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FBI Files: Wallace Fard Muhammad (Part 4)

FBI Files: Wallace Fard Muhammad (Part 4)

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ycl

CG 100-33683
This record also indicates that FARD was received

at the

State Prison,

San Quentin,

California,

as WALLIE

D.

FORD, their
DISCH. -

number h23lh,

on June

26, 1926

on a charge

of

V1255, POIS Act. Disposition

given 0

to e years,

May 26, 1933,

¬

are §gLQ§_&#39;MAT.T.&#39;PTAnelesbT.nc| &#39;8-r-92nn&#39;924e$h0O #l6hh8, Los &#39;|A]||1 California, WA,sale, r921-0 1 n Hnwrul 1-FPIDT1 &#39;l&#39;Fn-n-n&#39;lc| HQ1
ws, POSS, Ms1~§E&#39;I1,12B"&#39;9 March 9 2 ,$1.00 or 1 day, u, 1
Additional aliases listed are WALLACE FORD and w.D. . FARAD.

Egher entries the Identification on FBI Record

The following

is a

description

as furnished

by

the Detroit

Felice Department,
Sex Male

their number

h5l38:

Race White

Age 33

years in

1933

Weight 127
Build Slim Hair Black

Height 5&#39;e%

pounds

Eyes Maroon Nationality Arabian information in
Fl __92-Mn

According to the files
1&#39;--I .n

the FBI of the
Ir In

Identification Record, Bureau indicate back of

additional birth place as black mole

u1"%é",GI1, QCCu.ySuJ.G1&#39;1 92.-091;, u.au4.GuaJ.4.|.-J

Q--I "1&#39;!-|*+¬

Ammo;-Isgnn 4I;o92v92n&#39;U921n92II>I&#39;l&#39;92-an -I&#39;ll-I1 L6J92.J|.921l GL1-MG-11, I.-uluy

right side

dark,

scars and

of stonach.

marks,

small scar

left hand,

=

Q? Ash 1

/,§b .fh5l38,

f7i§. review records of Ddtroit the Police Department, number their
on May 25, 1933 and disposition thereof, and to furnish » f ;
2 -2-

Office for any pertinent information concerning W.D. FARD or WALLACE DO1*I_~I.Di-&#39;1sLACE FARAD. Detroit is also requested to

Detroit is

reouested to

review the

indices of

their 1

and ascertaincircumstances concerning FARD&#39;s arrest
Chicago

Q,-If? a photographavailable. if

w<
00005

_ _

57 &#3

.0

CG 100-33683

Police

Los Angeles is requested to review Los Angeles Department record number l6hq8, and advise Chicago of the circumstances surrounding the arrest of FARD for AD and disposition thereof. It is also requested that e Photograph
if available, be furnished. San Francisco is requested a photograph. to contact officials

at San Quentin Prison Chicago circumstances
and if available, furnish

and review their file #u231u, and advise surrounding the.incarceretion of FARD,

It is
of this letter. letter in

requested that all Offices
furnishgi the

receiving copies /y
by /
I

requested information

/

. suwl-In f

-3..

i

1&#39; _ I

W- I,ii

._Q°9°5 7 3%

8.1.8. élaicage

.li=.agu..at 195? 29.

U-68/A0, Detroit _ loo-26356!
U. D.
BI

IABD, II.
I01

£11000

II!!!

Reference il
with reepeet to captioned
A reviee ct

made to _rour letter ct
suueet.
Detroit mdicee retlecte

N1;
that

31, 1957.
Ghieago

hae received

01&#39;! 1G&#39;e

all

intelligence

available in

,

the tilee

ct thil

Department,"tnct__3ubJect an
Department for Investigation
Departnent H5136, nae

Investigative 1957.aacertained tree De
mum m

cr the vccacce.

then ceecratec

at the Iranore

Ilay 1&#39;5,

__ _

August 9 1-cit §c1ice
as an 33. 5&#39; B".
Hotel ae chier
BI that

Police

De artnen t tilee . A thotcgraph Jea t tainted at lab t -* Ili 1&#39;:-mathe Department tcrearaed trcit l&#39;clice ie being ea an eneloeure herewith. -

1.35 lb-an Arabian anceetry, sinister. Io diepoeiticn appeared and no other Getaile were available free the Detroit

* Detroit Ole D the

reflect identifiable any E? with Subject. iaatent
D us» e%EDF&#39;|N92§uQ
at

H.-.&#39;"r..&#39;t Ga-tat: 3..-eat 9 1957. advieee Iaveet 1. that department hi

.
.

-m=.:;e.fc lncl-l&#39; §0P"""E n:a1t&#39;rz:zID 92 D &#39;= ®DI t&#39;. 1 mmvoawmon
1 Q.
j
_-___-_

KM-W

4

_!F

was

-

DIRECTOR, FBI
sic, SLR clsco
.... "*" D F
SH 00!

B/27/51 6
00-i3165! 0

D
to Detroit

insuromnou EONTMNHJ |4£R£1NlSU [M8
dated July 31, 1957-

I01 CHICAGO

Re Uhioego letter

4%

5
Sen Quen eble to

195?

De

SID.
These redorde reflect that

tion oerteining to HALLIE
under-the name of WALLIE D.

ornie,

} Record: Section,
made avail-

FORD, indicnted as the true name or the Qubjeot, he wee received at Sen Quentin Penitentiary June 12, 1926, from Loe Angelee County, California, where he had been convicted for a violation
of the State P0180 Act. These records further indicated that

wereborn in awqii,
operator or
Reoe

FORD wee born at Portland, Oreoon, on February 25, 1891, his tether boinx ZARED FORD mother, BEATRICE FORD, both of whom

ZIRED PORD&#39;e weelisted ee occupation
works, Honolulu, Hewaii. The

the

Ford

Bottling

following

deeoription
Oeoupetion

was noted

relative

to HALLIE D. FORD:

Height Height
Complexion
?*F

White

E7! Hair
Marital Status

F3» :18"
~
;

children i
lduoetion
I

Maroon Black
Married

n:,2..:--

Porler Andria:

I

hzbiio animals,nu-time,
Orege.

One

age S b

1926.

-~

hhl Iount Eagle Flees, Lee Angelee, Celitornie» concerning
information

When intervilled by Qelitornie State Parole Authorities hie peat, the reeerde indicate that FORD furnished
es fellows:

-.

:§92.92-2 1&1-r
I. 92-

I I
Bureau RIG!

"-1 . -J ll

Q i

1 - Ohieego - Detroit

ioo-33683! Into! am!

Rm!

"?~%""
so-I

t
He wee born in Portland, Oregon, in 1891,
which time BARTONin Lee
he resided until the

and
time

_

lived
to the

in that

city until
area where

1913, et

he moved Angelle:

Lea Angelou

or hil

arrest. He

married HAZEL

and she was 26 ycere of
reelited from thie union. According to

age at that
San Quentin

time» One
recorde, Dietriot

child

Attorey_EEIEB Loo Angelo: or County, proeeoutor in
th ubjoet&#39;e oeee, node he following ethtement concern-

ing the

crime, "Thin

defendant bed

in hie

poeeeeeion

drugs which hie partner sell to police officers when they detected one refused to go through

EDWARD DOHALDSON offered to for $225. They became euepioioue of the officerh hendcuffe and with the deal. Officers found

the drugs

at FORD:
Sen Quentin

place of

buaineeet"
that while in that

records reflect

institution, letters good character

were received attesting to from the following lndividunlll

FORD&#39;e

Hrs. HAZEL E. OSBORNE former wife!, who Itated in eubetanoe that FORD did not drink, emoke, or gable. He was morally e good men that beoeueo he wee teapernental,
their nerriego resulted in divorce.

