tube. level the instrument. For short say 10'. Observations were made by the deflected axis method for the determina Example 30. and bring the object back to the intersection of the threads by means of the levelling screws. by means of the middle of its bubble is also centered after the deflection. the deflection of the vertical instrument be provided with a telescope level. Such a series of readings constitutes a set. sight on a distant object. The observations may be made either by displacing the bubble through a definite number of divisions and noting the corresponding change in the horizontal circle readings. the groups being separated ONE DIVISION OF A LEVEL DEFLECTED Axis Level Divisions . this angle toward the vertical at the end of a set and noting whether the It is The instrument must be instrument is then levelled.
In order that the threads may be seen sharply defined on the card. If for any reason the program cannot be made complete in this particular. the influence of semidiameter being eliminated. The horizontal circle was read when the bubble was symmetrically placed with respect to the pairs of graduations indicated The circle readings themselves are in columns two and three. in column four. While waiting for the second This method is open to the objection that transit. The interval may be shortened by shifting the position of the telescope between the observations. an interval of three or four minutes separates the transits of the two limbs. Then. and kept on the thread by slowly turning the horizontal slow motion until the instant of transit across the horizontal thread. the image is allowed to trail through the field until the transit of the following limb occurs. the difficulty can be avoided by observing the transits over the extreme threads the preceding limb over the first thread and the following limb over the last thread. when the time is again noted. and the minutes of the means of corresponding settings. The same number of The mean of the readings will then settings should be made for both limbs. occasion to measure the altitude not only of rapidly moving equatorial stars but also of circumpolar objects like Polaris whose positions with respect to the horizon change but slowly. thrs cannot be done with precision. The difference in motion in the two cases necessitates a difference of method in making the settings. The object is therefore brought into coincidence with the vertical thread near the point of intersection. by a proper focusing of the objective. The calculation for the determination of d is in accordance with equation (118). For example. For stars whose altitude varies rapidly. in column one of the table. the altitude of the sun's center may still be found with the . without changing the vertical circle reading. For Polaris or any other close circumpolar object. the star should be brought to the intersection of the threads by the slow motions. but this of course requires a reading of the vertical circle for each transit. the instrument may be adjusted so that the preceding limb is near the horizontal thread and approaching the intersection. If there be more than one horizontal thread. the time and the vertical circle readings being noted as before. Observations on the sun are most readily made with the aid of a shade of colored glass. the vertical circle is read. but if this is not available. the instrument in the meantime being rotated by means of the horizontal slow motion so that both transits are observed at the intersection of the threads.MEASUREMENT OF ALTITUDE 77 by a space approximately equal to the length of the bubble. which entails a considerable loss of time. the time of coincidence and the vertical circle readings being carefully noted. There are several methods by which the pointings may be made. The differences of the readings for a displacement of the bubble through two divisions are in the fifth column. it is necessary that the eyepiece be drawn out a small fraction of an inch from its normal position before the solar image is focused. correspond to the altitude of the sun's center. The instrument is clamped and the instant of tangency carefully noted. The observer will have 45. The measurement of vertical angles. the image may be projected on a card held a few inches back of the eyepiece.
no appreciable error will be introduced into results secured with the engineer's transit by treating the means as a single observation. ) reading on star. L. c and /. readings on star. The instrument must therefore be relevelled carefully after each reversal. \ \ I C. /. Both verniers should be read for each setting of the telescope. and the position of the object. a single set is limited by the fact that it is convenient to use for the reduction the means of the circle readings and the Since the change in the altitude of the star is not proportional to the times.78 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT I aid of the value of the semidiameter interpolated from page for the instant of observation. and C.L. i reading on star. changed during the intervals separating the various direct observations and the corresponding reflected observations immediately preceding or following. C. R. After the instrument has once been levelled. will not correspond to change each other. 2 OBSERVATIONS DIRECT AND REFLECTED Level. but if the observing interval does not exceed a certain limit.R. say a quarter of an hour. direct. will find application when the artificial horizon is elimination will be complete if the adjustments remain unemployed. the observations may be discontinued at the middle of the set. Bearing in mind the various fac we adopt star. VC. on star. the two means. The number of settings to be made for the determination of the altitude depends upon the precision desired. direct. direct. i readings on star. On the other hand. C. if more precision is . direct. observations on a will at the following as convenient arrangements for a set of The necessary modifications for measures on the sun in once be suggested by the methods for making the settings described the preceding paragraph. reading on star. that the number should not be less than two maximum number to be included in The for each position of the instrument. C. readings on star. i With the are arrangement. reflected. therefore. the rapidity with which the observer can make the pointings and read The arrangement in the circle. OBSERVATIONS DIRECT Level. 2 2 Readings on first star. rigorously speaking. the screws need not be touched until the set has been completed unless the bubbles should become made With the second. Reverse Level. 2 i reading on star. I Level. If only an approximate result is required.L. The observing program will also depend on the method employed for the elimination of the instrumental errors tors involved.R. which is to be used when all of the pointings directly on the star. R. 4 readings Reverse. It is desirable. which the displaced by a considerable amount. the elimination of the errors depends upon the bubbles occupying the same positions in their tubes for both C. Reverse._/. of the Epliemeris derived of the observing program is determined by the results Section 40 and summarized in Section 41. in the time. however. reflected.
For observations on the sun. An inspection of the readings for Polaris shows that the measures are consistent. z =Yt(v t v. additional sets 79 may be observed. one v will represent the mean of all mean of all the reflected readings. For circumpolar objects. in the circle readings. or perhaps a whole degree.. For direct observations the quotients of the differ ences between the successive circle readings by the differences between the corresponding times must be sensibly equal. 2. a simple inspection will usually be sufficient to indicate the consistency of the observations. and should always be applied immediately after the completion of the set in order that the measures may be repeated if necessary. The Example & timepiece used was an Elgin watch. The relatively large difference in the readings C. and an exact number of minutes in the times. each of which. and the other. the apparent altitude. The fact that for a short interval sensibly proportional to the change in the time makes it possible to test the consistency of the measures. It is convenient to express differences of the circle readings in minutes of arc. the mean of all C.L. should be the change in the altitude is reduced separately. and /. Equations (103) and (104). Oct. Friday P. those involving mistakes of 10' or 20'. thus derived must be corrected 9. however. or zenith the direct readings. If the v. the other. and is easily derived in any special case. R. the combination of the data for the calculation of the quotients will depend upon the has been used the method followed in making the settings. '. . one v will represent the mean of all the circle readings If the artificial horizon has been used. < 180. If the artificial horizon quotients must be calculated for the direct and reflected observations separately. and (107) show that for an instrument graduated to read altitudes. reveals the existence of an index error of 2' or 3'. free from the instrumental errors. the distance. and the time intervals in minutes and tenths. The measures were all direct. If this condition is not satisThe errors most likely to occur are fied. will be given by forming the mean of the circle readings obtained in accordance with the above programs. on 1908. for the determination of the altitudes of Polaris and Alcyone.MEASUREMENT OF ALTITUDE desired. and C. observations are direct. The quotients will thus express the change in the altitude in minutes of arc for one minute of time. C.R.. The test is usually sufficient to locate errors of the class mentioned with such certainty as to justify a correction of the original record.) (119) where the subscripts are assigned in such a manner that i>. for refraction and parallax in accordance with Sections 8 and Buff 31. L._/'. The observed altitude. The following is the record of partial sets of observations made with a Buff engineer's transit at the Laws Observatory. an error has been committed. M. For an instrument with its vertical circle graduated continuously o to 360 the zenith distance will be given by c.
2 i4 20 20 21 37 4i 59 38 i 20 21 59 38 I L R 43 91139"' 1. must be applied.4 22 22 R ^ _ 6H 2ii95 For Alcyone the close agreement of the values for the rate of change in altitude per minute of time given in the last column is evidence of the consistency of the measures. for the determination of the altitude of the sun. The angles are the apparent altitudes obtain the true altitudes a corresponding to the watch times immediately preceding. A 40' Ver. Fauth . October 15. Thursday P. The timepiece was the Fauth sidereal clock of the Laws Observatory. 39 B 26' Clrcle Watch 9>>3s Ver. page 20. The quantities in the fifth line are the means.80 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY POLARIS Vertical Circle ALCYONE Vertical Circle Watch 19" Ver. B 20 40' Clrcle Rate 33 25 26 33 34 39 26 33 36 50 36 ii 8" 351 1 34 29'. To correction for refraction. 39 A 26' Ver. M.. The transits were observed over the middle horizontal thread. The measures were all direct and were made by projecting the image of the sun on a card. which may be obtained from Table J. The following observations were made with a Berger engineer's transit on 1908. the telescope being shifted after each transit. 8 R R L L m 2i!4 1. Example 32.
setting setting reflected / on star. The required difference of azimuth will be the difference between the means of the readings on the mark and on the star. Mark .R. setting on star. setting on mark C.R. R for those Both verniers of the horizontal circle should be read for each setting. reflected \ on star.R.R. star. the time should be noted in addition.R. direct J setting on mark C. The following is the record of a simultaneous determination of the altitude of Polaris and the difference in azimuth of Polaris and a mark. to the Example 33.I. C. 5606 h 38*7 at 7 59 P. Buff Observer Sh. the horizontal If the number of sets is n. mark C. and made on the star... If more precision is desired than can be obtained from a single set. and 31:4 at 9" 54 P. each of which should be reduced separately. Recorder W. on direct 1 _. mark C.M. ALTITUDE OF POLARIS AND AZIMUTH OF MARK No. 1908.I. 13. Jrw = Object & Buff Engineer's Transit No.HORIZONTAL ANGLES DIRECT OBSERVATIONS setting on mark \ on star on star setting on mark i 1 / 81 1 2 settings 2 settings I DIRECT OBSERVATIONS i DIRECT AND REFLECTED OBSERVATIONS setting on setting on setting I 3 3 i i setting on mark setting on mark settings on star settings on star setting on mark setting on mark C.L. To reduce the influence of graduation error.. Station No. the circle should be shifted between the sets. Oct.L. amount of the shift between the successive sets should be 36o/. C. 2 2 M. Thursday P. Its value will correspond mean of the times. C.M. C. C. several sets may be observed.L.
i. is made on A or on B. But for instruments in which the accuracy of the readings is comparable with that of the pointings. each of which requires two readings of the circle. The method circle is (I20) of repetitions derives its advantage from the fact that the not read for the intermediate settings on A and B. the method of repetitions may be used with advantage. and. For instruments such as the engineer's transit. If the turning from A to B is repeated n times. the errors which necessarily would affect the readings do not enter into the result. it is not certain that the compensation is of the completeness requisite for observations of the highest precision. any nonparallelism of the vertical axes will affect the readings. With the engineer's transit. within certain limits easily including all values arising in practice. the method of repetitions is not to be recommended. however. the precision of the result given by (120) will be considerably greater than that of the mean of n separate measurements of the angle D. and determines the value of z. experience has shown that there dependent upon the direction of measurement.. Not only is the observer thus spared considerable labor. and the observing program must be arranged to eliminate this along with the other instrumental errors. and R. that part of the resultant error of observation arising from the intermediate settings is due solely to the imperfect setting of the cross threads on the object. For any given setting the deviation of the axis from parallel are small systematic errors upon whether the initial setting ism. repectively./. but. although these may be eliminated in part by combining series measured in opposite directions. Moreover. i'. as is the case with the modern theodolite provided with read ing microscopes. Consequently. it may be eliminated forming the mean of direct and reflected readings made in the same the by position . what is of more importance. But no matter what the magnitude of i may be. Although there is even here a theoretical advantage. for For different settings i will be different.82 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY increase the reading by the angle D. rotation of the instrument on the lower motion causes the upper axis to describe a cone whose apex angle is 2p and whose axis is inclined to the true vertical by i'.e. we shall have D = ^=A. and if the initial and final readings be R. it is offset by the fact that the peculiar observing program required for the application of the method presupposes the stability of the instrument for a relatively long interval. and hence affords an unusual opportunity for small variations in position to affect the precision of the measures. the inclination of the upper axis to the vertical. Since rotation takes place on both the upper and the lower motions. for a setting in question. unites with the inclination of the lower axes to the true vertical. the difference between the circle readings for the final setting on B and the initial setting on A will be nD. in which the uncertainty accompanying the reading of the angle is large as compared with that of the pointing on the object. while that from B back to A will produce no change since during this rotation the vernier remains clamped to the circle.
