PLASTIC MATERIALS

PLASTIC MATERIALS
• Large and varied group • Consists of wholly or in part combination of carbon with oxygen,hydrogen,nitrogen and other organic or inorganic elements • Solid in finished stage or moulded stage • Liquid in manufacturing stage • Moulded by application of heat / pressure • Generally flexible • But can be made rigid,stiff,strong,weather resistant,heat resistant,electrical resistant and if required can be made electrically conductive also Basic material of all Plastics is HYDRO CARBON(CH)

PLASTIC MATERIALS Two types of plastics are Thermo plastic and Thermoset plastics • THERMOPLASTICS are either AMORPHOUS or
CRYSTALLINE in structure • They form a Linear or Branched Molecular Chain

• Formulated by Addition Polymerization
• Available in Granules of Ø3x4mm • Undergoes Physical change only, on Heating • Recyclable

POLYMER MOLECULAR CHAIN (LINEAR)

MOLECULAR CHAIN (BRANCHED)

CROSS LINKED POLYMERS

WEAKLY CROSS LINKED

eg. RUBBER

AMORPHOUS THERMO PLASTICS
Molecules Randomly arranged
Eg. PolyStyrene, PolyCarbonate, PolyMethaMethacrylate CelluloseAcetate, AcrylonitryleButadine Styrene,PVC

They are having molecules going in all different directions and normally Transparent. They will undergo small volumetric change when processing. They are tougher and more flexible.

SEMI-CRYSTALLINE PLASTICS
AMORPHOUS (Random)

eg. Polypropylene Polyethylene PolyAmide, Poly Oxy Methylene,

CRYSTALLINE (Orderly)

Since commercially perfect crystalline polymers are not produced they are identified technically as semi- crystalline thermoplastics. A crystalline area is stiffer and stronger. It is difficult to process crystalline materials due to high melt temperature, melt viscosity & shrinkage.

PLASTIC MATERIALS By adding different modifiers,additives,fillersand Reinforcements many formulationsof Plastics are derived (Approx.40,000) Classification of Thermo Plastics:1.Commodity Plastics eg.PE,PS,PP,PVC

2.Engineering Plastics eg.ABS,PA,PC,POM, (has to work under constant loaded condition over long period of life)
3.Speciality Plastics eg.Liquid Crystral Polymer, ( even
in the liquid state structure is Crystalline)

Super Nylon, PEEK

THERMOSETS
• • • • Formulated by Condensation Polymerization. Available in Fine Powder form. A compound partially polymerized. Undergoes irreversable chemical change by application of HEAT & PRESSURE. • Tightly Cross linked between molecules by the Reactive portion of Compound. • Not reusable or recyclable. • Difficult to dispose off.

CROSS LINKED POLYMERS

Chain

CROSS LINK

DENSLY CROSS LINKED

eg. THERMOSET

THERMOSET PLASTICS

• • • •

Cross-linked Giant macromolecule Structurally set Shape cannot be altered once moulded


• • •

Forms a Hard, Dense and Polished Shiny molded component. Brittle, Highly Heat & Electrical Resistant Has a Shelf life. Eg. Phenol Formaldehyde Melamine Formaldehyde Urea Formaldehyde Alkyds, Diallys, Polyurethane, Silicones, Unsaturated Polyesters. Thermosets are normally moulded by 1. Compression moulding. 2. Transfer moulding 3. Injection moulding

A D V A N T A G E S

1. Less weight

2. Ease of fabrication
3. Properties can be Customized 4. Thermal insulation 5. Electrical insulation 6. Corrosion resistant

O F
P L A S T I C S

7. Available in Opaque to Transparent
8. Low Coefficient of Friction 9. Suitable for High Volume production

10.Self Lubrication
11.Less Costly 12.Elastic

D I S A D V A N T A G E S O F P L A S I C S

1. Difficult to develop Product
2. Unpredictable Shrinkage 3. Flammable

4. Poor Weather ability
5. Failure in Creep and Stress Relaxation 6. Environmentally unfriendly 7. High Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 8. Enbrittlement at Low Temperatures 9. High Moisture Absorption 10.Flex and Deform under load 11.Softer than Metal- Wear more ,Less life

Some important Properties of Plastics
All plastics are Viscous to flow to different degrees Most plastics are Bad conductors of Heat and Electricity Density varies from 0.9 gm/cc to max. 1.4gm/cc for Thermoplastic And more than 1.4 gm/cc for Thermoset Some of Amorphous Plastics are only Transparent All Tps. Can be made Opaque by adding Pigments , colourants & Dyes All T.sets are Opaque. No Transparent T.set available

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