Hrs. MARY BROWN of Lee Anqelea, FORD had been like one of our family for Mrs. PEARL MOHTQN of Lee Angelou,

who eteted ten years." who wrote

that on

Hey 23, 1927, "lfheve known hip to ll yoere; my mother and I hath always been very 1&#39;ond_o_1 hm"-always -

treated him ea one

or fhe family... &#39; "

.

while incarcerated wee employed in the jute mill
-I

at Han Quentin, the ubject and as a roed worker.
indicate that FORD Iae

.Sm

Quentin reoorde

releeeed true
furniehed itroit

San Qnntin I11

2?, 1929.

ilroruetionAngelte forthiseeeiatenoe in eopiee of oomonication are and Lea their ,.
instant eaee.
noted that the records er San Quentin It is

investigation of Prison ere

currently being

oonaolideted with

other etete

_ ""-*-"*&#39;*-W

3%»

4 SF
=_-

af
Fiiiii at
tine. Efforts

3165
vacivilla, Galirarnia,
of tha Subject is
will be nude in

and aaaaeqasntly
available at
the immediate

as
to

photograph

the Prnlont
nature

obtain I.
Office at
are tiled

photogxnmh or
and nude

FORD from the State
when than 5&2

hoard:
record!

Vaolfillo, Galifornia,
available-

s..~.1>: m:=.1.=c-1&9:
U111 obtain I photograph

_&#39;
of HALLIE D. FORD,

£*.T*V!sC19292Tl,1e!El"2_¢ GAL£155F.1A Sm Quentin number 142311;.

$

+@a@wI

J 53.

.J-

i

"&#39; ma

r 1-n

OF

FI

C E M

E M

O R.A

N D

U M

* UNITED

STATES GOVERNMNT

,1 I

- 1-921-1--|&#39;n92nmn-re 1 J-JJ.I&#39;UIaUJ.UI&#39;l

FROM

2

SUBJECT

2

.SAC, CHICAGO oo-33e83! W. D. FARD ALLINFORMWON

0.0.- Chicago
Reference San
For the

SECURITY - NOI HWQLEEMAMQHW MATTER
UM -392J¥§
Francisco letter
as s result ofee

comma, cl

4}

<>
r

to Bureau 8/27/57.
Portland, and

for Chicago was the it Office, a that suggested errerh/ concerted
Washington Field Offices, recent inspection
be made to determine the whereabouts the founder of the Nation of Islam of W. NOI! D. FARD, reportedly
-.-Ht-"hie

information of

the Honolulu,

the National
Michi an

According to

leader of

the NOI,

speeches and

"ALLAH" ,csm_e__to Detroit,

writings of

ELIJAH MUHAMMAD,

MUHAMMAD cleims that FARD
by t

who Egught MUHAMMAD, years concerning him; for three ls1am.zi

from_Meegg in

1930 infthelnersonlofnone

W, D.

FARD,

fr at which
he D etro has
to Mecca.

he &#39; disappeared and
that time.

Chicigo, Il1ino{s,F1FD*thugEt

it P 0 1 D epar Z ice

tsnghtllglsg in an, time heDetroigigighi leeve_ was asked15§,_tr_,9 to
tt meng an TYDDB &#39;1 su sequent

nothing, has

Islhm until

been heard

193k, at which time
from him since
returned

yqcame 0 t

also indicated

that FARD

* 2-I

Bureau REGISTERED!

Detroit 00-263S6! REGISTERED! Honolulu AIR MAIL-REGISTERED! Los Angeles 05-h805! REcIs&#39;rEREn! San Francisco-00-h3l65! REGISTERED!

Portland nncxprmsn!

Q-Ii

CG 100-33603
Investigation in this matter indicates that W. D.

FARD may be identical

with one

WALLQIFORD, FBI #5eoea, who

was arrested
Poison Act
to six

Department, their number l60h8, violation of the State for
and subsequently h23lh.
Relet indicates that the records of the San

on February

15 1926,

by the

Los Angeles

Police

received

a sentence

of one-half

years at

San Quentin

Prison, San

Quentin, California,
Quentin

their number Prison, their

number h23lh,

for WALLIE

D. FORD indicates that

the subject
June 12,

was received
1926, from

at San Quentin Penitentiary 25, 1691,

on at Portland,

indicate

that FORD

was born on February

Los Angeles,_California.

These records

Oregon, and and father, Prison records

his parents were listed as mother, BEATRICE FORD, ZARED FORD, both of whom-were born in Hawaii. reflect that ZARED FORD&#39;s occupation was

listed as

the operator

of the that he 1926. "He
this time

Ford Bottling resided in
and one

Works, Honolulu, Portland, Oregon, BARTON,.age 26,
* ,resulted child,

Hawaii. When concerning his

interviewed by California State Parole Authorities past, the prison records indicated that FORD

furnished information

from 1591, to
until his
in Los

1913, at
arrest in union. FORD The prison

which time
was released records reflect

he mcved tc L55 Angeles
from San Quentin on May

married HAZEL

Angeles during

from this

the following

description

of FORD:

Race: Hhite

H°1Sht=_; 5&#39;
Heighttl 133

Occupation: Cook

6 3/8
lbs.

,.»~~»

Gomplexfon: Dark

Eyes: Maroon
Hair: Black Marital Status: Married

Children: One,

age 5 hhOl Mount
Oregon

- 1926 Eagle Place

Education: Public
Former Address:

schools, Portland,

Los Angeles, California :3

-2 _ 00012

<5I

.~_= _._._-

vi

CG 100-33633

The attention

of the

Detroit Office

is called

to

Detroit letter

enclosed three

copies of

to Chicago

an article

dated October

of "The

31, 1955,

American Journal

which

ERDMANN DOANE BENYDN. This article was obtained from the Detroit Board of Education and contains information relating to the background of the NOI concerning its origination and heliefs. 5 review of this srticle indicates thst the anther, BENYDH, apparently wrote this article in August, 1937, and

of Sociology, "The Voodoo Cult

Volume XLIII, Among Negro

No. 6, Hay, 1938, entitled, Migrants in Detroit, by one

of Hi

connection With the end of the
chigan. "

it is

belionithat BENYQE

thifiversity cfHI¬E1gan,inasmuch as st article there appeared the words, University

may have had

at thatetime

some

requested to
letter.

All offices receiving copies of this letter conduct investigation set forth and reply

are by

DETROIT OFFICE

AT ANN ARBOR,
Hill make

MICHIGAN
the University If-a record of Hiehigan is located,
and at the L

92
to inquiry

inquiry at

determine if
at the
should be

ERDHAHH DOHHE BENTON was ever enrolled
made of BEN!DN&#39;s&#39;former associates

or employed

University of-Michigan.

alumni office to determine it his present whereabouts are known. If BENYDH is located in the Detroit Division, he should be interviewed for all information he nsy&#39;possess concerning H. D. FARD and the Nation of Islam. Special attention should be
I

I y

paid to e may

BEHYOH&#39;s sourcesof the

information appearing

;.li.is within the

ticle and outlined above.

to any I

notes, docuents
If BENTON

or other

research material ~

Detroit Division, leadshould be forhis intertiew F set as

have retained.

does notThoi*reside

92
-3 -

,

J I

x

ooo1sd3%5

1--I

CG 100-33683
HONOLULU orrxcs

AT HONOLULU HAWAII ,
will determine if there is,

_
or ever was, a

Ford Bottling Works located in Honolulu. determine who the present officers of-this
and will interview them concerning

If so, will company are,
BEATRICE

ZARED and

FORD and concerning WALLIE D. FORD. It should be determined whether the FORDs or any of their relatives are still alive and if any information concerning WALLIE D. FORD is known. If any relatives or if WALLIE D. FORD are located, consideration should be given to interviewing
them to determine if WALLIE D. FORD is idntical with W. D. of

FARD, and,
founding of

if

so,
the

for

any information
If Honolulu is

concerning
not in

his

NOI.

possession

information concerning W. and such information is Honolulu should request

D. FARD&#39;s founding necessary to conduct same from Chicago.

of the N01 an interview,

Credit and criminal checks FORD, BEATRICE FORD and WALLIE
if deemed advisable.

concerning ZARED D. FORD should be conducted,

LOSiANGELESOFFICE
, Tl

I

..