Equation (88) shows that j.R. Equations (82). Were i' zero. will also be eliminated. the deviation of the upper vertical axis from perthe same in direction pendicularity with the horizontal axis. Uusually one of the objects. although the direction of the deflection would change with a rotation of the instrument on the lower motion. provided that i is 83 and magnitude for on pages 66 and 67 whose both settings. The circle Repeat for C. To remove the influence of the collimation. if after any arbitrary number of settings the instrument be reversed about the loiver motion and the series repeated in the . the direct and reflected series should be measured in opposite direcWe thus have the following observing program.L. reflected. Hence. and last terms of this expression will have the same values for all on the same object. such that the vernier readings for the corresponding settings in the two series are approximately the same. Read the horizontal circle for last setting on B. The error due to i will not be eliminated from these A' in the settings. The values of the second term will be different for each setting owing to the change in I. This follows from the discussion result is expressed by equation (88). it is only necessary that n be the integer most nearly equaling k 36o/Z>. ^ C. and (86) show that they may pointings be eliminated by combining with a similar series made C. above program. /cot f p cos /cot 2 f c cosec 2 . equation (82) shows that each setting will be affected by an error of the form .L. in practice usually I or 2. respectively: Level on the lower motion. The first It is also easily seen that. (84). Read the horizontal circle for last setting on A'. in which case A must then be substituted for reflected settings on A' will be impossible. in which A' and tions. the instrumental errors i' and /will be eliminated. but. but their sum will be zero if the values of / are uniformly distributed throughout 360. The mean difference of of the values of D calculated from the four series is the required azimuth A and B. say A. If a series of n repetitions C. In order that this may be the case. be made under these circumstances. least. n further repetitions be made C. and to neutralize the systematic error dependent upon the direction of measurement. approximately at as that for the last setting on />'.R. When the artificial horizon is not used the program must be modified. Set on B' and read the horizontal circle.METHOD OF REPETITIONS of the instrument. i would constantly be equal to/.R. where the k is any integer. direct. will be near the horizon. I Turn from B' to A' on the upper motion times.. c.R. (Set Direct j on A and read the horizontal circle. if after a series of n repetitions observed C. the entire process must be repeated C. ' denote the reflected images of A and B.L. Turn from A to B on the upper motion times. approximately at least. or any multiple of 360. ( Reflected <. owing to the presence of the factor cot2 it may be disregarded. reading for the first setting on B' must be the same.
(See page 70.. Level on the lower motion. the mean say B. The values of / for corresponding of the reverse order. one C. is zero. and c will be comor not. provided the observing program be not too long. If that the deflection of the lower axis. which it produces may be eliminated from the mean of two series.L. I > C.R.L.R. will differ by 180. Reverse on lower motion and relevel. Consequently. C. 180. least. whether the settings are distributed through 360 the obserprovided only that the instrumental errors remain constant during vations. will therefore differ by 180. is a star. it is desirable that the value of n should be such that nD With this is small equals 360.L.R. as that for the last setting at setting on B. Practically. The consideration of these results leads to the following arrangement of the observing program. The site in sign and will cancel when the mean in the preceding reversal also eliminates the influence of j and c as indicated the direction settings C. If the instrument is provided with a striding level. When one of the objects.R. and the errors will be oppoof the two series is formed. the in direction.R. the time of each setting on B calculated value of will then correspond sensibly to of the times. should be the same.R. and the errors for the two positions will neutralize and error each other when the mean is formed. The above assumes . the influence of i\ p. B and read horizontal circle. \ C. and one C. change the direction off by 180.p. and / may be taken into account by measuring the inclination of the horizontal tions axis for each setting and applying a correction to and 3 of the form cotz in which b denotes the sum of all the observed inclinations for settings on l R R . pletely eliminated.L. paragraph. Set on A Turn from A to Read horizontal Set on and read horizontal circle.) This will the values of /' for C. z'. at least approximately. are the same. C. by relevelling after reversal. D . C. The maximum number. on B. The must be noted. each setting will be affected by an additional error of the this is form i' cos/' cot 2 in which /' is constant so long as i' remains unchanged If i' be the result of a nonadjustment of the plate bubbles. or apcircle readings The reversal of the instrument on the lower motion changes proximately so. but when the observations. provided that the for corresponding settings C.84 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT sum of the errors involving/ will be zero. and C. not the case. B on upper motion circle for last setting ^ times. approximately on B. \ Turn from B to Read horizontal A on upper motion times.L.L. of repetithis may unduly prolong D which can be made advantageously depends upon the stability of the instrument and must be determined by experience. The circle reading for the first arrangement the instrumental errors i'.j. the deflection/ by and C. The mean of the values of D calculated from the two series is the required azimuth difference of A and B. A and B respectively. or a multiple of 360. circle for last setting on A.
although the means for the set are also given. and the series repeated in the reverse order. the instrument was reversed on the lower motion. .THE SEXTANT Example transit.R. The results for the two halves are derived separately. Since the azimuth difference is approximately 174. 85 34. 720 must be added to the readings on the star before combining them with those on the mark. the following observations of the difference in azimuth of Polaris and a The of repetitions with a Buff & Buff engineer's m 36".. On 1909. recorded times are those of a Fauth sidereal clock whose error was mark were made by the method +6 After four repetitions C. relevelled. April 9.
The two mirrors and the telescope are provided with adjusting screws. The position of the index glass correof the arm and the attached mirror. usual form of the instrument the maximum angle that can be measured is therefore about 140. two images This being the case. directly. the index glass. and then from the silvered portion of the latter. and a small telescope. usually 70 in length. can advantageously be employed in the observations necessary for the determination of a ship's position. The telescope. In addition. respectively. The principle of the sextant In Fig. two small mirrors perpendicular to the plane of the arc. the angular distance of the objects. the horizon glass.86 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY and today the sextant is the only instrument which practice of navigation. The index arm of the pivoted at the center of the arc and has rigidly attached to it one whose reflecting surface contains the rotation axis mirrors. and. is directed toward the horizon glass. and with it a distant object may be seen through the unsilvered portion. since the construction is such that the inclination separating may be read from the graduated arc. be read from the graduated arc by means of a sponding to any setting may The second mirror. the tele scope may be moved perpendicularly back and forth with respect to the frame thus permitting an equalization of the intensity of the direct and reflected images by varying the ratio of the reflected and transmitted light that enters the telescope. by giving the index arm depending upon the angular distance separatthe position of the arm is such that the rays of the second object reflected by the index glass to the horizon glass. Only that half of the horizon glass adjacent to the frame is silvered. it becomes possible to find the angular distance between the objects. its compactness and lightness. the index glass and the horizon glass. the a certain definite position If ing the objects. and IV. and hence. simultaneously with the first. Adjustable shade glasses adapt the instrument for observations on the sun. a movable index arm. the eye of the observer. In addition. nation of the mirrors as shown below. a reflected image of the second object may be seen in the field of the telescope. metal frame supporting a graduated arc. 49. When the frame is brought into coincidence with the plane determined by the object. is firmly attached to the vernier. flat. which may be used to bring them accurately into the positions presupposed by the theory of the instrument. is frame of the sextant in a manner such that when the vernier reads zero the two mirrors are parallel. 10 let 0V represent the graduated arc. The use of the instrument is simplified by graduating the arc so that the vernier reading is twice the inclination of the will in be seen coincidence. pivoted at the center of the arc and provided with a . The modern sextant consists of a light. / and H. and the precision of the results that may be obtained with it render it one of the most convenient and valuable instruments at our command. enter the telescope parallel to the rays that pass from the first object through the unsilvered portion of the horizon glass. whose line of sight is parallel to the frame. and any other object. will With the mirrors. the index arm. the relative inclibe onehalf the angular distance the objects.
The posisuch that the two objects 5.THE SEXTANT vernier at V. inclination. is graduated so that the reading is twice the angle subtended angular distance between the two objects is given directly by the scale. It is to H distance A HN SJH whence But in = + A. Conditions fulfilled by the instrument. 87 with 0. separating the objects. whence A = 20y. /<Vand and by the fundamental laws of reflection they bisect the angles and IHE. measures their and is equal to the angle subtended by the arc 0V. a = b+ Y A. and S. is onehalf the angular be shown that the inclination of / to are the normals to the mirrors. pass through the unsilvered portion of and enter the telescope in the direction HE. But since the arc (121) by OF the 50. Therefore. being the angle between the normals to the mirrors. In the triangle IHE. falling on / in the figure is When V coincides H are reflected to H and thence in the direction HE. for the rays from 5. while those from S. But M. respectively. The two beams therefore enter the telescope parallel. must be fulfilled by the perfectly adjusted sextant. . 2a 2i> 2 the triangle IHN a = b + M. The following conditions. among others. the mirrors are parallel. are seen in tion indicated coincidence.
The horizon glass.88 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT 1. at least. correction must be made by the screws at the base of the mirror. The axis of the telescope must be parallel to the plane of the arc. No. 3. and must be adjusted until the direct and reflected images of the same object can be made accurately coincident. If then the eye be placed close to the mirror. 51. Although elimination is impossible. by those reflected into the telescope by the mirrors. The vernier must read zero when the mirrors are parallel. the telescope and its image may be brought nearly into coincidence. The index glass must be perpendicular to the plane of the arc. The center of rotation of the index arm must coincide with the center of the graduated arc. 4. The telescope. unscrew the telescope and stand it on the arc just in front of the surface of the index glass produced. 2. preferably a star. Some instruments are not provided with the necessary screws. 4 and 5. 2. direct If it does not. the observer will see the reflected image of the upright telescope alongside the telescope itself. methods must be available for adjusting the instrument as perfectly as This is the more important inasmuch as it is impossible to eliminate possible. sharply defined object. The adjustment of the horizon glass may be by directing the telescope toward a distant. 14 are within the control No. To test the perpendicularity of the index glass. place the sextant in a horizontal position. Since the positions of the mirrors and the telescope are liable to derangement. and applied as corrections to the readings obtained with the instrument. manufacturer. it should be remarked that the errors arising in connection with Nos. By carefully moving the index arm. If not. Then. the horizon glass is not perpendicular to the plane of the arc. The parallelism of the telescope to the frame may be tested by bringing the images of two objects about 120 apart into coincidence at the edge of the field nearest the frame. 5 must be satisfied as perfectly as possible by the of the observer. 5. The test can also be made by looking into the index glass as before. No. and noting whether the arc and its reflected image lie in the same place. Conditions Nos. from the measures the influence of any residual errors in the adjustments. and bringing the index arm near the zero of the scale. The horizon glass must be perpendicular to the plane of the arc. The telescope should be rotated about its axis in order to be sure that is it is perpendicular to the plane of the arc. and in such cases the adjustment had best be entrusted to an instrument maker. without changing . If the two are parallel. 3. the position of the mirror must be changed until such is the case. Adjustments of the sextant. i. Index glass. image as the index arm is The reflected image should pass through the moved back and forth by the slow motion. the index glass is in adjustment. the other. Two images of the object will then be seen in the field of view one formed by the tested rays transmitted by the horizon glass. No. may be determined by the methods given in Sections 52 and 53. If the adjustment imperfect.
The index correction. on account of their size. do not use negative scale as 359. If the zero of the vernier falls to the right of the zero of the scale. the reflected being above the direct. we determine the zero reading as follows: Make the two images externally tangent. to bring the solar images accurately into coincidence. R (123) The latter expression is to be used for the determination of 7 when the zero of the vernier falls to the right of that of the scale for coincidence of the direct and reflected images of the same object. and bring the images into coincidence by means of the proper adjusting screws attached to the horizon It is better. No. is the quantity which must be added algebraically to the scale readings to obtain the true reading. its position must be the telescope is in adjustment. The mean of R. however..). shift the images to the opposite side of the field. by the amount of the index error. and read the vernier. will then be the value of the zero reading. The zero reading is what the instrument actually reads when it should read zero. Determination of the index correction. To test the adjustment. readings. set the index at o. bring the direct and reflected images of the same distant object The corresinto the coincidence as in the adjustment of the horizon glass. Since it is impossible. We therefore have 7=0 7=360 ^.). If not. Then make an equal for Let R. but consider the last degree graduation preceding the zero of the and read in the direction of increasing graduations. the resulting errors will be negligible as compared with the uncertainty in the readings arising from other sources. /. (122) a. in coincidence. sharply defined object. If not. . R Make a series of zero 52. and R. + *. Call ponding readings R. 4. If the fourth condition is not fulfilled. = . the horizon glass. varied by means of the adjusting screws of the supporting collar until the test is satisfactory. Index adjustment. the index correction should be determined from measures on this object. readings on a distant. 7 (124) (125) =360^ (/?. a star if possible. represent tangency with the reflected image below. R If is zero. and we shall have number of settings the mean of the corres 7=o #(*.+*. When observations are to be made on the sun. It can be shown that the errors affecting the readings as a result of an imperfect adjustment of the index glass. the ponding scale reading is called the zero reading adjustment is correct. the mean of a series of such readings.INDEX CORRECTION 89 If they remain the reading. an index error will be introduced into the angles read from the scale. and the telescope are of the order of the squares of the residual errors of adjustment. to disregard this adjustment and correct the readings glass. If care be exercised in making the adjustments.
