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PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY FOR ENGINEERS .
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STEPHENS PUBLISHING 1909 COMPANY D . W. MISSOURI THE E.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY FOR ENGINEERS BY FREDERICK HANLEY SEARES 111 Professor of Astronomy in the University of Missouri and Director of the Laws Observatory COLUMBIA.
HANLEY SEARES .BY FREDERICK.
as a preliminary The inconsistencies of the work are due largely to the fact that the earlier pages were in print before the later ones were written.PREFACE result of several years' experience in presenting to students of engineering the elements of Practical Astronomy. it will afford an orientation sufficient for the purpose in question. Though the discussion has thus been made to place before the student the somewhat narrowly restricted. it is hoped. Difficulties inherent in this defect may be avoided by a careful examination of an article on numerical calculation which appeared in Popular Astronomy. The main purpose of the volume is an exposition of the principal methods of determining latitude. for others. Generally speaking. while Chapters VVII consider in succession the special adaptations of the fundamental formulae employed for the reductions. The observational details of these solutions. the first chapter will serve as a review. 349367. The final chapter. are presented in Chapter IV. it is intended that the work shall also serve as an introduction for those who desire a broader knowledge of the subject. azimuth. with a few exceptions. and to the further fact that the manuscript was prepared with a haste that permitted no careful interadjustment and balancing of the parts. and time. edition will contain this paper. and in the Engineering Quarterly of the University of Missouri. and time. and yet the results are to be regarded as tentative. pp. v. But these can scarcely be attained without some knowledge of the salient facts of Descriptive Astronomy. pp. The order of treatment and the methods proposed for the solution of the various problems have been tested sufficiently to establish their usefulness. Chapter II blocks out in broad lines the solutions of the problems of latitude. Chapter III is devoted to a theoretical consideration of the subject of time. Although the method and the extent of the discussion have been designed to The following pages represent the meet the specialized requirements of such students. 1908. 2. an attempt has been means of acquiring correct and complete notions of the fundamental conceptions of the subject. For those who possess this information. It is not customary to introduce historical data into texts designed for the use of professional students. will characterize a later edition. the limit of precision is that corresponding to the engineer's transit or the sextant. In each instance the method used in deriving the final equations originates in the principles underlying the subject of numerical calculation. 171192. in a revised form. azimuth. for they possess neither the completeness nor the consistency which. The volume is incomplete in that it includes no discussion of the a question fundaprinciples and methods of the art of numerical calculation mental for an appreciation of the spirit of the treatment. but the author has found so much that is .
. 1909. UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI. For these the reader is referred to the list The of errata on page 132. of the Department of Astronomy of the University of Missouri. it is hoped that these sections 6f scientific results. Northfield. SEARfS. and in reading the proofs. F. are as serviceable as any. methods. Haynes and Mr. but a considerable number of errors have already been noted. June. Harlow Shapley. S. material from scientific instruction toward wider excursions into this most fascinating field. purpose the "Constellation Charts" published by the editor of Popular Astronomy. Minnesota. LAWS OBSERVATORY. and far less expensive than the average. To exclude to disregard the most effective historical a full appreciation of the significance and bearing means of giving the student Brief though they are. use of the text should be supplemented by a study of the prominent constellations.vi PREFACE helpful and stimulating in a consideration of the development of astronomical instruments. and theories that he is disposed to offer an apology for the brevity of the historical sections rather than to attempt a justification of their introduction into a work mainly technical is in character. this For acknowledgments are due to Mr. most of the examples have been printed in The better to illustrate both the application of the formulae involved detail in order and the operations to be performed by the computer. in checking the calculations. E. H. for My much valuable assistance in preparing the manuscript. Care has been taken to may incline the reader numerical solutions for secure accuracy in the text as well as in the examples.
36 36 36 . 17. PAGE. azimuth. of spherical trigonometry Relative positions of the reference circles of the three coordinate systems Transformation of azimuth and zenith distance into hour angle and declina'. and parallactic angle Application of transformation formulae to the determination of latitude. and time 29 2? 31 31 32 CHAPTER HI TIME AND TIME TRANSFORMATION 1 1 8. Refraction Parallax CHAPTER II FORMULAE OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES GENERAL DISCUSSION OF PROBLEMS 1 0. to find the corresponding mean solar time. 1 1 12. 22. The 20. and vice versa Transformation of azimuth and altitude into right ascension and declination. 29. 3. . solar time Mean solar time Sidereal time ". 4. and the declination and zenith distance of an object. 30. 1 . 9. Transformation of hour angle into right ascension. and vice versa Given the latitude of the place. The results of astronomical investigations The apparent phenomena of the heavens Relation of the apparent phenomena to their ' 1 '. 27. 21.CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL SPHERE COORDINATES . 15. 26. The tropical year The calendar Given the local time at any point. other point Given the apparent solar time at any place. or true. 16. Changes in the coordinates Summary. 9. 6. The fundamental formulae 21 23 tion 13. basis of time measurement Apparent. 2. 25 dis Transformation of hour angle and declination into azimuth and zenith tance 14. Characteristics of the three systems. 23. 28. 37 38 38 39. to find its hour angle. . and vice versa Relation between the values of a time interval expressed in mean solar and sidereal units Relation between mean solar time and the corresponding sidereal time The right ascension of the mean sun and its determination Given the mean solar time at any instant to find the corresponding sidereal 40 42 44 44 47 time Given the sidereal time at any instant to find the corresponding mean solar time vii 48 . Method of treating the corrections in practice 15 16 18 * 8. 5. to find the corresponding local time at any 25. 4' ' interpretation Relation of the problems of practical astronomy to the phenomena of the heavens Coordinates and coordinate systems 5 7 8 Ifr 7. 24. azimuth.
viii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER IV INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USE
PAGE.
31.
Instruments used by the engineer
TIMEPIECES
50
32. 33. 34. 35.
Historical
50
51
Error and rate
Comparison of timepieces The care of timepieces
52
58
THE
36.
ARTIFICIAL HORIZON
59
Description and use
THE VEHNIEB
37. 38.
Description and theory Uncertainty of the result
59 60
THE
39.
ENGINEER'S TRANSIT
61 62
,.
Historical
40.
41
.
Influence of imperfections of construction and adjustment Summary of the preceding section
71
71
42.
43.
The
level
44.
45.
Precepts for the use of the striding level Determination of the value of one division of a level
72 73
77
46.
47.
The measurement of vertical angles The measurement of horizontal angles The method of repetitions
80
81
THE SEXTANT
48.
49.
50.
5
1
.
Historical and descriptive The principle of the sextant
85
86
Conditions
fulfilled
by the instrument
87 88
89
52. 53.
Adjustments of the sextant Determination of the index correction Determination of eccentricity corrections
Precepts for the use of the sextant
90 91 91
54. 55.
The measurement
of altitudes
CHAPTER V
THE DETERMINATION OF LATITUDE
56.
Methods
1.
95
MERIDIAN ZENITH DISTANCE
96
57.
58.
Theory Procedure
2.
96
DIFFERENCE OF MERIDIAN ZENITH DISTANCES
TALCOTT'S METHOD
97
98
59.
60.
Theory
Procedure
3.
ClRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES
99
61
.
Theory
Procedure
62.
101
CONTENTS
4.
ix
ZENITH DISTANCE AT ANY HOUR ANGLE
PAGE.
102 103
5.
63.
Theory
Procedure
64.
ALTITUDE OF POLABIS
104 105
65.
66.
Theory Procedure
.
.
67.
Influence of an error in time
106
CHAPTEK VI THE DETERMINATION OF AZIMUTH
68.
Methods
1.
108
AZIMUTH OF THE SUN
109
69.
Theory
Procedure
2.
70.
110
AZIMUTH OP A CIBCUMPOLAK STAR AT ANY HOUR ANGLE
110
112
3.
71. 72.
Theory Procedure
AZIMUTH FROM AN OBSERVED ZENITH DISTANCE
113
.
73.
74.
Theory Procedure
113
75. 76.
Azimuth
of a
mark
114 114
Influence of an error in the time
CHAPTER VII THE DETERMINATION OF TIME
77.
Methods
1.
116
THE ZENITH DISTANCE METHOD
117 llg
78.
79.
Theory Procedure
2.
THE METHOD
OF
EQUAL ALTITUDES
118 119
80.
Theory
Procedure
3.
81
.
THE MERIDIAN METHOD
120 123
82.
Theory
Procedure
4.
83.
THE
POLABIS VERTICAL CIRCLE METHOD
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TIME AND AZIMUTH
84.
Theory
Procedure
126 129 J32
85.
ERRATA INDEX
investigations. constitute the stellar system. Earth. Venus. In all cases the form of the path is such as would be produced by attractive forces exerted mutually by all members of the solar system and varying in accordance with the Newtonian law of In addition to the motion of revolution. which vary slowly in size. satellites. revolve about the sun. Most of them are of comparatively recent discovery. planets. they are small. nearly circular in form. . on account of its nearness. in the case of the planets and planetoids. also known as small planets or asteroids. The investigations of that the universe consists of the sun. and relatively to the planets. and planetoids. The planets are eight in number. of comets. In order from the sun they are Mercury. I INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL SPHERE COORDINATES. The satellites revolve about the planets. Although one of the smaller bodies of the solar system it is. The only satellite requiring our attention is the moon. The sun is the central and dominating body of the solar system. and position. while for the satellites. Jupiter. satellites. and a considerable addition to the number already known is made each year as the result of new discoveries. The paths traced out in the motion of revolution are ellipses. The planetoids. and gravitation. some of the satellites at least. Their distances from the sun range from thirtysix million to nearly three thousand Their diameters vary from about three thousand to nearly million miles. its attendant planets. The planets and planetoids. are extremely small bodies so small that they are all telescopic objects and many of them can be seen only with large and powerful instruments. number six hundred or more. This revolves about the earth with a period of about one month. ninety for their collective mass is but little more than one onethousandth that of : the sun. and planetoids form the solar system. meteors. and rotates on its axis once during each revolution. and the nebulae.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY FOR ENGINEERS CHAPTER 1. The sun. The stars and nebulae. thousand miles. planets. Nevertheless. largely if not wholly gaseous in constitution. the sun. comparatively speaking. the coincidence is with the planet to which they belong. Saturn. and Neptune. results of astronomical The the astronomer have shown and with these we must perhaps include comets and meteors. the stars. one of the most striking. Thus. With but few exceptions their paths lie between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. considered collectively. Mars. which are relatively cool. It is an intensely heated luminous mass. one of the foci of each orbit coincides with the sun. Uranus. rotate on their axes with respect to the stars. form. One focus of each elliptical orbit coincides with the center of the body about which the revolution takes place.
is incredibly small as compared with that occupied by the stellar system. planets. satellites. is but an insignificant of the latter. The corresponding diameters of the remaining spheres and their distances from the central body are shown by the following table. vast as it is. includand planetoids. and stars. . the former. To obtain a more definite notion dreds of millions ing sun. two systems consider the following illustration Let the various bodies be represented by small spheres whose diameters and mutual distances exhibit the relative dimensions and distribution through space of the sun. and to make its dimensions more readily comprehensible let the scale be fixed by assuming that the sphere representing the sun is two feet in diameter. planets.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY solar and stellar systems are by no means coordinate parts of the On the contrary. not very different on the portion average from the other stars whose total number is to be counted by hun The universe. We shall thus have a rough model of the universe. for the sun is but a star. and the space containing the entire solar system. of the relative size of the : OBJECT .
The brightest are barely visible to the unaided eye. there appears to be an intimate relation connecting these two classes of objects. The greater size and luminosity of the former is offset by their greater distance.IXTKODUCTION 3 We do know. a moving or wandering star. In fact the word planet means literally. some of which resemble closely the delicate highlying clouds of our own atmosphere. however. The development of this conception of the structure of the universe forms the major part of the history of astronomy during the last four cert . The distances of these obit is only when the utmost refinement of observation employed and the measures are continued for months and years. The stars are also in motion and the velocities involved are very large. while what appeared to the early observers as the distinguishing characteristic of the stars is shown quent use of the expression fixed stars. are to be found among them. and brightness. structure. and voluminous masses of extraordinarily complex structure. With minor exceptions. Minute disc like objects. apparently of simple chemical composition. and present the greatest imaginable diversity of form. Their distances are of the same order of magnitude as those of the stars. while the faintest tax the powers of the largest modern telescopes.interesting and important lines of modern astronomical investigation. for there is evidence indicating that the stars have been formed from the nebulae through some evolutionary process the details of which are as yet not fully understood. amounting occasionally to a hundred miles or more per second of time. double branched spirals. and. The preceding paragraphs givo the barest outline of the interpretation' which astronomers have been led to place upon the phenomena of the heavens. but to the observer on the earth. sist of by the fre They conwidely extended masses of luminous gas. produce rapid changes in their positions as seen from the earth. In ancient times the fundamental difference between them was not known. jects are so great that is To the casual observer there is not a great deal of difference in the ap pearance of the stars and the planets. rings. and they were distinguished only by the fact that the planets change their positions. that in many instances two or more stars situated relatively near each other revolve about their common center of gravity thus The discovery and study of these forming binary or multiple systems. They are irregularly distributed throughout the heavens. indeed. that any shift in position can be detected even for those which move most rapidly. and of the satellites relative to their primaries. The distances separating the various members of the solar system are such that the motions of the planets and planetoids with respect to the sun. while relatively to each other the stars are apparently fixed. the configuration of the constellations is the same as it was two thousand years ago when the observations upon which are based the earliest known record of star positions were made. systems constitutes one of the most. The nebulae are to be counted by the hundreds of thousand's. their relative positions remain sensibly unchanged.
rising in the east. which also accounts for the more striking phenomena. and occasionally Venus. descending toward the west. one far earlier in its historical origin. Its period of rotation is one day. and. tached is called the Celestial Sphere. The observer who goes forth under the starlit sky finds himself enclosed by a hemispherical vault of blue which meets in the distant horizon the seemingly flat earth upon which he stands. A similar phenomenon in the case of the sun manifests itself by the fact that the time at which any four minutes given star rises does not remain the same. Those in the east are rising from the horizon while those in the west are setting. Its radius is indefinitely great. Kepler. 2. more The apparent phenomena of the heavens. elementary devices which can be used for significant features are their description. there is another conception of the universe. are the only bodies to be seen in the celestial vault. and disappearing beneath the horizon only to rise again in the east. we shall now turn to a consideration of these motions and the simple. daylight appearance of the heavens is not unlike that of the night except that the sun. Observations upon successive nights show A conthat the position of this object changes with respect to the stars. its Many have contributed toward the elaboration of its details. but occurs some entire circuit is . and Newton. The but if careful observations be made it will be seen that these bodies can not be thought of as attached to the surface of the sphere. in the northern heavens describe arcs of circles in a counterclockwise di about a common central point some distance above the horizon. Although the scheme outlined above is the only theory thus far formulated which satisfactorily accounts for the celestial phenomena in their more intricate relations. The system moves as a whole.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY turies. moves eastward tinuation of the observations will show that it apparently over the surface of the sphere along a great circle at such a rate that an completed in about one month. Their distances from each other remain unchanged. They too seem to be carried along with the celestial sphere in its rotation. a fact most easily verified in the case of the moon. The phenomenon can be described by assuming that each individual point is fixed to a spherical surface which rotates uniformly from east to west about an axis passing through the eye of the observer and the central rection The surface to which the lightpoints seem atpoint mentioned above. A few hours observation shows that the positions of the points are slowly shifting in a peculiar and definite manner. This theory bears the name of the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy. The surface of the vault is strewn with points of light whose number depends upon the transparency of the atmosphere and the brightness of the moon. but due to Copernicus. moon. but is never more than two or three thousand. and the resulting motion of the celestial bodies is called the Diurnal Motion or Diurnal Rotation. as its central idea is immediately suggested by the most casual examination of the motions of the celestial bodies. Those of different brightness.
The direction of motion is opposite. Its motion in one day is approximately one degree. l h 4&m . being greatest in of rising of the stars. moon. half a dozen more or less. While the sun. Mercury and Venus. to that of the diurnal rotation. but their paths are looped so that there are frequent changes in di rection and temporary reversals of motion. moon. They have a general progressive motion toward the east. the stars . This motion is called the Annual Motion of the Sun. and planets move over the surface of the sphere. completing a revolution in one day. but its average is such that a circuit of the sphere is completed in one year. in general. concentric with the earth and enclosing the remaining members of the system. the wandering stars of the ancients. and their connection with the scheme outlined in Section 1 is not difficult to trace. and regards the stars as attached to the surface of a sphere.. m etc. which corresponds to the daily change of four minutes in the time This amount varies somewhat. The re3. fixed in position. It supposes the sun. but the planets themselves are not confined to the neighborhood of the sun. 44 . The celestial bodies purely an optical phenomenon and has no real though differing greatly in distance are all so far from the observer that the eye fails to distinguish any difference in The blue background upon which they seem projected is their distances. With careful attention it will be found that a few of the starlike points of light. The paths of the others also lie near the ecliptic. That the stars rise earlier on successive nights shows A that the motion of the sun over the sphere is toward the east. oscillating from one side to the other in paths which deviate but little from the ecliptic. and planets to revolve about the earth in paths which are either circular or the result of a combination of uniform circular motions.INTRODUCTION earlier for each successive night. The sun. and the planets therefore appear to move over the surface of the celestial sphere with respect to the stars. the sphere itself rotates on its axis with a uniform angular velocity. These elementary facts are the basis upon which the theory of Ptolemy was developed. As already explained. 5 star rising two hours after sunset on a h given night will rise approximately l 56 after sunset on the following The average intervals for succeeding nights will be l h 52 m . The celestial sphere rs existence. lation of the apparent phenomena to the conception of Ptolemy is obvious. in paths which lie in or near the ecliptic. l h night. are exceptions to the general rule which These are rigidly fixes these objects to the surface of the celestial sphere. It assumes the earth. and party to selective absorption of the light rays by the atmosphere surrounding the earth. moon. to be the central body of the universe. Its path is a great circle called the Ecliptic. rotates from east to west. which. never depart far from the sun. respectively. January and least in July. Two of them. Their motions with respect to the stars are complex. due partly to reflection. the planets. The various motions proceed quite independently. Relation of the apparent phenomena to their interpretation.
barring a few exceptional cases. That such is the case arises from the fact that we are dealing with a question concerning changes of relative distance and direction. the sun. and hence neither latter. and each is capable of giving an accurate description of the change in relative distance and direction. the Copernican system is the more useful by far. either by assuming the earth to be fixed with the remaining bodies in motion. lies the essence of the various socalled proofs of the correctness of the Copernican system. the diurnal rotation of the celestial sphere. Both methods are correct. and herein . both leading to the same goal. planets. the changes are almost vanishingly small. and the direction of the line joining them. for one is much more For the discussion of many questions the conception of a fixed earth and rotating heavens affords a simpler method of treatment but.6 PRACTICAL ASTKOXOMY are so distant that. for that of Copernicus. and attempt consideration of the phenomena If their explanation as the result of the action of forces and accelerations. Though two ways choice of route is open before us. as the fixed member of the system and describing the phenomena in terms of motions referred to it. The monthly motion of the moon is a consequence of its revolution about the earth. A and B. exceptions. Finally. or we may think of B as fixed and A in motion. is but the result of the axial in their The annual motion rotation of the earth. and we might . the sun. Given two points. and. even for the On the other hand. We may think of A as fixed and B moving. The former method of procedure is the starting point for the system of Ptolemy. and the complex motions of the planets are due. when a detailed description of the motions of the planets and satellites is required. are changing. and partly to the rapidly shifting position of the observer. mutual distances and in their positions with respect of the sun in the ecliptic is but a reflection of the motion of the earth in its elliptical orbit about the sun. or by choosing another body. In so far as the is can give rise to contradiction so lie long as the problem remains one of motion. which at first glance seems to carry with it all the celestial bodies. their individual motions produce no sensible variation in their relative positions. there more obvious phenomena of the heavens are concerned no contradiction involved in either of the conceptions which have been devised for the description of their relations. by no means a matter of indifference. we can describe the fact that their distance apart. and satellites are relatively near. which makes the earth the central body of the this be done. the direct than the other. the Both methods are correct. in either of two ways. the conception universe comes into open conflict with the fundamental principles of mechanics.. and their motions produce marked changes to the stars. partly to their own revolutions about the sun. So. although the the geocentric theory presents no formal contradiction unless we pass beyond as a case of relative motion. in the case of the celestial bodies. we may describe the variation in their distances and directions. With the heliocentric theory there is no such conflict. The problems of practical astronomy are among those which can be more simply treated on the basis of the geocentric theory.
Time measurement is based upon the diurnal rotation of the earth. and longitude. upon its inclination to the direction of the plumb line. concerned are the determination of latitude. therefore. outlined above. the determination of the azimuth of the (b) The azimuth point becomes but a matter of instrumental manipulation. elemento the more matary conceptions which form a part of our daily experience. the solution of these four fundamental problems can be connected directly with certain fundamental celestial phenomena. It can be shown that this is equal to the complement of the inclination of the rotation axis of the celestial sphere to the direction of the plumb line at the point considered. The latitude of a point on the earth may be defined roughly as its (a) 4. To determine the time at any instant. Both latitude and azimuth. W>e shall speak of a fixed earth and rotating heavens in so doing. (c) which appears to us in reflection as the diurnal rotation of the celestial sphere. . Relation of the problems of practical astronomy to the phenomena The problems of practical astronomy with which we are of the heavens. we have The solution of the longitude problem therefore involves the application of the methods used for the derivation of time. the determination of the difference in longi(d) tude of two points is equivalent to finding the difference of their local times. precise . rotation of the celestial sphere can therefore be made the basis measurement. As will be seen later. time. For the sake of simplicity. although such phenomena are occasionally used for the purpose. through the latter. must ever be the delight jestic structure whose proportions and dimensions and wonder of the human mind.INTRODUCTION "' have proceeded to an immediate consideration of our subject from this of emphasizing the character primitive standpoint but for the importance of what we are about to do. If the inclination of the axis to the plumb line can be determined. If the orientation of the vertical plane through the axis of the sphere can be found. In brief. portant always to bear in mind the more elaborate scheme and be ever ready to shift our viewpoint from the relatively simple. the latitude at once becomes known. angular distance from the equator. we shall make use of ideas which are not universally applicable throughout the science of asbecause it tronomy. of The time only to find the angle through which the sphere has rotated since some specified initial epoch. azimuth. the former. and for our present purpose. together with some means of comparing the local times of the two places. The latter can be accomplished by purely mechanical means. it is imbut. of a point is the angle included between the vertical the rotation axis of the celestial sphere and the vertical plane containing plane through the object. quite independently of any astronomical phenomena. upon the orientation of the vertical plane passing while the determination of time and longitude involve the posi tion of the sphere as affected by diurnal rotation. is convenient. depend upon the position of the rotation axis of the celestial sphere. it .
respectively. to some other object whose location is assumed to be known. a plane through the center of the earth perpendicular to the direction of For many purgravity will also cut the celestial sphere in the horizon. Since our observations and measurements must be upon things which have visible existence. produced indefinitely in both directions. poses it is more convenient to consider this plane as the horizon plane. it cuts the celestial sphere in a great circle called the Horizon. the position of a point on the earth is fixed by referring it to the equator and some meridian The angular distance of the point as that of Greenwich or Washington. We meet at the outset a difficulty in that the sphere and its axis have no objective existence. Position is a relative term. we are forced to an indirect method of procedure. perpendicular to the direction of the plumb line. longitude and latitude. Its plane coincides with the plane of the terrestrial meridian through the point of observation. Great circles through the zenith and nadir are called Vertical Circles. For example. the stars for example. or simply. It is evident from the the North Pole and the South Pole. and we : are immediately led to the detailed consideration of our subject The solution of our problems requires a knowledge of the position of the axis of the celestial sphere and of the orientation of the sphere about that axis. The designation of the position of a point on the surface of 5. . We a sphere is most conveniently accomplished by a reference to two great circles that intersect at right angles. The Direction of the Plumb Line. therefore.8 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT A word more. cannot specify the position of any object without referring it. Produced indefinitely in all directions. is the definition of the points and circles of reference which will form the foundation for the various systems. or the Direction due to Gravity. either explicitly or implicitly. The plane through the point of observation. Coordinates and Coordinate Systems. from the circles of reference are its coordinates in this case. This raises at once the general question of coordinates and coordinate systems to which we now give our attention. from the known location of these objects on the sphere. Our first step. We must make our measurements upon the various celestial bodies and then. pierces the celestial sphere above in the Zenith. The vertical circle passing through the celestial poles is called the Celestial Meridian. derive the position of the sphere and its axis. Since the radius of the celestial sphere is indefinitely great as compared with the radius of the earth. in the establishment of coordinate systems for the celestial sphere. the Meridian. and below. is called the Horizon Plane. relations between the phenomena and their interpretation traced in Section 3 that the axis of the celestial sphere must coincide with the earth's axis of rotation. Their planes are perpendicular to the horizon plane. in the Nadir. The called the celestial sphere is North Celestial Pole pierced by its axis of rotation in two points and the South Celestial Pole. or more briefly.
The plane of the celestial equator coincides with the plane of the terrestrial equator. the Winter Solstice. One of these. points on the ecliptic midway between the equinoxes are called the Summer and Winter. Great circles through the poles of the Circles. and West. to the south. respectively. form the reference circles of the system. Small circles parallel to the horizon are called Circles of Altitude or celestial Almucanters. is inclined to the The points of intercelestial equator at an angle of about 23 degrees. The Solstices. sphere are called Hour great circle equatorial to the poles of the celestial sphere is called the Celestial Equator. Great circles perpendicular to this are called Secondary Circles. The Vernal Equinox is that point at which the sun in its annual motion passes from the south to the north side of the equator. The Primary Coordinate is measured along the fundamental great circle from the principal secondary to the secondary passing through the object to which the coordinates refer. In practical astronomy three systems of coordinates are required. South. East. The equator are the Equinoxes. ecliptic. Thus in System I we shall frequently use the distance of an object from . must be specified. and the direction of measurement of both coordinates. The coordinate systems most frequently used in astronomy present certain features in common. sometimes more convenient to use as secondary coordinate the distance of the object from one of the poles of the fundamental great circle. The intersection from which the primary coordinate is measured. called the Principal Secondary. The details are shown by the following table. The symbol used to designate each coordinate It is is written after its name 'in the table. and the fundamental great circle. respectively. The Secondary Coordinate is measured along the secondary passing through the object from the fundamental great circle to the object itself. the Autumnal Equinox. The fundamental great circle and the principal secondary intersect in two points.is vertical circle intersecting the meridian at an angle of ninety degrees The intersections of the meridian and prime called the Prime Vertical. At the basis of each system is a Fundamental Great Circle. that at which it passes from the north to section of the ecliptic and the celestial the south. The already denned as the great circle of the celestial sphere followed by the sun in its annual motion among the stars. The vertical with the horizon are the cardinal points. Vernal and Autumnal. North. Small circles parallel to the celestial equator are called Circles of Declination. The Summer Solstice lies to the north of the celestial equator. and a clear understanding of the underlying principles will greatly aid in acquiring a knowledge of the various systems.
10 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY COORDINATE SYSTEMS. SYSTEM .
COORD1XA TES 11 Point .
Such a list of positions is called an Ephemeris. The azimuth and as a result of the diurnal rotation. Catalogues of this sort are not only serviceable for long periods but can also be used at all points on the earth. viz. latitude and time. is the coordinates but azimuth. a The bending of the light rays by known as Refraction. The latter circumstance renders right ascension and declination an advantageous means of expressing the positions of bodies not fixed on the sphere. for any given instant. of the determination of latitude and time is therefore frequently based upon measures of altitude. affects all of amount fore of the refraction. however. on the contrary. change in the coordinate is very small. amount will be discussed in Section 8. altitude. In the first The method of determining its system. but. always small. depends upon the conditions The allowance for its influence is there made by each individual observer. an additional introduced by their motions over the sphere and the changing It appears. unless the point of observation is shifted. remain practically constant for considerable intervals of time. their motions are so slow that the coordinates of objects. For celestial bodies. For such objects of time. Although not absolutely fixed on the sphere. Right ascension and declination are therefore convenient for listing or cataloguing the positions of the stars. but complexity is that their range of advantageous application in connection with celestial bodies is limited. Since the fundamental circle in the first system depends only upon the direction of the plumb line. by a series giving the right ascension and declination for equidistant intervals of time.. is of great importance. altitude are of special service in surveying and in geodetic operations. In consequence. altitude of terrestrial objects are therefore constant. are sensibly fixed. For the nearer bodies. therefore. the instrument required for the measurment of altitude is extremely simple. In the third system. altitude is the most The observational part readily determined of all the various coordinates. both in construction and use. we have only to replace the single pair of coordinates which suffices for a star. like the stars. If the time intervals separating the successive epochs for which the coordinates are given be properly chosen. the position can be found for any intermediate 'The azimuth of objects near the horizon is also affected by refraction. which. The positions of all such objects are rapidly and constantly changing with respect to the circles of reference. that azimuth and position of the earth in its orbit. The magnitude of the .12 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT the earth's atmosphere. at least. But in spite of this disadvantage. for not only are the azimuth and altitude of a celestial object constantly changing. the reference circles share in the diurnal rotation. the final results being derived from the observed data by a process of coordinate transformation to be developed in Chapter II. 1 phenomenon The which is under which the object observed. Its determination in the case of a celestial body affords convenient methods of solving two of the fundamental problems with which we are concerned. the reference circles are fixed for any given point of observation. they are continuously varying. their values are different for all points on the earth.