AT L03 AHGELE5,QALIFQRNIA &#39;
92 ,-

It
reflect that WALLIE

is

noted
D,

that
FORD

records
had been

at

San Quentin
married to

Prison
HAZEL E.

OSBORN at Los Angeles,

possibly
one child

around 1920,

and that

they
five

were divorced
* FORD was the

sometime prior
father of

to 1926.
which

It

is also noted that
have been

would

years
attempt

of age in 1926,

Losgangeles should check
to locate a record of

marriage records to
the marriage of WALLIE D. FORD

..1,-

_

iiiiaiimfe--

4

00014 -"mwWiimMW,%WiW-¬3.
B

-

--~--* >_-

L

5.-n

UG lUU-JJODJ

an I14

nqln

and HAZEL

E, OSBORNE,

possibly around

the year

1920.
for

e
From

Los Angeles
born to

should also

check birth
FORD*s divorce

records for

the child

FORD and

should check

divorce records

information concerning

from OSBORNE,

these records all background information concerning FORD, OSBORNE and the child should be obtained. Logical investigation should then be conducted to locate OSBORNE and the child, If they can be located, they should be
interviewed for WALLIE D. FORD,
PORTLAND OFFICE

all information

they can

furnish about

AT PORTLAND, OREGON
*| I&#39;D .-."-.-.»Il.-.1-CIA .|_;. u.vu..|..l._a.u4.w9 -1-:11 .-.-l--I-,....,92-,4» nl..l.|. uuuwuayu -I-A 1»-Q;-.-. uu J-LJUGUU

I.
.. u. UJ-L uu.nah.--A I--I-9-I-L. .|.wuu1-v-A

for WALLIE

D, FORD reportedly
If available,

born February
will review
therein.

25, 1891,

at

Portland, Oregon.
Public School records
E t

for any
at!!-

information identifiable
r

with FORD

and report

information contained

If deemed logical, will
checks concerning
BEATRICE FORD.

conduct credit and
and mother,

criminal
ZABED and

FOQD and

his father

sin Faigclsco
-I

OFFICE

l AT
Prison to
incarceration at

SAN QUENTIN, OALIFORHIA
Will_check the
detdrmine if

subject&#39;s record at San
there were any addresses
O

Quentin
listed for

HAZEL E, OSBORNE, Angeles, California,

San Quentin.

MARY BROWN,PEARL MORTON, all of Los who corresponded with FORD during his

&#39;5&#39; 00015
T57

PR?-&#39;§:-q._,-,.. ,_ 92.

,4-I

--u

CG lOO~33683
WASHINGTON FIELD OFFICE

_ R

T UQVQ

5 will
State Department
or W. D0 FARAD

make inquiryat --the Passport Divisionof the
for any
or W.

record identifiable
or MUHAMMAD.

with W.

D. FARD

FARD MOHAMED

QJ92 I--

I--2"»

LU/LO/D!

-..-4

I.

TO: DIRECTOR,

FBI

FROM: SAC,

Los NGELES

05-M805!

L .EFT-aceFred 11,rordi CFO Dodd ]<%ll@+ L{_,,Q,_1iE;r,o A
"&#39;NOI -D - SM
OO: CHIC GO!

CHANGEDD.FARD,was M 1 :II. 1 I
&#39;~* G5

L1: ,1, 35 HE-FE 0 ,55 &#39;

n0RV¥WCN CONTMNED

1 §=i!

UA? 5Y

G

"P-""-"-

Q
to Bureau1Q/3/57!
is being marked "Changed" and

Re Chicagoletter
The title of this case

LA 105-SSOR _r Los Angeles; race white, age 26, born in New Zealand, occupation restaurant keeper; mother = maiden name HAZEL BARTON, 34? South
Flower Street,
Los

occupation Angeles.

none.

race

white,

The birth

age 25,

was certified
at 1521
certificate

born state

on 9/2/20
South

of

New York,

by HARLEY

E. MacDONALD, physician,with
Attached to the

offices
above birth

Hope Street,
was an amend-

ment to the certificate dated EVELSIZERof H776 Hub Street,
DODD FORD, who was born
day of September, 1920,

T/1O/HO, filed by HAZEL FORD Los Angeles, mother of WALLACE
city
in

in
as

the

of Los Angeles
the certificate

on the
of birth

first

stated

filed
r ad

by HARLEY MacDONALD 9/2/20. E. on
hose"ife Affiant of the above

tThe amended birth
to read: of mother
birth

certificate changed the original name of child, WALLACE AAX FORD;

certificate occupation
amended

Full changed to

to

certificate

was HAZEL FORD EVELSIZER of A 76 Hub Street.

on

92 7/1/40 4
to for

-L I ri CLTFFORDEVELSI5ER
County oi Los

It
of

was sworn

scribed in and

the abore iniormation
the SE

of H776 Hub Street on T/1/A0 before
State

also subnotary public

Angeles, 7

California.

53¢
/

* 10,15/57 of the Los Ange es County Marriage Recor s for the d . . J 2 period 1/1/12 through 12/Q1/ 6, and of the Los Angeles County

_caused a

checkmade to be on
to 12/31/30, and
that
she

Superior Court

Divorce Records for 1/1/14

no record of marriage or divorce was found between FARD or FORD and HAZEL BARTON, HAZEL FORD or HAZEL OSBORNE. Mrs CLIFFORD EVELSIZER,
1 t

who stated
time

her full

6~7 92

Pen
f o

at her residence, Hub 4476 Street, LosAngeles, SA by
own* g information: 1 _

ENE WS HAZEL BARTON

FORD OSBORNE EVELSIZEH, WES interviewed
which

October a _ 17,957:
&#39; f

_

furnished

_

1
Los

the

Her

maiden

name was HAZEL BARTON.

in 1919

in

Angeles she met WALLACE 34? South Flower Street,
-I

FORD who was operating a cafe at Los Angeles. HAZEL began living
was an apartment above the cafe.

with
A

him and their

residence

male child
WALLACE DODD took the child Her second

was born on 9/1/20

in Los Angeles and was named

FORD. In 1921 or 1922 she moved out on FORD and with her. She continued to live in Los Angeles. "husband" was OSBORNE who lived six months and died,

and then she met&#39;her third
whom she is still employee of the

"husband,"

CLIFFORD EVELSIZER, with
a retired

living. CLIFFORD EVELSIZER is city of Los Angeles.

-2...

00918 330

LA 105-N805

The child
=5-

of FORD,

WALLACE DODD
of death of child

FORD, later
as set

known as
out above. Los

WALLACE MAXFORD, was in the U. S. Coast Guard during World war II and was killed at Linhaven Roads, Virginia, on 8/3/A2.
HAZEL has documentary proof Infonmation re subject&#39;srecord criminal under

Angeles Police

Department No. 164A? is set

out in Los Angeles

letter to Chicago dated the LAPD on ll/1?/18 and sale.
the

8/26/5?. for assault

WALLEIFORDwas arrested by with a deadly weapon and td a one dollar
hundred the

was released. He was again arrested on l/20/26 for violation of the woolwine Act California prohibition law!, possession

On 3/A/26 he was sentenced
on count l

fine or

one day in for term of

Jail

and to a four

dollar fine State

or 180 days in jail
third from time six

on count
by the

2.
LAPD for six

On 2/15/26
violation of years

he was arrested

Poison Act -a

felony. He
months to

was sentenced on
on 6/12/26.
as male,

5/28/26

to a
at

and was received

San Quentin State Penitentiary from San Quentin on 5/27/29.
HAZEL described FORD

He was released
New Zealander,

white,

exact age unknown, 58", curly hair, black eyes,
Caucasian features, complexion, had the
Mexican.