90 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The readings thus obtained will also give the value of 5. Since the center of the reflected image moves over from the first position to the second. in order to obtain the true value of the angle. with fifth the usual form of the instrument there is but a single vernier. (127) two objects whose is the sextant reading for coincidence of the distance is A. Each sextant must be investigated specially for the determination of the eccentricity errors affecting the readings for different parts of the scale. for if the index correction changes by any considerable amount. and E and E. I. The readings of the graduations for the readings R R coinciding graduations when the vernier reads R a and R may R ' R'. its diameter appears larger of than it really is a phenomenon known as irradiation. Since. from which the value of s for any other reading.from equation (126) should be used rather than that derived from the Ephemeris. the results may be plotted as From the plot a ordinates with the corresponding values of R' as abscissas. the sextant reading. The mean result for each angle. R. ' The chief difficulty in investigating the eccentricity of a sextant consists securing a suitable series of known angles. can then be derived. (127) may be written and E is the correction which be denoted by must be applied to e=A Having determined e (R + f). respectively. the form A=R + f+E. Care should be taken always to enter the table with the R' corresponding to the given R as argument. the index correction. in order that the influence of irradiation may be eliminated. S be required Owing the value calculated . (128) dis from (128) for a considerable number of angles tributed as uniformly as possible over the scale. nearly in A . this cannot be eliminated. Should the value for the reduction of observations on the sun (see Section 55). table may be constructed giving the values of s for equidistant values of R'. These may be found by measuring a series of known angles of different magnitudes. the eccentricity angular corrections for those graduations of the scale which coincide with vernier and R. where E. simple method is to measure with a good theodolite the angles between a series of distant objects. Any defect condition introduces an eccentricity error into the readings. freed from index correction. gives by (71) an equation of. the sun's semia distance of diameter. A. in the 53. Denoting its value by e. Ra may change sufficiently to render the tabular values of e no longer applicable.. It should be noted that the usefulness of the table depends upon / remaining sensibly constant. respectively. we have four semidiameters in shifting to the brilliancy of the solar image. Determination of eccentricity corrections.
necessary. Some practice is required in order to be able to bring the object and its mercury image into . and reverse them through 180 at the middle of the observing program to eliminate the effect of any nonparallelism of their surfaces. and reduce the intensity of the images as much as is consistent with clear definition. The square root of the altitude of the observer above the level of the sea.MEASUREMENT OF ALTITUDES in the horizon. The following points should Focus the telescope accurately. the visible horizon lies below the astronomical horizon. and the correction for eccentricity may be disregarded as relatively unimportant. Finally. At body sea the observations are into contact with the made by bringing the reflected image of the image of the distant horizon seen directly through the unsilvered portion of the horizon glass. shade glasses attached to the eyepiece rather than those in front of the mirrors. To obtain the true reading the plane of the arc must be vertical. dip of horizon. for a slight shock may disturb 'the adjustment of the mirrors and change the value of the index correction. and always test them before beginning observations. it finds its widest application in practical astronomy in the determination of the altitude of a celestial body. will be the numerical value of the correction in minutes of arc. The measurement of the angular distance between the object and its mercury image gives the value of the double altitude of the object. care 91 being taken to tilt the instrument so that in turning from one object to the next no rotation about the horizontal axis is necessary. Precepts for the use of the sextant. whenever possible. since. the instrument should be handled with great care. The observations are not susceptible of high precision. The correction for dip is field. and refraction is the required altitude. Make the adjustments in the order in which they are given above. the matter is accomplished by rotating the instrument back and forth slightly about the axis of the telescope. Practically. horizon. 55. which causes the reflected image to oscillate along a circular arc in the The index is to be set so that the arc is tangent to the image of the The corresponding reading corrected for index correction. select those which will make the direct and reflected images of the same color. carefully be noted in using the sextant: The image of a star should be a sharply defined point. 54. Make all coincidences and contacts in the center of the field. use. expressed in feet. In all cases make the direct and reflected images of the same intensity by regulating the distance of the telescope from the frame. The measurement of altitudes. For observations on land the artificial horizon must be used. If a roof is used to protect the surface of the mercury from wind. The index correction should be determined both before and after each series of settings. If the use of the mirror shade glasses cannot be avoided. it also should be reversed at the middle of the program. Although the sextant may be used for the measurement of angles lying in any plane. For solar observations. owing to the elevation of the observer. that of the sun must show the limb clearly defined and free from all blurring.
The varying lowered. as in the case of the engineer's transit (see page 79) by calculating the rate of change of the readings per minute of time. The consistency of the measures should always be tested. bringing after reading. The ing the index near zero the Stand in a position such then turned slowly downward toward the mercury. The index is then moved 20' so that the images will again be approaching coincidence. reflection can be seen. If R denote the mean of the vernier readings. the time and the vernier reading being It is not necessary to use the method described above for the images into the field for any of the settings but the first. a series of such settings in quick succession. been sufficiently The altitude of the object will cause them to change their relative positions. unless too long an interval has elapsed. the apparent double altitude of the object will be given by (129) . When they The instant of is noted and the vernier read. Measures for altitude may also be made by setting the zero of the vernier on one of the scale divisions so that the images are near each other accurately and approaching a coincidence. reflected image and if the observer is careful to stand so that the the sextant is kept vertical. for if. The following is the simplest method of procedure: that the mercury image is clearly visible in the and direct the telescope toward the object. The time of coincidence and the vernier reading are noted. By bringcenter of the horizon. its image seen directly through the unsilvered telescope is mercury will come into the field when the telescope has portion of the horizon glass Both images should then be visible. If it is not at once seen. are really those of the object and its reflectaken that the images coinciding tion in the mercury. is best determined by giving the instrument a slight oscillatory coincidence motion about the axis of the telescope and noting the time when the reflected image in its motion back and forth across the field passes through the direct index is set so that the become coincident the time image. If however.92 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY In case the object is a star. the constancy of the time intervals between the successive settings will be a sufficient test. the reflected image will also be in the field. reflected image will appear in the field. To should be taken obtain an accurate value of the altitude. the index be left clamped and the telescope be directed toward noted for each. a slight rotation about the axis of the telescope will bring it into view. care must be coincidence quickly and accurately. The time and the reading are noted as before and the process is repeated until a sufficient number of measures has been secured. the mercury image. the plane of the arc being held vertical. the observations have been made by noting the times of coincidence for equidistant readings of the vernier. images are approaching and clamped. the index the same time at a rate such that the being moved forward along the arc at If the plane of of the object remains constantly in the field.
solar parallax. instead. the correction for semidiameter. desired instead of the altitude. the same number of contacts should be observed for both images approaching and images receding. =+6 ra 37'. We shall then have for solar observations jp_i_ = Rd /. ' f Upper sign. and the term involving S.MEA S UREMENT OF AL TITUDES in 93 which /is the index correction. 20. If for any reason this cannot be done. is r. JLowersign. The observations will be reduced later for the determina . may be obtained from columns four and eight of Table For approximate results r / may be taken from the fifth page and tenth columns of this same table. ' by equation (3). zenith distance = 90 z' h\ (130) and z from z + r. but. the when the images are externally tangent. the following sextant observations of the altitude of at the Laws Observatory near the time of meridian transit. page If the 20. April 10. = + r /. 5= the semidiameter of the sun calculated by equation a (126)./. (131) For measures on the sun coincidences are not observed. The of the observed times is found from where the refraction. n = total number of settings. or if more accurate results are required. Example the sun were 85. 2' (133) (134) The I. made On 1909. and e true altitude corresponding to the mean the correction for eccentricity. The true altitude and zenith distance are then given by A 2 = A' r+p. a correction for semidiameter must be applied. The error of J0 F the timepiece was tion of latitude. altitude increasing } "1 in which h' is the apparent altitude of the sun's center corresponding to the mean of the observed times. To eliminate the influence of semidiameter. Let instants nr = number of settings for images approaching.' wa ^~ S+I+e i nf c / L . altitude decreasing. = number of settings for images receding. may be derived from Table I. page we calculate z' from 18.
94 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Readings on Sun .
which will occur as the when A is or 180. p. sec A and tan A must have their minimum absolute values. Methods. will it is to be noted that <p depend upon the errors affecting Star positions are so accurately known. On page 34 it was shown that if the zenith distance or altitude of a star of known means right ascension and declination be measured at a time. Comp.CHAPTER V THE DETERMINATION OF LATITUDE 56. Writing dt=dO and solving dip = sec Adz tan A cos ipdd. u. t=0 and ip being considered variable. 2. . however. It is the purpose of the present chapter to determine the most advantageous method of using the fundamental equation and to develop the formulas necessary for the practical solution of the problem. the resultant error in if will be given by (136). may To establish a criterion for the use of equation (31). The preceding chapter indicates the methods that be employed for the measurement of the zenith distance. particularly important to know the influence of an error in the time. (135) which by means of and dz (33) reduces to dip f sin = cos A for dip A cos <p dt. In order that this may be a minimum. 6. z. d. it is desirable to be able to specify liow accurately it must be given in order to obtain a definite degree of precision in the latitude.) . respectively. the latitude of the place of observation can be determined by known of equation (31). s\nzdz = sin dcosip (32) dip cos 8 sin i <p cos tdip cos d cos ip sin tdt. and errors in a and 8 are insignificant as compared with those occurring in z and the resultant error of observation in . and we now proceed to the consideration of the following five cases in which the 95 given data are. Even with this limitation there will be considerable variety in the procedure depending upon the position of the star and the circumstances of the observations. and we need concern ourselves only with those affecting the It is latter two quantities. Since these quantities increase azimuth deviates from o or 180. We thus find (Num. The relation connecting small variations in z and d with changes in if is found by differentiating (31). for since this quantity is assumed to be known. (136) Assuming now that the differentials of z and represent the errors in these quantities. that the <?. the object observed for the determination of latitude should be as near the meridian as possible.
The error of the clock.. For = 180 d s. 2. the observer will bring the image to the intersection of the threads. I. altitude of Polaris at any hour angle. The corresponding reading. Theory. or the direct and reflected images into coincidence if the sextant is used. The reading on the upper limb at the calculated time of transit was 118 29' 10". The The zenith distance of an object at any hour angle. it is be derived geometrically by means of Fig. mean time. If a mean timepiece is used. series of zenith distances when the object is near the meridian. an observation was made at the Laws Observatory with a sextant for the determination of the latitude by a meridian altitude of the sun. is of observation. If Ad be the error of the timepiece. . or <p = dev (138) Equation (138) whence zenith. This instant marks the time of meridian passage. For = cos za <f> (if d). or (139) will then give the required value of the latitude. The to be interpolated from the Ephemeris for the instant true zenith distance is then to be determined by some one of the methods of Section 45 or Equation (138) 55 for the clock time 6'. 49 and 39. (141) In case the error of the timepiece is uncertain. April 10. Procedure.96 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 1. T. 24 seen that the upper sign must be used for objects south of the may also and the lower. p. (139) For the instant of observation we have by (35) 58. (140) where a. by equations (62) and (41). difference of the meridian zenith distances of two stars. 5. 4. =a Jd. 4. The The 3. the clock time of transit will be O' = a. A zenith distance of an object when on the meridian. MERIDIAN ZENITH DISTANCE is on the meridian 57. a little before the time of transit and follow with the slow motion until it becomes necessary to reverse the direction in which the tangent screw is turned in order to keep the image on the thread. Example 36. then gives the altitude as before. On 1909. The clock time of obervation is then given by pp. along with 8. T'=TAT. for objects between the zenith and the lower culmination the fundamental relation becomes ^ pole. the sidereal time of transit must be converted into the corresponding respectively. properly corrected. The hour angle of an object this case equation (31) reduces to cos za zero. (137) whence d.
the index correction and the eccentricity will be elimsextant. The reduction of the observation for the determination of the latitude is in the second column. 35. of the refractions is readily calculated. similar condition exists in the case of the refrac A two refractions corresponding to nearly equal zenith distances can be calculated with a higher degree of precision than is possible tion. A. inated and need not. A. the latitude can be + + . N. be determined. therefore. Theory.TALCOTT'S METHOD 97 the index correction. a considerable increase in precision will be obtained as compared with that resulting from meridian zenith distances. and the semidiameter to be used are those of Ex. is Finally. of Col. From equation <f (f (138) = $s + = #N *K. and the difference respectively. Sun's a at Col. the fact that the quantity to be observed methods of uated 7 small. ' (142) which the true zenith distances have been replaced by ZK rt rK and z* The declinations are given by the Ephemeris. But what is of more importance. 18' Gr. so far as precision is concerned. calculated by (142). J0 r = 6h 9"= 14 = +6 i = 6*155 ft 42 37 5 / e 0'=i The true value of the latitude known to be 38 56' 52" 1 8 ih' //' = f = Unknown = 118 29 ii = 59 14 36 i =118 29' 10" z' i == 30 45 15 24 /= 5 = * = 3' 8 =+7 ^ = 38 30 56 29 19 '5 54 56 2. N. + *) + in y*(zi *') + # (r t rN ). where the subscripts indicate the position of the stars with respect to the zenith. By limiting the application of the equation to those cases in which the zenith distances are nearly equal. A. The calculation of the clock time of transit is in the left hand column. 59. for the difference of in the determination of the total refraction. instrumental errors affecting the two observations equally will be eliminated. T. For example. were they determined. DIFFERENCE OF MERIDIAN ZENITH DISTANCES TALCOTT'S METHOD we have 2s . Onehalf the sum of these two equations gives <P=# (*. with the engineer's transit small differences of . is the fact that the errors of observation which would affect these instrumental corrections. Since the measures are differential. makes it possible to introduce other and more precise measurement than those which depend upon the use of a grad circle. do not enter into the result. In the case of measures with the for example. If therefore the difference between the apparent zenith distances of two stars be measured.