Precession is that part of the change in the coordinates arising from the progressive westward motion of the mean vernal equinox. but its characteristic features are the progressive circular component which causes it to oscillate or component already mentioned. are published annually by the governments of the more important nations. Consequently. called precession and nutation. The result is a vibratory motion of the equator about a mean position called the Mean Equator. The resulting changes in the right ascension and declination are divided into two classes. For stars near the pole it is much larger. the interval can be increased to several days. The interval selected for the tabula determined by the rapidity and regularity with which the coordinates change. That issued by our own is prepared in the Nautical Almanac Office at Washington. together with the right ascensions and declinations of the brighter stars.COORDINATES instant tion is 13 by a process of interpolation. During this interval the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic never deviates greatly from its mean value of about 23^. which. That of the equator is best understood by tracing the changes in position of the earth's axis of rotation. one day intervals are sufficient. For the more distant planets. whose motions are relatively slow. In the case of the sun. and bears the title "American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. has a slow progressive motion toward the west. As the does not remain absolutely parallel to a but describes a conical surface. amounting in . while Nutation is the result of the oscillatory or periodic motion of the true vernal equinox with respect to the mean equinox. and ecliptic as center." It is in the coordinates above. moon. in turn. and the planets produce small changes in the positions of the equator and ecliptic. of the precession and nutation depends upon the position For an object on the equator the maximum value of the precession in right ascension for one year is about fortyfive seconds of arc or three seconds of time. The actual motion of the pole is very complex. The motion of the equator combined with that of the ecliptic produces an oscillation of the equinox about a mean position called the Mean Vernal Equinox. The change in the given position. the mean equator itself slowly revolving about a line perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic. about 26000 years being required earth in its moves initial orbit. and the planets. and a transverse nod back and forth with respect to the pole of the ecliptic. The amount of the star. but for the moon the positions must be given for each hour. moon'. the radius of the circle equal to the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic. Collections of ephemerides of the sun. the axis for it to return to its original position. respectively. necessary to examine the character of the variations produced by the slow motion of the reference circles mentioned The mutual attractions of the sun. direction of the axis takes place very slowly. The motion of the ecliptic is relatively unimportant. the celestial pole appears to move over the sphere in a path closely approximating a circle with the pole of the The direction of the motion is counterclockwise.
it is possible to assume that the motion is uniform and along the arc of a great circle. We have already seen how Their motions over the sphere are so slight as to be entirely inappreciable in the vast majority of cases. when so spoken the correction which must be applied to the observed . and is Aberration carefully to be distinguished from the parallactic displacement. the observer's velocity. and is included with the effect of the object's own motion in the ephemeris which expresses its positions. it is only necessary to add to the given coordinates the products of the proper motion in right ascension and declinasimpler. For all but a few. depends on the distance over which the observer actually moves. For the stars the matter is much and that of the observer. and for those in which the change cannot be disregarded. in declination There remains to be considered the effect of the object's own motion the changes arising from the motion of such objects as the sun. the distances are so great that the maximum known parallactic displacement due to the earth's annual motion amounts to only threequarters of a second of arc. and the planets can be expressed by means of an ephemeris giving the right ascension and declination for equidistant intervals of time. The displacement due to the earth's rotation is in : of course altogether inappreciable. for . appears different from that when the observer is at rest. a shift in the position of the earth from one side of its orbit to the other.000 miles. The variation arising from the rotation of the earth on its axis is far smaller. in so far as the position is dependent upon the star's own motion. of. and motion for any other instant f. The change thus produced . Parallactic displacement is usually called Parallax. reveals no measurable change in the coordinates. in the same way that the direction of the wind. signifies specifically.14 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Polaris. The position of a star for a given proper motion are therefore all that is required for the determination of its position at any other epoch. moon. is e The annual precession example. to about <W relatively small. the fact that the observer is in motion at the instant of observation may produce an apparent change in the direction in which the object is seen. and. In the case of the stars.is called Aberration. Second. The change in one year is called the If the right ascension and declination are given for star's Proper Motion. a distance of more than 180. The motion of the observer may affect the position of a celestial object tion into the interval/ initial /' epoch and its two ways First. as noted from a moving boat or train. and not at all upon his position. and does not exceed 20" for any of the the case of stars.000. /. expressed in years. depends only upon except as position may determine the direction and magnitude of the motion. on the contrary. it is desired to find their values as affected by proper any instant. and can always be treated as a correction. the actual change in his position due to the diurnal and annual motions of the earth causes a change in the coordinates called Parallactic Displacement. For the nearer bodies the parallactic displacement due to the earth's annual motion is large. Parallactic displacement.
The amount of the displacement is a maximum when the its is at right angles to the direction of the star. and the planets an ephemeris is required. the form most commonly used in astronomical inves 7. Right ascension and declination are sensibly the same for all points on the earth. but for the sun. the standard position is the center of the sun for all other bodies. annual aberration. proper motion. stellar or planetary as the case may be. Method of treating the corrections in practice. like azimuth which varies continuously and rapidly. but change as the For celestial objects they observer moves over the surface of the earth. Since it is impracticable to include catalogue and ephemeris positions of right ascension and declination. nutation. in them . the center of the earth. Summary. as affecting such positions. the moon. therefore. equal on its axis produces a similar displacement. parallax. of prime importance in the solution of the problems of practical astronomy. dependent upon local conditions. in consequence. is a coordinate Systems I and III. Right ascension and declination are affected by all. the properties of those of both and altitude. For the stars. for telescopes. stars not lying in the direction of the earth's orbital motion. to a certain degree. for the same instant. there remains to be considered. are not only different for each successive instant. diurnal aberration. refraction. and In all cases these three are of these three the last is usually negligible. and The rotation of the earth to zero when the two directions coincide. is for mounting tigations. it serves as an intermediate step in passing from System I to System III. but only planetary parallax. and the remarks conThe second system cerning it made above. and is dependent on the position of the observer on the earth. but also. One pair of values serves to fix the position of a star for a long period of time. The Diurnal Aberration is so direction of the motion minute. that the azimuth and altitude of terrestrial objects are constant for a given point of observation. precession. The corrections to which the coordinates are subject are proper motion.C O ORDINA TES 1S coordinates of an object in order to reduce them to what they would be were the object seen from a standard position. that observations. Hour angle. and refraction. It is also the basis for the construction of the equatorial or vice versa. It is to be remembered. is the same as in System III. are used in the construction of catalogues and ephemerides. apply with equal force here. and diurnal aberration arise in practice in connection with azimuth and altitude. : Aberration is due to the fact that the velocity of the observer is a quantity For all of appreciable magnitude as compared with the velocity of light. however. they are different for different points of observation. The secondary coordinate. and. server's motion. and consequently. declination. it requires consideration only in the most refined The coordinates of the second system possess. their calculation and application are left to the observer. the telescope must be inclined slightly in advance of the star's real position in order that rays may pass centrally through both objective and eyepiece of the The star thus appears displaced in the direction of the obinstrument.
and refraction. diurnal aberration. the mean equator and mean equinox of that instant. it is sometimes necessary to know. the consideration of the engiaccount of its minuteness. The first we disregard on viz. annual aberration. by proper motion and precession. It expresses the location of the object as it would appear to an observer situated at the center of the earth. Such catalogues usually contain the data necessary for the determination of the precession corrections which must be applied to the coordinates in deriving the mean place for catalogues also contain the value of the proper any other epoch. Positions for all of these bodies for dates for suitably chosen intervals. The apparent right ascension and declination are given for each star for every ten days throughout the year. 8. the influence of the individual variations. The nutation and annual aberration corrections are found from data given by the various annual ephemerides. and the planets. but he has occasion to calculate specially only those which depend upon the local conditions affecting the observations. the resulting change in velocity . the moon. The last is so As rarely of significance in practical astronomy that it can be disregarded. The observer must understand the origin and significance of all of the changes which occur in the coordinates. Apparent positions are also given by the ephemeris for the sun. With this arrangement. The mean place is affected is its position referred to the true equator and true equinox of that instant. and apparent place. and are referred to the mean equator and equinox for the beginning of some year. The velocity of light depends upon the density of the medium which it traverses. the special calculation of the various corrections necessary for the formation of apparent places is avoided entirely in the discussion of all ordinary observations. nutation. that we have different kinds of positions or places.0 or 1900. Modern motion when appreciable. to the instantaneous positions of the actual equator and equinox. The ephemerides themselves contain mean places for several hundred of the brighter stars. The following is a brief statement of the methods by which their numerical values can be derived. The true place is equal to the mean place plus the variation due to the nutation. that is. Refraction. in order to use the ephemeris intelligently. There remains for neer only refraction and parallax. for apparent places are also given for the ephemeris stars. The mean place of an object at any instant is its position referred to for the others.. When a luminous disturbance passes from a medium of one density into that of another. and It thus happens sometimes. but the engineer is rarely concerned with these. intermediate to the ephemeris epochs can be found by interpolation. 1855. true place.0. and stellar parallax. for example.16 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY precession. The positions to be found in star catalogues are mean places. The true place of an object at any instant The apparent place of an object at any instant is equal to the true place at that instant plus the effect of annual aberration. their collective effect. known as mean place. parallax. or with the catalogue positions mentioned above. and these are all that he needs.
The light rays from a celestial object which reach the eye of the observer must penetrate the atmosphere surrounding the earth. Various hypotheses concerning the relation between density and altitude have been made. the highest precision is desired these tables or their equivalent must be used.REFRACTION shifts the direction of the 17 wave front. the phenomenon of refraction the earth. our knowledge of the constitution of the atmosphere. disadvantages overcome. it is extremely complex and its amount difficult of determination. and the temperature of the air and the barometric pressure at the point of observation. They pass from a region of zero density into one whose density gradually increases from the smallest conceivable amount to a maximum which occurs at the surface of rays undergo a change in direction as indicated above. The latter is determined by the density of the different strata. unless the direction of incidence is normal to The the bounding surface. unless the direction of propagation is Stated otherwise. by the reduction of its various parts to tabular form in accordance with a method devised by Bessel. With this arrangement. of the altitude. When . especially in its upper regions. To proceed. in a measure. This. but for many purposes a simpler procedure will suffice. For the case of two media of homogeneous density. and the normal to the bounding surface at the point of incidence lie in a plane. For example. incident ray. The altitude of all celestial bodies. from one medium into another of different density undera light ray passing goes a change in direction. effect is to increase the The simple. but also by the refraction which it suffers is at each successive point in its path through the atmosphere. more or less. the determination of the refraction involves the interpolation and combinationof a half dozen logarithms. is a function This brings us to the most serious difficulty in the problem. forms the basis of an elaborate mathematical discussion which results in an expression giving the refraction as a function of the zenith distance of the object. in turn. each of which gives rise to a distinct theory of refraction. perpendicular to the surface separating the two media. The course of the ray which reaches the observer is affected not only by its initial direction. but here. and can be found in the theory more comprehensive works on spherical and practical astronomy. the approximate expression. without sensibly changing their azimuth unless they are very near the horizon. This change in direction is called Refraction. an assumption must be made concerning the nature of the relation connecting density and altitude. is imperfect. When the conditions of density are reversed. the refracted ray. which. combined with the fundamental principles enunciated above. for although the differences between the corresponding numerical results are That generally used is due to Gylden. This expression is complicated and cumbersome. the direction of bending is away from is the normal. the ray is bent toward the normal. are known as the Pulkova Refraction Tables. When the density of the second medium greater than that of the first. The tables based upon this slight.
in Fig. Science p. and / =50 will rarely of (3) is 57". is the parallax of B. Their difference. 2 of observation. 60.5 inches. The parallax of an object is equal to the angle at the object subtended by the line joining the center of the earth and the point Fig.when the altitude is not than 15. The error of the result less exceed one second. r. For rough work the matter can be still further simplified by using mean Fahr. 1 can be used for the calculation of the refraction. For 6=%9. (3) derived empirically from the results given by the theoretical development. In this expression. respectively. 2. the earth. v. angles z' 'This form was derived by Comstock. the circle represents a section of the earth C is the center of coinciding with the vertical plane through the object. 9. b is the barometer reading in inches. i. z. /. the observed or apparent zenith distance. and B the object. whence = 57" tan z'. The Z and z are the apparent and geocentric zenith distances. Thus. the point of observation. the error will seldom exceed a tenth of a minute of arc. Bulletin of the Series. . (4) The values of r given by (4) can be derived from columns three and eight of Table I with either the apparent altitude or the apparent zenith distance as argument. University of Wisconsin. the coefficient values for b and /.18 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 983* tan 2'. which is equal to the angle /. . Parallax. the zenith. For altitudes greater than 20 and normal atmospheric conditions. the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. The refraction is given in seconds of arc.
however. The preceding discussion assumes that the earth is a sphere. and consequently the angle OBC. 285). The parallax depends upon p the radius of the earth. Actually. and in addition. and the zenith distance z' or 2. Denoting value by/ we have (8) /=/ The value in the sin*'. except at the and at points on the equator. the value of the parallax when its the body is the called the Horizontal Parallax. whence change /= The 878 sin z'. in general. just the opposite of that produced by refraction.PARALLAX 18 We havethe relations z = z' p. is to increase zenith distances and decrease parallax.s'. For approximate work the solar parallax is conveniently combined with The difference of the two corrections refraction given by (4). coefficient is p / r. For this its maximum value is about 1. coincide with the vertical plane through B\. altitudes. respectively. 21&249). can be derived from the fifth and tenth columns of Table I with the apparent the mean altitude or the apparent zenith distance as argument. (7) The horizon. and the planets (pp. of p varies with the distance of the object. the moon (page IV of For the sun. there . The therefore. It is tabulated American Ephemeris for the sun (p. (5) (6) altitudes. for the basis plumb line does not point toward the center of the earth. The actual parallax in zenith distance poles is therefore slightly different from that given by (9). write We /=sin. />. The values of / corresponding to (9) can be interpolated from columns four and nine of Table I. From the triangle OCB The angle / does not exceed a few seconds of arc for any celestial body therefore excepting the moon. r the distance where ft' and h are the apparent and geocentric effect of of the object from the earth's center. On this the parallax in azimuth is zero. do not. the each month). the earth is spheroidal in form. in p is so slight that we may use its mean value of 8"8. (9) error of this expression never exceeds 0''3. whence it results that the radius.
5 h' Thermometer. zenith distance. or its alternative. the influence of both refraction and parallax is confined to the coordinate altitude. For the first system of coordinates. as these coordinates do not appear as observed quantities in the problems with which we are concerned. right ascension. Barometer. . of the two corrections. Hour angle. 50 Fahr. Finally. The influence of the spheroidal form of the earth is so slight. therefore. but. it should be remarked that the apparent zenith distance used for the calculation of the parallax is the observed zenith distance freed from is refraction The that is. and the limits of precision here considered. however.. zenith distance thus corrected serves for the calculation of the parallax. TABLE I. that it requires consideration only in the most precise investigations. and declination are all affected by both refraction and parallax. the development of the expressions which give the corresponding corrections is omitted.20 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT a minute component affecting the azimuth. . MEAN REFRACTION AND SOLAR PARALLAX in. 29. refraction is to be applied first.
and. Let XYZ 1 . r sin b cos A. B. XYZ. b. y. and C'. be any spherical triangle. and the with the origin 0. z =. a brief exposition of the fundamental formulae of spherical trigonometry is introduced at this point. (10) Construct a second set of axes. Let ABC. r cos i>. the XY plane X axis passing through the vertex A. construct a set of rectangular coordinate axes. = r sin a rcos<z. set of rectangular axes can be derived from the c. r sin b sin A. The more complicated transformations require the solution of a spherical triangle. We then have x y d The second ing the first = = =. Their values in terms of XY X the parts of the triangle and the radius of the sphere are x y cos B. and z. Denote its angles by A. at the coordinates of preferred to this system be x\ /. the different systems should therefore receive careful attention. tangular coordinates of the vertex Cbe x. 10.CHAPTER II FORMULAE OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES GENERAL DISCUSSION OF PROBLEMS. first by rotatfirst about the Zaxis through the angle 21 The coordinates of the . The fundamental formulae of spherical trigonometry. such that the plane Let the reccontains the side c. coinciding with the side c. . r sin a sin B. 3. 0. because of this fact. and /. and c With the center of the sphere. and the axis passes through the vertex B. Transform ations of coordinates are of fundamental importance for the solution of most The relations between of the problems of spherical and practical astronomy. as origin . Fig. and its sides by a.
Although the parts of the triangle in Fig. practically. pp. the application of expressions of this form is limited on account of the necessity of determining the angles from . the method of development and the results are These relations are the fundageneral. cos A = cos asin bcos bc cos c rT sin . (13) (14) (15) A. x'. (12) and (n).y. c. 3 are all less than 90. we obtain the desired relations cos a a cos B a sin B cos b cos c \ sin b sin c cos sin b cos c cos sin sin = cos b sin c sin b sin A. y. be known. and apply to all spherical triangles. but. They determine without ambiguity a side and an adjacent angle of a spherical triangle in terms of the two remaining sides and the angle included between them. that in which the given parts are two sides of a spherical triangle. the ordinary logarithmic tables. The first of these can be solved for those cases which arise in astronomical practice by a simple transformation of (13). mental formulae of spherical trigonometry. to find one or more of the angles.22 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY in system can therefore be expressed the relations terms of those of the second by means of y = x sin c +y cos z = z. the details of which will be considered in connection with the determination of latitude. viz. Thus. A. Equations (i3)(is) are conveniently arranged as they stand if addition For use with subtraction logarithms are to be employed for their calculation. Cal. and are independent of the rectangular coordinate axes introduced for their derivation. 2. Equation (16) affords a theoretically accurate solution of the problem. and that in which the three sides are given. (16) Similar expressions for the angles B and Ccan be derived by a simple permu tation of the letters in (16). two others occur in connection with the problems of practical astronomy. and dropping the Substituting into equations (12) the values of x. they should be transformed so as to reduce the addition and subtraction terms in the right terms (Num. x = x'cos c y sin c. From them all other spherical trigonometry formulae can be derived. . or of the sine or cosine of the required angle. and z from (to) common factor r.. to find the third side. provided the algebraic sign of the sine of the required side. members of (13) and (14) to single Aside from the case covered by equations (i3)(i5). A solution for the third case can also be found by a rearrange ment of the terms of (13). Otherwise there will be two solutions. These equations express relations between five of the six parts of the spherical triangle ABC. and an angle opposite one of them. 13 and 14).
their cosines. B. the complete formulae for the calculation of the three Collecting results. s and sc. The proof of this statement can be derived from Fig. 3 and 14).a) The expressions and tan J4<7are similar in form. g we find tanj^ 2 yB A = sin K . The angle which is constant and equal to the complement of the latitude of the place of observation. and check by sin (sl>) sin (sc) sin (sa) . . r. Form s  a. When the three angles of a spherical by it is advantageous to introduce triangle are to be determined simultaneously. defined by the relation _ sin (sa) sin (s6) sin (sc) Substituting (18) into (17). In the case of Systems I and II the principal secondary circles coincide fundamental great circles are inclined to each other at an by definition. 4.. The desired relations can be derived by a transformation Col. 12 and 1618). (16). pp. Two one 11. of the halfangles of the triangle is known. = in sin 5 sin . ). sin s If If ]^ Check: tan %A tan y. which = # + + B C the auxiliary K. . The ambiguity solutions are possible.SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY For numerical calculation it is important to have formulae such that the angles A. The transformation of the coordinates of one system into those of another requires a knowledge of the relative positions of the reference circles of the various systems. (19) (s. giving of (Chauvenet. removed if the quadrant of Relative positions of the reference circles of the three coordinate systems. . (a a permutation of the letters of (17). which represents a section through the earth and the celestial sphere in the . angles of a spherical triangle from the three sides are tan s = % (a + b + c b. . B tan 2 y C= is IS . Spherical Trigonometry. and C can be interpolated from their tangents (Num.' (sa) Sin J and can be derived Similar expressions for b s c).
The outer circle represents the celestial meridian. further. The principal secondary of the third system does not mainis .* 0. by But. which cuts the terrestrial P meridian in ee. that Arc and ZP 90 iff = Colatitude <f. definition the arc eO measures the latitude. and the inner.. and TV are the Z and P'. through an angle equal to the colatitude of the place. HH' and EE\ the lines of intersection of the planes of poles of the earth. the celestial equator./ and/'. It is to be noted. 4 Now.24 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY plane of the meridian of the point of observation. (23) Arc HP = (24) From (21) and (24) it follows that the latitude of any point on the earth equal to the declination of the zenith of that point. The plane of the celestial equator coincides with that of the terrestrial equator. the terrestrial meridian of 0. of. Fig. It is also equal to the altitude of the pole as seen from the given point. the zenith and the nadir. Systems II and III have the same fundamental great circle. the latter being greatly exaggerated with respect to the former. the poles of the celestial sphere. of the point (21) whence H'E = 90 (22) which was to be proved. It thus appears that the second system can be derived from the first by rotating the first about an axis passing through the east and west points. ip. O. with the meridian plane. horizon and equator. viz. respectively.
the point where the meridian of M. and V. of hour angle and declination into right ascension and declination. It is at once evident that the transformation of azimuth and altitude into hour angle and declination requires a knowledge of the latitude. I is reproduced in Fig. The transformation requires the solution of the spherical The essential part of Fig. It is called the Sidereal Time right thus have the following important definition: The sidereal time at any instant is equal to the hour angle of the the first. the third system can be derived from the first by rotating the first into the position of the second. that the third system can be derived from the second by rotating the second system about the axis of the celestial sphere through an angle equal to the sidereal time. and declination. Transformation of azimuth and zenith distance into hour angle 12. Fig. 6 triangle ZPO.RELATIVE POSITION OF COORDINATE SYSTEMS tain a fixed position with respect to that of the first. can be designated as shown in Fig. I. An parts of the triangle ZPO inspection of the notation of p. = We vernal equinox at that instant. It follows. It is also equal to the right ascension of the observer's meridian at the instant considered. both latitude and sidereal time It is scarcely necessary to add that the reverse transformations are required. n. shows that the . 25 in a uniformly Let Fig. and thence into the position of the third. n 6. ascension of the observer's meridian. to pass from azimuth and altitude to right ascension and declination. upon an enlarged scale. therefore measures the instantaneous the vernal equinox. p. Briefly stated. a knowledge of the sidereal time. intersects the celestial equator. Finally. but rotates clockwise direction as seen from the north side of the equator. the transformation of coordinates involves the determination of the changes arising in the coordinates as a result of a rotation of the various systems in the manner specified above. therefore. the plane of the equator as seen from the North. 5 represent an orthogonal projection of the celestial sphere upon is the north celestial pole. or the 0. The arc of the principal secondary of the third system with respect to that of position P MBV This arc is equal to the hour angle of the vernal equinox. demand the same knowledge. while.
Substituting these relations into (26) and (27) and collecting results. (29) In formulae (26)(28) we have 3. (14). cos z. Equations (i3)(i5) are directly in = = applicable. = m sin (tpM). p. to be known. 14). cos A. and it is only necessary to make the following assignment of parts: a * c = 90 = *. 6. 90 and z h. (Num. and (15) gives sin 3 t t cos 8 cos cos 3 sin = cos z sin sin z cos = cos z cos + sin z sin = sin z sin A.M). (26) (27) (28) ip <p To adapt auxiliary quantities these formulas for use with the ordinary logarithmic tables. Cat. (25) 90 <p. it is seen that the transformation involves the determination of the side it and the adjaquestion 90 cent angle t in terms of the other two sides. y>. and 90 y> the angle 180 A included between them.'26 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Assuming the latitude. Fig. The substitution of (25) into (13). have for the calculation we m sin M = m cos M = cos 3 sin cos 3 cos t t sin z cos A. A = i8oA. 3. (<p cos z. t and in (29). defined by m m sin are introduced mcosM = M= sin z cos A. the and M. <p <f> cos A. unknown quantities. five three equations for the determination of two equations are given for the determin . sin 3 = sin z sin A. = m cos .
the next step is the determination of log sin 3 from the last of (29). it affords a means of testing the accuracy of The order first of solution two equations. so far as the final values of / itive. /. With the value of d thus derived. which affords a The subtraction of log sin from log m sin partial check. This makes the algebraic signs however. and 3. which fixes the quadrant of /. In practice. of The Mh are interpolated with a single opening of the M. The addition of this result to log cos must agree with the value of log mcosM from the second of (29). This affords a third partial check. values of log cos 3 and log sin 3 must correspond to the same angle. log sin 3 and log cos <J are interpolated from the table. the first method is usually In applying the checks it is to be noted that the accumulated error of calculation (Num. which is found by subtracting log cos 3 from log sin 8. pp. The determination of 3 and the application of the check can be accomplished in either of two ways: We may interpolate 3 from the smaller of the two functions logcosiJ and logsincJ. m will be pos M of sin M and cos M the m same as those of the righthand (29). or we may interpolate d from log tan 3. as the numerical solution. The hour angle. the quadrant being fixed by a consideration of the algebraic signs of any two of the three functions. into the members of the last three of (29) for the completion of the calculation. is available than is required for the theoretical solution of the problem. we assume that M and m from the is as follows: First. and second equations. and log cos 3 having been found. cosJ/. The values M. For one. Cal. and check by The comparing the other function with the value interpolated from the tables with the calculated d as argument. along with z and A. determine Whatever the values of z and A. in any specific case. For simplicity. log sin M table. M. more precise in the long run. The interpolated values must agree with those resulting from the last three equations of (29). for the other. The left members of the third and fourth of (29) are of the same form as the first two. It is to be noted that this limitation upon the sign of cos<J removes the ambiguity existing in the solution of the general spherical triangle which was mentioned on p. M M M of M and m thus derived are to be substituted. which of the two solutions we adopt.ORDER OF SOLUTION 27 In both cases one more condition ation of the four unknowns. gives log m. 22. The former method is shorter. Great care must bf . from which the angle determined. members of the first difference of the logarithms of the righthand members of these equations equals log tan M. sin M. which gives a second partial check. of two units in the last place of decimals. respectively. 4 and 12) may produce a disagreement of one. is always positive. pairs of values of It is immaterial. and 8 are concerned. although not necessarily so sufficient. and in rare instances. /. and log cos The difference of the last two must equal log tan M. a point of great practical importance. since 3 must always lie between +90 and 90. m. which makes it possible to determine /and cos 8 by an application of the process employed for finding m and M. The algebraic sign of cos 3 is necrighthand essarily positive. and tanM. care being taken to apply the checks at the points indicated above. negative. there will always be two and m satisfying these equations. the latter.
The abbreviation /o^is not prefixed to the arguments. Otherwise. need not ordinarily be written down. an erroneous computation may check. Find the corresponding hour angle The in the first calculation for equations (z6)(28). sin 5 and cos 5. appears column. The only differences which occur are to be found in the details of the combination of the quantities which enter into the right members 1. is smaller than log cos d. in this case. In the calculation of (29). <5 is derived from log sin 3. Example object is 97 14' 12" and and declination. which. that for equations (29). For the first.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY exercised with the algebraic signs of the trigonometric functions and in assigning the quadrants of the angles. although the majority of the numbers appearing Its omission saves time and produces no confusion. For a place of observation whose latitude is 38 56' 51". in the computation are logarithms. is in the second column. the azimuth of an its zenith distance 62 37' 49". made with the ordinary tables. . of the two groups of equations. The arguments tor the check quantities. The check quantities must agree both in absolute magniapparently tude and algebraic sign. They are inserted here In order to illustrate the application of the control. 3 is determined from log tan 3. The calculation of t and 8 from equations (26)(28) with the aid of additionsubtraction logarithms is accomplished by an application of the method used for the solution of the last three of (29). using additionsubtraction logarithms.
TRA NSFORMA T1ONS 29 Transformation of hour angle and declination into azimuth and 13. cososin/ 1 . The former can be used with additionsubtraction logarithms. As before. and (28). This eliminates the ambiguity attached to the solution of the general spherical triangle. It is better. however. sin = = sin d sin \ cos o cos <f> cos/. (15). and vice 14. A B and <p = t. then have by definition B We any . In Fig. The unknowns are involved in the same manner in both cases. the latter. (31) (32) (33) sin <Jcos^> + cosd sin ycost. the quadrant of A is fixed by the fact that sin z is necessarily positive. I= same principle as before. to use equations of the same form as those appearing in the preceding section. /. Transformation of hour angle into right ascension. (27). The transformation can be effected by solving (29) in the reverse order to that followed in Section 12. cos z = n cos N). since z is always included between o and + 180. we find by substituting into cos 2 z cos A (13). n sin 3. with the exception that the sine and cosine of z are interchanged in the left members of (3i)(34) as compared with the corresponding functions of d in (26)(2 9 ). (30) <p. With the following assign ment of parts a b = = 90 c = 90 z. (14). thus reducing the two problems to the same type. These are of the same general form as (26). (34) (<p (<p The two groups (3i)(33) and (34) give the required transformation. the transformation of the coordinates of one of these systems into those of the other requires only a knowledge of the relation between hour angle and right ascension. two sides and the included angle are given. versa. (29) A comparison of these equations with groups (26)(28) and shows that the same arrangement of calculation can be used for both transformations. p. . 5. with the ordinary tables. In the solution of (3i)(33) and (34). n cos sin z sin /. zenith distance. 25. Since the coordinate declination is common to Systems II and III. to find the remaining side. 180 A. Applying the we derive N = sin N = cos d cos A = cos d sin sin z cos A = sin N). let be the intersection of the hour circle through celestial body with the celestial equator.
The same can be derived from Fig. Example 2. = = Right ascension of object. = 9= Sidereal time. in the second. p. t = 20" I9 m 418 = 8 = 38 ? 3 = 304 31' 47" 55' 27" 58 53 tint . in this figure. that by equations (34). the hour angle of an h m 8 31' 47". Find the corresponding azimuth and object is 2o i9 4i8. 5.30 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Arc Arc VM Arc MVB MB = Hour angle of object. In a place of observation whose latitude is 38 58' 53". and its declination zenith distance. the point /. The calculation by equations (3l)(33) i* in the first column. II. correspond ing to B in Fig. I. t whence (35) a. (36) result Equations (35) and (36) express the required transformations.
TRANSFORMATIONS
Example
when
3.
31
What
is
Is
the right ascension of an object
whose hour angle
it I7 h 2i
m 34!6,
the sidereal time
(35)
2i h i4 ni 52!8?
By equation
/
= 2i b i4 n 52!8 = 17 21 34.6 = 3 S3 18.2,
Ans.
8 h i2 m 34!8,
Example
when
4.
What
is
is
the hour angle of an object whose right ascension
is
the sidereal time
(36)
By equation
a
t
= & 6m 28'7 = 8 12 34.8
53 539> Ans.
Transformation of azimuth and altitude into right ascension and 15. declination, or vice versa. These transformations are effected by a combination of the results of Sections 1214. For the direct transformation, determine / and 8 by (26)(28) or (29), and then a by (35). For the reverse calculate / by (36), and then A and z by (3i)(33) or (34).
Example 5. What is the right ascension of the object whose coordinates, at the sidereal lime I7 h 2i ln i6*4, are those given in Example I?
The hour angle found in the solution of Example i by equations (26)(28) is 4 h47 m 46'4. h m This, combined with ff I7 2i i6!4 in accordance with equation (35^, gives for the required ll nl right ascension I2 33 3o!o.
=
Example 6. At a place whose latitude is 38 38' 53", what are the azimuth and zenith distances of an object whose right ascension and declination are 9 k 27 ra i4'2 and 8 31 '47", reh m . spectively, the sidereal time being 5 46 56o?