1&0 pounds, slender build, beautiful even teeth,

black straight nose,

no visible appearance of

scars, extremely swarthy a very dark complected

Oregon at

HAZEL advised that FORD had come to Los Angeles from least four or five years before she met him in 1919

and had been operating of birth,
PI-"5!

his

cafe at 3&7 South Flower Street,
never told her anything mentioned his date or place

Los Angeles, during tnat period. FORD about his background. He never

education,;parents,
she found an old letter

brothers

or sisters. On
to him under

one
the

occasion

addressed

name of FRED DODD in Salem, Oregon. By reading the letter she knew without question in her mind that FRED DODD and WALLACE
FORD were
FORD while
-F

identical;
she knew

however,
him in Los

he always
Angeles.

used the

name WALLACE told her

HAZEL recalled
in about 1919 write letters or 1920 to his

that

a girl,

name unknown,

that she, parents in

the girl, had helped FORD New Zealand because FORD

had very littlefeducation
dence,
in

and had trouble
lived
birth from

with his
on the

corresponcame along

According
and

to HAZEL this
had
the came

unknown girl
FORD before HAZEL

had been a waitress
child HAZEL

FORD&#39;s cafe

with

From this and from assumed that FORD

certificate New Zealand.

&#39;3&#39;

"0919
3!

LA 105-#805
HAZEL recalled
a.-n

that
that

in

1919 when she first
been married,

moved in
in

with FORD

he mentioned

he had

possibly

f92-vgnn-nvwu -I-&#39;hI:.+ Is lJ.l.UUUJ- DCLJG-L G-l.a..l..92-H-.1. run G-.|.J.92v92 v92l4 J-92J192-J-I &#39;E_92f92DT&#39;92 ULCEULJ, Ulla-U I-Iv-um-n_nIJU-Ll I-92n.r~92v-92 -I--I-Av! l&#39;1r92&#39;I92l1>&#39;l_Ih-It BJLCLU ha:-I UUCJJ G la-I

had been unable

to obtain

a divorce,

and that

was one of

the
of

reasons she and FORD were never married. this marriage. HAZEL thinks the boy was

FORD had a boy born sometime prior

to 1914 or 1915, possibly In 1926

in Oregon. FORD, while operating his cafe, was

associated with a man who was half Chinese,and the two of them sold narcotics for which they were arrested and both sent to prison. The other person was paroled, but FORD t
HAZEL parole that as he would he wanted serve to be out his time and did not want a free man when he was released. a

After his release from San Quentin on 5/27/29

FORD

went to Chicago and was in Chicago and Detroit from then until 1932 when FORD visited HAZEL, her present husband and the child in Los Angeles. FORD was driving a 1929 Model A Ford coupe with California license plates. FORD had white sheets over the seats or the car. He left the sheets with HAZEL, saying that he would not need them any more as he was going

back to New Zealand.
used white sheets. and her family that
that this was his

FORD gave no explanation
of life. HAZEL

as to why he
that FORD

On this singular visit FORD advised HAZEL he was only eating one meal a day and
new way advised

was wearing
he had
Qa¥

his

hair

long
that

and full
conventional since his

in

the

back.
from

Previously
San Quentin

always

had

a short

haircut. release

FORD said

he had been selling doctors supplies. During this visit 1932 FORD gave HAZEL a small box containing selfrthreading

in

needles.

This box was postmarked Q/28/30 from the Marcellene
Richmond, Virginia,

Chemical Company, 1900 West Broad Street,
Illinois. HAZEL gave the the same is being retained
case.

and was addressed tp W. D.FORD, General Delivery,
box to the interviewing in the Los Angeles file

Chicago,

agent and in instant

HAZEL advised
to 1932. All
General

she corresponded with FORD from 1929
were addressed
Chicago, Illinois

of her
Deliveryvin

letters
either

to him care
or Detroit,

of
Michigan.

She correspondediwith FORD an average of once or twice on a
She tried
child. HAZEL

year.
the

to get
recalls

FORD to
that

send money for
when FORD did

the

support
he said

of
he

write

had

no money

to

send.

-4-

00020

LA 105-4805
Q-I

HAZEL advised FORD that never had unusual any
political, economic, he had never indicated
Mr. and

social or religious beliefs, any interest in such
Mrs. EVELSIZER are leaving

and that things.
Los Angeles on

10/21/57 for a winter vacation in trailer parks in Florida. They will return to Los Angeles on 4/15/58. In the interim
they can be contacted through P.O. Los Angeles 42, California. Enclosed
relet.

Box 4255H, ;

York Station, of

with this

airtel to
LEADS

Richmond is a copy
&#39;

Copies
Honolulu and

of this

airtel are
for their

being furnished
information in

to Detroit,
view of

San Francisco

the pending

investigation in

those offices.
_

PORTLAND OFFICE

will check

marriage records

in an

effort to

locate

a marriage

for FORD

sometime prior

to 1914

or 1915.

RICHMOND OFFICE

will contact the Marcellene Chemical Company, west Broad Street, Richmond, Virginia, and obtain any information they may nave concerning the subject, noting

they were in contact

with him on A/28/30 and that he was
during that period.

1900 background that

.I!HlI

allegedly selling

doctors&#39; supplies

WASHINGTON rists ORFICE f
will
the subject,
RUG.

check INS
noting that
&#39;

records for
he allegedly

any information
came from

concerning
New Zealand,

1 I

_5_ 00021
3°73

.c ,s,

1" :7: &#39;t- I; .231?-&#39; ,. --6? -._ <.A ..r _ J
21&#39; -.,=&#39;=.&#39;*LfI"&#39;-."_ 4 _ "&#39; r "-= , 5:5,. -&#39; 92 _-._ F _ -

c :~:§w&u1 ~a@¢e ~l&#39; +¢s -ia i czar micron, m ma. mm
5:4-rm OD Chicago! .

I

_

1 WJ~ ~

__

*

,5»? .e__¢_ 3i" ._ rV I __ &#39;- -,1 ,i=1 "&#39;:&#39;?;&#39;&#39; , J &#39; to
___

~

"y»<4~; K1 .¥R$?*¢op-=># ;iii*A§i sot ~_
A
&#39;1&#39; &#39;

-n..|i..1~__;;;H _=_.;..--- ,_ -w-_,--=2!-flj.-,_ I c

to-or#1.
V

S-&#39;1

.

~ &#39;

&#39; -

&#39; __
&#39; _

l

10/in/57

1__-

:; H
T

&#39;- sac, sueFRANCISCO 00-x!

Re Sen Francisco letter to Bureau B/27/57, and Chlcego letter to Bureau, 10/3/57¢
92

w

GuidanceReceptlon and
. reception center. &#39;

&#39; -

Q1 19/ll/57

photograph of HALL? FORD, D. 5QI%23lk, pho which
IQ; "taken In June l926 when the
stated that
¢

vacevllle, made tosl California avallahle e
hls rrccrds

lfcrnle Medical rlllty,
tated

ldentlflcatlon

Oftlcer,

|=&#3

O

ubJect. was realved at the &#39;
indicate

1*
-_

~

L

01 [the 8ubJect. The aforementioned photograph is enclosed
."
Quentin

on _ the

the ; 5ubJect cha inDetrolt, . ihelrthat Q5133 was !m.ed r 1 :1 Michigan. 92. l .5 number u

authorities

rgenight have a more recent photograph 6§ 92Ge, o nvee on ca _sugges ed V* ~

-Qilcago o_1&#39;flces_ :ZI3&#39;¢ ..
Prison

On m 1e/9/57.
advlsed that

R

Les Aagelee addressee for MARYRRCIIN PEARLHORTON. The or only address contained in the San Quentin le _tor HAZEL OSBORNE, nee -BARTON, was llsted as M01 Mount Eagle Place,

records

ecores San Section,
contain no

7; ;__;" in

_< c

l

Les Angeles, C-alltornlas
. -s

P

7

L552

an ALL mfonwmoa" com

DETROIT or-&#39;F1c:£
AT DETROIT. MICHIGAN

PD under PD f1;5l3B a more recent-plograph
_ RL&#39;C-

illl

attempt to locate

through the les or

of the Subject. Z

the Detrolt i

&#39;"5

é Fit-:3: M !
yes Qngeles

2- alien -

10 1

&#39; q

_ x 5/ /5&#39;T "52&#39;" ""&#39; &#39;
H &#39; ,. 5"f __n

" 2 - San frenclscc 00-31356}

__ _ __ ____

l.l&#39;llllllul" ___ "&#39;

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___________,_,._._-

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00922ii:&#39 i &#

1+-

I

I
anon» 22, 1957

&#39;nn-us», rm
1--I

1

1II. 0.

an-» nor &#39; 0 00: _,l&#39;-$10100 _

I-an

ran.