. an instrument of the altazimuth type fitted with an accurately constructed micrometer eyepiece and a very sensitive altitude level. Copenhagen and was given extensive practical application in the work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey about a century later by Captain Talcott. From (4) we find dr j~ 00 = 57 sec'. the angular value of one revolution of the gradienter screw should first be determined by measuring a small angle whose value is known. from which circumstance it is commonly known as Talcott's method. The observa made and reduced in a way such that any irregularity in the To this end a process analogous to that used in 26 and 29 may be employed. TABLE *' V . Examples Since the correction for refraction will always be small. If the method is to be used in connection with the engineer's transit. the director about the middle of the eighteenth century. It reaches its highest precision when used in connection with the zenith telescope. the correction for refraction in seconds of arc becomes this %( r in ')"=&(%' z')C (143) The which the difference of the zenith distances must be expressed in degrees. while the micrometer affords a very precise determination The method under of the Observatory of of the required difference in zenith distance of the two stars. we may assume tions should be screw will be revealed. The level enables the observer to give the line of sight the same inclination to the vertical during both observations. which expresses the rate of change of r per i of change in z'. o i . Denoting quantity by C. value of C may be taken from Table V with the mean zenith distance of the two stars as argument.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMr zenith distance may be measured more discussion was accurately with the gradienter screw than with the vertical circle.s sin . first proposed by Horrebow.
relevel. and must not be disturbed thereafter If the two screw readings be until the second star has been observed.+o.. The vertical circle should be firmly clamped when the setting on the first star is made. Theory.)=#(*. Since only a single determination of this quantity can be made at any given transit. If a sextant is used. its declination In case the northern star in is ob (142) must be replaced by 3. The bubble readings should be taken as near the times of transit as possible. and be the readings of the object and eye ends of the if readings increasing toward the north be recorded as positive while those increasing toward the south are entered as negative. Read the gradienter screw. CIKCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES The zenith distance to be used in equations (138) and (139) when on the meridian. the correction to be added algebraically to the result given by (146) will be (146). measure the double altitudes of the two stars at the Let Rs and RM be the corresponding sextant readings. it will be better to omit the levelling after reversal and apply a correction to the result given increasing zenith distance. s') = G(m.) If the engineer's transit is employed.*.. the Ephemeris for the instant of observation. Unless the bubble has the same position for both observations. I so as to permit a multi61. reverse. respectively. is that of the object plication of the settings. instants of transit. The last term of (142) is given by (143). and note the reading as before. bring the second star to the intersection of the threads at the instant of transit by means of the screw. we shall have . it is desirable for the sake of precision to modify the method described tinder No.+e. The second term of (142) will then be given by (145) #(*.+ in e n )D. If o and e (o. an error will be introduced into the result. special attention by bubble. the value of C being derived from Table V. In levelling. (146) in which the upper sign is to be used when the screw readings increase with should be given to the altitude level. Yi(z'.' *. /). level carefully and bring the star culminating first to the intersection of'the threads at the instant of its transit.CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES 99 and calculate the clock time of meridian transit by (140) or (141). The declinations are to be taken from the list of apparent places in D served at lower culmination. <J S 180 . (147) is onefourth the which angular value of one division of the level. The change in the zenith distance during an interval immediately preceding or following the instant of transit is small and its value is easily and . denoted by m s and m a and if G be the value of onehalf a revolution of the screw. If the level is a sensitive one.
n=y nf=2s\n*y 2 B=A*cots we have finally for the Q. course immaterial whether the quantity measured be zenith distance or The method is commonly knqwn as that of circummeridian altitudes. and (154). (148) reduction to the meridian. (152) we have to the same degree of approximation Z Substituting into (152). Combining equations becomes (138). such measures reduced to the meridian gives a precise value of z which can then be substituted into (138) or (139) for the determination of the latitude. (149) we find cos (za Z) =cos sa 2 cos ip cos 8 sin* Yz t. Am+^Z'cots. of the formulae reduction to the meridian as follows: Equation 2 cos (31) may be written in the form cos = cos ((f> 8) y cos d sin' ^ /. Let z be the observed value of the coordinate. 055) . Z= Am+n. and writing 3 = A'm*. Since the observations may be arranged so that the error in (154) will be insensible. (150) To express Z explicitly we may sion by Taylor's theorem. (153) reduction to the meridian. # the meridian value.. by observing when the object A It is of altitude. m = 2sin'%t. zenith distance may therefore be found near the meridian and applying to the measured value of the coordinate the amount of the change during the interval series of separating the instant of observation from that of culmination. (149). (154) Z will not exceed 15' or 20'. to be used for the calculation of the is The development. Z A = cos in <p cos d cosec z .100 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The meridian is accurately calculated. (151) and neglecting terms Z 3 we find Z= Squaring. Since Introducing at the same time replace the left member of (150) by its expanis small the convergence will be rapid. t t. and We then have Zthe z+Z=z Substituting into (148) a. the expression for the latitude <p = 8 z^Am n.
A observed nearest the time of transit. for those culminating between the zenith and the pole. are different for each setting. on the other hand. It will be noted further that A and B are constant for any given series of observations and need be calculated but once. (156) Equations (155) and (156). Since and The factors they depend only upon the hour angle. in which the last terms are to be calculated by For observations with (151) and (153). Tables VI and VII may be used for all ordinary observations with m . these coefficients may be obtained by (138) or (139) from the value of z less . the engineer's transit the term Bn will usually be insensible when the hour angle is m than 15'" or 20 the quantity It will be observed that A and B depend upon the latitude value of if sufficiently accurate for the calculation of to be determined. / in (31) must be replaced /. and the lower. express the solution of the problem. For an object observed near lower culmination. the transit or sextant.C1RCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES in 101 by which the upper sign is to be used for southern stars. TABLE VI t TABLE VII . their values may be tabulated with t as argument. The resulting value of the reduction to the meridian substituted i8o + into (139) gives <p = 180 3 z Am Bn.
i". 5th and 6th. rection found in Ex. This method. however. 35. The index corlines of the calculation below. in which Z s and ZN are to be calculated by (154). 96. calculate the latitude for each observation by putation. 35 jh fjm js. The eccentricity corrections are unknown. is j. values of % (z' s Each of these must be reduced to the meridian by adding to (142) the term O 2 y (Z s ZN ). p. When this is done there will be given a series of derived from observations made near the meridian. or (156). p. and the yth and Sth observations. The reduction of the circummeridian altitudes given To eliminate the semidiameter the means are formed for the and 2nd. gives no indication as to the consistency of the observations. to reduce separately or three consecutive measures. In Ex. and it is better to reduce the results the means of not more than two separately. The final result may also be obtained by applying the mean of all the .102 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY zenith distance observed nearest the time of transit for za and for the determination of an approximate value of <p both of which are required for the commeans of Finally. values of and of Bn to the mean of all the zenith distances in accordance with equations (155) or (156). in Ex. the clock time of transit was found to be / (sidereal) t (solar) m . The declination to be used is that corresponding to the instant (155) of observation. at least. is as ist follows: Example 37. Am The method of circummeridian altitudes may advantageously be combined with that of Talcott. or. 93. 3rd and These results are in the first and sixth 4th. 36.
i m 45*. C. Procedure. 8 h 36 m 56" 21 i cos. p. (See Ex.S.S. (157) Equation (157) is the last of equations (34).o wsinA tan " 7 ' 296 50 5 A " 7 z' 30. but care should be taken to observe as near the meridian as possible in order that errors in z and d may not appear multiplied in the result.oooo 99999 98033 9. 31. is readily accomplished by using the fundamental equation (31) in the form cos z = cos (<p A7 ).) The error of the watch on C. and tp N from (160) A7) must have the reference to the fourth of (34) shows that sin (^ A7) from same algebraic sign as cos A. 64.$ 38 57.6 cosz cos(y> The calculated ^ <p A^) A^ than the true value by if Ant.8034 50 30'.) Columbia a t t 13 14 cos* cos AT 27 10 19 46 4 3i'. On 1908. Oct.LATITUDE FROM ZENITH DISTANCE 103 This formulae for circummeridian altitudes no longer give convergent results. the auxiliaries defined by the first and second of this group. (161) Equations (i58)(i6i) are rigorous and apply to all values of the hour angle. 2.2 i. calculate the hour angle by the true and A7 being zenith distance of the t=0a. 79. the fact that the angle <p Example 38.3150 96498 7. was ). t. (See Section 56.T. Then determine n and A7 by fica\ n sin n cos A7 = cos d cos cos 2 N= sin d. This together with the sign of cos(^ 7 A The latitude is then given by (159) determines the quadrant of <p . Find the latitude by equations (158) (161). at watch time 8 h 35 m n P. . the altitude of Polaris was found to be 39 2g'. A <p = (tp N) + N.) A sufficient number of decimal places must be employed to offset A7 is determined from its cosine. 0351 89 a8'.9648 99999 a.i A 7 r sin A^ lo g 8.3 o.T.M.5 3i3 ij 88 is 49.8. in (158) which is the true sidereal time of observation.0 larger o'. Having determined object.
104 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The C. Comp. The polar always be a small angle.T. with an error same time we may write ! = with errors which are still smaller. pp. and the north polar distance. sin tpH sin in (162). (162) shall If ffbe the difference in altitude of Polaris and the pole. ft. respectively. we find sin h = cos n sin + sin <p TT cos ip cos /. it expression for the difference distance of Polaris is about i altitude of the north celestial pole. 321 from the Ephemeris. the problem may be solved by finding an in altitude of the pole and Polaris. To this fact n'.in (164) not exceeding o"3. and expanding and solving for sins. (See Num. respectively. H= Finally.) Replacing z and d in (31) by the altitude. the required difference will is due the possibility of a simplification of equation (31). is converted into the corresponding Columbia by (41) and (58). thus obtaining H= ncost + yztanyfr* Neglecting terms involving n3 . Since the latitude is by definition equal to the 65.cos t \ H (164) H= tan ^(cos// cos/r). (166) by (163) . ALTITUDE OF POLARIS makes The peculiar location of Polaris with respect to the pole possible to simplify the fundamental latitude equation for use in connection with this object. the by //and TT. consequently. Theory. 14 and 16. Since at a maximum we may replace sin Hand At cos sins. y> ^V is in the fourth quadrant. The value of t shows that Polaris was east of the merand sin (y> idian at the time of the observation. Since cos N} is positive. 7zcos/ + ^7r a 2 tan^sin /. H'). (165) H' = Tf cos and substituting H' into (165) we have 3 /. A (tf 5. we have (163) <p=h Writing h + H. a and J are from p.S. IT. whence cos IV) are negative.
(168) error in the latitude calculated from (167) due to the approximate of the equation will usually be less than 2" form the quantity to be The calculation of requires a knowledge of <p since the coefficient J^/r* is only about 0. The K imation for the latitude will answer. The table is based on the value it K TABLE VIII t K= tan a sin* t . i 1 i' o". (167) in which " K%x' tan tp sin*/. a rough approxdetermined. The values of may be derived from Table VIII with an approximate latitude and the hour angle as arguments. but.LATITUDE FROM POLARIS <p 105 =h K cos / + A!".02.