By equation
tions (39) gave
2oh i9 m 4i8. We have, further, t 8 (36;, / These quantities are the same as those appearing in Example
=
=
31 '47"
2.
and
A
= 300
10' 29", z
= 69
The
<f 38 38' 53". solution by equa
=
42' 30".
Given the latitude of the place, and the declination and zenith 16. distance of an object, to find its hour angle, azimuth, and parallactic angle. We have given three sides of the spherical triangle ZPO, Fig. 6, p. 26,
to find the three angles, the parallactic angle being the angle at the object.
The
is
parallactic angle
is
not used
in
engineering astronomy, although
its
value
frequently required
in practical
astronomy proper.
Equations (20) are directly applicable for the solution of the problem. Assigning the parts of the triangle as in (30), and, further, writing the angle C q parallactic angle, we have for the calculation.
= =
32
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY
a
=
z,
b
s
= 90 c = 90 = (a + b +
3,
if,
'A
c),
Check:
2
(sa)
sin
+
(si>)
+
(s
c)
=
s,
=
(ja)sin (j)
sin (j<r)
w
q=
f
K
sin (.y<z)'
sin (J^)'
T,
tan
K
sin (jc)'
Yi
Check:
Object {
tan J4 ' cot
of meridian,
/A
l
2
tan /^ ^
in
=
^
a
}
^
/,
% A, % q
{ ge
^" d }
quadrant
In engineering
all
required. formulae are
that
is
astronomy the determination of the hour angle, t, is usually For this case it is simpler to use equation (17). The
=
2,
b
= 90
2
b
d,
c
c).
= 90
(s
<f,
s
=y
(5
(a
+ +
(s
Check:
tan .
 a)
f
+
in

b)
+
in

c)
=
s,
(38)
%
=
(**)
(j,)
a)
sin s sin (s
ject
2 y t is to be taken in the first or second quadrant according as the obwest or east of the meridian at the time of observation. For those cases in which the object is more than two and onehalf or three hours from the meridian, equation (16) written in the form
where
is
cos*
cos z  sin 
<?sin
if
a>
,
cos 3 cos
(39)
will usually give satisfactory results.
trol
upon the value of
is
/
given by
(38).
In any case, (39) affords a valuable conThe numerator of the right member of
(39)
readily calculated by
means
of additionsubtraction logarithms.
17.
Application of transformation formulae to the determination of
It was latitude, azimuth, and time. the fundamental problems of practical
shown
in
Section 4 that the solution of
astronomy requires the determination of the position of the axis of the celestial sphere and the orientation of the sphere as affected by the diurnal rotation. In practice this is accomplished indirectly by observing the positions of various celestial bodies with respect to the horizon, the observed data being combined with the known position of the bodies on the sphere for the determination of the position of the sphere itself. The means for effecting the coordinate transformation hereby implied are to be found in the formulas of Sections 1216. Although the most advantageous determination of latitude, azimuth, and
time requires a modification of these formulas, it is, nevertheless, easy to see that the solution of the various problems is within our grasp, and that the
TRANSFORMA TIONS GENERAL DISCUSSION
Example 7. For a place whose latitude Is 3S56'si", find the hour angle, azimuth, and parallactic angle of an object east of the meridian whose declination and zenith distance are
8 16' 14" and 54 16' 12", respectively.
If
Equations (37) are used for the solution, which is given below in the column on the left. only the hour angle were required, equations (38) or (39) would be used. As an illustration of the application of these formula;, the problem is also solved on this assumption. The first ten lines of the computation for (38), being the same as that for The (37), are omitted.
remainder of the calculation for (38) occupies the upper part of the righthand column. The solution by (39) is in the lower part of this column. The object is rather too near the meridian for the satisfactory use of equation (39), although it happens that the resulting value of
the hour angle agrees well with that from (37) and (38).
8
1
6'
14"
51 '2
b
c
38 54 98
5i
5
16
16
3
(s6) (ic) cosec (sa)
In
sin
8.78890
9.88892
0.13218
14
cosec
tan*
s
t
0.00927
8.81927
9.40964,
165
35' 46"
ii
9
35
y
2i
s
s
23
101
35
47
3"
48
Ck.
 a  c
47
3
36
34
33i
32
s6
i
3i
50
44
39
sin (s  a) sin (i*)
9.86782 8.78890
sin (s
c)
s
9.88892 0.00927
855491
cosec
2 log /T A" log
9.27746*
tan
%t
tan )4
t
K cosec
cot Yi A tan q cot A tan
%
%
s
34
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT
all
intimate relation to
culation.
of the other kinds of time, so that,
if
the sidereal time
has been found, the determination of the others becomes but a matter of cal
would be complicated. It is simpler to deterA, and assuming for the calculation of each that one or separately, <p, both of the others are known.  a. Let it For example, equation (31) is a function of 2, <J, <p, and /
Practically, such a solution
mine
=
be assumed that the zenith distance of a star of known right ascension and declination has been measured and that the time of observation has been noted. The substitution of the resulting data into (31) leads to the determination of the only remaining unknown, namely, the latitude, (p. Again, the elimination of z from (32) and (33) gives an expression for
as a function for
d,
be assumed that <p and 6 are known. <p, The azimuth of a star of known right ascension and declination can therefore be calculated. The calculated azimuth applied to the observed difference in .azimuth of star and mark gives the azimuth of the mark.
and
t
=d
A
a.
Let
it
Finally, equations (38)
z,
(f,
and
3.
If
and (39) express the hour angle, t, as a function of the zenith distance of a star of known right ascension and decin
lination be
measured
a place of
known
t
culated.
Equation
(35), in
the form
= +
latitude, the
a,
hour angle can be calthen gives the sidereal time of
observation.
knowledge of the time;
solutions thus outlined require, for the determination of latitude, a for the determination of time, a knowledge of the latFor the first two, time and itude; and, for azimuth, both time and latitude. If each is latitude, it might appear that the methods proposed are fallacious.
The
required for the determination of the other, how can either ever be determined? The explanation is to be found in the fact that the formulas can be arranged
in
such a
way
that an
approximate value for either of these quantities
suffices
for the determination of a relatively precise value of the other. Thus, a mere as to the time will lead to a relatively accurate value of the latitude, guess which, in turn, can be used for the determination of a more precise value of the
time. The process can be repeated as many times as may be necessary to secure the desired degree of precision. The principle involved in the procedure In thus outlined is called the Method of Successive Approximations.
numerical investigations
it
is
of great importance.
The method
amounts,,
practically, to replacing a single complex process by a series, consisting of Ordinarily, the success of the repetitions of some relatively simple operation.
method depends upon the number
must be made
in
of
order to arrive at the desired result.
repetitions or approximations which If the convergence is
rapid, so that one or two approximations suffice, the saving in time and labor as compared with the direct solution is frequently very great. Indeed, in some
instances, the method of successive approximations is the only method of procedure, the direct solution being impossible as a result of the complexity of the relation connecting the various quantities involved.
before proceeding to in its theoretical aspects the different kinds of time. Chapter III will be devoted to this must also consider the various astronomical instruments that question. if an intelligent arrangement of the methods is to be accomplished. it is to be remembered that the various problems are not merely to be solved. and. we must consider the subject of time We find application in engineering astronomy their characteristics and the con ditions under which they are employed. time. but they are to be solved with a definite degree of This requirement precision. and with a minimum expenditure of labor. one must constantly bear in mind the results which will be established in the two following chapters. in astronomical work of the highest precision. as well as those already obtained in the discussion of the principles of numerical calculation. no means should be overlooked which can in any way contribute toward an elimination or reduction of the errors of observation and calculation. time. and azimuth. . problems of There remains the formulation a detailed development. for the precision required may vary within wide limits. their definition and their relations. renders the question one of some complexity. On the other hand. For many purposes approximate results will suffice. and it is then desirable to sacrifice accuracy and thus reduce the labor involved. Chapter IV is therefore devoted to a discussion of various astronomical instruments. The problems with which we have to deal therefore present themselves under the most diverse conditions. since the nature of the data obtained through their use will influence the arrangement of the solutions. of the details.GENERAL DISCUSSION The general method of procedure latitude. In arranging the details of the methods for the determination of latitude. 35 for the solution of the and azimuth has been outlined. But.
Solar Day=A. Hence. have. sun. is The apparent. earth revolves about the sun in an elliptical orbit. such that it completes a circuit of the sphere in the same time as the apparent. the sun itself occupying foci of the ellipse. howturn the matter about and take the apparent diurnal rotations of these objects with reference to the meridian of the observer. or true. and about 23^ degrees at the equinoxes. The adoption everyday life would bring with of such a time system for the regulation of the affairs of it many inconveniences. motion along the ecliptic is also like is wise variable. and Sidereal Time. 20. or true. Actually. or True. The rotation of the earth is the measurement of time. Apparent solar time is therefore. The instant of transit of the apparent sun is called Apparent Noon=A. the first of which would be the impossibility of constructing a timepiece capable of following accurately the irregular variations of apparent solar time. T. solar time at any instant at that instant. Further. subdivided into 24 hours. the same length. accordingly. considered to 'be fixed. as the basis of time measurement. not only because the ecliptical motion is variable. S. and the vernal equinox. Solar Time=A. N. from that of the true sun. it is several different kinds of time. it one of the The earth's motion is such that the radius vector with the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal times. On this account there has been devised a uniformly varying time. or True. we must specify the object to which the rotation obvious that of the earth we may have is is referred. it follows that the angular velocity of the earth in its orbit is variable. or True. or true. based upon the motion of a fictitious body called the mean sun. or true. sun is called an Apparent. Since the connecting distance of the earth from the sun varies.S. D. In practice. we We : Apparent. Solar Time. Apparent. nor are apparent solar days of not. sun across the same meridian between two successive transits of the apparent. S. ecliptic. three kinds of time fictitious object called the ever. the rotation referred to three different things: the apparent. sun. a mean sun. The mean sun is an imaginary body supposed to move with a constant angular velocity eastward along the equator. By referring to different objects. equal to the hour angle of the apparent. The projection into the equator of the a reflection of the earth's orbital motion. being o degrees at the solstices. but also on account of the fact that the angle of projection changes. Since motion is relative.CHAPTER 18. the angular motion of the sun along the variable. 19.T. interval The It is The In astronomical practice the apparent solar day begins at apparent noon. a uniformly varying quantity. which is but. the mean sun is so chosen that its right ascension differs as little as possible. or true. which are counted continuously from o to 24. 36 . Mean Solar Time=M. Mean Solar Time. on the average. III TIME AND TIME TRANSFORMATION The basis for the basis of time measurement.
Oct. The corresponding standard times are Eastern. The sidereal time at any instant is equal to the hour angle of the true vernal equinox at that instant. points within lY? degrees of longitude of a standard meridian use the local boundaries hour are quite irregular.. 1907. with the result that all timepieces referred to them indicate at any instant the same number of minutes and seconds. theoretically. and differ among themselves. Oct. 7. 8. The interval between two successive transits of same meridian is 37 to the hour angle of the the mean sun across the called a Mean Solar Day=M. and 8 hours. solar time of that meridian. mean sun was on the meridian on Oct. 25. confusion would all arise.) The interval between two successive transits of the true vernal across the same meridian is called a Sidereal Day=S. and then again from o to 12. These are slow as compared with Greenwich mean solar time by 5. being affixed to the time in order to avoid ambiguity. its If each local to regulate its affairs in accordance with own mean traffic. N. but from o to 12. The system thus defined is called Standard Time. is supposed to change 12 hours before the transit of the mean sun. is to the astronomical date. 105. The instant of transit of the solar time is mean sun called Mean Noon=M. all To especially in connection with railway points within certain limits of longitude use The meridians selected for this purpose are an exact multiple of 15 degrees from the meridian of Greenwich. Mountain. or Civil Date. actually. and 120 degrees west of Greenwich. and Pacific. i. 90. Further.DEFINITIONS The Mean Solar Time at any instant is equal mean sun at that instant. Central. the hours of the civil mean solar day are not numbered continuously from o to 24. 8 did not begin until the calendar. (See p. D. the separating adjacent regions whose standard times differ by one mean Sidereal Time. or P. all Although. 7. For example the civil date 1907. equinox . M. But since a change of date during the daylight hours would be inconvenient and confusing for the affairs of everyday life. solar time. and from the local mean solar time of the meridian of Greenwich. at the midnight preceding the astronomical change of date. Oct.e. ioh A. it is evident that at solar time for different places not on the same meridian place were to attempt any instant the mean is different. throughout the civilized world. the Calendar Date. and the unit for the measurement of time. is S. by an exact number of hours. a uniformly varying quantity and all mean solar days are Mean solar time is the time indicated by watches and clocks. avoid this difficulty the time of the same meridian. generally. 6. 22 h The astronomical day equivalent . mean solar day is the standard In astronomical practice the mean solar day begins at mean noon. in most countries. The astronomical date therefore changes at noon. Mean of the same length. 21. The standard meridians for the United States are 75. It is subdivided into 24 hours which are numbered continuously from o to 24. respectively. M. D. M. the letters A. 8 of the From the manner of definition.
and used for the correction of the mean solar timepieces of the observatory. the tropical year begins when the mean right ascension of the mean sun plus the constant h part of the annual aberration is equal to 280 or i8 40"'. (40) In accordance with a suggestion due to Bessel. series of time signals which indicate accurately the instant of mean noon. C. S. send out daily over the wires of the various tele graph companies.2422 revolutions with respect to the observer's meridian.=366. D. N. These signals reach every part of the country.38 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The instant of transit of the true vernal equinox is called Sidereal Noon=S. a uniformly varying quantity. and does not. thus for 1909. During this interval the mean sun makes one circuit of the celestial sphere from in equinox to equinox again. sidereal time is not. The Tropical Year. Certain observatories. Since the precessional and nutational motions of the true equinox are not uniform. S. for sidereal time is more easily determined than either apparent or mean solar time.2422 M. It also plays an important role in the determination of time generally. all The importance sidereal days are of the same length. coincide with the beginning of the calendar year. although the difference between the two never exceeds a fractional part of a day. for the purposes of observational astron omy. therefore have the important relation: whence it We One Tropical Year=3652422 M. sphere itself.2422 S. The most important are the tropical and the Julian. The true sidereal time thus obtained is transformed into mean solar time by calculation. Several different kinds of years are employed astronomy. D. D. the beginning of the tropical year is indicated by This epoch is independent of the position of the observer on the earth 1909. which ordered that Calendar. 22. The symbol for this instant is formed by affixing a decimal point and a zero to the corresponding at the instant year number. for the variations in the motion of the equinox take place so slowly that. has already been shown in Sections 11 and 14. in particular the United States Naval Observatory at Washington. and the Lick Observatory at Mt. Its length is 365. and vice versa. but practically it may be considered as such. in a direction opposite to that of the rotation of the follows that during a tropical year the equinox must complete 366. of sidereal time in the transformation of the coordinates of the second system into those of the third. strictly speaking. The Tropical Year is the interval between two successive passages of the mean sun through the mean vernal equinox. origin in The fractional parts of a For chronological purposes the use of a year involving day would be inconvenient. and serve for the regulation of watches and clocks generally. is The usual order of procedure in time determination as follows: Every observatory possesses at least one sidereal timepiece whose error is determined by observations on stars.0. That actually used has its a decree promulgated by Julius Caesar in 45 B. in general. . Hamilton in California. 23.
a slight modification in the method of counting Gregory XIII.0003 day or 26". All years revised rule for the determination of leap years is as follows: the century whose numbers are exactly divisible by four are leap years. any other geographical meridians of the two places. The difference between the Julian and the tropical years is about ii m . time at Given the local time at any point. the Julian Calendar. Russia and Greece and other countries under the dominion of the Eastern or Greek Church. The Gregorian calendar was soon adopted by all Roman Catholic countries and by England in 1752. In order to avoid the gradual displacement of the calendar dates with respect to the seasons resulting from the accumulation of this difference. to find the corresponding local From the definitions of apparent solar. and the calendar based upon it.THE CALENDAR 39 the calendar year should consist of 365 days for three years in succession. 24. Let Tt TV L = the time of the eastern place. Te We then have the relations: = Tw +L (41) . and sidereal time. This period is called a Julian Year. The years of designation bissextile. excepting These are leap years only when exactly diiisible by four hundred. at present. D. The average length of the Gregorian calendar The In the year differs from that of the tropical year by only 0. differs from the Gregorian by 13 days. In consequence the calendar year was 365^ days. these The extra day of the fourth year was to be followed by a fourth of 366 days. modern system the extra day in leap years appears as the 2Qth of February. The Julian system thus modified is called the Gregorian Calendar. their difference of longitude. where it was at the time of the Council of Nice in 325 A. still use the Julian Calendar. it follows that at any instant the difference between two local times is equal to the angular distance between the celestial meridians to which But this is equal to the angular distance between the the times are referred.e. although they are now called Leap With this arrangement the average length of are Common Years. twice the sixth day before the calends of March in the introduced by counting such years were long distinguished by the Years. mean solar. = the time of the western place. = longitude difference of the two places. the Julian calendar falls behind the seasons by this amount. which. 365 days Roman system. other years are common years. and. should not be counted as such unless the year numbers are exactly divisible by 400. At the same time it was ordered that 10 days should be dropped from the calendar in order to bring the date of the passage of the sun through the vernal equinox leap years difference was introduced in 1582 by Pope amounts approximately to three back to the 2ist of March. Gregory therefore ordered that the century years. All years. The accumulated days in 400 years. as the Julian year is longer than the tropical. all of which are leap years under the Julian rule. point. i.
S. Oct. R. find the corresponding Greenwich mean solar time. 12 Oct. The difference S.M. S. central standard time 1907.M.M. and vice versa.. Given. Given. Oct. TV = L Te = = 1907. Columbia solar time. Oct. = II oh ii 3 m i6'i8 18. L Example 10.74 Ans. 12 6 i8 o A.A.M. A. 10 astronomical / j ^^ 25. find the Te L = 1907. T. find the corre Te = 1907. n oh 3 i6i8 P. sun sometimes smaller and sometimes greater than that of the mean sun. R. 9 53 53 23 7\v= 1907. T. of A. Oct. find the corresponding Greenwich mean 7V= i2 h H m L Te = 6 = 18 16141 9 23 18. corresponding Columbia mean solar lime. sponding mean solar time. (42) Equation of Time. A. The ascension of the apparent sun is calculated from the known orbital motion right of the earth. astronomical astronomical 600 18 18 18 o Oct.85 A. T.33 P. A. or sidereal. mean solar time I2 h I4 m 16:41.40 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Equations (41) are true whether the times be apparent solar. A. solar time 1907. t and the definitions of mean solar and apparent solar time. to find the corred a. The right ascension of the mean sun is known from its manner is . civil Example 11. A. 12 o o o o \ / P. S.85 57. of A. Greenwich mean sponding Washington mean solar time. its maximum absolute value being about i6 throughout times positive. Example 9. R. . E is = S. Oct. civil Oct. Example 8. Oct. 1907. 6 3 h I4 m 21". Oct. T. and sometimes negative. T. T. whence M. From equation (36). S. central standard time 1907.33 34. S. Given the apparent solar time at any place. of M. 3 5 h I4 m 21" 8 6 16 5 5 22 Ans.M. 6 = TV = 1907. we find = M.. 12 Oct. =d = = M. ii 57. since the right ascension of the apparent called the . The equation of time varies irregularly m It is somethe year. S. Given. R. civil and astronomical. mean solar.M. II 6 h 18 18 o" A. S. of M. h h s Given. A. Oct. S. astronomical and civil.
) Gr. 20 Example Given. corresponding Columbia apparent solar time.06 1907. p.07 (Eph. Greenwich apparent solar time 1907. T. p.) 15 S. sun in column two of page II. Oct. Oct. T.63 (Eph. be added to Columbia M.3 53. A. E during M. 1907.15 52 Ans. N. Oct. Change Gr. and for Greenwich mean noon. Oct.2 18 14 E for Gr. 20 18. 15 corresponding Greenwich mean solar time. 1907. T. 20 E during 5 h i8 m 12* 58. Note that for each date the difference of the right ascension of the apparent.M. E for Gr. find the m ' E Change in E during 2h 6m 12' f 56*75 1.001. latter when apparent solar time is to be found from a given mean solar time. 1907. in accordance with the Example 12." which immediately folprinted low those containing the equation of time. Oct. in the columns headed "Difference for i Hour. 1907.9 12. h standard time 1907.S. M. . Given. Oct. 165) in E (to be added to M. and the right ascension of the mean sun in the last column of the same page. 1907. S.06 14.TIME TRANSFORMATION of definition. p. M.) i 13 2 57. on page II. astronomical L Columbia M. S. or true. Oct. T.M. S. for Gr.. find the C. 165) E (to + Columbia A. 15 I3 2h 6 m 12506. 164) (to be subtracted from A.11 (Eph.S. N. not given in the American Ephemeris.o 54. Gr.39 i.9 Ans. the corresponding Greenwich time must be calculated before the interpolation is made. M. 15 i 13 ) 56588 1. 15 h 52"" 14511. Gr. i Example 13. T. whose values are tabu In the American Ephemeris they are given for instants of Greenwich apparent noon on page I for each month. 15 1907. 19 23 23 2. 1907. Oct. Oct. but the column is headed by a precept which indicates whether it is to be added to or subtracted from the given time.11 12. The former page is used when apparent time is converted into the corresponding mean solar time. is equal to the corresponding value of E. Oct. N. 1907. S. definition. A. 1907. 20 nh 23 5 i8 m I2!2 A.95 12. central n i8 m 1252 A. Oct. 41 This data suffices for the calculation of . 15 52 6 Ana.T. Change in M. 19 9 8 1907. T. 15 26 i 13 Gr. Oct.20 57. S. T. and the lated in the various astronomical ephemerides. Oct. T. T. A. S. S. Greenwich mean solar time 1907. Values of E for times other than The algebraic sign of containing its values E is Greenwich apparent noon and Greenwich mean noon must be obtained by interThis operation is facilitated by the use of the hourly change in E polation. find the corresponding Greenwich apparant solar time. If the time to be converted refers to a meridian other than that of Greenwich.95 14. T. 14. Given. h 52"" 14" S.
20 23 II 8 9 18 53. S.3 L C. Equation (40) is the fundamental relation If we let the units of mean solar and sidereal time. Gain of 6 on M.3 13.. from (40) /s = =/m + 365^422 366. A. 19 23 h L 69 33 14 15 23 5459 18. T. S. = 1124 = 235.2422 (43) IT _ 366. 1907.52 E (to be sub.2422 and (44) become 7S 7m = /m + Ill/m =7 5 (45) (46) 1 17s Assuming 7m = 24 b we find from 0:000 (45) 24" o Similarly. 19 23 h 23 m f4"9. Oct. S. Oct.2422 (43) /m = Ia  (44) Writing ' 11T= 365. Oct. T. find the corresponding central standard time. T. connecting f 26. T. T. in i i M. T. from Columbia A. S.9 i8.2 A. S.M. S. A.o 1907. = 24" h m 3 565555 Sid. = IIl24 = 2365555 D. S. S.42 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Example 15. S. 1907. 20 for Gr.909 h .2 E Gr.50 i. Oct. in S.) Columbia M. Given Columbia apparent solar time 1907. by supposing 7S 24 o h = 24 h we obtain from (46) m O5ooo Sid. 12. 20 5 58. N. 1907. Oct. m M. Hence Gain of on M. A we find solar units. Ans. Oct. Columbia A. T. 56"" 45091 M. = 23 S. Change in JE during 5 33 h m 13' +2. 19 1907. solar = the value of any interval / in mean 7m = the value of /in sidereal units. D. mean Relation between the values of a time interval expressed in and sidereal units.
not Example interval. =10.T.73 = 2 m 40!73 IO"/m find The Interval. S. provided the highest precision required. l/6o). and the second the argu ment which to be used for the interpolation.ini For many purposes these expressions imate relations: IIl24 h hour hour = IIIi" = 918565 = III =9.37 = 3 m 2 "37 . or more simply. 17. Gainof0onM. the contains the numerical values of II/s. respectively. In case tables are not available the conversion can be based upon equations is (47) or (48). in I M.72 1.0006 Error = 0. = 2O = 11 28 m 42*17 3 25 is II/S /m = 2O 21.8296 may be replaced by the following approx 1124 IIIi III = = 4 4 m (i (l (i 1/70).88 (Eph.0037 Error value Equations (45) and (46) may be used for the conversion of the in mean solar units into its corresponding value of a time interval expressed The calculations are most conveniently made in sidereal units. Given the sidereal interval 20" 28 m 42*17. the equivalent mean solar (46) /.29 2O. Example By Eq. as follows: = 20*478 io*/s = 204*78 = 3.S. and vice versa. S. II) The calculation of II/S by the last of (49) /. 1/60). 1/70). T.RELATION OF SIDEREAL AND SOLAR INTERVALS and further Gain of 43 on M. find the equivalent sidereal By Eq.92 is III/m = 16 21 (Eph. =10 (i = 0*016 = 0. S. 16.41 1/60X10*78= II/s 201. value thus found differs onlyo'oi from that derived from Table III of the Ephemeris. Table Ans. II by Tables II and III printed at the" end of the American Ephemeris. while arguments being the values of the first /s and 7m. (45) /m fs = = I6"1 18 2 21*20 40. III) The calculation of III/m by the third of (49) as follows: /m = 16*306 I/7oXio*/m = 163106 = 2. Given the mean solar interval toMS" 1 21*20.33 Ill/m = 160.081 Error Error = 0. It will be observed that factors of is H/ and III/m indicate the table. upon (49). Table Ans. Table Table III gives those of III/m.
B 555. a fact already indicated in Section 21. thus appears that the increase in the right ascension of the mean sun is not which t is proportional to the increase in the time.25)' + osooooo93* + nutation in right ascension. oa o h Gr. as the same is true of the term involving 2 t in (51). From this it follows that the methods given in Section 26. the right ascension of the mean sun. at the instant to which the given time refers. Equation (50) therefore expresses a relation between mean solar time and the cor M responding sidereal time. and angle. right ascension of the mean sun and its determination. and. however. The nutation in right ascension oscillates between limits strictly (50). is equal by definition to the mean solar time. indeed. Relation between mean solar time and the corresponding sidereal time. we have exact numerical agreement between the change in the latter for one mean solar day. as given by equation (51). It works on theoretical astronomy that the right ascension of the mean sun at any instant of Greenwich mean time is given by the expression 28. Applying this equation mean sun. provided only that the interval for which the change is to be calculated is small enough to render the variations in the last two terms of (51) negligible. it follows that the increase in the right ascension of the mean sun one mean solar day is sensibly 236. including Tables II and III of the Ephemeris and the approximate relations (49). can equally well be applied to the determination of the increase in R. and. which can be made the basis for the conversion of the one into the other.I s and I with a period of about 19 years. and the gain of the former during the same period as shown by the in R first of (47). This. Jan. . Its change in one day is therefore very small. The transformation requires a knowledge of R.From equation (50) it is seen that the gain of sidereal on mean solar time during any interval is equal to the increase in during that interval. now turn our attention to a consideration of the methods which are avail We able for the determination of this quantity. in connection with equation sidereal time is not a uniformly varying quantity. we find M=6 R R (50) in which its hour represents the right ascension of the mean sun. is The shown in RG = 18" 38 m 45 ! 836 + (236:555 X 365. M. T. The latter. shows that s which are approximately}.44 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT 27. a (51) in It reckoned in Julian years from the epoch 1900. In Section 14 it was shown that the relation connecting the hour angle of an object with the sidereal time is t= to the 6 a where a represents the right ascension of the object.
it follows from the preceding paragraph that RL for = R + IIIZ. (56) value of D may be to the tabular number standing opposite obtained from Table III by adding the day of the the name of the month in The is conveniently expressed in decimals of a day by means of Table value thus found is to be combined with D. represent the right ascension of the mean sun at the instant of mean noon for a point whose longitude west of Greenwich is L.. by the use of Tables IIIV. If the precise value of 8 M be used. and are to be found in the last column of page II for each month. the uncertainty in R derived from (56) will be only from the neglect of the variation in the last terms of (51). number of mean solar days that have elapsed since the preceding Jan. page 46. determi any instant at any place when the value of Ro for the preceding mean noon is known. (54) suffice for the Equations (52) and (53). (53) R=R + nation of IIIZ + HIM. O (52) equal to the time interval separating mean noon of the place from the preceding Greenwich mean noon. the value of . The quantity HIM may be at R derived from Table III of the Ephemeris with as argument. In the American Ephemeris they are given for the instant of Greenwich mean noon. Further. If an Ephemeris is not available the values of R can still be found. 111(1) (55) D indicates the o. Its value can be calculated once for all. If care be taken to count D from the nearest Jan. its precise numerical values are tabulated in the various astronomical ephemerides for every day in the year. that arising . o for each of the years these by Roo and neglecting the variations in the last two 19071920. For a given place the term IIIZ is a constant. and if Ri. o the error will never exceed o. 555. M. If these tabular values be represented by Ro.'3 or III. = Ro + UIL + + M). Substituting (55) into R The month IV. Denoting terms of (51) we have for Greenwich mean noon of any other date Ro computed from (51) R = R00 + where UW (54). or their equivalent. viz. The first of these contains M the values of for the date Jan. and can then be added mentally to the value of Ro as the latter is taken from the Ephemcris. question.RIGHT ASCENSION OF MEAN SUN 45 To facilitate the solution of problems in which R is required. approximately at least. at a point whose longitude west of Greenwich is L is given by is L R= or XL + HIM. (54). 236./? at any mean time.