0 mmmmmcomuua - 0 92

0HE!

,

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L-*==0/13/&#39; I-!&#39;¥1§O§Il&#39;O 00001:;-&#39; an intaat" :1 ."0 igflwlgiln1 an 0 I pap on
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&#39; _

BunFrancine lott-or ta Dana innmt caption &#39;3
J
at: out a load

201100 licpnagtlnnt Bl-pilbnill an individualman Detroit
F3 Ha. u,513u iii of the Subject. 0&#39; an i?-iiiiai $tl,i5%i-1-&#39;5. i i-saint For the info:-as

for

the Detroit

Office

to locate

a filo

at the Detroit

ihakagra-;-;&#39;a

.

F

m4nm1£._19S7. I°lI=Ii1I&#39;<! 1&#39;1"»! Pltvvlllv D0£I&#39;01t T5116! iln, snorted 25,Di I R, ll , Dotroit Io. £538,In PD
nr than lab ct

he Buroqu and San Francisco,

uni
<

1933

57 that

as nu:

thpartnnnt

_¢rtho 7006000.

for

innltigltion

=|-nun nu than dnacribod .

at the Praynori

0.; 140 3_!;"5&#39;,8&#39;= &#39;.A_=11;i.n.p. e!I.lQQt_L.L92 1-35.LL-an _I=;92.1_1ea..=!&#39;!=
gin-0 mi ninintu-.i Io dinpouiticn spun-ad and no hr dllila In-0 lfiillbll from the Gaps:-taunt £1100. A phoiog"npb_ or tho lubjoct was lbtainod from the
IIIILBI; __<_

.: =1» ma;-3"?» 193:.
1. II uqibu i Bali

gffoit

Polio: Dopgfhgonf mdkngkfgrwudzd its Ehicaga to
tut

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i

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in tout!

the chow-panama

run

1111

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O F

F I

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M E

M O R A N

DU M

UNITED STATES

GO92IER19211I_EHI

FROM= ssc,CI-IIGAG too-33663!

TO DIRECTOR, = FBI DATE: /6%;Q/5
WALLACE no FORD, was., P

SUBJECT: "cssncsra"Q "
w; D. Far , "Allah",

W, F raud,wsllei Ford, D. WsliMohammad, F. Mohammad_A1i,
Farr ad, Mohammad SECURI/TY MATTER -ZNOI

M0h&I1il1B.dFarad, HEREIN! Dodd, DAT Y LJN£LASS¥% Wali Ali,Fred Far Wallace ad,
-as |q£@ "
Qhicago
I

ALLlNFORMAT|ONCON_T]92 _=_____

OO $

1957, Los Angeles airtel

Re Chicago letter

to Director dated October 18, 1957.

to Director

dated October 3,

The title of this case is being marked "Changed" to list the subject&#39;s true name_as WALLACE DON FORD and to include all aliases by which he has been known. This name and list of aliases was obtained from a review of the Chicago files, however, documentation for each of the above -aliases is not being included in this letter.
r

The subject
this letter as W.

shall be

referred to

hereafter
&#39; -

in

D. FARD.

- Bureau

REGISTERED!

- Richmond.

- Portland ?REGISTERED!
- Washington Field REGISTERED!
Info! REGISTERED!

- Baltimore - Detroit

REGISTERED! 00-26356! sssxswsmn!

évc 2%-2060?I i
- Chica o

//;~&#39;. -/1

_" f

/

qM,__7
r
--

92>.l»<#*", O55

i-92+m3t*m~%Zfiz°
L

CG 100-33683

information

For the information of Baltimore, concerning the Nation of Islam
According to the speeches

the following is being supplied:
of ELIJAH

andiwritings

MUHAMMAD, the National
Detroit, Michigan to leave
has been

leader

of the NOI,
in

"Allah"
the

came to
of .

Michigan,

from Mecca in 1930,

person

one W. D. FAED, and taught MUHAMMAD for three years Islam. MUHAMMAD claims that FARD taught Islam
from 1930 until 1933, at which Detroit by the Detroit Police
heard from him since.

concerning in Detroit,

time he was asked Department. He
indicated that

subsequently came to Chicago, Illinois, where he taught Islam until l93h, at which time he disappeared and nothing
MUHAMMAD has

FARD returned
NOI,

to Mecca.
referred

In the current
to

philosophy

of the
NOI

W. D. FARD is

as the founder

of the

and the Savior

of the "so-called"

Negro.

" was obtained a from
The Moorish Science Temple of America himself NOBLE DREW ALI. MSTA!

=___492
;

war II

of a

flourished Chicago thelate 1920&#39;s leadership in in under the
Negro calling

the Bureau conducted extensive investigation
infer

During world

of
,

1,

J =
.

in that organization. The following

the MSTAbecause of_the possibilities

of Japanese influence,Y

/f

_

review of Chicago files: to the report of SA
at Detroit entitled INTERNAL SECURITY OVERTHROWOR DESTRUCTION OF

16,
was., ET DITION; , Detro

is

19L;3,"-.,_AL;

f/_9292

kcsly
MW
I

D

-6603. Page of M

nterv
The attent

it

Divi

e ro

t,

Mi

-advised

of the mewsTemple

, t-,..,...--;a_ .._

-_

_

an-I

cs 100 53683 Pontiac, Michigan. years previously
whom he believed

/Q

We

an
to

be an Algerian,
having many members leave
4-L... UHU fL92-In.-....». UHLU5U

According individual by
the
r"92-D-P-I1-ah-I... ULLLUU LS

several

was instruetal
affiliate

ARD phoneti C}s
in
themselves
.-. fl "3 H U"Q

MSTA and

with a

group which
A1,...-. L§U

he referred

to as "Mooselems".
-Q-H-.v-.4-as-I-.~~---T,92-. A4 in PUSSUUULUH UL

report

dated December 30, 1950, at Detroit,

Michigan, which

reflects that in 1930 a man calling himself W. D. FARD took over a group of Negroes which-had been organized by another Negro named NOBLE D. OLLIE. W. D. FARD is reported,tgLpe_

&#39; or aniger the

asthegfevelopnent ofOur Own,"

of both

the NQI andzangorgani§ati9n_known

%~

Zfpq anindividual of NAKA on been the host named SATAKATAwa., Satakata ashi.__é NAKANE, TAKAHASHI, founder Tak Gad having one Detroit Japanese further Dragonto the report Apparently, should "Black refer fSA §§5D4~ of the Society". k TAKAHASHI id and ABDULMUHAMM%Dt oge r in Detroit res ed e th
in the early 1 . In is connection, the attention

; The Chicago Division is also in possession of an ONI report dated October 13, l9h2, which lists one ABDUL MUHAMMAD, "first _a officer" of the NOI in Detroit, as

of the Detroit

Division is

directed

to

their

file

62-[O9

report
4&#39;