02. the small terms = Bn and' AT being disregarded.S. all of the preceding methods but No. is (p We more closely The change produced by a small change d(f in is by (136) = A tanAcosydO. Its value in both cases is h greater than I2 . place of tan A A in . S 88 49'. of Exs. 38 24 h // p. Influence of an error in time. 7T d<p= 0. TV Find the latitude by equations (169) from the data of Ex. and writing z equal to the meridian zenith distance. 595.9 * TTCOS.106 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Example 39. Consequently. in which the upper sign refers to southern stars. Find the latitude by means of Table IV of the Ephemeris from the data is The hour angle to be calculated as before. 9" 42 10" 33. 4. 323 34 than the true value by The application of equations (169) to the data of Ex. 9 23 i 32 41 i * 70. 38 gives the formula of Section 64. We then find H is to be interpolated from Table IV. (173) Equations (172) and (173) may be obtained directly from (153) and (157) by differentiating with respect to t and introducing rf/ dO.02 sin tdO. i h' 39 54'. the influence of an error in the time upon the calculated latitude. sin in and we may write accuracy for the present purpose. .8 may now examine 67. i 1 38 9 13 16 logr cos ' 1.39 2h / 4 h i39 2577 H <f 3928'. p. Ex.0  2 27 log ^ cosi 3s 57 ^* 21 34 The 9 is larger I. = = 0. exactly with the result obtained by = ^ 38S7'. (170) will For at most. 9 jrw C.7 312 38 57S 3953'S 570 38 56.8506 Columbia a * t 995 6 1. (172) For Polaris we have with sufficient approximation COS <? = 90 whence <p. 81. 57. T. 38 and 39. For circummeridian altitudes (171) reduces by (151) to d<p = A sin t dO.7562 calcu i ate d ^ <f o'. S. with 24" / as Ex. (170) becomes sin tdO. Ephemeris. a few degrees (170) with sufficient Substituting for sin A its value from (33). argument. be small. which agrees Example 40.
5334 <fys='S" 2. and if t be near oh or I2 h it pole. or for the determination of the accuracy with which the time must be known in order to obtain <p with a given degree of precision.33=33" 0. 37 i do = Kf = 300" log^l sin/ log 300 = 7>"39 = 54'45" 0. it also depends upon the zenith distance and declination of the star. ar) d accurately must the time be known in order that the altitude of may yield a value of the latitude uncertain by not more than o'. This fact taken in connection with the simplicity of the reductions renders the last of the above methods the most useful of all the various processes that will be employed for the determination of latitude. It is evident that.INFLUENCE OF ERROR IN TIME 107 Equations (170) (173) may be used for the calculation of dtp when dO is known. aside from the dependence of dtp upon t. What is the error in the latitude calculated meridian altitudes of Ex.1849 8. taking the values of A and / t from Ex. . The greatest precision. . may Example 41. incorrect by 20"? 37. i? By 073) the data in Ex. 105. 39. If dO is expressed in seconds of time.1744' log dy 1. p.i 3 23 34' sine 0. from the first of the circump 101. even though dO be large. 02 sin/ o'. be very slight indeed. the factor 15 must be introduced into the right members of the various equations in order that dtp may be expressed in seconds of arc. however. Polaris given How In Ex.012 Ans. is attained only by the method of a Talcott when used in connection with the zenith telescope. and that an error in the time has the least influence upon the calculated latitude for stars near the For Polaris the effect of dO is always small. 81. 33. p. ' we find <fy o.595 rf0 = 8'.4771 Example 42. on the assumption that the watch correction used was By (172) we find.
Fig. 075) be near the zenith. A. z. The calculated azimuth will depend upon the right ascension and declination of the latitude of the place of observation. produce but little effect the calculated azimuth. from page 95. it may 108 . and if. We have now to may be com A to the fundamental rigorous and general method of procedure leading equation _ _ cos d sin t sin d cos tp cos d sin if cos t was outlined on page to the Before proceeding to the adaptation of this equation 34. however. be near o will it is necessary that the object should not the factors cots and cosec s will produce a multiOtherwise. under purposes of calculation it is desirable to investigate the conditions which it may most advantageously be employed. and the quantities may be assumed to be known with precision. 6 we denote the angle at by q. star. examine the means by which the azimuth of the celestial body puted. The first two and thus derive a precept for the choice of objects to be observed. dA may be small or 180. the expression in parenthesis reduces by the second of the fundamental formulae of spherical trigonometry to cos d cos q. the time. and t being considered variable. VI THE DETERMINATION OF AZIMUTH Methods. of the process have been discussed in detail in Chapter IV. but the last are likely to be affected by relatively large To determine the influence of these upon the calculated azimuth. uncertainties.CHAPTER 68. cos d will be small and the influence of dd will be slight. Writing at the same time dt = dA If in = cot 2 sin A dip + (sin z sin y + cos z cos tp cos A) cosec z dd. Further. it is desirable that the azimuth should dip and dd. and the effect elongation. it be near cos q will also be small. A close circnmpolar star at sufficient closeness to quite insensible. The azimuth of a terrestrial mark may be found by ob the mark and a celestial object and applying serving the difference in azimuth of to the into this difference the calculated azimuth of the object corresponding The methods to be employed for the observational part stant of observation. at the same time. any hour angle satisfies these conditions with render the influence of any ordinary errors in ip and Should the clock correction be very uncertain. of dd will still further be minimized. whence dA In order that plication of both cot z sin A dp + cos d cos q cosec zdO. and substitute for dz its value dd we find after simplification. we differentiate (33). for when this is the case an error in the assumed latitude When the object is upon near the pole.
The first four equations of (34) are the equivalent of (32) and (33) from which the fundamental equation (174) was derived. The azimuth The azimuth of the sun.. Besides the fundamental equation (174) there is another which is some times useful. provided care be taken this precaution the coefficients in (175) depending on s and q will With sible. and A as variables. namely. N) sin JV (178) and sin The quadrants of TV and /J A are determined t. already small through the presence of cos 3. (tp tan/. but the time does not enter into the problem except as it may be required for the interpolation of the declination of the object for the instant of observation. 2. of a circumpolar star at any hour angle. (26).. These conditions cannot both be fulfilled at the same time. / (177) .. . With this method of procedure the latitude of the place must be known. the azimuth of the body may be calculated by this equation. sin . may be used with advantage. whence the azimuth of the mark can be found as before. distance. But for circumpolar stars observed near elongation the magnitude of cosq and cotf in (176) will be such that errors in z and <p will have only an insignificant influence on the calculated azimuth. may be made still smaller by the introduction of a value of q near 90. To determine the conditions under which this method (26) considering <p. By their combination we find the following group which for the purposes of calculation replaces (174) tan AT tan = cos r (J . differentiate find after simplification cos s. If the zenith distance of the celestial body be measured simultaneously with the determination of the azimuth difference. From t when consideration of the preceding results indicates that we shall need adaptations of the fundamental azimuth equations designed for the calculation of The 1. which in all cases is most to be feared. Theory. by noting that A have the same algebraic signs as sin and sin respectively. We thus if dA = cos q cosec / dz cottd<p. AZIMUTH OF THE SUN 69. Far less satisfactory will be the result in the case of observations on the sun. ('76) and <p will have the least influence this it appears that errors in and q are as near 90 or 270 as possible. 3. have the values best adapted for a minimization of the errors in <p and d.AZIMUTH OF THE SUN 109 be desirable to observe for the determination of the azimuth difference of the mark and the star at or near the time of elongation in order that the coefficient of dd in (175). especially that of the latter. although this object may be used when the latitude is known with some to observe as far from the meridian as posprecision. Azimuth from an observed zenith I.
and the sun's apparent If a mean solar timepiece is employed. p. Moreover h is small because of the factor tan. Supt. of A is determined by the fact that sin A must have the same algebraic The factors g and h are constant for any given night. its S. G is has the form i/ (i +v) The or i/ (i v). Finally compute A from (177) Azimuth determinations from solar observations should be made and (178). Such a table. ip <f. PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Procedure. If a sidereal timepiece is used. The quadrant sign as sin t. In case tables for follows as cost : logG are not accessible values may be calculated as t. ..sec <p sin/ <p tan n tan cos . in the form G=i/(iv) = (i+v)(i+V)(i+V). AZIMUTH OF A CIRCUMPOLAR STAR AT ANY HOUR ANGLE Dividing the numerator IT. the parentheses after the second or third in the last member of (181) will sensibly be equal to To find the value of logG. This is disolar time for which the azimuth difference has been measured. Coast and Geodetic Survey. in which v = h cos according negative or positive. calculate t from in which is the true sidereal time of observation. 10). of the sun. sin d cos <f Theory and denominator of (174) by and writing d tan^ =i tans. For this purpose we use the addition logarithmic table. the formula a= are (Num. Since i. we find 90 71. is arranged with = tan tan = gs\n c^ h cos tan A = gG sin h 7i g = tan TT sec <p. unity. pp. therefore. sufficient for all practical requirements is given in Rept.. only when the sun is far from the meridian. angle 2. calculate the apparent right ascension. t (179) This equation may be replaced by the following group which reference to the requirements of calculation. d. and the values of logG may be tabulated with log h cos t as argument. 18978.r. Comp. we must find the logarithms of one or more factors of the form (i+fc). and a when required for the the hour Interpolate rectly for the instant of observation. U. (181) Since v is small. G therefore differs but little from unity.HO 70. i (180) i /' t. and in approximate work they may be considered as such for a series of nights. calculation of t. 399407. latter expression may be written .
A For cost positive. and for latitudes less than 60. and for approximate results they may be simplified. especially if the circumpolar observed is Polaris. however. Equations (180) are rigorous. pp. or with formulae afford a convenient and precise method of calculating the azimuth of stars any of the close circumpolar whose apparent places are given in the Ephemeris. B is to be interpolated from the table with A as argument. = log (k cos /)". A. Hence For cost negative. A = log (A cos /)  (182) Equations (180) used in connection with tables for logC. A For =jrGsec^sin 45 t (183) latitudes of or less the error will always TABLE IX t .AZIMUTH OF A CIRCUMPOLAR STAR 111 A = ldgb. its azimuth object JT at the present time is i We may therefore write will always differ from 180 by less than 2 3'. be less than i". logG = 3 B. For this n'. 180 with an error not exceeding 2". log (h cost). = log (A cos A. where log(l+&)=B. (182) /). 312323.
which Interpolate 38 Procedure.0. as these quantities are affected by instrumental errors whose influence is not eliminated until the mean is formed. Equations (180) are used for the calculation. U. M . from table IX with t as argument. For an approximate azimuth from Polaris. or from some similar table. calculate A from (180). 85. Then calculate A from is of the star : A= If JT i8o TrGsecysint. the results for the two positions of the instrument being reduced separately. culate where d the true sidereal time of observation for which the azimuth difference and the mark has been measured. The maximum the latter of in = n= absolute errors in the azimuth resulting latitudes are from the u?e of this table for various Latitude Error in 30 35 o'. refer to the lati tude of the Laws Observatory. pp. The value of logG may be taken from Kept.112 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY tp between the value of assumed for the calculation of the table and that cor have only a slight influence on the responding to the place of observation will be understood. 50 15 o'. taken from p. 34. from the calculated azimuth of Polaris. 399407. or it may be calculated by means of (182). 85. and that the value of the coefficient n appearing In case a number of of observation. Ephcweris. the last (184) will also given in be expressed in minutes of minutes of arc. i 10'. pp. 312323. latitude of the place of observation 38 56' 52". 40. The difference of the two values of is not to be taken as an indication of the precision of the result. term of (184) be Example 43. Supt. The Determine the azimuth of the mark from the data given is in Ex. 40 12 o'. with the argument log h cost. the corresponding local azimuth determinations value of log sec <p may conveniently be combined with the mean values of One can then interpolate log G sec f directly from the table. p. Then For a precise azimuth. Coast and Geodetic Survey. (183) must correspond to the date are to be made at a given station. or log G sec <f>. log G. 18978. S.38 A o'. arc.24 The 72. and The values of log G in Table IX are based upon <p which is the mean north polar distance for 1910. however. the list values of log G sec f in the third is column of Table IX 57'. that the local azimuth derived from (183). and d for the instant of observation from Cal of apparent places of circumpolar stars. The azimuth of the mark is found by subtracting the difference 5 M.oo 45 o'. interpolate log G. It is to value of sec^ must be used.
10918 8.42280 8.31362 log// 9.22118 .90756 8.AZIMUTH FROM ZENITH DISTANCE i i 113 h 25 10' 19" 46" 5i if 3 56 sec/p tan?r 0.
39. t . from Ex. The first column contains the calculaThe value of t required for the first part is taken tion by (184). by M=A (SM\ (i86a) Example 44. p. it stars. the azimuth of the object by some one of the above methods mark. the second. 106. the reduction may be made by the third as well as by the second method. and (186) will serve as a mutual control for testing the accuracy of the calculated azimuth. 81. use with the method in question. and the latitude of the place of observation constitute the data necessary for the calculation of the azimuth. the azimuth differ75. M. that by (186). which are best adapted for circumpolar In any case. (185) will be desirable to derive A by means of (186). we calculate M. however. Find the azimuth of the mark from the data given in Ex.. p. the declination for the instant of observation. For objects whose azimuths are not so near o or 180 as to render the error But for of calculation for (185) large. 33. we may calculate A by this equation.114 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The zenith distance determined simultaneously with the measurement of the azimuth difference.Having measured 5 and having determined the azimuth of the ence of the object and the mark. Azimuth of a mark. Since both the time and the altitude of Polaris corresponding to the instant of measurement of the azimuth difference of the star and the mark are known.