46 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY TABLE II RIGHT ASCENSION OF THE MEAN SON FOR THE EPOCH JAN. T. o d o h GR. Year . M.
nearest Jan. the result may be more m 1/70) for III. Columbia M. p. The right member of (58) therefore expresses the sum of the sidereal time of the preceding mean noon and the number of sidereal hours. (59) Equations (59) and (58) solve the problem. T. precise value given by (54) 29.1 6 12 35 Jf= m 3 5'2i. It is M is the equivalent sidereal interval. Find the right ascension of the mean sun for the epoch 1907. Sept.7 2.00 = R=5 III 36 (Eph.. (58) RL = Ro + lllL. 21 6m 2<ji Columbia M. If D be reckoned from the expeditiously found by using 4 (i o as above. 47 This requires that for 183* the negative value of Table III be employed. = ioi = = = The +o li 8io(Table8lIIandIV)^?oo (1910) IIl(Z is I2 h loodtgo 4oo?76o S725 = = + M) = III/. Table III) Ans. = 6h ^?o = Sh = (54) 34 i i m 25*'0 0. If a Example 8 h 2i m 1400 18. Table III) (Eph. 34 find the Ans. o. By Equation /. the corresponding error will not exceed 3".7 (Table II) lllL III(Z> f M) = R= 59 3 49. and seconds that have elapsed and by (45) M+IIIAf .34 48. Given the mean solar time at any instant to sponding sidereal time.e. ^? = i8 h = 10 5 36 i 05 0. i8 h 37 i 51 (Table II) 0. to the sidereal time of the preceding mean noon at the is the mean time interval since preceding mean noon.67 22. at that instant. Now Greenwich. T. place considered. with the value of Roo for l\\z following Jan. From equation (50) we find corre = M+R Introducing the value of (57) R from (53) we have = M+i + where UIM. together D> somewhat greater uncertainty is permissible. 93) (Eph. <1 1909.TRANSFORMATION OF MEAN SOLAR INTO SIDEREAL TIME 04. minutes. June 16 S. Find the right ascension of the mean sun for the epoch S. (D + M) = i67<)348 m 4 (D + M) = 6697392 m 1/70 X4 (> + M) = 9TS63 Example 2 By Equation (Tables (56) o (1907) and IV. 1 1 9 21 m i8'33 ll\L lllAf Af=8 14. Equation (58) may be interpreted as follows: of the ^L is the right ascension mean sun at the preceding mean noon for a place in longitude L west of therefore also equal to the hour angle of the vernal equinox i.7 5' 19.
The maximum error in the value of (60) is i. By equations (56) and (57) 1/70 X 4 m OD + = m 4 (Z> + A/) = D\M 45 d +o d 686 44*314 i77?256 M)= 2. 5 8 Ans. as indicated R may R be obtained from (56) and substituted into (57) for the determination of 0. 16. The uncertainty in the sidereal time thus found will be the same as that of derived from (56). is the sidereal time corresponding to the mean time. Example 20. is useful : 0= The J?oo first i8"37'?7 + M + 4m (i i//o) (D + M). m 7. By equation m (60) i8 h 4 (i 1/70) (Z> + .W) = # = M= 16 2 37T7 27. M=6 Substituting as in Section 29 R we have RL M=O or IUM X I. designed for use at the meridian of Columbia. (60) term in the right member of this formula is the average value of . In such cases the following. By equations M= Xo III/.1 i 0. by the equation. viz. m plus the constant term IIIL. find the corresponding sidereal time. Given Columbia mean solar time i6 h 27 (58) and (59) i6 h 27"" 32517 32517 on 1909. (61) . Nov.48 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT In other words it since noon. In case the Ephemeris is not at hand.05 10 Aas.532 = IIIL = lll(D + M) = = Koo M= i6 h 27"" 32:2 18 37 5. M.23 55. 30. mean Given the sidereal time at any instant to find the corresponding solar time.7 2 8 54 10 43.5 547 10. = IS = = 8 39 i 3998 0.4 55 Ans. which for Columbia may be taken equal to i The expression can be adapted for use at any other meridian by introducing the derived from appropriate value of IIIL. We make use of equation (50). Oftentimes a rough approximation for 6 is all that is required.67 111M= 2 42.
e. Columbia sidereal time i h 7 m 19*27. May 12.82 M= 34o 19. noon. To find the equivalent mean time interval we must. Ans. 1908. subtract from d ^L the quantity 11(0 RL).72 18.TRANSFORMATION OF SIDEREAL INTO MEAN SOLAR TIME common Multiplying equations (45) and (46).46 jii jm 19*28 20 46 3 3 21 53. 6 RL is the sidereal interval that has elapsed since noon.33 (Eph. and RL the sidereal Since time of the preceding mean noon. i. Equation (62) is susceptible of an interpretation similar to that given (58) in the preceding section. (63) Equations (63) and (62) solve the problem. . Example 21. sponding central standard time. factor 7m ft we find 49 member by member. the mean Given. and dropping the (I + III)(I II) = I Combining this with (61) we find M= d where. May 13. = 9 38. and seconds that have elapsed since the preceding mean.05 A. find the corre By equations 9 = RL = RL = RL) = (62) and (63) 25. S. (62) RL =R + III/. is the given sidereal time. as before. minutes. RL 11(0 RL).M. T. in accordance with equation (46). Table II) 21 L= 43 9 52 C. The right member of (62) therefore expresses the number of mean solar hours. solar time corresponding to the given 0.
the Dutch physicist and astronomer. TIMEPIECES 32. was not until some years later that his idea found material realization in a clock ever this constructed by his son Vincenzio. and in 1714 that of Great Britain offered a reward of 20. How means may be.000 for a method which would give the longitude of a ship within half a degree. Historical. blind and enfeebled. and it 1637. Since then its develin design and construction has kept pace with that of other forms of astronomical apparatus. The pendulum seems first to have been used as a of governing the motion of a clock by Biirgi of the observatory of Landgrave William IV at Cassel about 1580. Contrivances for the measurement of time have been used since the beginning of civilization. although the question had been attacked The by the most capable minds of the two centuries immediately preceding. the construction and theory of this atand sextant undertaken. made the clock an instrument of precision. matter was of such importance that the governments of Spain. It can not be transported from place to place. 50 With an accurate portable timepiece. fulfill all the requirements that may be demanded of a timepiece. though it is not certain that the principle employed was that involved in the modern method of regulation. the method now used was certainly suggested by Galileo about but Galileo was then near the end of his life. Some sixty years later Harrison and Graham devised methods of pendulum compensation for changes of temperature. with important modifications in the escapement mechanism introduced by in 1713. It remained for Huygens. the artificial horizon. The following pages give a brief account of the theory of these instruments and a statement of the methods to be followed in using them. time and azimuth are the watch or engineer chronometer. The most difficult thing in finding the position of a ship is the determination of longi At that time no method was known capable of giving this with anything more than the roughest approximation. Netherlands established large money prizes for a successful solution. not so much for the work of the astronomer as for that of the navigator. The instruments employed by the for the determination of latitude. and the engineer's transit or the sextant. By the beginning of the eighteenth century the need of accurate portable timepieces had become pressing. and it does not. to rediscover the principle. The use of both the engineer's transit and the sextant presupposes an under standing of the vernier. and in 1657 give it an application that attracted general attention. IV INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USE Instruments used by the engineer.CHAPTER 31. but it was not until the end of the sixteenth century that they reached the degree of perfection which made them of service in astronomical observations. therefore. France. Graham opment which. tachment is is treated separately before the discussion of the transit In consequence. The pendulum clock must be mounted in a fixed position. . and the tude. however.
TIMBI'lECES
51
which could be set to indicate the time of some standard meridian before beginning a voyage, the solution would have been simple. Notwithstanding the stimuIn 1735 Harrison lus of reward no solution was forthcoming for many years. succeeded in constructing a chronometer which was compensated for changes of temperature; and about 1760 one of his instruments was sent on a trial voyage
to Jamaica.
Upon
return
its
variation
its
values of the longitudes based on
error.
was found to be such as to bring the readings within the permissible limit of
The
under the action of no forces, but
ideal timepiece, so far as uniformity is concerned, would be a. body moving The in practice this can not be realized.
modern timepiece of
but
falls
precision is a close approximation to something equivalent, short of the ideal. Thus far it has been impossible completely to nullify
the effect of certain influences which affect the uniformity of motion. Changes in temperature, variations in barometric pressure, and the gradual thickening of the oil lubricating the mechanism produce irregularities, even when the skill of the designer and clockmaker
No timepiece is perfect. is exercised to its utmost. can say only that some are better than others. Further, it is impossible to set a timepiece with such exactness that it does not differ from the true time
We
by a quantity greater than the uncertainty with which the latter can be determined. Thus it happens that a timepiece seldom if ever indicates the true time; and, in general, no attempt is made to remove the error. The timepiece is started under conditions as favorable as possible, and set to indicate approximately the true time. It is then left to run as it will, the astronomer, in the meantime, directing his attention to a precise determination of the amount and the rate of change of the error. These being known, the true time at any instant is easily found.
33. Error and rate. The error, or correction, of a timepiece is the quantity which added algebraically to the indicated time gives the true lime. The error of a timepiece which is slow is therefore positive. If the timepiece is fast the
algebraic sign of its correction is negative. The error of a mean solar timepiece is denoted by the symbol J7"; of a To designate the timepiece to which the correction sidereal timepiece, by Jt).
refers subscripts
.
may be
;
added.
Thus
the error of a Fauth sidereal clock
.
may
Sometimes be indicated by Jti f of a Negus mean time chronometer, by J7*N it is convenient to use the number of the timepiece as subscript. If 6' be the indicated sidereal time at a given instant, and JO the corresponding error of the timepiece, the true time of the instant
will
be
(64)
= 0' + JO'.
The analogous formula
for a
mean
solar timepiece
is
T= T + JT'.
The
daily rate, or simply the rate, of a timepiece
is
(65)
the change in the error
during one day.
52
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY
If the error of a timepiece increases algebraically, the rate is positive; if
it
decreases, the rate
negative. The symbols fid and dT with appropriate suband mean solar timescripts are used for the designation of the rates of sidereal The hourly rate,>. the change during one hour, is somepieces, respectively.
is
times more conveniently employed than the daily rate. It is convenient, but in no wise important, that the rate of a timepiece should be small. On the other hand, it is of the utmost consequence that the rate should
be constant; for the
to
reliability of the
instrument depends wholly upon the degree
which
this condition is fulfilled.
Generally it is impossible to determine by observation the error at the instant must therefore be able to calculate its for which the true time is required. If the rate value for the instant in question from values previously observed.
We
is
constant this can be done with precision; otherwise, the result will be affected
by an uncertainty which will be the greater, the longer is the interval separating the epochs of the observed and the calculated errors. If Jt} and Jt)' be values of the observed error for the epochs / and /', the
daily rate will be given
by
in
which /' /must be expressed in days and fractions of a day. The rate having thus been found, the error for any other epoch, t". may be calculated by the formula
JQ"
= J6' + 3d(t"
clock was
t')
(67)
27561
Example
22.
The
error of a sidereal
+5
sidereal time, and 5 33510 Feb. 14 at 7^6 sidereal time.
+
on
1909, Feb.
n,
at 5^2; find the daily rate,
on 1909, Feb. 3, at 6'.'4 and the correction on
We
have J0
= + 5 m 2761,
/'
J0'=
/
+ 5 m 33">
5^2
3
d
and
=
i i
d
6^4
=7
d
22l'8
=
7<
1
95.
Equation (66) then gives $0
= + 5H9/79S =
7*16,
t'
f
0:69,
which
is
the required value of the rate.
To
find the error for Feb. 14, t"
we have
d
= i4
7^6
nd
5^2
=
3'!
2 l'4
=
3<?i,
whence by equation
(67)
40"
'=
+ 5 m 3351 + 3.1 X 0569 = +
5"'
35524.
Ans.
34. Comparison of timepieces. It is frequently necessary to know the time indicated by one timepiece corresponding to that shown by another. The determination of such a pair of corresponding readings involves a comparison of the two To make such a comparison the observer must be able accurately timepieces.
to follow, or count, the seconds of a timepiece without looking at the instrument. It is desirable, moreover, that he should be able to do this while engaged with
other matters, such as entering a record in the observing book,
etc.
CLOCK COMPAR/SONS
;
53
Pendulum clocks usually beat, or tick, every second and chronometers, every The beats of the ordinary watch are separated by an interval of a With each beat the second hand of the timepiece moves fifth of a second. forward by an amount corresponding to the interval separating the beats a whole second space for the clock, a half second space for the chronometer, and
half second.
second for the watch. two timepieces coincide, observer has only to pick up the beat from at the other and note the hour, minute, and time on the first. After noting the reading
a fifth of a
If the beats of
a comparison
is
easily
made.
The
one, then, following mentally, look second corresponding to a definite
of the second, the observer should look again at the first before dropping the count, to make sure that the indicated number of seconds and the count were in agreement at the instant of comparison
If the beats of the timepieces
do not coincide, and
it
is
desired to obtain a com
parison with an uncertainty less than the beat interval, the observer must estimate from the sound the magnitude of the interval separating the ticks. He will then
note the hour, minute, second, and tenth of a second on the second timepiece corresponding to the beginning of a second on the first.
When
a watch
is
to be
should be taken from the
latter.
compared svith a clock or a chronometer, the count The tenths of a second on a watch corresponding
to the beginning of a second on the clock or chronometer may be estimated by noting the position of the watch second hand with respect to the two adjacent second marks at the instant the beat of the clock or chronometer occurs. The
comparison will then give the hour, minute, second, and zero tenths on the clock or chronometer corresponding to a certain hour, minute, second, and tenth of a. second on the watch.
and a mean solar timepiece are to be compared, a very precise be obtained by the method of coincident beats. It was shown in Section 26 that the gain of sidereal on mean solar time is about ten seconds per hour,
If a sidereal
result
may
The ticks of a solar and a sidereal timepiece, each beating seconds, must therefore coincide once every six minutes. If one of the timepieces beats half seconds, the coincidences will occur at intervals of three minutes. comparison is made by noting the times indicated by the two instruments
or one second in six minutes.
A
If carefully made, the uncertainty of the comparison will not exceed one or two hundredths of a second.
at the instant the beats coincide.
1907, Oct. 29, five comparisons of a watch were made with the Fauth Laws Observatory. The means of the comparisons are Or = iS h 23 m o'oo, and 7 w = 4 h 3 nl i6i2 P.M. The error of the Fauth clock was 29172, and the longitude west of Greenwich is 6 h 9 m Find the error of the watch referred to central standard
Example
1
23.
On
sidereal clock of the
18*33.
time.
From Of and J(t r find by (64). The sidereal time is then to be transformed into C. S. T. by (62) and the first of (41;. The resulting C. S. T. compared with 7"w gives the error of
the watch.
54 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY .
The mean of the resulting values of will then be the final result. to calculate the separate values of the relative rate. The quotient of the loss by the interval in minutes is a value of the relative rate per minute.' would correspond to various intermediate 15minute intervals.. while the intermediate values of /. the ath comparison is paired with the(is The )th. upon those obtained during the last 15 minutes. at The interval between any two chronometer readings minus the difference between the corresponding watch readings is the loss of the watch as compared with the chronometer during the interval. The selection of the comparisons for the formation of the pairs K R requires careful attention if the maximum of precision is to be secured. 15 We + T second from the seventeenth... and soon. and for the derivation of the final result of 7W which . and it is important to arrange the calculation so that any irregularity in the relative rate will be revealed. it follows It is desirable for the sake of symmetry in the reduction that the separate values of should be of the same degree of precision. whence the mean relative rate of the watch referred to the chronometer is 05157 per minute of . The first of these would depend upon data secured during the first 15 minutes of the observing period. The two values of J7"c. The into C. fourth column of the table gives the values of 7W corresponding to this choice. Denoting the influence of the errors in the observed watch times upon the interval 7W by e we find for the error of /? Since c is independent of the length of the interval separating the comparisons. The solution of the first part of the problem may therefore be accomplished by grouping the comparisons in pairs and applying equation (a). 3 and and 30. To obtain a criterion for the most advantageous arrangement. The reduction will then give not only the quantitative value of the final result.CLOCK COMPARISONS The second and details of the conversion of 55 third comparisons are reduced by the method used for Ex. The 15 values of 7 substituted into equation (a). chronometer made Given thirty comparisons of a Wallham watch and a Bond sidereal intervals of one minute. but at the same time will throw light upon the reliability of the instruments employed. It is not necessary. are omitted.. would give 15 separate values for R. T. the second. The first of these is derived by subtracting the first from the sixteenth. But. by subtracting the 18 . . we adopt the simpler procedure of forming the mean of the values we then substitute into (a) with /c = I5 m We thus find mean 7W = I4 m 57*65. if /c 7w then = interval between two chronometer times. equation (a) shows that constancy of 7W will be quite as satisfactory a test of the reliability of the timepieces as constancy in R. 2 and 17. in general. R are thus led to the following grouping of the comparisons: i and 16. Any irregularity in the rate will therefore reveal itself in the form of a progressive change in the separate values of /?. 23. and the average uncertainty of a single comparison. a precise value of the watch time corresponding to the first chronometer reading. consider the resultant error of observation in when derived from equation (a).. S. to find the rate per minute of the watch referred to the chronometer. from (b) that the precision of R increases with the length of this interval. R = relative rate of watch per minute. Thus. or.n present a satisfactory agreement. 7"w = the last. therefore. = interval between two watch times.. chronometer time. Example 26. together with the constant value 7C 15. since 7C is assumed to be constant throughout.
.56 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT WATCH AND CHRONOMETER COMPARISON No.
If the true value of if the true value of the first watch reading were known. Example 27. TV. shown that if the exact value algebraic sum must be zero. But the true values of R and of the first comparison are we therefore proceed as best we may. The method used for the reduction is similar to that employed in Ex. io h 25 m 25579. i)/f. the less will be the i. not known and cannot be found. and the mean of the corrected watch times by A/ we have (0 . 2 and 28. the quantities o/?. These two places of decimals in order to keep the errors ot calculation small as of observation. Af be used for the formation p. and the student should investigate for himself the precision of the result when such combinations of the comparisons as 15 I and 2. easily is in used.oi. = A/ 7"w (c) are in the last It is The values of i< formed in accordance with A of valuable control may be applied at this point.. the actual error of this and of each of R the remaining readings could at once be found by forming the difference between the true value and each of the corrected watch times. the remainder is o. Ten successive coincidences of the beats of a & Rupp mean . and for the true value of We must watch reading. The differences between each corrected watch time and the mean of them all are called residuals. reading by the effect of the rate during the interval separating it from the first observation. selves. The comparisons are in the second and third columns of the table... To accomplish this we have only to add to the readings. 1 is the m required precise watch reading corresponding to the first chronometer reading. ... without This we may accept as the average uncertainty of a single regard to algebraic sign. etc. as a measure of the precision of the observations. the grouping of the observations for the determination of the mean value of R should be examined.or.. ( in order. their however. Denoting the residuals by r. for. Although the average of the residuals will not exactly equal the average of the errors. 17. of the residuals. 26.. is 0509. or. and the watch times. 79 and 30. 3 and 4. In particular. the smaller their variations among them. (Num. The average of the errors would then indicate the precision of the comparisons. to the five th reading. i and 30. 2 and 3. Comp. are employed in place of that actually used. M column of the table. iff. The values of these corrections are column results are given to of the table. the interval between the successive coincidences is that required for the clock to lose Gregg pieces by the method of coincident beats. 29 and 30. and. and 16. the algebraic sum of the residthe division which gives as quotient In the present case the algebraic sum of the residuals is fo. To obtain a notion of the uncertainty of a single comparison. average residual. in column six. The principles illustrated in the preceding reduction find frequent application in the treatment of the data of observation. accorduse for the true relative rate the value calculated above. the mean of all the corrected readings. it is evident that the more accurate the observations. comparison. consider the corrected watch has been used in applying the corrections for rate. In general. \R. . for the calculated value of and the mean TV will the first R differ but little from the quantities they are taken to represent. o' 45 o'oo. The average residual. in 29^?. corrected for rate. barring a constant systematic error. ingly.. .. and readings. an approximation for uals will equal the negative value of the remainder the value used as a mean. The example is typical and the methods followed in the discussion should receive careful attention. . i and 2..CLOCK COMPARISONS 57 would then have given a precise value of the watch time corresponding to the first chronomThe given problem may be reduced to this case by correcting each watch eter reading. Since the chronometer beats haltseconds and the clock seconds. The residuals will differ but little from the corresponding errors. it may be accepted.) If. To determine the average uncertainty of a single comparison of two time Bond sidereal chronometer with those of a time clock are taken as the basis of the investigation.e.. compared with the errors The mean of the values of TV. which checks the formation of the mean and ihe residuals. nevertheless..
whence 7= 2 59!O4. used for 7 is onefifth of the average of the intervals between the th and the (j5)th clock readings. The individual values of these intervals are in column four. The value to be in column five. . g7. . o7. i" in 358*. hibit the influence of" the errors of observation we find what the clock readings would have been had they This is done by subtracting all been made at the same instant as the first. and the reduced clock readings themselves. 2/. Their mean is n m I4' 55!2. The average residual for the reduced clock readings is 2*94. COMPARISON BY COINCIDENT BEATS.58 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Denote the true value of this interval by I. in order. No. The numerical values of the corrections are from the readings. the corresponding average uncertainty of a comparison is Since the clock o'ooS. . may loses be accepted as the average uncertainty of the time of a coincidence. The variations in the values of 7" represent the influence of the errors of observation. . in column six. which . if. To ex0:5 as compared with the chronometer.
Strictly speaking. The effect of any nonparallelism of the surfaces may be eliminated by making an equal number of settings with the roof in the direct and reversed position. The artificial horizon is usually provided with a glass roof to protect the surface of the mercury from disturbances by air currents. its its and In inventor.IHtlilZON AND VERXIEli 59 chronometer. this is true only when the eye of the observer is at the surface of the mercury. filled Description and use. The angular distance between the object and its image is therefore twice its apparent altitude. who in 1631 described its construction usual form the graduations are such that the total number of vernier divisions. It is important that the plates of glass should be carefully selected in order that the light rays traversing them may not be deflected from their course. to scales for the purpose of reducing the uncertainty of measurement. to be measured corresponds to the distance between the zeros of the scale and of the vernier. When the zero of the vernier stands opposite a graduais given directly by the scale. and the vernier is then used to measure the fractional part of the scale division included between the last preceding scale graduation and the zero tion of the scale. Usually this not occur. which we may denote by n. is equal to i divisions of the scale. The vernier slides along the scale. The artificial horizon consists of a shallow dish force of gravity brings the surface to a horizontal position. the graduation nearest the zero of the scale marking the zero of the vernier. THE ARTIFICIAL HORIZON 36. the desired reading will of the vernier. . the arrangement being such that the angle. and in this connection the artificial horizon is a valuable accessory to the sextant. so far as possible. The vernier is a short graduated plate attached Description and theory. Any given object and its image will be situated with mercury. scale. Pierre Vernier. The on the same vertical circle. and the angular distance of the image below the surface will be equal to that of the object above. The difference between the values of a scale and a vernier division the least reading = is called / of the vernier. should be kept in a fixed position with respect to the points of the compass. but for distant objects the error is insensible. It can also be used to advantage with the engineer's transit for the elimination of certain instrumental errors. by turn THE VERNIER 37. reversal being accomplished ing the roof end for end. The measurement of the distance between the object and its image therefore affords a means of determining the altitude of a celestial body. It takes its name from use. If d d' = value of one division of the = value of one division of the vernier. and the high reflective power of the metal makes it possible to see the various celestial bodies reflected in the surface. or length.
a quantity so small that the graduations will nearly. gain in precision resulting from the use of the vernier may be found by comparing the uncertainty of its readings with that arising when the scale alone is used. (70) To divisions determine the value of v. than 1/2. and so /. and are therefore to be disregarded in the determination of /. I. These give directly the values of n'l corresponding to certain equidistant divisions of the vernier. and we therefore find p In practice = v V+*. Since a vernier division is less than a scale division by the least reading. These do not form a part of the n divisions of the vernier. The least reading of the vernier is (68) therefore i/tith of the value of a scale division. The first interval is the one whose magnitude is to be determined by the vernier.60 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY method of graduation described above. In practice the actual counting of the number of divisions between the zero of the vernier and the coincident pair is avoided by making use of the numbers stamped on the vernier. it follows that the interval between the second pair of graduations will be v 2/. (n i then. for the ) d = nd' whence '**. Suppose this pair to be n' divisions from the zero of the vernier. They are added to assist in the selection of the coincident pair when coincidence occurs near the end of the vernier. By proceeding far enough we shall on. Usually one or two divisions precede the zero and follow the last numbered graduation of the vernier. Now. Uncertainty of the result. as experience shows that this The . consider the intervals between the various vernier graduations and the nearest preceding graduations of the scale. The maximum error of a reading made with a perThe uncerabsolute value is 1/2. (69) we disregard s and use = n'l. beginning with the zero of the vernier and proceeding in order in the direction of increasing readings. The final result is the sum of v and the reading corresponding to the last scale graduation preceding the zero of the vernier.osd. The latter may be fixed at O. The product of this number into the reading is the value of v. for an arbitrary setting of the vernier. 38. Denote its value by i'. that between the third v each successive interval decreasing by /. if not quite. constructed vernier is whose fectly of the result is therefore 1/2. tainty . we count the number of vernier from the zero of the vernier to the vernier graduation which most nearly least coincides with a graduation of the scale. therefore. or less coincide. find a pair for which the interval differs from zero by an amount equal to. The value of the corresponding interval will be v '/=.
preferably. or with that of the pair immediately preceding. The adjustment for level was accomplished by means of a plumb line. indeed. possible to estimate s in fractional parts of the least reading. use of a magnifying lens usually shows that none of the vernier graduations exactly coincides with a graduation of the scale. it rests on top. whence we find that the result given by the vernier is approx imately . and then examining whether the r ) st (+ vernier graduation stands exactly opposite graduation of the scale. as a quarter of a century was still to elapse before the construction of the first telescope. in snugly against the latter. Though primitive in design. . The principle involved did not appear in western Europe. It appears. The matter should be tested for different parts of the scale by bringing the zero of the vernier into coincidence with a scale graduation. until the latter half of the sixteenth century. according as is positive or The precision to somewhat beyond the e compare The sum of the two intervals to be compared is negative. and were provided with index arms fitted with sights for making the pointings. To do so it is only necessary with the interval between the next following pair of graduations. all lie. There it found its first extensive application in the who constructed a number of "azimuthquadrants" famous observatory on the island of Hveen. to push the limit given above. Information may thus be obtained as to the accuracy with which the graduation of the instru ment has been performed. there was no need for moving them from place to place as they were intended solely for astronomical observations. in the same plane as the scale.//io times as precise as that derived from an estimate of the fractional parts of a scale division. however.UNC&RTAINTT OP VEKXIER HEADINGS is 61 approximately the uncertainty of a careful eye estimate of the magnitude of r. the spirit level not yet having been invented. that a vernier is of no advantage unless the number of its divisions is in excess of ten. The condition that divisions of the vernier equal . In many instruments. The combination of a horizontal measurement of azimuth and altitude is known circle with a vertical arc to have been used by the Persian astronomers at Meraga in the thirteenth century. will affect the result. therefore. Otherwise an error due to parallax THE ENGINEER'S TRANSIT 39. With this arrangement the greatest care must be exercised in reading to keep The vernier should fit positions. Magnification of the object was impossible. With a carefully graduated instrument. The vertical arcs of Tycho's instruments were movable about the axis of the horizontal circle. should the line of sight perpendicular to the scale. The inverse ratio of the two uncertainties may be taken as a measure of the increase in precision. and it is possible that a similar contrivance was employed by the Arabs at an even earlier date. the plate being beveled to a knife edge where it touches the scale. for his . by estimating the magnitude of e. however. and. The instruments were large and necessarily fixed in position and. for the Historical. It is therefore I divisions of the must be rigorously fulfilled if reliable results are to be obtained.i scale /. they were constructed instruments of Tycho Brahe. it is possible.
notably the compass any and the telescope level. They are of interest not only on account of the re markable they series of results they yielded in the hands of Tycho. and Picard. then practically complete. but rather a combination of inventions by various individuals at different times. the fol lowing conditions. thus making it possible The universal instrument was to measure angles by the method of repetitions. time. though not an absolute necessity. and the transition to the engineer's transit required only the addition of the compass and such minor modification as would meet the requirements of precision and portability fixed by modern engineering practice. about the middle of the eighteenth century. The planes of the circles are perpendicular to the corresponding axes of rotation. to a detailed description of the engineer's transit. which appears first to have been made in a portable form by John Sisson. was embody the essential principle of the adapted to sighting purposes through the introduction of the reticle by Gascoigne. the theodolite. the vertical circle should be complete. in 1660. The telescope. the engineer's transit. diagonal prism for the observation of objects near the zenith. are satisfied 1. In particular. The vernier was invented in 1631. . it is desirable that the instrument used in the solution of these problems should possess features not always present in the modern instrument. and the lines joining the zeros of the verniers pass through the axes. : circle and the alidade coincide. it becomes of importance to determine the influence of the residual errors in construction and adjustment. Auzout. the universal instrument. and shade glasses for use in solar observations are a convenience. In the instrument fulfilling the ideal of construction and adjustment. For and azimuth. and the spirit level. At the beginning of the nineteenth century the design and construction were greatly improved by Reichenbach. first constructed during the early years of the seventeenth century. All these were combined with the principle of the early azimuthquadrant to form the altazimuth. 40. A Influence of imperfections of construction is that the student familiar with the and adjustment. an Englishman. and to establish precepts for the arrangement of the observing program such that this influence may be reduced to a minimum. who also added the movable horizontal circle. But since an instrument is never perfect. are not required for the determination of latitude. among others. and a variety of other instruments. centers of the circles lie in 3. and should be provided with two verniers situated 180 apart. The the corresponding axes of rotation. It is assumed methods by which the engineer's transit may be adjusted. The rotation axes of the horizontal 2. and that observations will not be undertaken until the various adjustments have been made with all possible care. Slow motions were introduced by Hevelius. by Thevenot.62 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY with the greatest care. On the other hand. but also because modern altazimuth. and were capable of determining angular distances with an uncertainty of only i' or 2'. Certain attachments. None of these modern instruments is the invention of any single person. the student is referred standard work on surveying.
is No. 7. that the zeros of the verniers may move from O to the positions indicated. respectively. 7 let C be the center of the graduated circle OV^^ a. A and A. line of sight.e. If the third condition not satisfied the readings will be affected by an error called eccentricity. It is The vertical circle reads zero the task of ditions are satisfied. it is structed instruments therefore insensible. are therefore to be regarded . is the eccentricity of the circle.SV/iY. on the other hand... respectThe angles through which the instrument must..V. 6. is perpendicular to the hori zontal axis. No. O.=A. 1 A BRRO/tS 63 4. The perpendicular distance of a from the The reading of F.M/A'.. In Fig. i. It in Section 47. when the line of sight is horizontal. Fig. 2. and of F. and /?.V X . are / =A and OaV. the instrument maker to see that the first three of these conThe observer. the line through the optical center of the objective and the middle intersection of the threads. the point where the rotation axis intersects the plane of the circle. The The horizontal rotation axis is perpendicular to the vertical axis... 5. 3. and F t and V'> the< zeros of the verniers.1 /. 7. The vertical axis of rotation is truly vertical when the plate bubbles are centered. the zero of the The distance aC=e graduations. of importance only in the measurement of horizontal angles by the The error arising in such measures from noncoincidence of the vertical axes may be eliminated by the arrangement of the observing pro gram described No. is the angle OCF. be rotated in order ively. ' l .. line joining V and V is the eccentricity of the verniers. is responsible for the re mainder. l 1 l . circles to the axes can be shown that the error due to lack of perpendicularity of the In well conis of the order of the square of the deviation. I is method of repetitions. OCV Denote these by R.