Page S8 in this interview
bribery, Upon going
TAKAHASHI

ofanknown organizationasthe on June ofpug "Development ownt,@;2$ report reflects that 29, 1939,
entry and attempted inspector. Upon

d ted March_}Q, l9hO,_gt Detroit in this ca _ reflects that NEKKNE was instrumental in the formatio

TAKAHASHI was arrested for illegal bribery of United States Imigration

by a Bureau Agent
TAKAHASHI stated to etroit
contacted one

following
in 1930 in Tacoma, that

his
in the

conviction
Tacoma, early

for
Washington,

he became acquginted a Negro with Minister,JOHN WHITE.
from 1930&#39;s, among
ABDUL MUHAMMAD because MUHAMMAD

that

had written

WHITE requesting

a Japanese

work

vi

CG 100-33683 the Negroes in Detroit. TAKAHASHI

hEV1Q%_%52Q_lg_5Q -~
of this report reflects
ti h

but left s

because he considered
i*"on.

that ABDUL
o th D e et ro

him a fraud

resided with MUHAMMAD /93:53
D is deceased, QQ&#39; 7077
~

Page 60

,,

n ormat

c &#39;my----" and to

.1-4&#39;"""&#39;,_lV7.H

Th e attent

if on

ii t Divis

on

if s urther

lH_.»;:*,tl{-of and dated 27, 19u2, October at
~ Detroit

directed to

Detroit ile

number 100-§ZBl

the report

éC7 ~ AMERICAN NEGROES IN DETROIT THE DIVISION". Page 5 of

entitled FOREIGN

INSPIRED AGITATION

AMONG THE

lmfou was intervie ch time at SAs /ow I APPACANIS ed Detroit by tttttd ht
that e was National Executive Secretary of the organization

this report

reflects that

on September

9, 19b2,

one

known as the "Development
the organization
leadership of
stated that
him that

of Our Own". APPACANIS joined
1935, when
after his at which

in about

it was

under the
APPACANIS
told
into

one MUHAMMAD, who died in
MUHAMAD&#39;s wife,
MUHAMMAD had taken one

about 1935.
death, had

SATAKATA TAKAEASHI

his home

when TAKAHASHI

was ill two of

time TAKAHASHI

learned the
when he was
in mind

principles of
_ &#39; that the

MUHAMAD&#39;s organization and
with the thought
the them.could utilize

wel1,approached* MUHAMAD,

organization to wife related
??"II

make a great deal of money. MUHAMMAD&#39;s that QUHAMMAD refused this approach.
of thisfletter is being directed to the

A copy

Richmond Division~for
is presently pending in

information inasmuch
that Division. requested to review all information

as investigation
their indices appearing concerning

Request of
if The and furnish

Bureau

Bureau is Chicago with

the subject
of this this letter

under the

known aliases
view of D. FARD

listed in

the title

letter. In that W,

the implications may possibly

furnished in have been instrumental

_ u -

- ----

-

~ ----~--..--l

--92.a.,..__._ |.A..,__,..___..,_,,_,,.,,_.,,,_,_,_.,_._,,_;.._ ---. . _, ____ _= _

00027 377

Iav-

....

.. .1

_- -

92

xi

CG 100-33683

Attache Tokyo determine who was at if NAKANE, reported g//&#39; deported from United the States to Japan, is alive/@J=4£ still 1717 and if so to interview him for-any information he might
possess concerning W. D. FARD.

in the of Our

founding of the organization known as the "Development Own, the Bureau is requested to consider having our -

§n§19v§1s9Peg1les_sds i
Ehe_Baltimore Division
will check the files of G-2 for all information

appearing concerning and the
information appearing

information appearing concerning his founding of the NOI
"Development of Our Own. If the source of the
in the G-2 report dated December 30,

H. D.

FARD and especially for

any

1950 at Detroit, mentioned if that source is available

above, is shown, should determine and be contacted by the Bureau.

The_Detroit Division
Will attempt to

who was reported in l MSTA Temple
"F4,.

l9h3
led a schism of W. D. FARD,
MSTA.

Q

Detroit Police Department Number to h5l3g, determine if
this is the person that led the schism from the

at Pontiac, Michigan. I located, he should-be thoroughly int information he possesses concerning the fact that one FARD from the MSTA. Heshould be shown a hotograph

0; -5-

00028

L; to

i

co 100-33683
The Detroit
their file on SATAKATA

92 1 ,7c
ivision
TAKAHASHI

should
to

thoroughly review
determine if the ABDUL .

W-Dd-;FF&#39;D e1=I";*?1Y1P_1= ind .lTlYT=?15.eiI&#39;_sthis gasp-II: furjthei
3 a d1oqa_te_1:hensmz.nce.a@,t,he. info_r;1la_g ion 1&3MUHAT"9TII£TD_wandit9§9 indic&#39;atin&#39;g in Mmgluoazggggqiea.-.=1p_ th_atWA}§DIlL in insane 0 f92aA"l~" I. MUHAMMAD mentioned file @06161aent1EEIGI§"@»¢ that be Pi
&#39; . q-L-1% u1~" "¥-&#39;. ~

&#39;7 locate thegQQ§HAAPPACANI§kmention9dgingpnis letter to f/and,if informationaBlet5l5Eateshould4B§9itervie they he possesses him, MEHAMMADJ are he -1" for all concerning g2k_
W,_Q.nEARD-is_identigal;gith

ShQQlQ_hB~8h0Nn-8~PhQLQ5§§EQmQf W.mQ._Eg5Qtomdeterm;neI if is noted that
in the

The Detroit Division is requested to attempt
the Detroit5ffIE¬_i§s
of the

lie Q,/13

it

MUHEHMAD. In this
organization

formerly

connectihn

office

of

origin

investigation

known

as

Z in:§§§;§n§§ngiof this Ergatiatreh asgasgrggorted*intHe§§{5
this file to det§rmin§:1Y W. D. FARD es_a§§§gllj;}nstrumental
Division
Reference is made to the lead set forth to the

the Dejglgpmentnn£_Qgr

Oyn",

Detgqit

Qff1ce_§hpgld

rgyiew

a1.§°V° IY1§_1&#39;iti°_11°d?§*9l1QP-Qi WW whmw

%n&#39; Vt -,

The Portland

"&#39;

&#39;91!

marriage locate a
the they birth

Division in referenced Los Angeles airtel. The Division is requested to attempt to locate a for W. D. HARD sometime prior to l9lh, and to birth of a male child born to FARD sometime prior to 191M. In this connection, it should be noted that referenced airtel reflects that W. D. FARD may have used the name FRED DODD and may have lived at Salem, Oregon. If any information concerning W. D. FARD&#39;s marriage or
of his child is located, Portland should conduct

Portland Portland

logical investigation child and then should
may possess
T

to locate interview

the former wife and the them for any information

concerning

W. D. FARD.

-5-

14¢!

n-1

CG 100-33683

The Washington Eipld Division

A

Will check the records of ONI for any information they may possess concerning W. D. FARD and for any information that might be shown concerning his founding of the NOI and any indication that W. D. FARD might be identical
with the ABDUL MUHAMMAD mentioned in should be the above determined if mentioned

ONI report
sources of

as being

a "first

officer" with
they are

the NOI.
available

The

ONI&#39;s information

possible and should be determined if to be contacted by the Bureau.

I

I F

I

T l
_T _

4

00030

-.-

____ _ _ _ __ __ _7 _»_

F a1Lvmmn"

_ -._ ._ ___- __.__

_ _...._ ..... ..

..._ ___.___.._-_a_ ____,7 ._.,__.-___.._._iA--.._..,.,_,... .j_.