9 54.2 =z = * p 56 76 51 . P. Substituting we find dA The first = (191) sec^cot/dfc.00025 0..7 r = Co\. 9. April 27. calculating the azimuth of the sun both by method i and method 3.9 8'. is small and we shall have approximately q= 1 80 t. The altitude of the sun and the difference of its azimuth and that of a mark were measured with an engineer's transit at the Laws Observatory on 1909.7 y cosec cot%A A S cos TV tan/ ((f>JV) 99S7I5 0.3 41. (192) of these can i. 6.S.S. 81 W <p *) 38 13 56.r. (190) Further.M. +13 . 5 359 tan^l A 0.r 1. t 3 59" 26:5 50 i /*' 33 I9'. we have with sufficient approximation z these results into (187) and (188) and writing cos<J = = go .(>.2 sin(s a) cosec s cosec (.S.S. that for In the latter instance the time is required only with such precision as (186).56498 0. Find the azimuth of the mark.T. c) 8.INFLUENCE OF ERROR IN TIME dA 115 = cos q sec <p cosec / dz.78268 80 38'. Col. as may be necessary for the interpolation of declination from the Ephemeris for the instant of observation. J7\y = i = 33 i<)'..T. <p. the spherical excess of the triangle PZO.76132 0. M.6 3 3 8. The parallactic angle q be estimated with sufficient precision for the derivamay be calculated from sin sec (f g= sin A sec S sin /cosec z. / 5 a c 52 32.2 24. page 26.T.).81604 cost tan N N 97"55 9. in the second.7. also writing G= be derived from (184) by differentiating and Example 45.9 3.7 13. Usually z and tion of t may dA.61902 M M 24. or they may be used to corresponding to a given uncertainty in determine the accuracy with which the time or the zenith distance must be known in order to secure a given degree of precision in A. The computation of the solar azimuth by (177) and (178) is in the first column. Fig. ( l ^9) For circumpolar stars (187) and (188) may be simplified as follows: Since the azimuth of such an object is always a small angle.7 58 = ooy.9 9. E A. (188) Equations (187) and (188) may be used to estimate the uncertainty in A and z.T. = 1 ' S Af=8i24'. m The results were 7\v 4 h I" n'o.20651 0.07130 80 38:2 Ck.J Si' 91 tan 939196 sin(i 56. whence cos^ = cost. 44'S (referred to C.! . C.66941 25 2'.
6' sidereal or mean and T' being the clock is values of the time of observation. Since a and E may be regarded as known. practically. the hour the apparent solar time. the error of a timepiece. When (196) the timepiece is solar the use of (196) is simpler than that of (195). (195) Applied to any celestial object this equation gives the sidereal which the mean solar or apparent solar time may be derived by the ation processes of Chapter III. finding 77. the T=t + E. according as the timepiece is (194) solar. from transform angle t is object. For the sun. however. The determination of time means. . The required 0' t error is given by (193) J0=0 or jT=rr. the problem is reduced to the determination of the hour angle of the object for the instant of observation. (198) it will be assumed that the object methods that may be employed for the determination of is a star and that the timepiece used is sidereal. in case of observations on this directly mean solar time may be found from (42) written in the form time. The modifications necessary in be considered for the removal of these limitations will connection with the discussion of the details presented in the 116 following sections. As indicated on page 34 this may be accomplished by measuring the zenith distance of the object at a place of known latitude and using equation (38) or (39) The problem can also be solved instant for which the hour angle of fundamental equation reduces to of the by determining the clock time the object is zero.CHAPTER VII THE DETERMINATION OF TIME Methods. and. To accomplish this the true time 6 or T\s calculated from observations on a star or the sun and compared with the clock time at which the observations were made. The fundamental equation for the determination of time = +7. For this case the ' 6 = a. (197) and J6 In outlining the ' =a d a '.
but those outlined afford a sufficient variety to meet the conditions arising in therepractice. or altitudes. o. 2. again.METHODS To determine #' we 117 may note the time 6. may be found by observing the transit of an object across the vertical thread of an instrument nearly in the plane of the meridian. depend upon the errors affecting and Those find in a and 8 we may dz disregard as relatively insignificant. The Polaris vertical circle method. From (136) we dd = cosec A sec <p cot A sec <p d<p. The method of equal zenith distances The meridian method. The process is accordingly known as the Polaris vertical circle method of time determination. and. to select for observation only those objects which are near the prime vertical. The formulae necessary for the calculation of / from S. resultant error of observation will z. The application of a small correction to the observed time depending upon the displacement of the instrument from the meridian gives the clock time for which f o. error of observation in 0. <p. z. The zenith distance method. The clock time of meridian transit. the time 0. It is of special interest on account of the fact that it is readily adapted to a simultaneous determination of time and = azimuth. There are other methods of determining the true time.). Care should be taken. were developed in connection with the discussion of coordinate transformations and are given in (38) and (39). <p. In practice the deviation of the instrument is such that the line of sight lies in the plane of the vertical circle passing through Polaris at a definite instant. (199) The method is known as that of equal altitudes. 78. it that for a given latitude the time will be appears least affected by uncertainties in z and when the azimuth of the object is <p near 90 or 270. or altitude. may also be determined by noting the instant of passage of an object across the vertical thread of a transit instrument mounted so that the line of sight of the telescope lies in the plane of the meridian. (200) Assuming that dz and dtp represent the errors in z and and dO the resultant tp. Finally. therefore. . east of the meridian. ' This is the meridian method of time determination. 3. 4. fore proceed to a detailed consideration of We 1. + '. I. The a. we shall have 0: = x(o. when a star has a certain zenith distance. Since the celestial sphere rotates uniformly. 3. when it has the same zenith distance west of the meridian. THE ZENITH DISTANCE METHOD and Theory.
Observations on the sun: in the timepiece is sidereal. calculate T from (196). respectively. is = From (39). the clock time of meridian transit will be given by (199).X (T. calculate t Having found the true zenith distance corresponding by (38) or (39). THE METHOD OF EQUAL ALTITUDES and d. or may be made with the Greenwich mean time corresponding to . whence by (198) 80. repetition of the calculation then gives the final value of the clock correction. the clock time of observation. we may proceed as the case of a star using (195) and (193). value used for / is the mean of these. we find i8 h 35 m 166. Theory. in general. The for the error of the clock which. 79.4 <f 52 Watch J7\v +1 45. Owing to the change in the right ascension and declination of the sun. The conversion of into the corresponding accomplished by (62) and (41). If 0.6'7 3 22 h '5 21 17 30 o 23 a 42 17 3. will be resulting data will give an approximation sufficient for a precise interpolation of the coordinates of the sun. Should the error of the timepiece be unknown.S. where If (202) T is the mean solar time corresponding to 0=a. (193). to the clock time. The The C. 9 9 40 39 51. 31. a knowledge of the approximate time is necessary for the reduction of solar observations. or zenith distance. reduce its value to the meridian to which the clock time refers.). convert the sidereal time derived from (195) into the solar.2 19. the interpolation of a and 3. or we may convert the value of T derived from (196) into the corresponding sidereal time and then use (193). Observations on a star: if from If the timepiece is sidereal. and determine AT from (194). east JO If a solar = a#(0 + O I m ).118 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 79.T. and calculate JT'from (194). taking care and JO by that T is reduced to the meridian to which the clock time If refers.T. the above equations are not applicable on account of the change in the declination during the interval separating the . + T. in Ex. altitude. A Example 46. corresponding mean solar time T.9 +23 38 49 56 C. (201) timepiece is used we shall have JT= T. Find the error of the watch from the measured altitude of Alcyone given We have h' 21 19' 30" 2 / i8 h 35"> j. as a control. the object observed is the sun.0 Ans. The latter equation should not / be used when the object is so near the meridian that the interpolation of its cosine is rendered uncertain. same be the sidereal clock times when a star has the and west of the meridian.4 6. solution of (38) gives / 18*35 l6 !8. p. calculate by (195). If the timepiece is solar.S. 2. Procedure.
TIME FROM EQUAL ALTITUDES measures. we have from (196) and = for the instant of meridian transit. for solar observations made with a sidereal timepiece. (206) (207) in which the values of a and 81. but in the reverse order. always changing the reading by the same amount. 2 0. and d. After meridian passage observe the times of transit over the horizontal thread for the same readings of the vertical circle as before. Both the observed times will be too late by the quantity dt. Denote the means of the two series of times by 0. since / the timepiece is solar. (205) It is sometimes convenient to combine afternoon observations with others made on the following morning. AT=E#(T + TJ + l dt. Since the change in d is small. (203) solar units.) s dt. 2 y (0 + 6. and the resulting value of dt must be added to the clock times of observation.) + dt. the required corrections may be found from the differential relation connecting changes in d with corresponding changes in t.. When Procedure. Change the reading by 10' or 20' and note the time of transit as before. according T as the timepiece is sidereal or mean solar. For a star the error of the clock will be given by (201) or (202). and the clock error by (204) or (205) in case the observations are made in the morning and after . calculate dt by (203). however. In this case the mean of the observed times corrected for the change in declination is the clock time of lower culmination. E refer to the instant of lower culmination. From (31) This influence may dfr=(tany>cosec/ in tan 3cott)dd. note the times of contact of the direct and reflected images for the same series of equidistant readings of the vernier before and after meridian passage. / in (203) is onehalf the interval between the observations expressed in solar units as before.) tf (0. onehalf the interval between the two observations expressed in the declination for apparent noon. which / is <? Hence. and dd the change in 8 during the interval /. If the sextant is used. The expressions for the The quantity clock correction are J0=l2 h + jr=i2 + h + y (T + T. but d must be interpolated from the Ephemeris for the instant of the sun's lower transit. Repeat a number of times. by reducing the observed times to what they would have been had the declination been constant and equal to its value at the instant of meridian transit. three or four hours east of the meridian note the time of transit across the horizontal thread of the transit for a definite reading of the vertical circle. The object observed should be near the prime vertical. most conveniently an exact degree or half degree. dt. 119 be included.. For the sun. t M=a If (204) (202). or t and T.
(208) general. Denoting the clock time of this instant by 6 the error of the timepiece will be given by ' J0= In satisfied. final value. a transit instrument The meridian method of time determination mounted so that. the conditions of perfect adjustment will not be The horizontal axis will not lie exactly in the plane of the prime vertical. to the serious the chief advantage of the method. with the danger that clouds may interfere with the program second series of measures. This approximate result will lead to an approximation for the error of the timepiece with which the calculation the observations themselves as before. Further. when perfectly adjusted. the engineer's transit is used for the observations. and the angles When all should be set from the same vernier. the horizontal axis of the telescope. we must subtract t from the clock time of observation. all the measures should be made in the same position of the verticle circle. therefore. To obtain the clock time of meridian transit 6'. and collimation constants. whence . however. d. 8. but will form with it an angle 90 The quantities a. however. respectively. an observed is approximate knowledge of the time is necessary when the object the sun. this may be derived from As in only necessary to interpolate the sun's right ascension. must coincide with the intersection of the planes of the prime vertical and the horizon. whatever the elevation In order that this may be the case. or the equation of time.120 PRACTICAL ASTKONOMT noon of the same day. In general. parallax This fact taken in connection with the simplicity of the reductions constitutes It is subject. If these remain unchanged no correction need be or semidiameter. It is may be repeated for the determination of the 3. '. b. the case of the zenith distance method of time determination. and the line of sight must be perpendicular to the horizontal axis. applied for index error. When produced it will cut the celestial whose azimuth referred to the east point sphere page 65. but will have a small hour angle t whose value will depend upon the magnitude of the instrumental constants a. and whose altitude we may denote by a and t>. Fig. on the assumption that the clock error is zero. respectively. THE MERIDIAN METHOD requires line of 82. refraction. Theory. The instant of a star's transit across the vertical thread will then be the same as that of its meridian passage. hours must elapse before the observing objection that an interval of several can be completed. or by (206) and (207) when they are secured in the afternoon and on the following morning. the star level. and c are known as the azimuth. eccentricity. as may be required. and c and the position of the star. in a point A. If the clock correction is quite unknown. nor will it be truly horizontal. +. the sight lies constantly in the plane of the meridian. the line of sight will not be exactly perpendicular to the horizontal axis. Care must be taken not to disturb the instrumental adjustments between the two sets of measures. will not be on the meridian at the instant of its transit across the vertical thread.