^^inclination of the horizontal axis to the horizon plane. The XW+A. + % (E. Horizontal Angles: In the measurement of horizontal angles an error of adjustment in No. y=inclination of the horizontal axis to the vertical axis. 7 has no influence. (73) For any other pointing of the A. The mean of (71) and (72) y> (A. which represents a projection of the celestial sphere on the plane Then.+*. u and 2 are tne corrections for eccentricity for the points O.). is easily shown that the eccentricity f (73) ar>d (74) are entirely insensible in a well constructed instrument. let To investigate the effect of *=inclination of the vertical axis to the true vertical. the intersection of the horizontal axis produced with the celestial sphere O is seen at the intersection of the threads.). + t . r=inclination of the line of sight to the horizontal axis. R l and R s. (72) where and Vz . The quantities b and c are the errors in level and collimation. The relations connecting t A A readings. The sides of the triangles when ZAZ' . 90 90 f . .' . It can be shown that the eccentricity will also be eliminated by combining the means of any number of verniers.^(A +A = #(/?.64 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY as the angles which determine the positions of the verniers with respect to and 2 with the vernier for the pointing in question.') +.'/ where are of the order of tt"/r r the radius of the circle. The eccentricity is therefore eliminated by combining the means of the readings of both verniers.) + E. t + A.#(*. greater than two. . + # (.) = % (R + R.) . 8.) . and the equation shows that this angle is equal to the difference in the means of the vernier readings for the final and initial positions. telescope. vernier with the means of the minutes and seconds of the two readings. = *. are A. is V^ . uniformly distributed about the first In practice it is sufficient to use the degrees indicated by the circle. residual errors in Nos. O an object whose zenith distance is and A in Fig. Z' the intersection with the celestial sphere of the vertical axis produced. let Z be the zenith.E. 4 7. of the horizon. 4 6. difference of (73) and (74) is therefore e' is and of the verniers and .') It we have the analogous equation (74) 2 = #(*/+*.=R + /*. . Nos. t t) (75) The left member of (75) is the angular distance through which the instrument is rotated in passing from the first position to the second. respectively.+*.'). The last terms .
Finally. Equations (76) and (77) thus reduce to (78) (79) Equation (13) applied to triangle sin c ' ZAO gives sin za cos (AT = sin cos za + cos (80) Since c and 90 K + k are c also very small. (81) no errors of adjustment. its actual position. ZO. and Z'A. and we may neglect their squares as insensible. Applying equations (13) and (15) to triangle ZAZ\ we find sin b cos b sin = sin/cos = cos/ sin / /. the difference 5 K Since the verniers maintain a fixed position with re/ 90 represents the effect of the residual errors . let k. j. K and / be the directions of ZA. referred to ZP. respectively. determined by the angle through which it must be rotated to bring A from coincidence with ZP would be AT to 90. (76) (77) In a carefully adjusted instrument i. f cos/sin /cos/. is /. the direction of A referred to P The direction given by the instrument. spect to A. and b are very small. equation (80) f (90 may be written = b cos 2 90 K + k) sin z a a or K Were there k = b cot z + c cosec z .INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS 65 and ZAO have the values indicated in the figure.
(85) or.66 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY circle readings. A'0' = A0 = go+c.). (84) the circle reading less 180. and Fig. therefore. . and C. (83) C. is small. we find by a which the value of b is precisely similar investigation for circle left (C.). and as far below made in the same position reflected image. the component of i parallel to the horizontal axis. sensibly. we have amount of the error { R. from (78) and (83) t R = %(R+R + zcos/cot2 o ) . in = R + 6cots + ccosecs Q . R. If. L. (82) Assuming that equation given by equation (78). O'. or C. reflected in a dish of mercury. R. simi larly to equation (80). whence it follows given by (81). c. (86) It therefore appears that the mean of the readings of the horizontal circle taken C. viz.. (82) refers to that position of the instrument for which the vertical circle is on the right as the observer stands facing the eyepiece (C. sin /. and R . a. More over. either C. K A'ZO' are The angle at k' where fe' is the direction of ZA' referred to ZP... is on the horizontal that the But by (79) l=k. for it appears in (86) multiplied by cot ". for settings on any object is free from the influence of j. and cThe readings may also be freed from the influence of b by combining the results of a setting on O with those obtained by pointing on the image of seen may be determined by observation. slightly about the vertical axis in turning from a small amount to a new position A'. = 180 ZO' A'ZO' in of AZO in 8. j. L. vertical circle The through O. substituting the values of b and b. the inclination of the horizontal The mean of equations (82) and is *. R.) cot*. for objects near the horizon the effect of i cos /.. b. The sides of s . it will be necessary to rotate the instruwill thus down to 0'. L. t R is . will be on the is above. the values of b and b l Their substitution into (85) will then give the horizontal circle reading completely freed from i. L. R be the actual horizontal circle reading. To investigate the effect of the errors for a pointing on O' we must therefore A consider the triangle ZA' ^is place = ZA = gob. L.=j where (84) z'cos/. Since the the horizon as horizontal axis ment move is not truly horizontal. We then find. and the component of i in the direction of the line of sight. R. both observations being of the instrument. the value for a perfectly adjusted instrument.. C. If the instrument be provided with a striding level. and axis to the plane of the horizon for C.
f cosec s 5 . whence K and. are ordinarily quite insen The squares and products of the errors of adjustment sible. The true zenith distance of is z. . C. + AY). Vertical Circle Readings To investigate the influence of i. if /?' 90 k' ^ cot sa circle \ c cosec sa .') a.INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS sin c sin <>7 bcos 5 ) cos b sin * cos (K '). R. finally. consider again Fig. that given by the vertical circle readings is equal to the From the triangle we find angle Z'AO. R.. whence we find with all necessary precision. ZAZ'. =A + . + A . A'o 2 ( Their mean a. C. c L. L. (88) By the same method we A' find from the l\ reflected observation.AZ' cos 6s\n(ca ) Z'AO by s. free . R'b cot z + c cosec s =y J ' C.sin c + cos b cos c cos (ZAO). direct and reflected. j and c upon the readings of the vertical circle. but from the collimation error as well. C. he the horizontal A> reading for the setting on O' . . Z0 = ZAO cos sa = sin /. R.?= Angle ZAO.R. Finally the combination of (88) A' and (90) gives K' =K(/?+ + A. This equation combined with (84) gives . L. for both positions from b. cot cosec s . we find =angle = sin /'sin /. is /?  A") + c cosec z C. (90 in other words the mean is of the instrument. (90) Equations (88) and (90) show that the mean of the horizontal circle readings for direct and reflected observations of an object in the same position of the instrument is free from the influence of any adjustment error in level.not only : of the readings. 8. (89) in which /?. and from Denoting the instrumental zenith distance triangle /.' is the circle reading less 180 for C. (87) Equations (82) and (87) both refer to C. L. = 1 14 (A .
Considering the triangle defined. or the component of / parallel to the horizontal axis. but if there is any deviation from the condition expressed in No. the subscripts being assigned so that <i8o*.e. It therefore appears that the vertical circle readings are not sensibly affected by /. respectively.68 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY' b.. however. and C. and C./. C. i. the To free the results from z'sin/ reflected. R.) + / si n /. since c 2.. the readings will not be the true altitudes. R. residual error of adjustment in No. The component of i in the direction of the line of sight. R. (94) ^=90r.)Hsin/. and i are very small. L. C. is the instrumental zenith distance for C. Substituting (94) and (95) into (92) and (93) . 7. (93) in which s. L. L. (96) (97) /fz'sin/. or. '. The formation of the mean for the two value. be the vertical circle readings when the line of sight is hor we have z = 90 r + /. (99) which v 1 t and v 3 are the circle readings. L. i sin/ enters with i"ts full and (98) and (99) show that it cannot be eliminated even when readings taken C. (95) o z = 90 = go is r 1\ + / + /sin /. are not read directly from the circles. L. positions of the instrument does eliminate the index error. c. z = z + /sin /. viz. C. are combined. L. for they will include the effect of the index error.. R. using the mercurial horizon. C. 7. C. we find for the reflected observation we may combine observations direct and A'ZO' previously cos (i 80 za ) = sin bs\n c + cos b cos c cos {ZA'O'} . R. C. (98) to 360 For an instrument whose vertical circle is graduated continuously from o it is easily shown that the equation corresponding to (98) is = in ! % (v. The ordinary angles s and engineer's transit reads altitudes. . ?' sin/. If r The and rt for C. The mean of (96) and (97) s = 90 iX(r + r. and / the reading izontal. (92) A similar investigation gives for the reversed position of the instrument = + .
observations direct in a single position of the and it reflected instrument are sufficient. Z'A'=go _/. and and denoting the angle ZZ'A' by /'we cos b sin (z' z ) = sin /'. Similar considerations for and reflected.) ( 1 80 s') a = 2' the t. L. we shall have. so that when equations (96) and and are combined to form the mean we have simply (102) /' differs i sin / j s. + r/). Denoting the instrumental = zenith distance of 0'. observations direct C. R. neglecting products and squares of the errors of adjustment. = 90X(r+r'). R. L. and / the ciris reading when the line of sight horizontal. The influence of t'cos/. C. For an instrument with a vertical circle graduated continuously from o to it is easily shown as before that in (103) and (104) the sum of the circle readings must be replaced by their difference taken in such a way that it is less than 180. far as the errors here considered are concerned. the true 2 zenith distance of O' is 180 angle ZA'O'. R. thus partially neutralizing errors of graduation. the difference sin I' will be insensible. R 360. . for in this way different parts of the vertical circle are used. similarly to (94). (104) In other words. which is the angle Z'A'O'. (101) This substituted into (ioo) gives C. or with sufficient approximation za z' isinl'. Nevertheless is desirable that measures be made both C. give 5U = 90 %(r. L. ZZ' = triangle ZA'Z' the sides are ZA'=go find is'in b. (102) Since between from / by a quantity of the order of the errors.INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS 69 whence. C. and C. C. the formation of the means of the vertical circle readings for observations direct and reflected in the same position of the instrument eliminates not only the component of i in the direction of the line of sight. (103) C. but the So index correction as well... find Angle In ZA 'Z' = 80 2. reflected. (ioo) Now cle if r' be the vertical circle reading for C. by 180 (\ s' we s . R. j and c is insensible. R.
= %(R + R. graduated continuously we have similarly. It is important that this be done. c.).= where ference less than 180. If this is not so. It is not always convenient to make use of the therefore desirable to be able to apply a artificial horizon. and C. (105) where R and R 1 are the horizontal circle readings. we find for circle left analogously to (97). and Z' a position Z t '. its dimensions remaining unchanged. even though the plate bubbles squares of the errors. in general. R. (107) which is free from b. within quantities of the order of the products and The same will be true. will be free from the errors in all of the ad justment under Nos. The mean of (96) and (106) is in 1 ^0 = 90 For A(r\a circle l r. the latter having been reduced by 180. 4 7. It is easily shown that if the instrument be rclevclled before observing in the reversed position. thus assumes a A lt distant from position >by 90+^. z = 90 r^ I z'sin/..) (1 08) as before the readings are to be taken in such an order that their difis that the pointings are always made by bringing the object accurately to the intersection of the threads. and it is method of elimination which does not depend upon this accessory. are not accurately centered during the direct observations. The result is therefore free from both b and c. L. The mean of the new equation and (82) is simply new A R. L. both for the horizontal and the vertical circle. C. the mean of the readings C. be incomplete. while (97) assumes that no change is made in the position of the vertical axis during the observations. even though the threads be respectively horizontal and vertical. for observing at one side of the field is equivalent to introducing an abnormal value It is . provided. assumed throughout y2(v l i'. The triangle ZA^O leads to an equation differing from (84) only in that b t is replaced by b.70 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The precedirfg discussion assumes that the adjustments of the instrument remain unchanged throughout the observations. Again.). That such will be the case follows from a consideration of Fig. after reversal. The reversal and relevelling is equivalent to rotating the triangle ZAZ' about Zthrough the angle i8o+2c. 2. the elimination of the errors will. for (106) presupposes that the instrument is relevelled after reversal. and /. they be brought to the same position in the tubes that they occupied before. 8. (106) which the vertical circle reading r is not the same as the r l of (97). from triangle ZA^Z^.
42.The level. The scale reading of the middle of the bubble for this position is called the horizontal the zero at the end. L.INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS THE LEVEL 71 of the collimation. L. the other with Theoretically the two forms are equivalent. graduation error of vertical All errors under Nos. See equation 7 insensible or eliminated from mean of See equations readings. direct and reflected. Component of deviation from vertical which is parallel to horizontal axis appears mulSee equation (86). R. and C. This method of procedure requires a knowledge of the theory of the striding level. observations with the striding level. See equation 6 (85). and (107) or (108). forms. 4 7 eliminated from mean of readings C. R. The error in No. L. in same position of instrument. however. Nos. See equation (75). from mean direction of line of sight of readings C. and C. Noncoincidence of vertical axes enters only when the horizontal used by the method of repetitions. 3. / index error of vertical circle Vertical circle readings: does not enter. Owing to residual errors of adjustment. Horizontal circle readings: Component of deviation of vertical axis from vertical in direction of line of sight. See Equation (91). and the scale includes a larger number of divisions. All errors in Nos. No. The adjustits mounting should be such that the bubble stands at the middle of the tube when the base line is horizontal. it is desirable to remove the effect of this error by measuring the inclination of the horizontal axis to the horizon and applying a suitable cor rection to the circle readings. Nonperpendicularity of circles to axes usually has no sensible influence on circle readings. any residual error being eliminated by some one of the methods of Section 40. to reduce (103) All errors in Nos. No. L. R. ment of the level tube within reading. its tube is It is made in two longer. and C. 2. The adjustment of the engineer's transit with respect to the vertical is usually made by means of the plate bubbles. 4 7. Desirable to observe both C. 41.. Correction for the latter may be made by tiplied by cots . circle is as follows: I. for both C. The striding level is more sensitive than the plate bubbles. and (104). 4 7 excepting com ponent of deviation of vertical axis from vertical insensible or eliminated (98) or (99). 4 circle. Summary of the preceding section. for both horizontal and vertical angles provided plate bubbles have same See equations (105) position in tubes for both positions of the instrument. In some cases. the horizontal reading will . See Section 47. one with the zero of the scale at the middle of the tube. Eccentricity of circles and verniers eliminated by forming means of readings of both verniers. while pointings above or below the horizontal thread correspond to a modification of the index error of the vertical circle. and C. and collimation eliminated by forming mean of readings taken C. All errors in in Nos. however. nonperpendicularity of axes. R. 4 eliminated by forming mean of readings direct and reflected. The preceding results may be summarized No. and C. L. Error eliminated by proper arrangement of observing program. R.
for any inclination of the base line. and b' and b" the corresponding observed inclinathe middle Finally.7J PRACTICAL ASTRO NOMT not usually be zero. negreadings increasing then find. the readings of the ends of the bubble for two positions. Since h has opposite signs for the two positions of the level. Denoting by r'. even for the form in which the zero of the scale is at the middle of the tube. The convention regarding the algebraic sign is such that when b calculated from (113) is positive. and r". sitive instrument. We b'=(m'h)d. reversal being Let made by turning the level end for end. and writing D=y we find 4 d. /'. for the level direct and reversed. (112) from (in) ("3) This result depends only upon the readings of the ends of the bubble and the value of one division of the scale. The level is a senand great care must be exercised in its manipulation if precise results are to be obtained. toward the right are positive. the right end of the level is high. division of the level scale. Its value must be determined and applied as a correcThe latter tion to the scale readings. and is therefore free from the horizontal reading. The points of contact of the level with the pivots upon which it rests must be carefully freed from dust particles. let m' and m" of the bubble. Since b' and b" are two observed values of the same quantity. 43. The inclinations to be measured should be small and the horizontal reading should correspond as closely as possible with the scale reading of the middle of the tube. made in the direct and the is by combining readings easily accomplished reversed position. assume that all tions. we find from the difference of (109) and (no) h=^(r' +/' /'/"). b" = (m" (109) (i 10) K)d. 2 (in) in which the mean of the observed inclinations has been written equal to b. or else its influence must be eliminated. ative. /". and all toward the left. . be the readings of Further. d= the angular value of one h = the horizontal reading. Precepts for the use of the striding level. respectively. the mean of (109) and (no) is b=y (m' + m")d. whatever the position of the zero of the scale. (114) which may be used for the calculation of h when a complete observation has been made.
and ample time should be allowed for the bubble to come to rest before reading. value of one division of its scale is an essential. should be about onethird the length of the tube. The The observation was D 0=6 h + 14. r' Mistakes in may be is avoided by noting that The following. The values of Example first 28. a knowledge of the anfor the adjustment. /'. The right end of the bubble should always be read first. The determination of the change in the inclination of the arm of the level trier necessary to move the bubble over a given number of divisions gives at once the angular value of one division of the scale. even though he depends entirely upon a simple centering of the bubble If the striding level is to be used. the length of the bubble. .7 I2 m  +310 20.'i6 and 0*032. which is adjustable in the more sensitive forms.0 The ob44.4 13. it should be shielded from the rays of the sun. second.\ + . to this end. Determination of the value of one division of a level. careful attention being given to the algebraic sign. for both r' and I" and r" and /' will be opposite in sign and approximately equal in absolute magnitude. must equal r" which 6' represents the sum of the four readings. and from the heat of the reading lamp and the person of the observer. with one whose zero is at the end. 15'" T=9 b 9. is S following illustrates the record and reduction of level observations". or the various levels may be attached separately for the investigation. respectively.1 + io. made with a level whose zero point is in the middle of the tube.THE LEVEL The length 73 of the bubble.3 + 16. gular The investigation of levels is most easily carried out with the aid of a level trier. most easily found by forming first the diagonal sums of the four readings written as above. which is an instrument consisting essentially of a rigid base carrying a movable arm whose inclination to the horizon may be varied by a known amount by means of a graduated micrometer screw. The entire transit may be mounted on the arm. and the time of reading reversal for each observation should be noted.8 35. server should be familiar with the sensitiveness of all the levels of his instrument. in /". and. \ 6 = Sd. The instrument should be protected from changes in temperature. the are 8'. a convenient form for the record: Time r' r r" r' r>' r" +/" 4/' "I S.
The quotients formed by dividing the displacements into 24" similar reducare the values of one division of the level for different portions of the tube. The length of the arm and the pitch of the are such that a rotation of the micrometer head through one division changes the inclination by i". the corresponding bubble for level direct. The fifth column contains the means of the quantities in the two preceding columns. and columns three and four. the micrometer head through four divisions at a time. The ends of the bubble level trier for the by moving were read for each setting of the micrometer. The bubble was run from the left to the right end of the tube and back again. the differences between the th and the (6f)th readings column five. Each of the displacements of the bubble in column six therefore corresponds to a in in inclination of 24". for both level direct and reversed. The means is for the two series are in the last column. The following shows part of the reduction of observations made with a determination of the value of one division of a level. The principle used in combining the observations is the same as that emmicrometer screw ployed in Examples 26 and 27. . column sufficient to show that the curvature of the level tube is ONE DIVISION OF A LEVEL LEVEL TRIER No.74 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Example 29. and column six. tion of the readings taken with the level in the reversed position gave for d the values in column change A eight. Column two of the table gives the micrometer means of the end readings of the settings. A glance at the results in this variable.
9 b. r) tan i.ONE DIVISION OF THE LEVEL of the horizontal circle. . In the spherical right triangle HLC the angle //is equal to i. may be written b. L. the Fig. 75 whence the angular value of one division of the level i and the horizontal circle readings. let HC and in Fig. and b. To express d as a function of HC inclination. (117) The angle r ding to the equal to sd. if ra and r be the horizontal circle readings corresponding to the inclinations zero and b respectively. r ra will never exceed one degree. combined with (112) gives bi b = (rt . deflection of the axis from the vertical. we find Arc//=90 whence from the triangle (r r. HLC. 9 represent portions of the horizontal circles for the normal and the deflected positions of the vertical axis. the corresponding may be determined as before. while that at L is 90 Now.). the displacement of the bubble in scale divisions.. . however. (US) The angle b is very small and. We may therefore use the approximate relation = (r with an error not exceeding o"oi. for i equal two or three degrees. l r is change where s in inclination is the change in the horizontal circle reading corresponThe latter. which is supposed to be attached with its axis perpendicular to the radius through L and parallel to the plane of the circle. r tan /. For any other inclination. ra) tan which. any position of the level. thus have finally as the expression for We d (118) r. bi r ) tan (116) we have (r l the analogous equation i. and d the angular value of one division. tan b = tan i sin (r rc ).
This precaution is necessary in order that the deflection may have no component perpendicular to the plane of the vertical circle. The bubble should be run from one end of the tube to the other and then back again. The graduations of the tube are in two groups of three each. For short say 10'. while the latter is to be preferred for the long finely graduated tubes of sensitive levels. and observing the variations in the position of the bubble. The deflection was 3. preferably on a desirable to check the constancy of i by deflecting through masonry pier. For very sensitive levels it should be less. axis may be accomplished as follows: Level the instrument and center the The angle i telescope bubble. the groups being separated ONE DIVISION OF A LEVEL DEFLECTED Axis Level Divisions . the deflection of the vertical instrument be provided with a telescope level.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT should be two or three degrees for the investigation of the If the ordinary transit levels. the vertical circle reading by the angle i and. taking care at the same time that the transverse plate Then change In the absence of a telescope level. this angle toward the vertical at the end of a set and noting whether the It is The instrument must be instrument is then levelled. levelling screws. Such a series of readings constitutes a set. as rigidly mounted as possible. in both positions of the instrument. level the instrument. bring the telescope bubble back to the tube. tion of the value of one division of the striding level of a Berger transit. sight on a distant object. tubes with only a few graduations the former method is more convenient. change the vertical circle reading by i. and bring the object back to the intersection of the threads by means of the levelling screws. or by changing the circle readings by a definite amount. by means of the middle of its bubble is also centered after the deflection. The observations may be made either by displacing the bubble through a definite number of divisions and noting the corresponding change in the horizontal circle readings. Observations were made by the deflected axis method for the determina Example 30.
the time and the vertical circle readings being noted as before.MEASUREMENT OF ALTITUDE 77 by a space approximately equal to the length of the bubble. If for any reason the program cannot be made complete in this particular. it is necessary that the eyepiece be drawn out a small fraction of an inch from its normal position before the solar image is focused. The differences of the readings for a displacement of the bubble through two divisions are in the fifth column. For stars whose altitude varies rapidly. the image is allowed to trail through the field until the transit of the following limb occurs. The horizontal circle was read when the bubble was symmetrically placed with respect to the pairs of graduations indicated The circle readings themselves are in columns two and three. and kept on the thread by slowly turning the horizontal slow motion until the instant of transit across the horizontal thread. thrs cannot be done with precision. There are several methods by which the pointings may be made. For Polaris or any other close circumpolar object. The measurement of vertical angles. The same number of The mean of the readings will then settings should be made for both limbs. when the time is again noted. occasion to measure the altitude not only of rapidly moving equatorial stars but also of circumpolar objects like Polaris whose positions with respect to the horizon change but slowly. the time of coincidence and the vertical circle readings being carefully noted. The object is therefore brought into coincidence with the vertical thread near the point of intersection. the altitude of the sun's center may still be found with the . the instrument may be adjusted so that the preceding limb is near the horizontal thread and approaching the intersection. in column one of the table. the image may be projected on a card held a few inches back of the eyepiece. In order that the threads may be seen sharply defined on the card. For example. The instrument is clamped and the instant of tangency carefully noted. The observer will have 45. which entails a considerable loss of time. the vertical circle is read. If there be more than one horizontal thread. The interval may be shortened by shifting the position of the telescope between the observations. in column four. Observations on the sun are most readily made with the aid of a shade of colored glass. the influence of semidiameter being eliminated. the star should be brought to the intersection of the threads by the slow motions. the instrument in the meantime being rotated by means of the horizontal slow motion so that both transits are observed at the intersection of the threads. by a proper focusing of the objective. The calculation for the determination of d is in accordance with equation (118). and the minutes of the means of corresponding settings. an interval of three or four minutes separates the transits of the two limbs. without changing the vertical circle reading. but if this is not available. While waiting for the second This method is open to the objection that transit. The difference in motion in the two cases necessitates a difference of method in making the settings. correspond to the altitude of the sun's center. Then. but this of course requires a reading of the vertical circle for each transit. the difficulty can be avoided by observing the transits over the extreme threads the preceding limb over the first thread and the following limb over the last thread.
that the number should not be less than two maximum number to be included in The for each position of the instrument. VC. changed during the intervals separating the various direct observations and the corresponding reflected observations immediately preceding or following. which the displaced by a considerable amount. 2 i reading on star. a single set is limited by the fact that it is convenient to use for the reduction the means of the circle readings and the Since the change in the altitude of the star is not proportional to the times. observations on a will at the following as convenient arrangements for a set of The necessary modifications for measures on the sun in once be suggested by the methods for making the settings described the preceding paragraph. will not correspond to change each other. L. C. no appreciable error will be introduced into results secured with the engineer's transit by treating the means as a single observation. i readings on star. Reverse. on star. After the instrument has once been levelled. Bearing in mind the various fac we adopt star. of the Epliemeris derived of the observing program is determined by the results Section 40 and summarized in Section 41. which is to be used when all of the pointings directly on the star. The observing program will also depend on the method employed for the elimination of the instrumental errors tors involved. and the position of the object. 2 OBSERVATIONS DIRECT AND REFLECTED Level. the observations may be discontinued at the middle of the set. and C. /.L. direct. say a quarter of an hour. OBSERVATIONS DIRECT Level. readings on star. direct. It is desirable. R. therefore. direct. I Level. \ \ I C._/. reflected. The instrument must therefore be relevelled carefully after each reversal. rigorously speaking. will find application when the artificial horizon is elimination will be complete if the adjustments remain unemployed.78 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT I aid of the value of the semidiameter interpolated from page for the instant of observation. reading on star. i reading on star. 2 2 Readings on first star.R. but if the observing interval does not exceed a certain limit. c and /. i With the are arrangement.L. If only an approximate result is required. the elimination of the errors depends upon the bubbles occupying the same positions in their tubes for both C. Both verniers should be read for each setting of the telescope. reflected. the screws need not be touched until the set has been completed unless the bubbles should become made With the second. the two means. The number of settings to be made for the determination of the altitude depends upon the precision desired. C. ) reading on star. Reverse Level. R. if more precision is . C. 4 readings Reverse. On the other hand. direct.R. the rapidity with which the observer can make the pointings and read The arrangement in the circle. however. in the time. readings on star.
.MEASUREMENT OF ALTITUDE desired. It is convenient to express differences of the circle readings in minutes of arc. 2. on 1908. For circumpolar objects. free from the instrumental errors.) (119) where the subscripts are assigned in such a manner that i>. and /. The test is usually sufficient to locate errors of the class mentioned with such certainty as to justify a correction of the original record. a simple inspection will usually be sufficient to indicate the consistency of the observations. An inspection of the readings for Polaris shows that the measures are consistent. < 180. The following is the record of partial sets of observations made with a Buff engineer's transit at the Laws Observatory.L.. observations are direct. The fact that for a short interval sensibly proportional to the change in the time makes it possible to test the consistency of the measures. one v will represent the mean of all mean of all the reflected readings. The Example & timepiece used was an Elgin watch.. or zenith the direct readings. and the other. For direct observations the quotients of the differ ences between the successive circle readings by the differences between the corresponding times must be sensibly equal. L. in the circle readings. For observations on the sun. The observed altitude. For an instrument with its vertical circle graduated continuously o to 360 the zenith distance will be given by c. the combination of the data for the calculation of the quotients will depend upon the has been used the method followed in making the settings. If the v. C. thus derived must be corrected 9. and the time intervals in minutes and tenths. Equations (103) and (104). for refraction and parallax in accordance with Sections 8 and Buff 31. R. those involving mistakes of 10' or 20'. or perhaps a whole degree. the other._/'. additional sets 79 may be observed. and C. '. Friday P. If the artificial horizon quotients must be calculated for the direct and reflected observations separately. The quotients will thus express the change in the altitude in minutes of arc for one minute of time. z =Yt(v t v. the apparent altitude. Oct. and is easily derived in any special case. the distance. however. will be given by forming the mean of the circle readings obtained in accordance with the above programs. M. and should always be applied immediately after the completion of the set in order that the measures may be repeated if necessary. reveals the existence of an index error of 2' or 3'.R. each of which. and an exact number of minutes in the times. and (107) show that for an instrument graduated to read altitudes. If this condition is not satisThe errors most likely to occur are fied. The measures were all direct. the mean of all C. should be the change in the altitude is reduced separately. for the determination of the altitudes of Polaris and Alcyone. an error has been committed. one v will represent the mean of all the circle readings If the artificial horizon has been used. The relatively large difference in the readings C.
page 20. October 15.80 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY POLARIS Vertical Circle ALCYONE Vertical Circle Watch 19" Ver.2 i4 20 20 21 37 4i 59 38 i 20 21 59 38 I L R 43 91139"' 1. To correction for refraction. Example 32. 39 A 26' Ver. Thursday P. The following observations were made with a Berger engineer's transit on 1908. The measures were all direct and were made by projecting the image of the sun on a card.. The angles are the apparent altitudes obtain the true altitudes a corresponding to the watch times immediately preceding. M. must be applied. The transits were observed over the middle horizontal thread. A 40' Ver. 8 R R L L m 2i!4 1.4 22 22 R ^ _ 6H 2ii95 For Alcyone the close agreement of the values for the rate of change in altitude per minute of time given in the last column is evidence of the consistency of the measures. The timepiece was the Fauth sidereal clock of the Laws Observatory. The quantities in the fifth line are the means. Fauth . which may be obtained from Table J. B 20 40' Clrcle Rate 33 25 26 33 34 39 26 33 36 50 36 ii 8" 351 1 34 29'. the telescope being shifted after each transit. for the determination of the altitude of the sun. 39 B 26' Clrcle Watch 9>>3s Ver.