Qiff F927[?m0rzmdum s&#39;m&#39;rs ~11 UNIIED W
J

To .
0 :Al

SAC, DETROIT 00-26356»! na&#39;rn=

December 11, 1957

- IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII--___§C% 1" nu
sU3Jnc&#39;1&#39;: watmcs N DON FORD, was.
SM - NOI _

mg 4 r_Li 92moRMn192uu_C§
&#39; T!
. -p e

___ ---

Re Chicago letter to

the Breau,

October 30, 1957.

L Photo of WALLACE D. FARAD, in 1933, contained in l-A
§££lEl_3 P I

fEg-§67O*
4>

ii
&#39;IL MO W on August 5, MME s a e

Report of S June
nis slave name was

1

"92W cc Chicago, re W 5 , upD, as w . be was born near Sandersville, Ga., WILLIE POOLE.

1, 192,IE£ E-Jalsitginggo d
1891 and
advised
- -,.-I"

WILLIE MOHAMMED

1.4.9 mwv n4..u..:.n.u. us.I1. u.

hm &#39;...=+"I921&#39;TALI" A-.,1.1 1&#39;92 &#39;r:Ir92&#39;n&#39;|&#39;92 -2.... -|n n..+.-,..-1+ -:..-.

runu .|.u.

uwua. u.1.u 4.1.1 4.7

ELL;
. 5_

1

e I &#39; :1-Q. a-.

,1 -3 V. -1 1
V

»-_ I,___ ._.,

Serial 10 63$

_ _,_&#39;:
WFOon Hay ll, 19h2

P_.____;&#39; _&#39;_ . a,92:___j&# ~ _ __ _ ,_ _ ;;
report states that a teletype w

GULAN BOGANS, was. as . is

we

13. lee.
§ 7_ on
Miehigaa,

&#39;; . .,¢

received from
further described!

stating that
in 1931 at Detroit,

GULAN BOGAHQ.
T_f

had been apprehended._ The Chicago Temple was located at 10L; East 51st Street. This
was folided in Detroit

of the moslems organization iiot arrested
Islam.

by N.

D. FARO.

F%RD was reported to
for teacaing

have been

tnree occasions

:. Q

Milwaukee teletype 2 fi
. -,1
F ail

on May 19, 19142, reflect that
oflslam and
reflect that
&#39;"

the re:
could be

-at l
V.-_._.
a _1 1» &#39; $.-

to be
.-ll

the Temple

the "ALLAH"

in Milwaukee

in all probability
&#39;

W. D.

FARD was report "92

located at

b026 Vernon Street, Chicago,

Illinois.

_ __ ,.r
K *2--&#39;.

$- Ls: . unu .~.92

g

._.":_¢? Q ..;"x_-5

1 4

uh _:.&#39;

&#39; ."1&#39 TY re? ;. 5| - &#39;. :, J.-_;L&#39;¢ = -1 1" u.-1,

4

1--nu 1

Serial lb

Qt
SA

Report of
re&#39;YILLIE

J

SS 92l._,_&#39;_I._¢ rcsssf" counts because Q6 refused &#39;GKaYsD rdvised he met

llllllllllllllllllnn .t
_ 92.,-.._ 1; -.---_- -~-J- . . W J. -41., -i "&#39; Q

s

lietroit, July l9l.;2, 10, "
A -92

This report
-1- .

.~&#39;r--: - 1 J

reflects that

ILLIE HOFALKJE

was born
u l, q. 4

_ ..: _"

august 5,
t wo

lfql

was incer

1neict_cnt on

;&#39;.»-~---...-...-|._& &#39;

ans JAQAQ at that

time was
in Letroit.

ter for the draft. t;e leader FARAD in crfanizer ani LQCQ I. Detroit
He advised that 1&1; lei

LLLQIQ

Islam P&liQiOn

1931 the
Jetroit E

in 1913
E16 present

or 193M
tine.

ans qed

no lees

waere cad

could we

locates at

-17pe2-3
{Lfth gnu; Eoly Temple Q-,
TH J. 92.is

gggrt dated of Islam

iovember 2b, 1950 re Detroit Branch.

the "Loslem

rePOrt states the iemple cults came in for
yy-92

L;VsLCPYjhT Of some intensive

GU? $41 investifation by

the

»e§roit_Eoligeeoartment in

1933-35 and

EH6 fo
and the Islam

Lation was ohtainea Trom the
that Aau been organ Police Qeiartment _ recoros: .. .lE-&#39;1 Loble D. Ollie, as a joslem racticec she Ioslem religion. ML D. FRED, took izod by anotner
UU [l&iVU UPJBI1 ori

I lvjo, ofnnegroes

a man

callinc nimseli

llowing infor-

6

P group. homes 1..-._... of variousmembers oflaxite stings were This CH Ye 1&#39;I_ __J_ ¢._ _-.__4-92
¢

over

s ;roup

;egro named
d the

gins

lly set

up

year 1932
Accoroing to the Ninority organization
was started

or

193

e group.
J.. ln

group held at tae This group claime active in

3 a Lager a "Handbook Stuoy A
which c

W-

I1&#39;92 th ofTsasnnSnl

1913. At H
became

some time . .

in
the

group.

by

a neg

ssociate alled it

S:e Le se eoi t troit by lf
GLOEG

&#39; "0",

published
,an

ro named

tor "

as BCYK1

as

s legitimate

political orga
Ta? FASHI took over

named Faor

nization in 1930. A_Jauanes L GFIKES, a city the orqanization. * worker,

-92:_r-r.r he "DliI92J&#39;ELOPI~&#39;lEI-IT C-UH o.~;l~.~"

&#39;,i_.--vgv-=-..._.

.._..92~~. a- .

11

-. J r

, V_.;._ ___u__._ ,;____92_»k_,._.,,,_,., _,¢, _ ._

10U~b79lh-2
*1

,u

members of
u

In Detroit between

an orranization called
&#39;_,

1931 193ktnere wereapproximately to
"The Nation of
members of

Islam,

pseuoo-religious

organization purported &#39; P1 -

order
-

iH1S organization

was establlened

to be - eilied

in which

the

be H. D. FPEE.

with tne _Ionannedan religion. _ _
9 TB

the above

25-0133-1-3

Ia .

7-6of F; Pt
negro H°s

piugust -9, atCt&#39;1ic9.,_ 19!;2,
appreneneee bv the Unicaeo F? and

-0
41 -014

&#39; to regieter
,_ T ____ , <11"lL.T-."&#39;,Ll"3OSF}, -

under the Qeiective
127.5 Plifign

Service

get.

z=_<192.&#39;iseri 1.1l5J_im" -ya wt?-L5
_ 1 ;Len -gestionee as

i&#39;@1&#39;=hi§;

I"G:;S1:11-Pn 014:1 4

W 9292~ 1 new ciliciais

-92 Ci L1 UQQorganization

advised
local
i4

tle
Leader

prcphet
in

nd

CPiQin3l
was ;LIJAI

ieader was
KOT¢ITLD.

V, ,

Jicaro

I > Q

&#39;."1G

&#39;-..1&#39;LJ. u.&#39;..|.

I I

1 I

-3-

u

. .H_-».-.._,_.,.,_,-=-

r

9-an

~.._

hAKA EAKANE,

was.

b2 ?u9

_ -9;
oi

|

£7 c
1 Karon
Japanese, eni
marrieo n;;in

20, 19b0,
rated to
J:n-i;Q,
"enema-in a o

at Detroit,

re I7£.!f""1 _ i¬.= 11.1.1. ..;&#39;.; _.".l| 4, e

wnero no
Ta

re ECG 19 In
to TAK

rs Febru
in 1921,
funds Canad

OT; an 0

U
fem fin

coma, Masnincton,

witn nis

w ife anc
ared in

Vance wnere ALASU1 ne became wnicn "eve1opment ization
In nzgtemh erg Zn /1,
inn J Str T, F: J . if

untii 1920, ween ne qiseppe 33 ne appeared in Detroit, Fi
active 1

cnipen, us
n promotin

of Cur
was active

O
Q File

1| w n iV.._.