THE MERIDIAN METHOD e. Since the star is near the meridian at the instant of i>. z in (213) may be replaced by the meridian zenith distance <p = = Writing A = s\n(<p and substituting d)sec3.3 presence of A. We may now use (33) to determine the hour angle of the star when its azimuth is equal to^ s which the upper sign case. the positions of the instrument are less ambiguously expressed by circle west (C. (213) 0. mation constants. L. observation.. the amount by which the azimuth difference of the point A and the object 0. C=secS. .) and circle east (C. (89). on account of the Equations (211) and (212) become indeterminate for . what amounts to the same thing. (215) . respectively. the azimuth of the point measured positive toward the south. These results may be applied directly to the meridian transit to determine the azimuth of the star at the instant of its transit across the vertical thread. R.. denoting this azimuth by A s and expressed as a function of the instru. B = cos(<p find 3) sec 8. W. For. (214) for t in (210) we bBcC. or. which we may do since both are very small angles. we have A at referred to the east point. when on the The last two terms of (89) express the corresvertical thread. and c. and The last two terms of (82) express the influence of the level and colli(33). Replacing A in (33) by A s and writing A A s and / instead of their sines. i>. assuming that a. is once z. o.s stars very near the pole. For this purpose we make use of equations (82). ponding quantity for C. t we s\nz find (212) whence by (211) /cos d = asin z fcos2 c. L. and becomes inapplicable only for Equation (213) is therefore valid for. but the conditions of the problem show that there can be no such discontinuity in the expression which gives / as a function of a. b. upon the reading of the horizontal circle of the engineer's transit for C. R. Consequently J0 can be determined by (210) when / has been mental constants. A. (210) The values of a.). b and c.' 121 = B' t. in = a + b cot z c cosec (211) In the present refers to C. however. E. (209) and by (208) J6 =a 0'\t. and c can always be found. and the lower to C. exceeds 90.
Writing (218) Jd"=J6'cC we find for these objects from (215) . pp. Writing to be J0' = 0' + 5. These are applicable for all points of observation. C. B.+aA. pose Aw = AR assumed that the two declinations are nearly equal. S. Their values depend only upon the position of the star and. one observed C. b. the resulting values of c will then be accepted as the final value. Consider the results for two of these having the same declination as nearly as possible. the instrument having been used in both positions. (217) may be applied to each. (216) we have from (215) zld M = M'. Coast and Geodetic Survey 18978. Assuming that b has been made equal to zero.. Ad.cC. The observation of any three stars will afford three equations of condition involving these quantities from which. The mean of Next. may be tabulated with d as argument. the other. a widely circumpolar preferably. a. consider two stars observed in whose declinations northern star. the other. Should there be more than one pair of stars of equal declination. W. theoretically. E. a southern differ as as possible. b. Practically. They may also be tabulated with the double argument d and z. their values may be determined. and c. there remain in (215) only three unknowns. The second of these can be made equal to zero by a careful adjustment and levellevel is ling of the instrument.122 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY the time of transit 6' Equations (214) and (215) give the value of J0 when across the vertical thread has been observed. and c. and c are known. the observations themselves. we may supwhence we find .. the solution is simplified and rendered more precise by proceeding as follows: Suppose that the transits of a number of stars of various declinations have been observed. a. Supt. the same position of the instrument One of these should be a star. Tables of the latter sort are found in Kept. however. transit factors. J0' '= J0' E +r w r LE ' (2I7) ~r **w which determines the collimation constant. or that its value has been determined. Since it is = M' w + aA + cCw v . or its value may be measured in case a striding The azimuth and collimation constants are best determined from available. 308319. and C are called the stants a. provided the instrumental conThe quantities A. U. for any given latitude. There remains still the determination of the constants.
The determination of the azimuth of Polaris requires a knowledge of the approximate time. but (191) shows that if 6 be known within two or three minutes. the azimuth will not be in error by more than one or two minutes of arc. "N "S (2I9) Inasmuch as there is the reversal. To place the instrument in the meridian we may make use of a distant object of known azimuth. thread of a southern star of small zenith distance. Set off the value of the azimuth on the horizontal circle and bring the object on the vertical thread by rotating on the lower motion. paving clamped the lower motion. a should instrument. When carried out with a large and stable instrument mounted permanently in the plane of the meridian. in precision or in the amount of labor involved in the 83. rotate on the upper motion in until the reading is zero._45=j. the precision is relatively It is the standard method of determining time in observatories. Since the uncertainty of an observed transit is considerably less than that of an angle measured with a graduated circle. the procedure is ception the same as that for a distant terrestrial object. (220) The mean of all such values is the final value of the clock correction. Polaris may be used inon the vertical thread at an instant for brought which its azimuth has previously been calculated by (184). with the inclusion of certain refinements not considered in the preceding sections. The line of sight will then be approximately is available. Denoting the sidereal clock time of transit by 0'. In case no object of known azimuth In this case the star is stead. Then rotate the telescope on the horizontal axis and observe the transit across the vertical the plane of the meridian. an approximation may be derived as follows: Set on Polaris and clamp in azimuth. The chief advantage of the meridian method of time determination is to be found in the fact that the results do not depend upon a reading of the circles. high. With the exthat the setting must be made at a definite instant.THE MERIDIAN METHOD 123 = M\ + aA M = J0" + aA 40 s H s whence . the approximate error of the timepiece will be given by (221) . Procedure. which is sufficiently accurate. either reductions. In case the clock correction is entirely unknown. it affords results not surpassed by those of any other method. danger of a change in the azimuth constant during be determined by (219) for both positions of the The value of Jd is then to be calculated by Jd = Jd" + aA.
(222) which the upper sign refers to northern stars. exceed two or three of the azimuth minutes. With the mean value of c calculate Jd" for each star by (218). of Polaris with the precision necessary for the orientation The will include the observation of four or five stars in each posi program Each tion of the instrument. Observations with the striding level for the determination of b should be made at frequent intervals throughout the observing program. will occur at the clock time a ing.) If the inclination of transit factors for the horizontal axis has been measured. select two stars of equal or nearly equal declination. If a striding level is not available. sufficient data for the determination of the collimation constant. and this. set the vertical circle at the proper readinto the field adjust in altitude until it moves along its transit across the vertical thread to the nearest tenth of a second. Compute as many such values of c as there are pairs of stars of equal declination. toward the west. (See page 122. The reduction and the is begun by collecting the right ascension. The star list with the setting for each object should be prepared in advance. and form the mean of all. the settings which will give the telescope the proper elevation to bring the stars into the field at the time of culmination are to be calculated by.. one observed C. ordinarily. Level readings increasing toward the east should be recorded as positive. or better still. should be very carefully adjusted before beginning the observations and the bubbles should be kept centered during the measures. Setting in = 90 (<p d). care should be taken to observe at least one pair of stars. the declination. one C. reversal being made at the middle of the series. W. This having been done.. and as the star the horizontal thread. and calculate c by (217).124 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Since the azimuth of Polaris differs but little from 180. reverse the instrument about the vertical axis through 180 and proceed with the observation of the remaining stars. The coordinates are to be interpolated for the instant of observation from the list of apparent places in the Ephemeris. If the zenith distance of the time star is not more than 25 or 30 the error in d will not. Then determine a for . C. they may be interpolated from the transit factor tables. the line of sight will not deviate greatly from the plane of the meridian. the instrument is to be levelled and adjusted Three or four minutes before the transit of the first star. the plate levels. whose declinations are equal or nearly so. as stated above. is sufficient for the calculation of the instrument. The remaining objects should be southern stars culminating In order that there may be preferably between the zenith and the equator. the other. W. each star. determination of the group should contain one northern star to be used for the azimuth constant. the other C. The transit factors may be computed by (214). For an instrument whose vertical circle reads altitudes. as negative. E. comes Note the time of 46... which in azimuth. in this After onehalf the stars have been observed manner. Then (113). E. especially the transverse level. the values of b are to be computed by The value of Ad' is then to be calculated for each star by (216). especially when directed toward points near the zenith.
the instrument used being a Buff to & Buff engineer's transit. the upper motion was released and vernier was made to read o. It should be noted that the algebraic sign of the collimation correction changes with the reversal of the instrument. respectively. The results are w 2*38 values of the azimuth corrections a A. using for this purpose the stars of extreme northern and southern declination. None of the pairs of stars observed are suitable for the determination of the collimation by (217). 8. The plate levels were carefully adjusted throughout the observations. The combination of these with the value of J0' gives the quantities in the column headed J#".. approximate values of the azimuth constant are derived by (219) from stars i and 4.ooc These two J0 = + 7 m 4!4 J0 = f 7 5o + i5c i. at the beginning. the number. M. table contains the reduction The values of jy are obtained ing a in accordance with (216). the corrections being applied in such a way that each 0' becomes what it would have been had all the observations been made at the same instant. To avoid this difficulty. each observed 6' should be cor rected for rate before forming the values of JO'. and 2 and 8 we find J0 = + 7 m 4M+J4c J0 = t7 4. Example On 1909. Finally calculate Ad for each is the final value of the object by (220). 47.ooc sets of equations give for c. and at the clock time indicated Polaris was brought to the inter n A section of the threads by means of the lower motion. J0" being replaced by J0' for this purpose. provided we use for this calculation stars whose declinations differ as little as possible. The instrument having thus been placed in the A meridian. accordance with (220). A. after which four more stars were observed. The mean of all such values of clock correction corresponding to the mean of the observed clock times of M transit. and the value of the clock correction derived by subtracting each #' from the correspondThe third and fourth columns contain the values of the transit factors interpolated from the tables of the Laws Observatory. but they are sufficiently accurate for a determination of by (n6a). and C into (2i6a) for stars 3 and 5. which. In case the rate of the timepiece is large. The second from each star. for each position of the circle. respectively. From these we find the added to the values of J#" in and 6 and 8. The settings were obtained by adding the colatitude 51 3' to the values of the declination. give J0. Substituting the numerical values of a. the clock correction for each star. magnitude or brightness. using for this purpose the value of JW" for stars I and a e f4i6.THE MERIDIAN METHOD 125 each position of the instrument by (219). After clamping. The azimuth of Polaris h m 1 Vernier of the horizontal calculated by (184) for the clock time 5i o was 179 26'5circle was set at this value. 40*19. and the bubbles were kept centered The first of the tables gives the observing program and the data of observation. Multiplying this by the value of C for each star gives the corrections for collimation contained in the fifth column. The azimuth constant is now redetermined and 4. =+ . The results are \T f2!2 and These values are uncertain owing to the fact that the influence of the collimation = c has been neglected in deriving them. and the apparent right ascension and declination of the stars. the transits of four stars were observed. Wed. the error of the Fauth sidereal clock of the Laws Observatory was determined by the meridian method. May 19. The epoch to which the values of 0' are reduced is usually the exact hour or halfhour nearest the middle of the series. The error of the clock was known be approximately f 7 m o'. The various columns contain. The mean. and the position of the circle. is accepted as the value of the collimation constant. The reversal was then made by changing the reading of vernier A from o to 180. +0:10 and +0*27. the setting of the vertical circle. name. the the observed clock time of transit.6 i. P. and 6 and <ie = + 4H. For northern stars this sum must be subtracted from 180.
that the values of 40 for each pair of azimuth stars must agree within one unit of the last place of decimals. as a control upon the calculation of the azimuth constant. It should be noted. In the present case the agreement is exact for both pairs. No. . which shows that the influence of the collimation has been satisfactorily eliminated.126 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The last the clock correction. column contains the weight assigned to each result in forming the mean value of The mean J0 for the southern stars is the same for each position of the instrument.
but a is to be calculated from the The azimuth constant will nearly equal the position of Polaris.. Since b and c are very small. z being the zenith distance of Polaris. W. (215) is insufficient. E * i \ (~. 127 but for those cases in which an uncertainty of one or two tenths of a second is permissible. the approximation is ample. f.THE VERTICAL CIRCLE METHOD final result.Jg'. the upper sign refers to C. To determine c write J0' = 6' + a A+&B'. for (184) gives # = it Gsecip sin/ . the other. (224) we have =a 0' + a^ + WcC. as before. W W (22S) in There is here no necessity for an equality in declination of the two stars as the case of the meridian method. For the sake of precision one of these should be observed C. Equation (225) is the same in form as (215). In the meridian method both a and care determined from the observations themselves. for the influence of the azimuth is in this . (226) which may be used for the calculation of This leaves in (225) only two unknowns. If a represent the azimuth of Polaris defined as above. . W. whence a = a + b tan <pc sec Q (p. but not exactly. E. and the observation of any two time stars therefore affords the data necessary for a complete solution of the problem. azimuth of Polaris measured from the north point positive toward the east at the instant of setting. we have by (82) and (89) a = a + b cot z a c cosec . (227) We then find from (225) whence f Jg. za may be replaced by 90 <p. ( 22 3) Substituting (223) into (215) and writing B' = Atan<p+B. C. (225) where. but its solution is slightly different. J0 and c. owing to the presence of the instru known mental constants b and c. 48 C = Asec<p + C. Here we determine c as before.