M. The following is the record of a simultaneous determination of the altitude of Polaris and the difference in azimuth of Polaris and a mark. direct J setting on mark C. each of which should be reduced separately. star.L. Jrw = Object & Buff Engineer's Transit No. C.R.R. setting on star. C. and 31:4 at 9" 54 P.R. the time should be noted in addition. Mark . ALTITUDE OF POLARIS AND AZIMUTH OF MARK No. Station No. setting setting reflected / on star. R for those Both verniers of the horizontal circle should be read for each setting. Buff Observer Sh. the circle should be shifted between the sets.L.. several sets may be observed. Oct. 13. and made on the star. Recorder W. to the Example 33. mark C. C. 2 2 M. 1908.I. 5606 h 38*7 at 7 59 P. If more precision is desired than can be obtained from a single set.. on direct 1 _. The required difference of azimuth will be the difference between the means of the readings on the mark and on the star. Its value will correspond mean of the times.I. To reduce the influence of graduation error.L. amount of the shift between the successive sets should be 36o/.R. Thursday P. the horizontal If the number of sets is n.M.R. mark C. C. C. setting on mark C.HORIZONTAL ANGLES DIRECT OBSERVATIONS setting on mark \ on star on star setting on mark i 1 / 81 1 2 settings 2 settings I DIRECT OBSERVATIONS i DIRECT AND REFLECTED OBSERVATIONS setting on setting on setting I 3 3 i i setting on mark setting on mark settings on star settings on star setting on mark setting on mark C.. reflected \ on star.
Not only is the observer thus spared considerable labor. the inclination of the upper axis to the vertical.. for a setting in question. the precision of the result given by (120) will be considerably greater than that of the mean of n separate measurements of the angle D. the method of repetitions is not to be recommended. and if the initial and final readings be R. but. as is the case with the modern theodolite provided with read ing microscopes. for For different settings i will be different.82 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY increase the reading by the angle D. For any given setting the deviation of the axis from parallel are small systematic errors upon whether the initial setting ism. Although there is even here a theoretical advantage. it is offset by the fact that the peculiar observing program required for the application of the method presupposes the stability of the instrument for a relatively long interval. and. what is of more importance. With the engineer's transit. Consequently. experience has shown that there dependent upon the direction of measurement. in which the uncertainty accompanying the reading of the angle is large as compared with that of the pointing on the object.e. it may be eliminated forming the mean of direct and reflected readings made in the same the by position . But for instruments in which the accuracy of the readings is comparable with that of the pointings. the method of repetitions may be used with advantage. the difference between the circle readings for the final setting on B and the initial setting on A will be nD. we shall have D = ^=A. within certain limits easily including all values arising in practice. If the turning from A to B is repeated n times. The method circle is (I20) of repetitions derives its advantage from the fact that the not read for the intermediate settings on A and B. and hence affords an unusual opportunity for small variations in position to affect the precision of the measures. For instruments such as the engineer's transit. But no matter what the magnitude of i may be./. i. while that from B back to A will produce no change since during this rotation the vernier remains clamped to the circle. and R. unites with the inclination of the lower axes to the true vertical. repectively. and determines the value of z. i'. that part of the resultant error of observation arising from the intermediate settings is due solely to the imperfect setting of the cross threads on the object. although these may be eliminated in part by combining series measured in opposite directions. Moreover. is made on A or on B. each of which requires two readings of the circle. Since rotation takes place on both the upper and the lower motions. rotation of the instrument on the lower motion causes the upper axis to describe a cone whose apex angle is 2p and whose axis is inclined to the true vertical by i'. any nonparallelism of the vertical axes will affect the readings. it is not certain that the compensation is of the completeness requisite for observations of the highest precision. and the observing program must be arranged to eliminate this along with the other instrumental errors. however. the errors which necessarily would affect the readings do not enter into the result.
The mean difference of of the values of D calculated from the four series is the required azimuth A and B. least. approximately at least.R. Uusually one of the objects. and (86) show that they may pointings be eliminated by combining with a similar series made C. if after a series of n repetitions observed C. c. be made under these circumstances. The error due to i will not be eliminated from these A' in the settings. owing to the presence of the factor cot2 it may be disregarded. Equations (82). Turn from A to B on the upper motion times. if after any arbitrary number of settings the instrument be reversed about the loiver motion and the series repeated in the . but their sum will be zero if the values of / are uniformly distributed throughout 360. will also be eliminated. provided that i is 83 and magnitude for on pages 66 and 67 whose both settings. If a series of n repetitions C. The first It is also easily seen that. direct. the entire process must be repeated C. ^ C. and last terms of this expression will have the same values for all on the same object. but.METHOD OF REPETITIONS of the instrument. To remove the influence of the collimation.R. Read the horizontal circle for last setting on B. The values of the second term will be different for each setting owing to the change in I. (Set Direct j on A and read the horizontal circle. in practice usually I or 2. equation (82) shows that each setting will be affected by an error of the form . where the k is any integer. Equation (88) shows that j. and to neutralize the systematic error dependent upon the direction of measurement. Read the horizontal circle for last setting on A'. although the direction of the deflection would change with a rotation of the instrument on the lower motion. Hence. Set on B' and read the horizontal circle. When the artificial horizon is not used the program must be modified. n further repetitions be made C. i would constantly be equal to/. such that the vernier readings for the corresponding settings in the two series are approximately the same. The circle Repeat for C. approximately at as that for the last setting on />'. This follows from the discussion result is expressed by equation (88).. will be near the horizon. in which case A must then be substituted for reflected settings on A' will be impossible.R. In order that this may be the case.L. ' denote the reflected images of A and B. (84).L. Were i' zero. it is only necessary that n be the integer most nearly equaling k 36o/Z>. /cot f p cos /cot 2 f c cosec 2 . the deviation of the upper vertical axis from perthe same in direction pendicularity with the horizontal axis. the direct and reflected series should be measured in opposite direcWe thus have the following observing program. the instrumental errors i' and /will be eliminated. above program. I Turn from B' to A' on the upper motion times. reading for the first setting on B' must be the same. or any multiple of 360. say A. in which A' and tions. respectively: Level on the lower motion. reflected.R. ( Reflected <.L.
R. Practically. circle for last setting on A. paragraph.R.R. is a star. each setting will be affected by an additional error of the this is form i' cos/' cot 2 in which /' is constant so long as i' remains unchanged If i' be the result of a nonadjustment of the plate bubbles. and c will be comor not. The circle reading for the first arrangement the instrumental errors i'. Set on A Turn from A to Read horizontal Set on and read horizontal circle. When one of the objects. The values of / for corresponding of the reverse order. or apcircle readings The reversal of the instrument on the lower motion changes proximately so. \ Turn from B to Read horizontal A on upper motion times. I > C. pletely eliminated. provided the observing program be not too long. If that the deflection of the lower axis. B on upper motion circle for last setting ^ times. the mean say B. C. one C. the influence of i\ p. (See page 70. will therefore differ by 180. by relevelling after reversal. and the errors for the two positions will neutralize and error each other when the mean is formed. but when the observations. of repetithis may unduly prolong D which can be made advantageously depends upon the stability of the instrument and must be determined by experience. is zero.L. \ C. B and read horizontal circle.R. The must be noted. whether the settings are distributed through 360 the obserprovided only that the instrumental errors remain constant during vations. are the same. the in direction. The site in sign and will cancel when the mean in the preceding reversal also eliminates the influence of j and c as indicated the direction settings C. Level on the lower motion. and one C. on B. The above assumes .L. C. The maximum number.84 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT sum of the errors involving/ will be zero. as that for the last setting at setting on B.L.p.L.L. which it produces may be eliminated from the mean of two series. it is desirable that the value of n should be such that nD With this is small equals 360. D . The mean of the values of D calculated from the two series is the required azimuth difference of A and B. and / may be taken into account by measuring the inclination of the horizontal tions axis for each setting and applying a correction to and 3 of the form cotz in which b denotes the sum of all the observed inclinations for settings on l R R . and the errors will be oppoof the two series is formed. approximately on B.R.R. A and B respectively. the deflection/ by and C. provided that the for corresponding settings C. If the instrument is provided with a striding level. should be the same. z'. The consideration of these results leads to the following arrangement of the observing program. C. Consequently. change the direction off by 180. least. 180.. and C.L. Reverse on lower motion and relevel. not the case. the time of each setting on B calculated value of will then correspond sensibly to of the times. will differ by 180.j.) This will the values of /' for C. or a multiple of 360. at least approximately.
720 must be added to the readings on the star before combining them with those on the mark.. 85 34. relevelled. although the means for the set are also given. On 1909. the following observations of the difference in azimuth of Polaris and a The of repetitions with a Buff & Buff engineer's m 36". Since the azimuth difference is approximately 174.THE SEXTANT Example transit.R. and the series repeated in the reverse order. the instrument was reversed on the lower motion. The results for the two halves are derived separately. recorded times are those of a Fauth sidereal clock whose error was mark were made by the method +6 After four repetitions C. . April 9.
and any other object. the index arm. its compactness and lightness. can advantageously be employed in the observations necessary for the determination of a ship's position. directly. and then from the silvered portion of the latter. it becomes possible to find the angular distance between the objects. and the precision of the results that may be obtained with it render it one of the most convenient and valuable instruments at our command. will With the mirrors. a reflected image of the second object may be seen in the field of the telescope. the horizon glass. The two mirrors and the telescope are provided with adjusting screws. nation of the mirrors as shown below. by giving the index arm depending upon the angular distance separatthe position of the arm is such that the rays of the second object reflected by the index glass to the horizon glass. is firmly attached to the vernier. two images This being the case. is frame of the sextant in a manner such that when the vernier reads zero the two mirrors are parallel. the a certain definite position If ing the objects. and. When the frame is brought into coincidence with the plane determined by the object. The modern sextant consists of a light. which may be used to bring them accurately into the positions presupposed by the theory of the instrument. respectively. since the construction is such that the inclination separating may be read from the graduated arc. The position of the index glass correof the arm and the attached mirror. the eye of the observer. The index arm of the pivoted at the center of the arc and has rigidly attached to it one whose reflecting surface contains the rotation axis mirrors. and a small telescope. the tele scope may be moved perpendicularly back and forth with respect to the frame thus permitting an equalization of the intensity of the direct and reflected images by varying the ratio of the reflected and transmitted light that enters the telescope. the index glass and the horizon glass. The telescope. be read from the graduated arc by means of a sponding to any setting may The second mirror. usually 70 in length. the relative inclibe onehalf the angular distance the objects. pivoted at the center of the arc and provided with a . enter the telescope parallel to the rays that pass from the first object through the unsilvered portion of the horizon glass. 10 let 0V represent the graduated arc. a movable index arm. / and H. The use of the instrument is simplified by graduating the arc so that the vernier reading is twice the inclination of the will in be seen coincidence. The principle of the sextant In Fig. usual form of the instrument the maximum angle that can be measured is therefore about 140. simultaneously with the first. flat. In addition. Only that half of the horizon glass adjacent to the frame is silvered. the angular distance of the objects. In addition. two small mirrors perpendicular to the plane of the arc.86 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY and today the sextant is the only instrument which practice of navigation. 49. is directed toward the horizon glass. and with it a distant object may be seen through the unsilvered portion. the index glass. whose line of sight is parallel to the frame. Adjustable shade glasses adapt the instrument for observations on the sun. and IV. metal frame supporting a graduated arc. and hence.
being the angle between the normals to the mirrors. the mirrors are parallel. The following conditions. among others. is onehalf the angular be shown that the inclination of / to are the normals to the mirrors. 87 with 0. Conditions fulfilled by the instrument. are seen in tion indicated coincidence.THE SEXTANT vernier at V. /<Vand and by the fundamental laws of reflection they bisect the angles and IHE. But since the arc (121) by OF the 50. while those from S. It is to H distance A HN SJH whence But in = + A. . and S. inclination. for the rays from 5. pass through the unsilvered portion of and enter the telescope in the direction HE. separating the objects. whence A = 20y. The two beams therefore enter the telescope parallel. falling on / in the figure is When V coincides H are reflected to H and thence in the direction HE. a = b+ Y A. The posisuch that the two objects 5. measures their and is equal to the angle subtended by the arc 0V. is graduated so that the reading is twice the angle subtended angular distance between the two objects is given directly by the scale. 2a 2i> 2 the triangle IHN a = b + M. must be fulfilled by the perfectly adjusted sextant. But M. respectively. In the triangle IHE. Therefore.
No. at least. The vernier must read zero when the mirrors are parallel. The center of rotation of the index arm must coincide with the center of the graduated arc. The horizon glass must be perpendicular to the plane of the arc. place the sextant in a horizontal position. the other. No. and noting whether the arc and its reflected image lie in the same place. Although elimination is impossible. Adjustments of the sextant. Since the positions of the mirrors and the telescope are liable to derangement. and in such cases the adjustment had best be entrusted to an instrument maker. and must be adjusted until the direct and reflected images of the same object can be made accurately coincident. correction must be made by the screws at the base of the mirror. The axis of the telescope must be parallel to the plane of the arc. manufacturer. methods must be available for adjusting the instrument as perfectly as This is the more important inasmuch as it is impossible to eliminate possible. The telescope. may be determined by the methods given in Sections 52 and 53. 14 are within the control No. 2. 5. 4. Some instruments are not provided with the necessary screws. Then. the position of the mirror must be changed until such is the case. direct If it does not. without changing . the observer will see the reflected image of the upright telescope alongside the telescope itself. 5 must be satisfied as perfectly as possible by the of the observer. If the two are parallel. 3. The index glass must be perpendicular to the plane of the arc. 4 and 5. Conditions Nos. the horizon glass is not perpendicular to the plane of the arc. image as the index arm is The reflected image should pass through the moved back and forth by the slow motion. The horizon glass. the index glass is in adjustment. from the measures the influence of any residual errors in the adjustments. sharply defined object. preferably a star.88 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT 1. If not. 51. The telescope should be rotated about its axis in order to be sure that is it is perpendicular to the plane of the arc. and applied as corrections to the readings obtained with the instrument. By carefully moving the index arm. If the adjustment imperfect. and bringing the index arm near the zero of the scale. unscrew the telescope and stand it on the arc just in front of the surface of the index glass produced. i. 2. the telescope and its image may be brought nearly into coincidence. by those reflected into the telescope by the mirrors. Two images of the object will then be seen in the field of view one formed by the tested rays transmitted by the horizon glass. 3. The adjustment of the horizon glass may be by directing the telescope toward a distant. If then the eye be placed close to the mirror. The parallelism of the telescope to the frame may be tested by bringing the images of two objects about 120 apart into coincidence at the edge of the field nearest the frame. The test can also be made by looking into the index glass as before. Index glass. it should be remarked that the errors arising in connection with Nos. No. To test the perpendicularity of the index glass.
R If is zero. 4. If care be exercised in making the adjustments. (122) a. When observations are to be made on the sun. + *. If the zero of the vernier falls to the right of the zero of the scale. set the index at o.+*.INDEX CORRECTION 89 If they remain the reading. Call ponding readings R. 7 (124) (125) =360^ (/?. If the fourth condition is not fulfilled. readings. No. its position must be the telescope is in adjustment. by the amount of the index error. and the telescope are of the order of the squares of the residual errors of adjustment. The mean of R. The index correction. readings on a distant.). the index correction should be determined from measures on this object. It can be shown that the errors affecting the readings as a result of an imperfect adjustment of the index glass. shift the images to the opposite side of the field. the horizon glass. . is the quantity which must be added algebraically to the scale readings to obtain the true reading. on account of their size. to disregard this adjustment and correct the readings glass. If not. and read the vernier. Index adjustment. however. the resulting errors will be negligible as compared with the uncertainty in the readings arising from other sources. an index error will be introduced into the angles read from the scale. bring the direct and reflected images of the same distant object The corresinto the coincidence as in the adjustment of the horizon glass. the mean of a series of such readings. Then make an equal for Let R. sharply defined object. /. but consider the last degree graduation preceding the zero of the and read in the direction of increasing graduations. varied by means of the adjusting screws of the supporting collar until the test is satisfactory. and R. We therefore have 7=0 7=360 ^. R Make a series of zero 52. and bring the images into coincidence by means of the proper adjusting screws attached to the horizon It is better.). in coincidence. Determination of the index correction. the reflected being above the direct. = . to bring the solar images accurately into coincidence. a star if possible. R (123) The latter expression is to be used for the determination of 7 when the zero of the vernier falls to the right of that of the scale for coincidence of the direct and reflected images of the same object. do not use negative scale as 359. we determine the zero reading as follows: Make the two images externally tangent. Since it is impossible. The zero reading is what the instrument actually reads when it should read zero. the ponding scale reading is called the zero reading adjustment is correct. To test the adjustment.. will then be the value of the zero reading. If not. and we shall have number of settings the mean of the corres 7=o #(*. represent tangency with the reflected image below.
freed from index correction.. where E. I. in the 53. with fifth the usual form of the instrument there is but a single vernier. for if the index correction changes by any considerable amount. the results may be plotted as From the plot a ordinates with the corresponding values of R' as abscissas. S be required Owing the value calculated . table may be constructed giving the values of s for equidistant values of R'. simple method is to measure with a good theodolite the angles between a series of distant objects. the form A=R + f+E. the sextant reading. the sun's semia distance of diameter. in order that the influence of irradiation may be eliminated. (128) dis from (128) for a considerable number of angles tributed as uniformly as possible over the scale. The readings of the graduations for the readings R R coinciding graduations when the vernier reads R a and R may R ' R'.from equation (126) should be used rather than that derived from the Ephemeris. nearly in A . R. Should the value for the reduction of observations on the sun (see Section 55). respectively. A. Care should be taken always to enter the table with the R' corresponding to the given R as argument. respectively. we have four semidiameters in shifting to the brilliancy of the solar image. Any defect condition introduces an eccentricity error into the readings. Each sextant must be investigated specially for the determination of the eccentricity errors affecting the readings for different parts of the scale. Ra may change sufficiently to render the tabular values of e no longer applicable. in order to obtain the true value of the angle. Since. (127) may be written and E is the correction which be denoted by must be applied to e=A Having determined e (R + f). the eccentricity angular corrections for those graduations of the scale which coincide with vernier and R. the index correction. It should be noted that the usefulness of the table depends upon / remaining sensibly constant. and E and E. this cannot be eliminated. Determination of eccentricity corrections. from which the value of s for any other reading. its diameter appears larger of than it really is a phenomenon known as irradiation. (127) two objects whose is the sextant reading for coincidence of the distance is A. Since the center of the reflected image moves over from the first position to the second. The mean result for each angle. These may be found by measuring a series of known angles of different magnitudes.90 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The readings thus obtained will also give the value of 5. can then be derived. gives by (71) an equation of. Denoting its value by e. ' The chief difficulty in investigating the eccentricity of a sextant consists securing a suitable series of known angles.
For solar observations. If a roof is used to protect the surface of the mercury from wind. For observations on land the artificial horizon must be used. 54. the instrument should be handled with great care. and reduce the intensity of the images as much as is consistent with clear definition. that of the sun must show the limb clearly defined and free from all blurring. select those which will make the direct and reflected images of the same color. horizon. care 91 being taken to tilt the instrument so that in turning from one object to the next no rotation about the horizontal axis is necessary. The following points should Focus the telescope accurately. necessary. 55. In all cases make the direct and reflected images of the same intensity by regulating the distance of the telescope from the frame. for a slight shock may disturb 'the adjustment of the mirrors and change the value of the index correction. The measurement of the angular distance between the object and its mercury image gives the value of the double altitude of the object. At body sea the observations are into contact with the made by bringing the reflected image of the image of the distant horizon seen directly through the unsilvered portion of the horizon glass. Make all coincidences and contacts in the center of the field. shade glasses attached to the eyepiece rather than those in front of the mirrors. since. To obtain the true reading the plane of the arc must be vertical. The measurement of altitudes. Practically. Make the adjustments in the order in which they are given above. the visible horizon lies below the astronomical horizon. If the use of the mirror shade glasses cannot be avoided. use. and reverse them through 180 at the middle of the observing program to eliminate the effect of any nonparallelism of their surfaces. which causes the reflected image to oscillate along a circular arc in the The index is to be set so that the arc is tangent to the image of the The corresponding reading corrected for index correction. and refraction is the required altitude. Some practice is required in order to be able to bring the object and its mercury image into . The correction for dip is field. The index correction should be determined both before and after each series of settings. whenever possible. owing to the elevation of the observer. Precepts for the use of the sextant. Although the sextant may be used for the measurement of angles lying in any plane. dip of horizon. and the correction for eccentricity may be disregarded as relatively unimportant. will be the numerical value of the correction in minutes of arc. it finds its widest application in practical astronomy in the determination of the altitude of a celestial body. it also should be reversed at the middle of the program.MEASUREMENT OF ALTITUDES in the horizon. expressed in feet. Finally. The square root of the altitude of the observer above the level of the sea. the matter is accomplished by rotating the instrument back and forth slightly about the axis of the telescope. and always test them before beginning observations. carefully be noted in using the sextant: The image of a star should be a sharply defined point. The observations are not susceptible of high precision.
for if. a series of such settings in quick succession. its image seen directly through the unsilvered telescope is mercury will come into the field when the telescope has portion of the horizon glass Both images should then be visible. If R denote the mean of the vernier readings. care must be coincidence quickly and accurately. If however. The ing the index near zero the Stand in a position such then turned slowly downward toward the mercury. the apparent double altitude of the object will be given by (129) . is best determined by giving the instrument a slight oscillatory coincidence motion about the axis of the telescope and noting the time when the reflected image in its motion back and forth across the field passes through the direct index is set so that the become coincident the time image. Measures for altitude may also be made by setting the zero of the vernier on one of the scale divisions so that the images are near each other accurately and approaching a coincidence. reflected image and if the observer is careful to stand so that the the sextant is kept vertical.92 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY In case the object is a star. reflected image will appear in the field. as in the case of the engineer's transit (see page 79) by calculating the rate of change of the readings per minute of time. If it is not at once seen. the observations have been made by noting the times of coincidence for equidistant readings of the vernier. the time and the vernier reading being It is not necessary to use the method described above for the images into the field for any of the settings but the first. To should be taken obtain an accurate value of the altitude. the constancy of the time intervals between the successive settings will be a sufficient test. bringing after reading. are really those of the object and its reflectaken that the images coinciding tion in the mercury. the mercury image. the index the same time at a rate such that the being moved forward along the arc at If the plane of of the object remains constantly in the field. been sufficiently The altitude of the object will cause them to change their relative positions. The varying lowered. By bringcenter of the horizon. reflection can be seen. the reflected image will also be in the field. The time and the reading are noted as before and the process is repeated until a sufficient number of measures has been secured. the plane of the arc being held vertical. the index be left clamped and the telescope be directed toward noted for each. The time of coincidence and the vernier reading are noted. images are approaching and clamped. unless too long an interval has elapsed. The following is the simplest method of procedure: that the mercury image is clearly visible in the and direct the telescope toward the object. a slight rotation about the axis of the telescope will bring it into view. The consistency of the measures should always be tested. When they The instant of is noted and the vernier read. The index is then moved 20' so that the images will again be approaching coincidence.
the same number of contacts should be observed for both images approaching and images receding. = + r /. zenith distance = 90 z' h\ (130) and z from z + r. (131) For measures on the sun coincidences are not observed. n = total number of settings. altitude decreasing. 5= the semidiameter of the sun calculated by equation a (126). ' f Upper sign. but. We shall then have for solar observations jp_i_ = Rd /. altitude increasing } "1 in which h' is the apparent altitude of the sun's center corresponding to the mean of the observed times. a correction for semidiameter must be applied. April 10. may be derived from Table I. page If the 20.' wa ^~ S+I+e i nf c / L . Example the sun were 85. = number of settings for images receding. the following sextant observations of the altitude of at the Laws Observatory near the time of meridian transit. Let instants nr = number of settings for images approaching. the when the images are externally tangent. 20. may be obtained from columns four and eight of Table For approximate results r / may be taken from the fifth page and tenth columns of this same table. JLowersign. ' by equation (3). solar parallax. instead. 2' (133) (134) The I. the correction for semidiameter. The of the observed times is found from where the refraction. To eliminate the influence of semidiameter. desired instead of the altitude. =+6 ra 37'. The true altitude and zenith distance are then given by A 2 = A' r+p. or if more accurate results are required. and the term involving S. If for any reason this cannot be done. made On 1909./. and e true altitude corresponding to the mean the correction for eccentricity.MEA S UREMENT OF AL TITUDES in 93 which /is the index correction. page we calculate z' from 18. The error of J0 F the timepiece was tion of latitude. is r. The observations will be reduced later for the determina .
94 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Readings on Sun .
Since these quantities increase azimuth deviates from o or 180. z. p. it is desirable to be able to specify liow accurately it must be given in order to obtain a definite degree of precision in the latitude. the object observed for the determination of latitude should be as near the meridian as possible. particularly important to know the influence of an error in the time. s\nzdz = sin dcosip (32) dip cos 8 sin i <p cos tdip cos d cos ip sin tdt. d. (136) Assuming now that the differentials of z and represent the errors in these quantities. however. Comp. Writing dt=dO and solving dip = sec Adz tan A cos ipdd.CHAPTER V THE DETERMINATION OF LATITUDE 56. .) . u. t=0 and ip being considered variable. respectively. the resultant error in if will be given by (136). We thus find (Num. Even with this limitation there will be considerable variety in the procedure depending upon the position of the star and the circumstances of the observations. which will occur as the when A is or 180. 2. and we need concern ourselves only with those affecting the It is latter two quantities. for since this quantity is assumed to be known. and errors in a and 8 are insignificant as compared with those occurring in z and the resultant error of observation in . It is the purpose of the present chapter to determine the most advantageous method of using the fundamental equation and to develop the formulas necessary for the practical solution of the problem. (135) which by means of and dz (33) reduces to dip f sin = cos A for dip A cos <p dt. sec A and tan A must have their minimum absolute values. the latitude of the place of observation can be determined by known of equation (31). The relation connecting small variations in z and d with changes in if is found by differentiating (31). will it is to be noted that <p depend upon the errors affecting Star positions are so accurately known. In order that this may be a minimum. 6. Methods. and we now proceed to the consideration of the following five cases in which the 95 given data are. On page 34 it was shown that if the zenith distance or altitude of a star of known means right ascension and declination be measured at a time. may To establish a criterion for the use of equation (31). The preceding chapter indicates the methods that be employed for the measurement of the zenith distance. that the <?.
The clock time of obervation is then given by pp. for objects between the zenith and the lower culmination the fundamental relation becomes ^ pole. is of observation. along with 8. p. The The zenith distance of an object at any hour angle. or the direct and reflected images into coincidence if the sextant is used. or (139) will then give the required value of the latitude. altitude of Polaris at any hour angle. . (140) where a. If Ad be the error of the timepiece. This instant marks the time of meridian passage. 49 and 39. 24 seen that the upper sign must be used for objects south of the may also and the lower. The to be interpolated from the Ephemeris for the instant true zenith distance is then to be determined by some one of the methods of Section 45 or Equation (138) 55 for the clock time 6'. series of zenith distances when the object is near the meridian.. T. Procedure. I. On 1909. Example 36. or <p = dev (138) Equation (138) whence zenith. difference of the meridian zenith distances of two stars. properly corrected. then gives the altitude as before. the observer will bring the image to the intersection of the threads. The corresponding reading. MERIDIAN ZENITH DISTANCE is on the meridian 57.96 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 1. April 10. T'=TAT. 5. If a mean timepiece is used. The The 3. a little before the time of transit and follow with the slow motion until it becomes necessary to reverse the direction in which the tangent screw is turned in order to keep the image on the thread. (139) For the instant of observation we have by (35) 58. the clock time of transit will be O' = a. 4. A zenith distance of an object when on the meridian. an observation was made at the Laws Observatory with a sextant for the determination of the latitude by a meridian altitude of the sun. by equations (62) and (41). it is be derived geometrically by means of Fig. For = 180 d s. The hour angle of an object this case equation (31) reduces to cos za zero. The reading on the upper limb at the calculated time of transit was 118 29' 10". mean time. (141) In case the error of the timepiece is uncertain. =a Jd. the sidereal time of transit must be converted into the corresponding respectively. For = cos za <f> (if d). 4. (137) whence d. The error of the clock. Theory. 2.
a considerable increase in precision will be obtained as compared with that resulting from meridian zenith distances. for the difference of in the determination of the total refraction. 18' Gr. N. Since the measures are differential. do not enter into the result.TALCOTT'S METHOD 97 the index correction. and the semidiameter to be used are those of Ex. J0 r = 6h 9"= 14 = +6 i = 6*155 ft 42 37 5 / e 0'=i The true value of the latitude known to be 38 56' 52" 1 8 ih' //' = f = Unknown = 118 29 ii = 59 14 36 i =118 29' 10" z' i == 30 45 15 24 /= 5 = * = 3' 8 =+7 ^ = 38 30 56 29 19 '5 54 56 2. the index correction and the eccentricity will be elimsextant. where the subscripts indicate the position of the stars with respect to the zenith. be determined. Theory. makes it possible to introduce other and more precise measurement than those which depend upon the use of a grad circle. Onehalf the sum of these two equations gives <P=# (*. + *) + in y*(zi *') + # (r t rN ). From equation <f (f (138) = $s + = #N *K. instrumental errors affecting the two observations equally will be eliminated. A. If therefore the difference between the apparent zenith distances of two stars be measured. The reduction of the observation for the determination of the latitude is in the second column. of Col. is the fact that the errors of observation which would affect these instrumental corrections. For example. The calculation of the clock time of transit is in the left hand column. the fact that the quantity to be observed methods of uated 7 small. with the engineer's transit small differences of . T. ' (142) which the true zenith distances have been replaced by ZK rt rK and z* The declinations are given by the Ephemeris. were they determined. similar condition exists in the case of the refrac A two refractions corresponding to nearly equal zenith distances can be calculated with a higher degree of precision than is possible tion. is Finally. and the difference respectively. 35. DIFFERENCE OF MERIDIAN ZENITH DISTANCES TALCOTT'S METHOD we have 2s . But what is of more importance. N. Sun's a at Col. By limiting the application of the equation to those cases in which the zenith distances are nearly equal. so far as precision is concerned. A. the latitude can be + + . of the refractions is readily calculated. calculated by (142). A. therefore. 59. inated and need not. In the case of measures with the for example.
The observa made and reduced in a way such that any irregularity in the To this end a process analogous to that used in 26 and 29 may be employed. while the micrometer affords a very precise determination The method under of the Observatory of of the required difference in zenith distance of the two stars.s sin . from which circumstance it is commonly known as Talcott's method. If the method is to be used in connection with the engineer's transit. the director about the middle of the eighteenth century.PRACTICAL ASTRONOMr zenith distance may be measured more discussion was accurately with the gradienter screw than with the vertical circle. the angular value of one revolution of the gradienter screw should first be determined by measuring a small angle whose value is known. From (4) we find dr j~ 00 = 57 sec'. value of C may be taken from Table V with the mean zenith distance of the two stars as argument. Denoting quantity by C. which expresses the rate of change of r per i of change in z'. the correction for refraction in seconds of arc becomes this %( r in ')"=&(%' z')C (143) The which the difference of the zenith distances must be expressed in degrees. Copenhagen and was given extensive practical application in the work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey about a century later by Captain Talcott. The level enables the observer to give the line of sight the same inclination to the vertical during both observations. first proposed by Horrebow. Examples Since the correction for refraction will always be small. o i . TABLE *' V . we may assume tions should be screw will be revealed. . It reaches its highest precision when used in connection with the zenith telescope. an instrument of the altazimuth type fitted with an accurately constructed micrometer eyepiece and a very sensitive altitude level.
CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES 99 and calculate the clock time of meridian transit by (140) or (141). the Ephemeris for the instant of observation.+e. it will be better to omit the levelling after reversal and apply a correction to the result given increasing zenith distance.+o. measure the double altitudes of the two stars at the Let Rs and RM be the corresponding sextant readings. instants of transit. reverse. it is desirable for the sake of precision to modify the method described tinder No. The declinations are to be taken from the list of apparent places in D served at lower culmination. s') = G(m. Unless the bubble has the same position for both observations. The last term of (142) is given by (143). is that of the object plication of the settings. the value of C being derived from Table V. If o and e (o. level carefully and bring the star culminating first to the intersection of'the threads at the instant of its transit. respectively. The vertical circle should be firmly clamped when the setting on the first star is made.*. The change in the zenith distance during an interval immediately preceding or following the instant of transit is small and its value is easily and . (146) in which the upper sign is to be used when the screw readings increase with should be given to the altitude level. its declination In case the northern star in is ob (142) must be replaced by 3. Read the gradienter screw. and must not be disturbed thereafter If the two screw readings be until the second star has been observed.) If the engineer's transit is employed. special attention by bubble.' *. CIKCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES The zenith distance to be used in equations (138) and (139) when on the meridian. Since only a single determination of this quantity can be made at any given transit. If a sextant is used. relevel. The second term of (142) will then be given by (145) #(*.. (147) is onefourth the which angular value of one division of the level. I so as to permit a multi61. we shall have . the correction to be added algebraically to the result given by (146) will be (146). If the level is a sensitive one.. Theory. and note the reading as before. The bubble readings should be taken as near the times of transit as possible. <J S 180 . an error will be introduced into the result.+ in e n )D. and be the readings of the object and eye ends of the if readings increasing toward the north be recorded as positive while those increasing toward the south are entered as negative. denoted by m s and m a and if G be the value of onehalf a revolution of the screw.)=#(*. bring the second star to the intersection of the threads at the instant of transit by means of the screw. In levelling. Yi(z'. /).
(149) we find cos (za Z) =cos sa 2 cos ip cos 8 sin* Yz t. (152) we have to the same degree of approximation Z Substituting into (152). (151) and neglecting terms Z 3 we find Z= Squaring. and writing 3 = A'm*. Z= Am+n. to be used for the calculation of the is The development. 055) . Since the observations may be arranged so that the error in (154) will be insensible. Am+^Z'cots. and (154). and We then have Zthe z+Z=z Substituting into (148) a.100 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The meridian is accurately calculated. the expression for the latitude <p = 8 z^Am n. (153) reduction to the meridian. of the formulae reduction to the meridian as follows: Equation 2 cos (31) may be written in the form cos = cos ((f> 8) y cos d sin' ^ /.. (148) reduction to the meridian. Combining equations becomes (138). n=y nf=2s\n*y 2 B=A*cots we have finally for the Q. Let z be the observed value of the coordinate. (149). (154) Z will not exceed 15' or 20'. Since Introducing at the same time replace the left member of (150) by its expanis small the convergence will be rapid. m = 2sin'%t. (150) To express Z explicitly we may sion by Taylor's theorem. by observing when the object A It is of altitude. Z A = cos in <p cos d cosec z . such measures reduced to the meridian gives a precise value of z which can then be substituted into (138) or (139) for the determination of the latitude. # the meridian value. zenith distance may therefore be found near the meridian and applying to the measured value of the coordinate the amount of the change during the interval series of separating the instant of observation from that of culmination. course immaterial whether the quantity measured be zenith distance or The method is commonly knqwn as that of circummeridian altitudes. t t.
the engineer's transit the term Bn will usually be insensible when the hour angle is m than 15'" or 20 the quantity It will be observed that A and B depend upon the latitude value of if sufficiently accurate for the calculation of to be determined. For an object observed near lower culmination. It will be noted further that A and B are constant for any given series of observations and need be calculated but once. the transit or sextant. in which the last terms are to be calculated by For observations with (151) and (153).C1RCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES in 101 by which the upper sign is to be used for southern stars. The resulting value of the reduction to the meridian substituted i8o + into (139) gives <p = 180 3 z Am Bn. on the other hand. TABLE VI t TABLE VII . these coefficients may be obtained by (138) or (139) from the value of z less . (156) Equations (155) and (156). express the solution of the problem. are different for each setting. and the lower. Since and The factors they depend only upon the hour angle. their values may be tabulated with t as argument. A observed nearest the time of transit. for those culminating between the zenith and the pole. Tables VI and VII may be used for all ordinary observations with m . / in (31) must be replaced /.
gives no indication as to the consistency of the observations. 36. The reduction of the circummeridian altitudes given To eliminate the semidiameter the means are formed for the and 2nd. 3rd and These results are in the first and sixth 4th. 93. and the yth and Sth observations.i". in which Z s and ZN are to be calculated by (154). When this is done there will be given a series of derived from observations made near the meridian. in Ex. at least. p. The index corlines of the calculation below. This method. p. calculate the latitude for each observation by putation. is j. and it is better to reduce the results the means of not more than two separately. 5th and 6th. The final result may also be obtained by applying the mean of all the . or.102 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY zenith distance observed nearest the time of transit for za and for the determination of an approximate value of <p both of which are required for the commeans of Finally. 96. or (156). 35 jh fjm js. The declination to be used is that corresponding to the instant (155) of observation. the clock time of transit was found to be / (sidereal) t (solar) m . values of and of Bn to the mean of all the zenith distances in accordance with equations (155) or (156). Am The method of circummeridian altitudes may advantageously be combined with that of Talcott. rection found in Ex. 35. In Ex. The eccentricity corrections are unknown. to reduce separately or three consecutive measures. is as ist follows: Example 37. values of % (z' s Each of these must be reduced to the meridian by adding to (142) the term O 2 y (Z s ZN ). however.
(See Section 56.S. On 1908. Procedure. is readily accomplished by using the fundamental equation (31) in the form cos z = cos (<p A7 ).0 larger o'.o wsinA tan " 7 ' 296 50 5 A " 7 z' 30. 64. Find the latitude by equations (158) (161). This together with the sign of cos(^ 7 A The latitude is then given by (159) determines the quadrant of <p . (161) Equations (i58)(i6i) are rigorous and apply to all values of the hour angle. the altitude of Polaris was found to be 39 2g'. 2.) A sufficient number of decimal places must be employed to offset A7 is determined from its cosine. A <p = (tp N) + N.oooo 99999 98033 9.2 i. calculate the hour angle by the true and A7 being zenith distance of the t=0a. was ).T.5 3i3 ij 88 is 49. but care should be taken to observe as near the meridian as possible in order that errors in z and d may not appear multiplied in the result. .i m 45*.8034 50 30'. the fact that the angle <p Example 38.6 cosz cos(y> The calculated ^ <p A^) A^ than the true value by if Ant.3150 96498 7. 0351 89 a8'. 8 h 36 m 56" 21 i cos.) Columbia a t t 13 14 cos* cos AT 27 10 19 46 4 3i'.S.8.T. t.$ 38 57. Oct. and tp N from (160) A7) must have the reference to the fourth of (34) shows that sin (^ A7) from same algebraic sign as cos A. Then determine n and A7 by fica\ n sin n cos A7 = cos d cos cos 2 N= sin d. 79. the auxiliaries defined by the first and second of this group. C. (See Ex. at watch time 8 h 35 m n P.LATITUDE FROM ZENITH DISTANCE 103 This formulae for circummeridian altitudes no longer give convergent results. in (158) which is the true sidereal time of observation.) The error of the watch on C.M. p. Having determined object. 31.3 o. (157) Equation (157) is the last of equations (34).9648 99999 a.i A 7 r sin A^ lo g 8.
sin tpH sin in (162). The value of t shows that Polaris was east of the merand sin (y> idian at the time of the observation. IT. Since cos N} is positive.in (164) not exceeding o"3. a and J are from p. with an error same time we may write ! = with errors which are still smaller. A (tf 5.) Replacing z and d in (31) by the altitude. respectively. H'). ft. it expression for the difference distance of Polaris is about i altitude of the north celestial pole. thus obtaining H= ncost + yztanyfr* Neglecting terms involving n3 . Theory.104 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The C. 7zcos/ + ^7r a 2 tan^sin /. 14 and 16. the problem may be solved by finding an in altitude of the pole and Polaris. (See Num. the by //and TT. H= Finally. y> ^V is in the fourth quadrant. To this fact n'. we have (163) <p=h Writing h + H. Comp. the required difference will is due the possibility of a simplification of equation (31). and expanding and solving for sins. (166) by (163) . Since the latitude is by definition equal to the 65. respectively. and the north polar distance. The polar always be a small angle. is converted into the corresponding Columbia by (41) and (58).T. ALTITUDE OF POLARIS makes The peculiar location of Polaris with respect to the pole possible to simplify the fundamental latitude equation for use in connection with this object. Since at a maximum we may replace sin Hand At cos sins. (162) shall If ffbe the difference in altitude of Polaris and the pole. consequently. whence cos IV) are negative. 321 from the Ephemeris. pp. we find sin h = cos n sin + sin <p TT cos ip cos /.cos t \ H (164) H= tan ^(cos// cos/r).S. (165) H' = Tf cos and substituting H' into (165) we have 3 /.
The K imation for the latitude will answer. (168) error in the latitude calculated from (167) due to the approximate of the equation will usually be less than 2" form the quantity to be The calculation of requires a knowledge of <p since the coefficient J^/r* is only about 0. The values of may be derived from Table VIII with an approximate latitude and the hour angle as arguments. (167) in which " K%x' tan tp sin*/. The table is based on the value it K TABLE VIII t K= tan a sin* t . but. a rough approxdetermined. i 1 i' o".LATITUDE FROM POLARIS <p 105 =h K cos / + A!".02.
8506 Columbia a * t 995 6 1. S 88 49'. place of tan A A in .S.0  2 27 log ^ cosi 3s 57 ^* 21 34 The 9 is larger I. For circummeridian altitudes (171) reduces by (151) to d<p = A sin t dO. TV Find the latitude by equations (169) from the data of Ex.8 may now examine 67. the small terms = Bn and' AT being disregarded. Ex. 57. 81. the influence of an error in the time upon the calculated latitude. in which the upper sign refers to southern stars. We then find H is to be interpolated from Table IV. of Exs. exactly with the result obtained by = ^ 38S7'. 9 23 i 32 41 i * 70.39 2h / 4 h i39 2577 H <f 3928'. Its value in both cases is h greater than I2 . p. Ephemeris.106 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Example 39.7 312 38 57S 3953'S 570 38 56. 323 34 than the true value by The application of equations (169) to the data of Ex.7562 calcu i ate d ^ <f o'. which agrees Example 40. 38 24 h // p. all of the preceding methods but No. 4. be small. (170) becomes sin tdO. 38 gives the formula of Section 64. = = 0. with 24" / as Ex. 595. a few degrees (170) with sufficient Substituting for sin A its value from (33). Find the latitude by means of Table IV of the Ephemeris from the data is The hour angle to be calculated as before. 9 jrw C.02. 9" 42 10" 33. (170) will For at most. sin in and we may write accuracy for the present purpose. (173) Equations (172) and (173) may be obtained directly from (153) and (157) by differentiating with respect to t and introducing rf/ dO.02 sin tdO. and writing z equal to the meridian zenith distance. S. (172) For Polaris we have with sufficient approximation COS <? = 90 whence <p. is (p We more closely The change produced by a small change d(f in is by (136) = A tanAcosydO. 38 and 39.9 * TTCOS. Influence of an error in time. argument. i h' 39 54'. i 1 38 9 13 16 logr cos ' 1. 7T d<p= 0. . Consequently. T.
may Example 41. It is evident that. and that an error in the time has the least influence upon the calculated latitude for stars near the For Polaris the effect of dO is always small. This fact taken in connection with the simplicity of the reductions renders the last of the above methods the most useful of all the various processes that will be employed for the determination of latitude.012 Ans. the factor 15 must be introduced into the right members of the various equations in order that dtp may be expressed in seconds of arc.33=33" 0. on the assumption that the watch correction used was By (172) we find. it also depends upon the zenith distance and declination of the star. p. or for the determination of the accuracy with which the time must be known in order to obtain <p with a given degree of precision. Polaris given How In Ex. even though dO be large. What is the error in the latitude calculated meridian altitudes of Ex. i? By 073) the data in Ex.INFLUENCE OF ERROR IN TIME 107 Equations (170) (173) may be used for the calculation of dtp when dO is known. ' we find <fy o. ar) d accurately must the time be known in order that the altitude of may yield a value of the latitude uncertain by not more than o'. If dO is expressed in seconds of time.595 rf0 = 8'. taking the values of A and / t from Ex.i 3 23 34' sine 0. p.1744' log dy 1. incorrect by 20"? 37. The greatest precision.4771 Example 42. 81. 02 sin/ o'. . 39. and if t be near oh or I2 h it pole. however.1849 8. from the first of the circump 101. 33. is attained only by the method of a Talcott when used in connection with the zenith telescope. 105.5334 <fys='S" 2. 37 i do = Kf = 300" log^l sin/ log 300 = 7>"39 = 54'45" 0. aside from the dependence of dtp upon t. . be very slight indeed.
A close circnmpolar star at sufficient closeness to quite insensible. 6 we denote the angle at by q. and t being considered variable. cos d will be small and the influence of dd will be slight. We have now to may be com A to the fundamental rigorous and general method of procedure leading equation _ _ cos d sin t sin d cos tp cos d sin if cos t was outlined on page to the Before proceeding to the adaptation of this equation 34. it is desirable that the azimuth should dip and dd. from page 95. and substitute for dz its value dd we find after simplification.CHAPTER 68. be near o will it is necessary that the object should not the factors cots and cosec s will produce a multiOtherwise. and the effect elongation. dA may be small or 180. it may 108 . of the process have been discussed in detail in Chapter IV. any hour angle satisfies these conditions with render the influence of any ordinary errors in ip and Should the clock correction be very uncertain. z. whence dA In order that plication of both cot z sin A dp + cos d cos q cosec zdO. star. the time. produce but little effect the calculated azimuth. The calculated azimuth will depend upon the right ascension and declination of the latitude of the place of observation. of dd will still further be minimized. and if. the expression in parenthesis reduces by the second of the fundamental formulae of spherical trigonometry to cos d cos q. Fig. Further. examine the means by which the azimuth of the celestial body puted. Writing at the same time dt = dA If in = cot 2 sin A dip + (sin z sin y + cos z cos tp cos A) cosec z dd. we differentiate (33). for when this is the case an error in the assumed latitude When the object is upon near the pole. at the same time. 075) be near the zenith. A. it be near cos q will also be small. The azimuth of a terrestrial mark may be found by ob the mark and a celestial object and applying serving the difference in azimuth of to the into this difference the calculated azimuth of the object corresponding The methods to be employed for the observational part stant of observation. The first two and thus derive a precept for the choice of objects to be observed. and the quantities may be assumed to be known with precision. however. but the last are likely to be affected by relatively large To determine the influence of these upon the calculated azimuth. VI THE DETERMINATION OF AZIMUTH Methods. uncertainties. under purposes of calculation it is desirable to investigate the conditions which it may most advantageously be employed.
namely. AZIMUTH OF THE SUN 69. From t when consideration of the preceding results indicates that we shall need adaptations of the fundamental azimuth equations designed for the calculation of The 1. distance. The first four equations of (34) are the equivalent of (32) and (33) from which the fundamental equation (174) was derived. which in all cases is most to be feared. whence the azimuth of the mark can be found as before. Far less satisfactory will be the result in the case of observations on the sun. But for circumpolar stars observed near elongation the magnitude of cosq and cotf in (176) will be such that errors in z and <p will have only an insignificant influence on the calculated azimuth. With this method of procedure the latitude of the place must be known. We thus if dA = cos q cosec / dz cottd<p. may be used with advantage. 2. .. Theory. the azimuth of the body may be calculated by this equation. provided care be taken this precaution the coefficients in (175) depending on s and q will With sible. By their combination we find the following group which for the purposes of calculation replaces (174) tan AT tan = cos r (J . These conditions cannot both be fulfilled at the same time. Besides the fundamental equation (174) there is another which is some times useful. have the values best adapted for a minimization of the errors in <p and d. N) sin JV (178) and sin The quadrants of TV and /J A are determined t. The azimuth The azimuth of the sun. / (177) . To determine the conditions under which this method (26) considering <p. especially that of the latter. ('76) and <p will have the least influence this it appears that errors in and q are as near 90 or 270 as possible. If the zenith distance of the celestial body be measured simultaneously with the determination of the azimuth difference. already small through the presence of cos 3. differentiate find after simplification cos s.AZIMUTH OF THE SUN 109 be desirable to observe for the determination of the azimuth difference of the mark and the star at or near the time of elongation in order that the coefficient of dd in (175). and A as variables. may be made still smaller by the introduction of a value of q near 90. (26).. although this object may be used when the latitude is known with some to observe as far from the meridian as posprecision.. but the time does not enter into the problem except as it may be required for the interpolation of the declination of the object for the instant of observation. Azimuth from an observed zenith I. sin . by noting that A have the same algebraic signs as sin and sin respectively. (tp tan/. of a circumpolar star at any hour angle. 3.
d. pp. is arranged with = tan tan = gs\n c^ h cos tan A = gG sin h 7i g = tan TT sec <p. therefore. If a sidereal timepiece is used. AZIMUTH OF A CIRCUMPOLAR STAR AT ANY HOUR ANGLE Dividing the numerator IT. G therefore differs but little from unity. U. ip <f. only when the sun is far from the meridian. Finally compute A from (177) Azimuth determinations from solar observations should be made and (178). Moreover h is small because of the factor tan. The quadrant sign as sin t. . angle 2. PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY Procedure.sec <p sin/ <p tan n tan cos .. the parentheses after the second or third in the last member of (181) will sensibly be equal to To find the value of logG. For this purpose we use the addition logarithmic table. Supt. This is disolar time for which the azimuth difference has been measured. and in approximate work they may be considered as such for a series of nights. unity.. i (180) i /' t. G is has the form i/ (i +v) The or i/ (i v). and the values of logG may be tabulated with log h cos t as argument. we must find the logarithms of one or more factors of the form (i+fc). calculate t from in which is the true sidereal time of observation. calculate the apparent right ascension. of A is determined by the fact that sin A must have the same algebraic The factors g and h are constant for any given night. In case tables for follows as cost : logG are not accessible values may be calculated as t. t (179) This equation may be replaced by the following group which reference to the requirements of calculation. of the sun.HO 70. in the form G=i/(iv) = (i+v)(i+V)(i+V). (181) Since v is small. 399407.r. 10). Comp. p. the formula a= are (Num. in which v = h cos according negative or positive. 18978. calculation of t. Since i. sin d cos <f Theory and denominator of (174) by and writing d tan^ =i tans. and a when required for the the hour Interpolate rectly for the instant of observation. its S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. we find 90 71. Such a table. latter expression may be written . sufficient for all practical requirements is given in Rept. and the sun's apparent If a mean solar timepiece is employed.
A = log (A cos /)  (182) Equations (180) used in connection with tables for logC. 312323. 180 with an error not exceeding 2". log (h cost). Equations (180) are rigorous. B is to be interpolated from the table with A as argument. (182) /). where log(l+&)=B. pp. For this n'.AZIMUTH OF A CIRCUMPOLAR STAR 111 A = ldgb. A For cost positive. and for approximate results they may be simplified. A For =jrGsec^sin 45 t (183) latitudes of or less the error will always TABLE IX t . A. = log (k cos /)". or with formulae afford a convenient and precise method of calculating the azimuth of stars any of the close circumpolar whose apparent places are given in the Ephemeris. = log (A cos A. be less than i". logG = 3 B. and for latitudes less than 60. its azimuth object JT at the present time is i We may therefore write will always differ from 180 by less than 2 3'. however. Hence For cost negative. especially if the circumpolar observed is Polaris.
(183) must correspond to the date are to be made at a given station. 50 15 o'. as these quantities are affected by instrumental errors whose influence is not eliminated until the mean is formed. or from some similar table.112 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY tp between the value of assumed for the calculation of the table and that cor have only a slight influence on the responding to the place of observation will be understood. latitude of the place of observation 38 56' 52". or log G sec <f>. Ephcweris. The difference of the two values of is not to be taken as an indication of the precision of the result. which Interpolate 38 Procedure. 18978. from the calculated azimuth of Polaris. log G. arc. The maximum the latter of in = n= absolute errors in the azimuth resulting latitudes are from the u?e of this table for various Latitude Error in 30 35 o'. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 85. pp. p.38 A o'. that the local azimuth derived from (183). the results for the two positions of the instrument being reduced separately. 399407.24 The 72. The azimuth of the mark is found by subtracting the difference 5 M. 40. refer to the lati tude of the Laws Observatory. 40 12 o'. Supt. and The values of log G in Table IX are based upon <p which is the mean north polar distance for 1910. culate where d the true sidereal time of observation for which the azimuth difference and the mark has been measured. term of (184) be Example 43. the last (184) will also given in be expressed in minutes of minutes of arc. calculate A from (180). i 10'. or it may be calculated by means of (182).oo 45 o'. pp. however. M . Then For a precise azimuth. 34. the list values of log G sec f in the third is column of Table IX 57'. the corresponding local azimuth determinations value of log sec <p may conveniently be combined with the mean values of One can then interpolate log G sec f directly from the table. interpolate log G. and that the value of the coefficient n appearing In case a number of of observation. 85. U. It is to value of sec^ must be used. The value of logG may be taken from Kept. Equations (180) are used for the calculation. taken from p. The Determine the azimuth of the mark from the data given is in Ex. with the argument log h cost. For an approximate azimuth from Polaris. 312323.0. Then calculate A from is of the star : A= If JT i8o TrGsecysint. from table IX with t as argument. S. and d for the instant of observation from Cal of apparent places of circumpolar stars.
22118 .90756 8.AZIMUTH FROM ZENITH DISTANCE i i 113 h 25 10' 19" 46" 5i if 3 56 sec/p tan?r 0.10918 8.42280 8.31362 log// 9.
(185) will be desirable to derive A by means of (186). the azimuth of the object by some one of the above methods mark. use with the method in question. that by (186).114 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The zenith distance determined simultaneously with the measurement of the azimuth difference. Find the azimuth of the mark from the data given in Ex. Since both the time and the altitude of Polaris corresponding to the instant of measurement of the azimuth difference of the star and the mark are known. p. from Ex. however. M. which are best adapted for circumpolar In any case. 81. t . The first column contains the calculaThe value of t required for the first part is taken tion by (184). 106. the declination for the instant of observation. Azimuth of a mark. and the latitude of the place of observation constitute the data necessary for the calculation of the azimuth. the azimuth differ75.. 33.Having measured 5 and having determined the azimuth of the ence of the object and the mark. we calculate M. by M=A (SM\ (i86a) Example 44. we may calculate A by this equation. 39. it stars. and (186) will serve as a mutual control for testing the accuracy of the calculated azimuth. the reduction may be made by the third as well as by the second method. the second. For objects whose azimuths are not so near o or 180 as to render the error But for of calculation for (185) large. p.
5 359 tan^l A 0. April 27. 9. that for In the latter instance the time is required only with such precision as (186).7 58 = ooy. +13 . J7\y = i = 33 i<)'.7 y cosec cot%A A S cos TV tan/ ((f>JV) 99S7I5 0. is small and we shall have approximately q= 1 80 t. c) 8. or they may be used to corresponding to a given uncertainty in determine the accuracy with which the time or the zenith distance must be known in order to secure a given degree of precision in A.S.61902 M M 24. also writing G= be derived from (184) by differentiating and Example 45.2 =z = * p 56 76 51 . calculating the azimuth of the sun both by method i and method 3. = 1 ' S Af=8i24'..r 1.INFLUENCE OF ERROR IN TIME dA 115 = cos q sec <p cosec / dz.(>.81604 cost tan N N 97"55 9.6 3 3 8. The altitude of the sun and the difference of its azimuth and that of a mark were measured with an engineer's transit at the Laws Observatory on 1909. (188) Equations (187) and (188) may be used to estimate the uncertainty in A and z.07130 80 38:2 Ck. E A. as may be necessary for the interpolation of declination from the Ephemeris for the instant of observation.S. The parallactic angle q be estimated with sufficient precision for the derivamay be calculated from sin sec (f g= sin A sec S sin /cosec z.2 sin(s a) cosec s cosec (. 81 W <p *) 38 13 56. page 26. whence cos^ = cost.). The computation of the solar azimuth by (177) and (178) is in the first column. 44'S (referred to C.9 8'.00025 0.! .9 3. m The results were 7\v 4 h I" n'o.78268 80 38'. M.M. the spherical excess of the triangle PZO. C.56498 0.T.7 13.r. Fig. Substituting we find dA The first = (191) sec^cot/dfc.S.76132 0.7. (192) of these can i. Col.S. <p. 6.3 41.9 9.66941 25 2'.J Si' 91 tan 939196 sin(i 56. t 3 59" 26:5 50 i /*' 33 I9'. we have with sufficient approximation z these results into (187) and (188) and writing cos<J = = go . Usually z and tion of t may dA. in the second.7 r = Co\. (190) Further.T.20651 0.9 54.2 24. Find the azimuth of the mark.T.. / 5 a c 52 32.T. ( l ^9) For circumpolar stars (187) and (188) may be simplified as follows: Since the azimuth of such an object is always a small angle. P.
CHAPTER VII THE DETERMINATION OF TIME Methods. For the sun. 6' sidereal or mean and T' being the clock is values of the time of observation. (197) and J6 In outlining the ' =a d a '. The required 0' t error is given by (193) J0=0 or jT=rr. Since a and E may be regarded as known. in case of observations on this directly mean solar time may be found from (42) written in the form time. . the error of a timepiece. finding 77. The modifications necessary in be considered for the removal of these limitations will connection with the discussion of the details presented in the 116 following sections. To accomplish this the true time 6 or T\s calculated from observations on a star or the sun and compared with the clock time at which the observations were made. The determination of time means. As indicated on page 34 this may be accomplished by measuring the zenith distance of the object at a place of known latitude and using equation (38) or (39) The problem can also be solved instant for which the hour angle of fundamental equation reduces to of the by determining the clock time the object is zero. the hour the apparent solar time. the T=t + E. When (196) the timepiece is solar the use of (196) is simpler than that of (195). and. however. the problem is reduced to the determination of the hour angle of the object for the instant of observation. (198) it will be assumed that the object methods that may be employed for the determination of is a star and that the timepiece used is sidereal. (195) Applied to any celestial object this equation gives the sidereal which the mean solar or apparent solar time may be derived by the ation processes of Chapter III. according as the timepiece is (194) solar. from transform angle t is object. The fundamental equation for the determination of time = +7. For this case the ' 6 = a. practically.
' This is the meridian method of time determination. Care should be taken. I. It is of special interest on account of the fact that it is readily adapted to a simultaneous determination of time and = azimuth. <p. + '. THE ZENITH DISTANCE METHOD and Theory. when a star has a certain zenith distance. 2. z. From (136) we dd = cosec A sec <p cot A sec <p d<p. error of observation in 0. In practice the deviation of the instrument is such that the line of sight lies in the plane of the vertical circle passing through Polaris at a definite instant. There are other methods of determining the true time. (200) Assuming that dz and dtp represent the errors in z and and dO the resultant tp. but those outlined afford a sufficient variety to meet the conditions arising in therepractice. (199) The method is known as that of equal altitudes. were developed in connection with the discussion of coordinate transformations and are given in (38) and (39). may be found by observing the transit of an object across the vertical thread of an instrument nearly in the plane of the meridian. The process is accordingly known as the Polaris vertical circle method of time determination. to select for observation only those objects which are near the prime vertical. 4.). The Polaris vertical circle method. The formulae necessary for the calculation of / from S. The zenith distance method. . may also be determined by noting the instant of passage of an object across the vertical thread of a transit instrument mounted so that the line of sight of the telescope lies in the plane of the meridian. fore proceed to a detailed consideration of We 1. <p. 3. when it has the same zenith distance west of the meridian. east of the meridian. 3. o. and. Finally. The application of a small correction to the observed time depending upon the displacement of the instrument from the meridian gives the clock time for which f o. or altitudes. the time 0. The clock time of meridian transit. 78. therefore. depend upon the errors affecting and Those find in a and 8 we may dz disregard as relatively insignificant. The a. The method of equal zenith distances The meridian method. we shall have 0: = x(o. again. Since the celestial sphere rotates uniformly. resultant error of observation will z. or altitude. it that for a given latitude the time will be appears least affected by uncertainties in z and when the azimuth of the object is <p near 90 or 270.METHODS To determine #' we 117 may note the time 6.