respectively.. It possesses the further advantage that no preliminary adjustment in the plane of the meridian is necessary. C = E + tan seed tan d. and the horizontal if and azimuth difference of the star and the mark. b. much less than in the meridian method. each set of two time stars is complete in itself and gives a complete determination of the error of the timepiece. (229) in factor A in (227) is the in same as that (215). the azimuth of the mark measured in the conventional manner will be circle readings give the is Am = in MS + a i&o (232) which S and are the means of the horizontal circle readings on the star and the mark. vertical circle is method of time determination. The C The vertical circle method in is easily adapted to a simultaneous determibe read at nation of time and azimuth. written in the form from (228) we calculate Ad from (225) M=WcC. and in conse quence. carefully constructed. for any is likely to produce serious errors in the . yields results of a relatively high degree of precision. It is especially valuable for use with unstable instruments. For any given latitude be tabulated with d as argument.128 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Having found c case included in Ad'. readings be taken on a mark. If the horizontal circle the instant of addition. viz. that the azimuth and level constants remain unchanged It is necessary only during the interval separating the setting on Polaris and the transit of the time star immediately following. for the constancy of the quantities a. and am the mean of the calculated azimuths of Polaris. on account of the magnitude are easily reduced by (214) to B' and quantities C B' in sec <p. and this need not exceed two or three minutes. but it must be more accurately known than The the meridian method. Since aa measured from the north point positive toward the east. whence C' may itself be found by the simple addition of tan^>. however. The instrument used should be irregularity in the form of the pivots results. for the azimuth of Polaris is calculated in the course of the reduction of the observations for time. the azimuth of the mark will be given at once. and c is assumed for only a very short interval. setting on Polaris. The third column of Table X contains may such a series of values for the latitude of the Laws Observatory. (230) which ( 2 30 values of E may be taken from Table X with d as argument. Moreover. <p. 38 57'. like that of the meridian not dependent upon the reading of graduated circles. The of a . M The method.
for #. The instrument is carefully levelled. i h 3O m ). \ C. and read the H. C. To determ aaA we combine equation (226) with the value of A from (214). the instrument should be relevelled. note the time. choosing for this purpose the sidereal mately to the middle of the observing program. The telein azimuth and the sidereal time of setting. C. are to be interpreted as meaning that if the instruto the north by rotating about the vertical the vertical circle will then be west or east. note the time. The data thus of the time star obtained constitute a set and permit a determination of the error of the timepiece. Set on Polaris. W. 9 we may use a constant value time corresponding approxi . E. the southern or time star will pass through the field of view. V C.' to calculate in advance the approximate times of transit. It is also desirable. If a program for a set will simultaneous determination of time and azimuth be mark and read the H. Set on the mark and read the 11. and the entire process is then repeated second time star. in order to save time in observing and to avoid errors in the identification of the stars. ) Set on the is required^ the W. Observe the transit of the time star. and three or four minutes before the transit of a southern star across the vertical circle through Polaris. The plate levels axis. and write in rive a value for the We in thus find aaA=P(tand tan <p). Procedure. (234) which > =47 sin \o ^ r r (f). Observe the transit of the time star. C. The transit for a is observed. respectively. Disregarding the errors in level and collimation we have from (225) in ment be turned from the mark d' = a + a AJO (233) which JO represents an approximate value of the clock correction. and Polaris itself is brought to The instrument is the intersection of the vertical and horizontal threads. and read the H. should be carefully watched. E.// Since a a A need be known only very roughly. the telescope is turned to the north.THE VERTICAL CIRCLE METHOD 129 85. clamped is then rotated about the horizontal axis until its position is such that scope . and C. / w> (23?) \ J . and if there is any evidence of creeping. The observing list with the settings for the time stars should be prepared in advance. C. Set on Polaris. with the instrument in the reversed position. is noted. which C.
respectively. M For the determination of the error of the clock. calculate Am = in Yz \M. the sidereal clock times. for the determination of the azimuth. and d'.). . and when once obtained. quantity. (238) where the subscripts attached to refer to settings made with the instrument such a position that if turned toward the north by rotation about the vertical axis. 0' = tan + E. /= +^0 A = sin 4d' = a C (<p (?) .130 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY /having been calculated ^01^(235)' we find the value of a A for each time value of d. they may be used unchanged . S and M. positive toward the west. and J0 an approximation for this . TT. the circle would then be west or east. should be preserved. the readings of the horizontal circle for settings on Polaris and the mark. = ad'+aaA. of their observation. respectively. Collecting results we have the lated by (234) in preparing the observing list. which is reprinted here for convenience. the first step in the reduction is The observations having of sufficient the determination of an approximation for the clock correction Neglecting errors in calculation of the azimuth of Polaris. circle east. + Mm (S OJ 180. accuracy for the level and collimation we have from (225) M. <p + a A+bsec<f> e ~i L (237) C w be taken from Table IX. places of decimals are ample been secured. a should be expressed in seconds of time. in minutes of arc. according to the subscript. following notation and formulae: . One or two star from (234) by introducing the corresponding for the calculation. The values of A are needed to four places of decimals. Ad. and a. (S a. respectively. 8 are the coordinates of Polaris and the time star. with the argument ta E or C\ from Table X with the argument d. for a given latitude. respectively. = C' sec d. since. respectively. A m the azimuth of the mark rqeasured from the south. (236) which applied to the time star transiting nearest the zenith will give the For the term a A we may introduce the value calcurequired approximation. Finally. the error of the timepiece. The subscripts w and ^ refer to observations made circle west and or log tp Log G G sec is to .
1910. TABLE IX. and C. it will be sufficient to take the mean of the values of Jd' for C. as the error of the timepiece. If the coHimation is known to be small and the declinations of the two time stars do not differ too greatly.0 TABLE X <0 . W.THE VERTICAL CIRCLE METHOD for several 131 months. E.
W sin/ .132 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The azimuth in minutes of arc.6020. 0. viz.. 1 sec <S a 0' JO' C' cC' AO "o M Am . a whose logarithm is given in the fourth line is expressed of time the logarithm of 4.. Since the correction a. 47. a Virginis. A must be expressed in seconds added to and the two logarithms immediately following it are is also included when log a is in satisfactory agreement with that form log a o A. The final value of the clock correction found in Ex. C.
Equator: celestial. 5960. 108. 6263. Ephemeris. relative position of reference circles. determination of for sextant. 113114. 9799. of spherical trigo from the sun. Asteroids. of horizontal angles. 7. 9. 12. declination and zenith distance. diurnal. into mean solar time. and zenith distance. 4. 6471. 114. mean. 9. calculated from meridian zenith distance. of sextant. by repetitions. 9. determined with time. 9. zenith distance. calculation of from latitude. 110. transformed into ascension. 7780. converted Apparent place. 40. influence of error in time on. relation of its position to latitude. 15. Level: error of. Coincident beats. from altitude of Polaris. 7172. Date: calendar and civil. . 2325. 14. of. 7376. theory of. 59. 39. 36. 37. Coordinates: necessity for. dip 91. Horizontal angles : measurement of. 9. 39. 95. 118120. 120. 7. 31. influence of an error in time upon. 3234. Common year. Apparent solar time: defined. Horizon: defined. 37. transformations of. 96. 39. 3839. 9. 9. from circummeridian altitudes. Leap year. 16. with sextant. defined. of mark. 8185. 10. Azimuth: relation to axis of celestial precession of. engineer's transit. theory of. 114115. Altitude: defined. from zenith distance at any hour angle. tions satisfied by. Equation of time. artificial. 2528. sidereal. measurement of with 7780. axis of celestial for fundamental Clock: see timepieces. 9. 13. value of one division. Equal altitudes: time from. 9S102. 68. Gregorian calendar. 63. right angle: defined. Longitude. clrcumpolar nometry. 2123. 6. 8. 90. Dip of horizon. measurement of vertical angles. 10. 9. constant. Circummeridian altitudes: latitude from. Ecliptic. Celestial sphere: defined. 9194. 7. 3132. 4. 2531. systems of. 8. of. defined. 39. 37. Latitude: relation to sphere. 72. Day: apparent solar. 10. 3134. 13. 8081 . I Aberration: defined. 40. Least reading of vernier. 106. Fundamental formula. Calendar: Julian and Gregorian. 39. Celestial equator. 99102. Collimation: error. 102103. 120. simultaneously 126132. distance. Eccentricity: defined. tion of. Engineer's transit: historical. 10. Hour circles. 89. calculation of declination from latitude. azimuth and time. Arguments: arrangement Artificial horizon. Equinox: vernal and autumnal. 59. from from measured star. 9. 53. 64. of. 91. by Talcott's method. Julian calendar. and zenith Hour angle and into azimuth declination transformed 29. 13. sphere. 109110. 36. mean solar. 2930. 13. Almucanters. 10. Copernican system. 117. 104105. Mean 133 equator. 61. mulae for. 64. conditions for precise determina Error of timepiece. primary and secondary. condi Altitude circles. precepts for use of. Diurnal motion. Cardinal points. 24. 4. into right ascension and declination. 27. constant. 5. 1. Julian year. 51. 8085. mean. Hour Azimuth and zenith distance transformed into hour angle and declination. Declination: circles defined. Chronometer: see timepieces. Index error: of engineer's transit. conditions for precise determination of.INDEX (THE NUMBERS REFEB TO PAGES. 7.
58. Method of repetitions. meridian method. from zenith distance. apparent solar into mean Noon: apparent. azimuth from. 40. 8. 10. azimuth from. basis of 36. 14. 37. with sextant. of with en Right ascension: defined. 38. of. Successive approximations. 118. 5. measurement 7780. 40. leap and common. Zenith distance: defined. relative distances solar and vice versa. 91. Tropical year. 85. latitude from. 4748. of. 36. Mean noon: defined. Parallactic angle. index correction. Solar system: parts. 89. 102103. 118120. Sidereal noon. differential. from equal altitudes. sidereal time of. Meridian: defined. Vertical angles: gineer's 9194. diameters. 20. 4. 8687. discussion True place. 16. 7. 2123. 113. 57. 120. Stars: motions Stellar system. Time: relation to celestial sphere. 31. 93. error 5258. Sidereal time: defined. Meridian zenith distance: 96. 36. Rotation: Sextant: diurnal. 8185. 13. Zero reading. 1618. Proper motion. tropical. 47. 1. Precession. of mean sun. 89. fundamental for Mean sun: 4446. 3. 120circle Polaris vertical method. parallax of Sun: 1920. mean. 10. 38. comparison Prime vertical. 37. Vernier: theory. 38. Mean Mean Mean place. Julian. solar time: defined. Transit factors. 2. 51. 8185. 9. Right ascension and declination transformed into azimuth and zenith distance. 8889. latitude from. 1820. eccentricity. 117118. 48. 39. Meridian method. True solar time: see apparent solar time. Vertical circles. distribution of. Reduction to the meridian. uncertainty of re method of. 6061. 15. 117. 25. transformed into hour angle. Semidiameter. 4849. relation be and tween real. of. 5051. 4. sults. 39. precepts for use of. Spherical trigonometry: mulae.134 INDEX 37. Residuals. Ptolemaic system. 77. . into apparent solar time. 36. Talcott's method. 1. converted solar day. 37. 100. Poles of celestial sphere. 104105. 100. 126132. historical. Year: Zenith. different kinds. 37. adjustments. 6. 14. 13. 39. 4446. from. Sidereal day. 15. Refraction: Repetitions: defined. fundamental formulae for.^of time determination. into sidereal time. 8. 8. 15. Polar distance. transit. Planets: names. historical. Polaris vertical circle method of time de determining. time 96. of. 3234. difference in two local times. Parallax: 14. reduction to. units. right ascension of. methods of termination. 110114. converted converted into mean solar time. 2930. Transit: see engineer's transit. theory. 8. Rate of timepiece. 126132. Nutation. defined. table. 117. Polaris: 47. 37. 120126. 38. measurement. Mean equinox. 90. 34. defined. 2. 117118. 5960. model Solstices. 36. 98. sidereal mean into solar into side mean solar. 16. latitude from. Standard time. 10. and care rate of. 12. annual motion of. 9799. sidereal. 9. 13. 38. theory. 8. 126. Timepieces: of. 116117. 122. 31. 42. 3. Nebulae. Nadir. 51. 1.
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