2. A Example 46.T. altitude. in general.S. as a control.X (T. taking care and JO by that T is reduced to the meridian to which the clock time If refers. 9 9 40 39 51. solution of (38) gives / 18*35 l6 !8. If 0. Procedure.). Observations on a star: if from If the timepiece is sidereal. Should the error of the timepiece be unknown.S. calculate T from (196). whence by (198) 80. east JO If a solar = a#(0 + O I m ). Owing to the change in the right ascension and declination of the sun. reduce its value to the meridian to which the clock time refers. or we may convert the value of T derived from (196) into the corresponding sidereal time and then use (193). and determine AT from (194). the clock time of observation. The conversion of into the corresponding accomplished by (62) and (41). repetition of the calculation then gives the final value of the clock correction. 31. + T. calculate t Having found the true zenith distance corresponding by (38) or (39). respectively.118 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 79. The The C.2 19. is = From (39).0 Ans. Observations on the sun: in the timepiece is sidereal. or may be made with the Greenwich mean time corresponding to . and calculate JT'from (194). p. If the timepiece is solar.4 6. The latter equation should not / be used when the object is so near the meridian that the interpolation of its cosine is rendered uncertain. 79. calculate by (195). where If (202) T is the mean solar time corresponding to 0=a.T. a knowledge of the approximate time is necessary for the reduction of solar observations. (193). the clock time of meridian transit will be given by (199). in Ex. value used for / is the mean of these. or zenith distance. the interpolation of a and 3. Theory. the above equations are not applicable on account of the change in the declination during the interval separating the . convert the sidereal time derived from (195) into the solar. Find the error of the watch from the measured altitude of Alcyone given We have h' 21 19' 30" 2 / i8 h 35"> j. we find i8 h 35 m 166. same be the sidereal clock times when a star has the and west of the meridian.9 +23 38 49 56 C. will be resulting data will give an approximation sufficient for a precise interpolation of the coordinates of the sun.4 <f 52 Watch J7\v +1 45. (201) timepiece is used we shall have JT= T.6'7 3 22 h '5 21 17 30 o 23 a 42 17 3. THE METHOD OF EQUAL ALTITUDES and d. The for the error of the clock which. we may proceed as the case of a star using (195) and (193). to the clock time. the object observed is the sun. corresponding mean solar time T.
and the resulting value of dt must be added to the clock times of observation. Denote the means of the two series of times by 0. If the sextant is used. dt.. however. The object observed should be near the prime vertical. the required corrections may be found from the differential relation connecting changes in d with corresponding changes in t. Both the observed times will be too late by the quantity dt. After meridian passage observe the times of transit over the horizontal thread for the same readings of the vertical circle as before. For the sun. by reducing the observed times to what they would have been had the declination been constant and equal to its value at the instant of meridian transit. for solar observations made with a sidereal timepiece. 119 be included. and d. and dd the change in 8 during the interval /. AT=E#(T + TJ + l dt. (205) It is sometimes convenient to combine afternoon observations with others made on the following morning. 2 y (0 + 6. (203) solar units. according T as the timepiece is sidereal or mean solar. note the times of contact of the direct and reflected images for the same series of equidistant readings of the vernier before and after meridian passage. always changing the reading by the same amount. The expressions for the The quantity clock correction are J0=l2 h + jr=i2 + h + y (T + T. but d must be interpolated from the Ephemeris for the instant of the sun's lower transit. For a star the error of the clock will be given by (201) or (202). Change the reading by 10' or 20' and note the time of transit as before.) + dt. onehalf the interval between the two observations expressed in the declination for apparent noon. three or four hours east of the meridian note the time of transit across the horizontal thread of the transit for a definite reading of the vertical circle. since / the timepiece is solar. t M=a If (204) (202). which / is <? Hence. Repeat a number of times.. or t and T.) tf (0.TIME FROM EQUAL ALTITUDES measures. we have from (196) and = for the instant of meridian transit. and the clock error by (204) or (205) in case the observations are made in the morning and after . From (31) This influence may dfr=(tany>cosec/ in tan 3cott)dd. (206) (207) in which the values of a and 81. calculate dt by (203). most conveniently an exact degree or half degree. E refer to the instant of lower culmination. / in (203) is onehalf the interval between the observations expressed in solar units as before.) s dt. Since the change in d is small. In this case the mean of the observed times corrected for the change in declination is the clock time of lower culmination. but in the reverse order. When Procedure. 2 0.
applied for index error. the sight lies constantly in the plane of the meridian. whatever the elevation In order that this may be the case. will not be on the meridian at the instant of its transit across the vertical thread. or the equation of time. It is may be repeated for the determination of the 3. To obtain the clock time of meridian transit 6'. 8. but will have a small hour angle t whose value will depend upon the magnitude of the instrumental constants a. parallax This fact taken in connection with the simplicity of the reductions constitutes It is subject. When produced it will cut the celestial whose azimuth referred to the east point sphere page 65. however. the case of the zenith distance method of time determination. a transit instrument The meridian method of time determination mounted so that. and collimation constants. an observed is approximate knowledge of the time is necessary when the object the sun. and the line of sight must be perpendicular to the horizontal axis. all the measures should be made in the same position of the verticle circle. the star level. with the danger that clouds may interfere with the program second series of measures. as may be required. Denoting the clock time of this instant by 6 the error of the timepiece will be given by ' J0= In satisfied. Theory. The instant of a star's transit across the vertical thread will then be the same as that of its meridian passage. refraction. '. on the assumption that the clock error is zero. and c and the position of the star. Fig. the line of sight will not be exactly perpendicular to the horizontal axis. this may be derived from As in only necessary to interpolate the sun's right ascension. and the angles When all should be set from the same vernier. whence . If the clock correction is quite unknown. b. when perfectly adjusted. and whose altitude we may denote by a and t>. in a point A. nor will it be truly horizontal. In general. must coincide with the intersection of the planes of the prime vertical and the horizon. THE MERIDIAN METHOD requires line of 82. the conditions of perfect adjustment will not be The horizontal axis will not lie exactly in the plane of the prime vertical. to the serious the chief advantage of the method. (208) general. or by (206) and (207) when they are secured in the afternoon and on the following morning. eccentricity. the engineer's transit is used for the observations. the horizontal axis of the telescope. respectively. respectively. d.120 PRACTICAL ASTKONOMT noon of the same day. If these remain unchanged no correction need be or semidiameter. Further. This approximate result will lead to an approximation for the error of the timepiece with which the calculation the observations themselves as before. +. and c are known as the azimuth. therefore. however. but will form with it an angle 90 The quantities a. we must subtract t from the clock time of observation. Care must be taken not to disturb the instrumental adjustments between the two sets of measures. final value. hours must elapse before the observing objection that an interval of several can be completed.
L. on account of the Equations (211) and (212) become indeterminate for . E. respectively. For. C=secS. A. exceeds 90. in = a + b cot z c cosec (211) In the present refers to C. (210) The values of a. Consequently J0 can be determined by (210) when / has been mental constants. the azimuth of the point measured positive toward the south. t we s\nz find (212) whence by (211) /cos d = asin z fcos2 c. R. (215) . and the lower to C. the positions of the instrument are less ambiguously expressed by circle west (C. i>. (209) and by (208) J6 =a 0'\t. upon the reading of the horizontal circle of the engineer's transit for C. For this purpose we make use of equations (82). . we have A at referred to the east point. the amount by which the azimuth difference of the point A and the object 0. however. denoting this azimuth by A s and expressed as a function of the instru. R.THE MERIDIAN METHOD e. what amounts to the same thing. o. These results may be applied directly to the meridian transit to determine the azimuth of the star at the instant of its transit across the vertical thread.) and circle east (C. observation. L. b. or.). which we may do since both are very small angles. B = cos(<p find 3) sec 8. We may now use (33) to determine the hour angle of the star when its azimuth is equal to^ s which the upper sign case. ponding quantity for C. when on the The last two terms of (89) express the corresvertical thread. and c. Replacing A in (33) by A s and writing A A s and / instead of their sines..s stars very near the pole. b and c. (89). mation constants. and becomes inapplicable only for Equation (213) is therefore valid for. z in (213) may be replaced by the meridian zenith distance <p = = Writing A = s\n(<p and substituting d)sec3.' 121 = B' t. is once z. assuming that a..3 presence of A. (213) 0. (214) for t in (210) we bBcC. Since the star is near the meridian at the instant of i>. and The last two terms of (82) express the influence of the level and colli(33). but the conditions of the problem show that there can be no such discontinuity in the expression which gives / as a function of a. and c can always be found. W.
Tables of the latter sort are found in Kept. Consider the results for two of these having the same declination as nearly as possible. however. the solution is simplified and rendered more precise by proceeding as follows: Suppose that the transits of a number of stars of various declinations have been observed. and c are known. b.. (216) we have from (215) zld M = M'. consider two stars observed in whose declinations northern star. These are applicable for all points of observation. pose Aw = AR assumed that the two declinations are nearly equal.. E. and c. and C are called the stants a. the other. their values may be determined. U. B. They may also be tabulated with the double argument d and z. W. 308319. may be tabulated with d as argument. Ad. The second of these can be made equal to zero by a careful adjustment and levellevel is ling of the instrument. J0' '= J0' E +r w r LE ' (2I7) ~r **w which determines the collimation constant. a southern differ as as possible. or its value may be measured in case a striding The azimuth and collimation constants are best determined from available. Assuming that b has been made equal to zero. a. pp. or that its value has been determined. the resulting values of c will then be accepted as the final value. and c. Writing (218) Jd"=J6'cC we find for these objects from (215) .122 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY the time of transit 6' Equations (214) and (215) give the value of J0 when across the vertical thread has been observed. the instrument having been used in both positions. we may supwhence we find . for any given latitude. a widely circumpolar preferably. Practically. Since it is = M' w + aA + cCw v . Coast and Geodetic Survey 18978. theoretically. C. S. The mean of Next. one observed C. The observation of any three stars will afford three equations of condition involving these quantities from which. the other. (217) may be applied to each. there remain in (215) only three unknowns. a. There remains still the determination of the constants. Should there be more than one pair of stars of equal declination. provided the instrumental conThe quantities A. Their values depend only upon the position of the star and.+aA. Writing to be J0' = 0' + 5. transit factors. Supt. b. the observations themselves.cC. the same position of the instrument One of these should be a star.
When carried out with a large and stable instrument mounted permanently in the plane of the meridian. which is sufficiently accurate. an approximation may be derived as follows: Set on Polaris and clamp in azimuth. Then rotate the telescope on the horizontal axis and observe the transit across the vertical the plane of the meridian. (220) The mean of all such values is the final value of the clock correction. The chief advantage of the meridian method of time determination is to be found in the fact that the results do not depend upon a reading of the circles. high. Polaris may be used inon the vertical thread at an instant for brought which its azimuth has previously been calculated by (184). thread of a southern star of small zenith distance. Procedure. With the exthat the setting must be made at a definite instant. Set off the value of the azimuth on the horizontal circle and bring the object on the vertical thread by rotating on the lower motion. a should instrument. but (191) shows that if 6 be known within two or three minutes. To place the instrument in the meridian we may make use of a distant object of known azimuth. In case no object of known azimuth In this case the star is stead. in precision or in the amount of labor involved in the 83. The determination of the azimuth of Polaris requires a knowledge of the approximate time. the azimuth will not be in error by more than one or two minutes of arc. either reductions. The line of sight will then be approximately is available. with the inclusion of certain refinements not considered in the preceding sections. it affords results not surpassed by those of any other method. danger of a change in the azimuth constant during be determined by (219) for both positions of the The value of Jd is then to be calculated by Jd = Jd" + aA. paving clamped the lower motion._45=j. the precision is relatively It is the standard method of determining time in observatories. the approximate error of the timepiece will be given by (221) .THE MERIDIAN METHOD 123 = M\ + aA M = J0" + aA 40 s H s whence . rotate on the upper motion in until the reading is zero. Denoting the sidereal clock time of transit by 0'. In case the clock correction is entirely unknown. "N "S (2I9) Inasmuch as there is the reversal. Since the uncertainty of an observed transit is considerably less than that of an angle measured with a graduated circle. the procedure is ception the same as that for a distant terrestrial object.
one C. should be very carefully adjusted before beginning the observations and the bubbles should be kept centered during the measures. comes Note the time of 46. The star list with the setting for each object should be prepared in advance. exceed two or three of the azimuth minutes. and calculate c by (217). the settings which will give the telescope the proper elevation to bring the stars into the field at the time of culmination are to be calculated by. and this. as negative. will occur at the clock time a ing. one observed C.. (See page 122. (222) which the upper sign refers to northern stars. Compute as many such values of c as there are pairs of stars of equal declination. and form the mean of all. With the mean value of c calculate Jd" for each star by (218).124 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Since the azimuth of Polaris differs but little from 180. If the zenith distance of the time star is not more than 25 or 30 the error in d will not. of Polaris with the precision necessary for the orientation The will include the observation of four or five stars in each posi program Each tion of the instrument. The transit factors may be computed by (214). is sufficient for the calculation of the instrument. especially when directed toward points near the zenith.) If the inclination of transit factors for the horizontal axis has been measured. set the vertical circle at the proper readinto the field adjust in altitude until it moves along its transit across the vertical thread to the nearest tenth of a second. the declination. For an instrument whose vertical circle reads altitudes.. E. the other C. or better still.. the instrument is to be levelled and adjusted Three or four minutes before the transit of the first star. W. the plate levels. each star. Level readings increasing toward the east should be recorded as positive. the other. the values of b are to be computed by The value of Ad' is then to be calculated for each star by (216). select two stars of equal or nearly equal declination. W. sufficient data for the determination of the collimation constant. whose declinations are equal or nearly so. Then (113). C. care should be taken to observe at least one pair of stars. they may be interpolated from the transit factor tables. E. Setting in = 90 (<p d). as stated above. toward the west. The remaining objects should be southern stars culminating In order that there may be preferably between the zenith and the equator. reverse the instrument about the vertical axis through 180 and proceed with the observation of the remaining stars. The reduction and the is begun by collecting the right ascension. Then determine a for . which in azimuth. This having been done. and as the star the horizontal thread. ordinarily. reversal being made at the middle of the series. in this After onehalf the stars have been observed manner. especially the transverse level. determination of the group should contain one northern star to be used for the azimuth constant. If a striding level is not available. Observations with the striding level for the determination of b should be made at frequent intervals throughout the observing program.. The coordinates are to be interpolated for the instant of observation from the list of apparent places in the Ephemeris. the line of sight will not deviate greatly from the plane of the meridian.
magnitude or brightness. P. May 19. The various columns contain. and C into (2i6a) for stars 3 and 5. The azimuth constant is now redetermined and 4. Finally calculate Ad for each is the final value of the object by (220). =+ . accordance with (220). For northern stars this sum must be subtracted from 180. but they are sufficiently accurate for a determination of by (n6a). each observed 6' should be cor rected for rate before forming the values of JO'. the error of the Fauth sidereal clock of the Laws Observatory was determined by the meridian method. and 2 and 8 we find J0 = + 7 m 4M+J4c J0 = t7 4. approximate values of the azimuth constant are derived by (219) from stars i and 4. The settings were obtained by adding the colatitude 51 3' to the values of the declination. and the bubbles were kept centered The first of the tables gives the observing program and the data of observation.THE MERIDIAN METHOD 125 each position of the instrument by (219). the clock correction for each star. give J0. The azimuth of Polaris h m 1 Vernier of the horizontal calculated by (184) for the clock time 5i o was 179 26'5circle was set at this value. The results are \T f2!2 and These values are uncertain owing to the fact that the influence of the collimation = c has been neglected in deriving them. Example On 1909. Wed.ooc sets of equations give for c. In case the rate of the timepiece is large. the instrument used being a Buff to & Buff engineer's transit. 40*19. and the position of the circle.ooc These two J0 = + 7 m 4!4 J0 = f 7 5o + i5c i. None of the pairs of stars observed are suitable for the determination of the collimation by (217). for each position of the circle. A. The mean. The plate levels were carefully adjusted throughout the observations. and the value of the clock correction derived by subtracting each #' from the correspondThe third and fourth columns contain the values of the transit factors interpolated from the tables of the Laws Observatory. the transits of four stars were observed. the setting of the vertical circle. and at the clock time indicated Polaris was brought to the inter n A section of the threads by means of the lower motion. M. 47. The mean of all such values of clock correction corresponding to the mean of the observed clock times of M transit.. after which four more stars were observed. From these we find the added to the values of J#" in and 6 and 8. Multiplying this by the value of C for each star gives the corrections for collimation contained in the fifth column. and the apparent right ascension and declination of the stars. the number. The error of the clock was known be approximately f 7 m o'. The combination of these with the value of J0' gives the quantities in the column headed J#". J0" being replaced by J0' for this purpose. table contains the reduction The values of jy are obtained ing a in accordance with (216). respectively. The results are w 2*38 values of the azimuth corrections a A. using for this purpose the value of JW" for stars I and a e f4i6. at the beginning. Substituting the numerical values of a. the upper motion was released and vernier was made to read o. provided we use for this calculation stars whose declinations differ as little as possible. The epoch to which the values of 0' are reduced is usually the exact hour or halfhour nearest the middle of the series. using for this purpose the stars of extreme northern and southern declination. The reversal was then made by changing the reading of vernier A from o to 180. the the observed clock time of transit. name. is accepted as the value of the collimation constant. 8. It should be noted that the algebraic sign of the collimation correction changes with the reversal of the instrument. +0:10 and +0*27. the corrections being applied in such a way that each 0' becomes what it would have been had all the observations been made at the same instant. The second from each star. The instrument having thus been placed in the A meridian.6 i. After clamping. respectively. To avoid this difficulty. and 6 and <ie = + 4H. which.
126 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The last the clock correction. No. column contains the weight assigned to each result in forming the mean value of The mean J0 for the southern stars is the same for each position of the instrument. . that the values of 40 for each pair of azimuth stars must agree within one unit of the last place of decimals. which shows that the influence of the collimation has been satisfactorily eliminated. In the present case the agreement is exact for both pairs. as a control upon the calculation of the azimuth constant. It should be noted.
the approximation is ample. z being the zenith distance of Polaris. Since b and c are very small. E. as before. and the observation of any two time stars therefore affords the data necessary for a complete solution of the problem. whence a = a + b tan <pc sec Q (p. W. za may be replaced by 90 <p. C. (227) We then find from (225) whence f Jg. for (184) gives # = it Gsecip sin/ . but its solution is slightly different. 48 C = Asec<p + C. If a represent the azimuth of Polaris defined as above. (225) where. for the influence of the azimuth is in this . (226) which may be used for the calculation of This leaves in (225) only two unknowns. . we have by (82) and (89) a = a + b cot z a c cosec . Here we determine c as before. ( 22 3) Substituting (223) into (215) and writing B' = Atan<p+B. the upper sign refers to C. but not exactly. J0 and c. but a is to be calculated from the The azimuth constant will nearly equal the position of Polaris. W W (22S) in There is here no necessity for an equality in declination of the two stars as the case of the meridian method.THE VERTICAL CIRCLE METHOD final result. 127 but for those cases in which an uncertainty of one or two tenths of a second is permissible. f. For the sake of precision one of these should be observed C. W. (224) we have =a 0' + a^ + WcC.. In the meridian method both a and care determined from the observations themselves. owing to the presence of the instru known mental constants b and c.Jg'. E * i \ (~. Equation (225) is the same in form as (215). To determine c write J0' = 6' + a A+&B'. (215) is insufficient. the other. azimuth of Polaris measured from the north point positive toward the east at the instant of setting.
The of a . The third column of Table X contains may such a series of values for the latitude of the Laws Observatory. the azimuth of the mark measured in the conventional manner will be circle readings give the is Am = in MS + a i&o (232) which S and are the means of the horizontal circle readings on the star and the mark. (229) in factor A in (227) is the in same as that (215). much less than in the meridian method. setting on Polaris. and this need not exceed two or three minutes. The instrument used should be irregularity in the form of the pivots results. viz. Moreover. If the horizontal circle the instant of addition. the azimuth of the mark will be given at once. for the constancy of the quantities a. like that of the meridian not dependent upon the reading of graduated circles. <p. respectively. b. on account of the magnitude are easily reduced by (214) to B' and quantities C B' in sec <p. and am the mean of the calculated azimuths of Polaris. The C The vertical circle method in is easily adapted to a simultaneous determibe read at nation of time and azimuth.128 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMT Having found c case included in Ad'. however.. and c is assumed for only a very short interval. vertical circle is method of time determination. readings be taken on a mark. but it must be more accurately known than The the meridian method. Since aa measured from the north point positive toward the east. and the horizontal if and azimuth difference of the star and the mark. written in the form from (228) we calculate Ad from (225) M=WcC. C = E + tan seed tan d. 38 57'. that the azimuth and level constants remain unchanged It is necessary only during the interval separating the setting on Polaris and the transit of the time star immediately following. It is especially valuable for use with unstable instruments. each set of two time stars is complete in itself and gives a complete determination of the error of the timepiece. It possesses the further advantage that no preliminary adjustment in the plane of the meridian is necessary. (230) which ( 2 30 values of E may be taken from Table X with d as argument. yields results of a relatively high degree of precision. M The method. whence C' may itself be found by the simple addition of tan^>. For any given latitude be tabulated with d as argument. for the azimuth of Polaris is calculated in the course of the reduction of the observations for time. for any is likely to produce serious errors in the . carefully constructed. and in conse quence.
and the entire process is then repeated second time star. 9 we may use a constant value time corresponding approxi . It is also desirable. V C. and read the H. for #. and write in rive a value for the We in thus find aaA=P(tand tan <p). The instrument is carefully levelled. with the instrument in the reversed position. The transit for a is observed.// Since a a A need be known only very roughly. C. W. and C. (234) which > =47 sin \o ^ r r (f). is noted. Observe the transit of the time star.' to calculate in advance the approximate times of transit. note the time. Observe the transit of the time star. C. The observing list with the settings for the time stars should be prepared in advance. the telescope is turned to the north. / w> (23?) \ J . clamped is then rotated about the horizontal axis until its position is such that scope . The data thus of the time star obtained constitute a set and permit a determination of the error of the timepiece. E. the instrument should be relevelled. C. Procedure. Set on Polaris. To determ aaA we combine equation (226) with the value of A from (214). and three or four minutes before the transit of a southern star across the vertical circle through Polaris. choosing for this purpose the sidereal mately to the middle of the observing program. and Polaris itself is brought to The instrument is the intersection of the vertical and horizontal threads. in order to save time in observing and to avoid errors in the identification of the stars. ) Set on the is required^ the W. note the time. Set on the mark and read the 11.THE VERTICAL CIRCLE METHOD 129 85. The plate levels axis. The telein azimuth and the sidereal time of setting. respectively. \ C. E. the southern or time star will pass through the field of view. and read the H. Disregarding the errors in level and collimation we have from (225) in ment be turned from the mark d' = a + a AJO (233) which JO represents an approximate value of the clock correction. which C. are to be interpreted as meaning that if the instruto the north by rotating about the vertical the vertical circle will then be west or east. If a program for a set will simultaneous determination of time and azimuth be mark and read the H. i h 3O m ). should be carefully watched. C. and if there is any evidence of creeping. Set on Polaris.
of their observation. The values of A are needed to four places of decimals. in minutes of arc. (S a. they may be used unchanged .130 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY /having been calculated ^01^(235)' we find the value of a A for each time value of d. respectively. = C' sec d. the error of the timepiece. the sidereal clock times. and J0 an approximation for this . for a given latitude.). calculate Am = in Yz \M. + Mm (S OJ 180. = ad'+aaA. . TT. and when once obtained. A m the azimuth of the mark rqeasured from the south. places of decimals are ample been secured. respectively. respectively. <p + a A+bsec<f> e ~i L (237) C w be taken from Table IX. according to the subscript. the readings of the horizontal circle for settings on Polaris and the mark. One or two star from (234) by introducing the corresponding for the calculation. for the determination of the azimuth. /= +^0 A = sin 4d' = a C (<p (?) . the first step in the reduction is The observations having of sufficient the determination of an approximation for the clock correction Neglecting errors in calculation of the azimuth of Polaris. and d'. 8 are the coordinates of Polaris and the time star. S and M. Collecting results we have the lated by (234) in preparing the observing list. (236) which applied to the time star transiting nearest the zenith will give the For the term a A we may introduce the value calcurequired approximation. 0' = tan + E. and a. Ad. a should be expressed in seconds of time. quantity. following notation and formulae: . which is reprinted here for convenience. the circle would then be west or east. The subscripts w and ^ refer to observations made circle west and or log tp Log G G sec is to . Finally. should be preserved. M For the determination of the error of the clock. circle east. (238) where the subscripts attached to refer to settings made with the instrument such a position that if turned toward the north by rotation about the vertical axis. with the argument ta E or C\ from Table X with the argument d. respectively. since. accuracy for the level and collimation we have from (225) M. positive toward the west. respectively.
0 TABLE X <0 . 1910. W. as the error of the timepiece. If the coHimation is known to be small and the declinations of the two time stars do not differ too greatly. E. TABLE IX. and C.THE VERTICAL CIRCLE METHOD for several 131 months. it will be sufficient to take the mean of the values of Jd' for C.
6020. 47.132 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY The azimuth in minutes of arc. The final value of the clock correction found in Ex. Since the correction a.. 1 sec <S a 0' JO' C' cC' AO "o M Am .. A must be expressed in seconds added to and the two logarithms immediately following it are is also included when log a is in satisfactory agreement with that form log a o A. C.W sin/ . viz. 0. a whose logarithm is given in the fourth line is expressed of time the logarithm of 4. a Virginis.
9194. 102103. 37. 64. measurement of with 7780. primary and secondary. calculated from meridian zenith distance. 4. 51. 114115. of horizontal angles. diurnal. 8081 . 8185. 9. relation of its position to latitude. 90. 2930. precepts for use of. theory of. Julian year. and zenith distance. 117. 39. 24. 39. 106. 39. 6263. 3839. Almucanters. Coincident beats. 9. defined. mulae for. Collimation: error. 96. Cardinal points. 72. 64. 39. 10. Longitude. mean. 4. 7376. 10. 16. 5. 9799. Altitude: defined. Hour circles. condi Altitude circles. Arguments: arrangement Artificial horizon. 109110. clrcumpolar nometry. simultaneously 126132. sidereal. 8. Hour Azimuth and zenith distance transformed into hour angle and declination. of. calculation of from latitude. 99102. 7. converted Apparent place. 14. 9. Index error: of engineer's transit. azimuth and time. Equal altitudes: time from. I Aberration: defined. Common year. 4. Celestial sphere: defined. Fundamental formula. 63. declination and zenith distance. Mean 133 equator. Equation of time. 6471. Azimuth: relation to axis of celestial precession of. 13. of. by repetitions. transformations of. 9S102. 5960. of spherical trigo from the sun. transformed into ascension. 108. 120.INDEX (THE NUMBERS REFEB TO PAGES. into right ascension and declination. mean. Copernican system. 7. 7172. 1. relative position of reference circles. 31. axis of celestial for fundamental Clock: see timepieces. 13. tion of. 120. 10. Leap year. Latitude: relation to sphere. from zenith distance at any hour angle. artificial. 13. 3134. Diurnal motion. of. 2531. right angle: defined. constant. Equinox: vernal and autumnal. Equator: celestial. 114. from altitude of Polaris. 2325. into mean solar time. Day: apparent solar. conditions for precise determina Error of timepiece. 10. 3132. Horizon: defined. determination of for sextant. by Talcott's method. 61. 9. 59. Least reading of vernier. Declination: circles defined. 37. influence of an error in time upon. 9. 113114. Circummeridian altitudes: latitude from. engineer's transit. and zenith Hour angle and into azimuth declination transformed 29. 7780. 110. theory of. defined. from from measured star. of mark. conditions for precise determination of. 40. 118120. 2528. 89. Dip of horizon. Coordinates: necessity for. of sextant. 12. Chronometer: see timepieces. 95. systems of. 39. 2123. 10. . 9. Level: error of. 9. Gregorian calendar. constant. 9. 9. Engineer's transit: historical. sphere. measurement of vertical angles. Julian calendar. 36. 13. tions satisfied by. 40. 6. Ecliptic. Eccentricity: defined. mean solar. 53. 68. Ephemeris. Calendar: Julian and Gregorian. 27. 9. distance. 15. 3234. Horizontal angles : measurement of. 36. determined with time. calculation of declination from latitude. dip 91. Asteroids. zenith distance. Celestial equator. 104105. from circummeridian altitudes. 7. value of one division. 8. 37. Date: calendar and civil. 91. Apparent solar time: defined. 8085. 7. influence of error in time on. 59. with sextant.
difference in two local times. 117. 4446. 36. historical. latitude from. 37. sidereal. into sidereal time. 8. Proper motion. right ascension of. 8687. 48. 8. Rotation: Sextant: diurnal. 37. 15. with sextant. Meridian: defined. Precession. measurement 7780. of. 120. 40. 14. 9. 126. fundamental for Mean sun: 4446. Successive approximations. 5960. Mean noon: defined. 37. theory. 100. 104105. Tropical year. 3234. sidereal mean into solar into side mean solar. leap and common. azimuth from. 77. Nutation. converted converted into mean solar time. 31. time 96. 2123. Talcott's method. 8. 31. 110114. 20. 93. 116117. 6. 10. 10. tropical. 1. Vertical angles: gineer's 9194. 15. of. transformed into hour angle. from. table. converted solar day. 38. 113. 38. 39. 38. 51. 1. comparison Prime vertical. 38. Nadir. 120circle Polaris vertical method. 13. annual motion of. 4. Refraction: Repetitions: defined. from equal altitudes. 4849. Polaris: 47. adjustments. Semidiameter. 117118.^of time determination. 39. 122. defined. Meridian zenith distance: 96. Poles of celestial sphere. 117118. 47. Sidereal time: defined. parallax of Sun: 1920. Rate of timepiece. . Sidereal day. meridian method. sults. Polar distance. sidereal time of. Mean equinox. error 5258. 89. precepts for use of. Right ascension and declination transformed into azimuth and zenith distance. reduction to. 39. 16. 9. differential. 10. 51. 9799. of with en Right ascension: defined. 12. 34. Transit factors. 40. Nebulae. defined. units. 3. True solar time: see apparent solar time. 126132. diameters. Planets: names. Polaris vertical circle method of time de determining. of. 36. 36. Reduction to the meridian. 117. 2. model Solstices. solar time: defined. Parallactic angle. Solar system: parts.134 INDEX 37. Vertical circles. Residuals. Meridian method. measurement. 42. index correction. Ptolemaic system. Year: Zenith. 58. 2930. Parallax: 14. 8889. Stars: motions Stellar system. fundamental formulae for. 14. 5. 13. 8. 98. 1. and care rate of. apparent solar into mean Noon: apparent. 89. basis of 36. Method of repetitions. 5051. 8185. Timepieces: of. of. relative distances solar and vice versa. 6061. 15. theory. into apparent solar time. Mean Mean Mean place. 16. transit. latitude from. 100. 25. 118. 7. Standard time. 2. from zenith distance. 102103. Time: relation to celestial sphere. 57. distribution of. Zero reading. relation be and tween real. 91. Spherical trigonometry: mulae. 36. mean. 8185. discussion True place. historical. 1618. 13. 37. latitude from. 90. 1820. eccentricity. 3. Sidereal noon. Julian. azimuth from. 126132. 4748. Vernier: theory. Transit: see engineer's transit. 37. methods of termination. 118120. of mean sun. 8. different kinds. Zenith distance: defined. 85. 4. 38. 120126. uncertainty of re method of.
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