PLATL T.
I

¢1;§TOT, neireee,
195g, who

~ii lOU 0

in above

5 was
0 on
a, in

deporteo E L gujuet 29,
possession OI ¥.C., iinusor

to Japan April j e, 105k u¥;u i!92._a
52,000., eno Toron

20, i§jH
arrived a

subsequent
to, Qnteri
. tn .92 of DOOO

uver,

nam loye June
, .!-~.. e witnin e

irectee policies poir ts ne er, l?5F, a marital 1 v&#39;92
E;F, ne:ro,as
the QOOO

rift
to

executive.

caused IsIn;L

.». at

uf?eio, K.Y.,

on Jenner?

ii

1

ile pproximeteiy 1900 i 1?
inhmg mlftd

1
c1&&#39;!".1Q of KUBO LJUY92.l921
nribe to tn

iiy, remaining
"the .-_ne=ro

an. after ~5Kn;£ was of U.S.

eominf
the "Onward

to Detroit
Lovemen

re
of

ancial oisgrece. ing the name of
Lt married

followers into

2?, 1939 attempted bribery

arresteo for Immigration In

il

mber 2%, 1939HgThHLiwes convicted ry in ?ederalCourt at Tetroit, Hie ree years imprisonment and Th5uO.

lega spec
-1b3§?! on rgenization.

by IHS

witnout
3.0., at
from

tVancouver, ly resioing

0, Canada,

..Y-7-- ..-_...¢4». _ ..

-

62 _ -.| 709 J-13;;

_ bl E 59

J

__..,_-, ...__. E-J; Eli} us: _J|!l-Ixdi-:4 s tated tnat insistence of Reverend resided H13; NAKANQ stated no considered several color

WCGH ne

first came

to Tetroit

at the

JOHN

CTLTL of

Tacoma, asainrton,
two weeks
tn L 0this 1
e YWC 1--iq-I &#39;1 wno Jeople LlL_.J- C! "92. Q in tis oocaus cf AED

illfl I0i¢IFn?
ne left

for approx1matel3
the residence

FOIAEFLD a
at t eo cnurones
ne insistence

fraud. Following
and frecuented
of the colored the POO

city and
was instrumen
in tne tate

attended no M

l in
l?
enbe

orpanizinf
a
he L.Q ~/

started in
coulc re

icniien. he

althou@h tnrouj~
its existence

ti

or tee
inactive afte

early

rt 0}

l%;j.

nis deportation
?! :E_74_-C=_{&#39;>fr _ _..._...._....._ 4 |___&#39;_ ,

c&#39;in e tter art la
or anizaticn vostiration n Cc U td

o,

w

iicn as

incoroorated
as one

oi l@j2

&#39; come

to Japan Japan&#39;s Zivine
e states that n

in

"Tee speecn,
av 1LnLn but n

tnc mietinjs speech Tee

eitner organl S
w FL

--w Li;n Z3 ssion&#39; -Q-&#39; 1-r92 din not

was admittecly written giv Us at any
"" iim was wr of the

o

Trs. C

;n$s US

ling snip I£TTCn anc

tion sponsored anq uu@ Life ¬oat&#39; was read at several

Fae tten 0neetln

but according
to understand.

to Jnials

was too

complicated Lor

the geoole

nETUs FC?_F

ll mentioned

h¬T8lDb¬iOPC 1S

alleged to be deceased at the present time, Tne foregoinj nospital." paragrajh was set out in the an insanfe two paragraphs setting out injormation furnisned
curiny an
-.1 Purnisned toe inform-tiohY-re ____,.-..-....__,________,.,,.--w--""&#39;

naving died in re_o1t between
"Hanan -Lug H

interview.

it is_not_w

_.. - -92,.-.1.4 .44 _ tneceath6f"*3if* ?_&#39;F&#39; =~ __;z___nu._- -It-n||*4r 1|_|-_

ow we

150-1535?-7
On August
%et OI 1.2 it &#39; I&#39;D

n nh_

tner or

no

9, 1957

triatand n§ETE
her nusband since Nara

on, 311
oes a

opinion

April 27

s a

Japanese, has

been deceased
that in nis

further advised

00041 Q07

lOUjTOj%

W

Report of Detroit, re Governor of
would

SA December was., lS-J; Michigan stating
Ga.
the oath
-

1O, l9h2, at CUSfOTlaL TLToHTlCN. were mistreated
his Local
States.

,.f

Information was received that wrote
stated to

Negro soldiers
the Tniteo
was contacted

a letter to the __
at
noaro ne in his home

Fort Oglethorpe,
never take

to defend

Cf .rview.

at r<nd requested tc comethe to &#39;";-etroit Fie
10, l9h2,
SA
adviseo came to toe Detroit

On :_3er92ter-zbor Q 1§?h2,
interviewed nv

Cn September
and was

w" .6 .;F3 4% "OHM 3 min -0F1av" -o WIPE
dark and was also a T"-iosiem.

_stated that

ns, &#39;j§:,!&#39;T!P, to Letreit wnen ory - &#39;"92*92192¢pOf .92:_J_,»J;T wro J, . was 92.-J EiL.;,&#39;_::___" verv

and n; IuIu!
t
this to NOHAVTQD

Office

&#39; t it in about l93t. Ie &#39;, stated no ,was VCHAHNLD died in either lQ3o or
out 0?

aTFZ.f-.1-T-Lil? founded the fj.=evolopm
business. Te statec the over the

.-wn and that

he joined

and that

1021 E-Find l6 .advisod
of TQTQEASVI
tOld lm tie

.3 tamen

in LL

193&#39;. L. 1- 1 orr~aniz.ation wen Ell&#39;]C1F|1r/ """ A "-&#39;{:1
*oHaVf;o na; liveo at

he had
PO00 and

heard a
UL died:

man by

the name
nad

that F?iKIoE

we

IIOILXTT; advised_that T.&#39;=.T-;-;If.&#39;=.F~1TII met 1.20:-&#39;:_-iaround or ,_, ,__ - o"tYl*"2FM. , rat et 92aA@I him, U . 1e+1 lQ?h as ne
.. .r1 ;.__¢ Li.. __ .,

lowine storv E 92.

before AB

TOELHNQD, was

alwavs interested

in trientals

who came
-r r

to this

and looked him up upon arrival
advised that Talihatl was -

countr", and

TAKAFASFI, for

some reason, knew

:1-92 sick

in the

Ynited States.

about YOEANILD

H0niM1sD

and his
-&#39; D|.&#39;l&#39;olE told

wife nursed

TAKAHA£Kl back

and that ne, ABoUL hOh I to nealth. TAKA?¢SF1

FOOD ?OEA?NnE that-FOHAMMED would never make any money on the and that he should follow TAZAYASSl&#39;s ways and they would bothmake money. NOHAKKLL then
J___J_

he would

not rob
to nelp
"

the Eegro
the Negroes

people, as
and that

allegedly told

the organization
the majority

TAKAHAShI

_

was founded
v "RJVT

were very ignorant. 1--zormrf-tat advised Subject
.

that 1",uo1.:;a:=.z:1

of Eegroes

then pot quite angry with nim _On,.l..J..Tl that the policleft department that to anyone he; wouldand own organization. start his ant that no k acvised that LOFA?J;E told

having one

of the

BOOO cards with TaKAASFI&#39;s name on it was

an outlaw
the FOOD.

because they

were using

nis, NOYAH?LD&#39;s, creation,

t

, ., ,i___...-.-1.-1-;-- ...,. -V92fi&#39;q____J _ _ _, _ ..

,_ M

The 1957 Phone Directory
known if this is identical

lists the
with the

r

11

it

is not
in whom ~~-

you

are interested.

RE: ABDUL 7. lOO[§M929

EOHAYMZD

serial
H _&#39; 92- <_:_/ -r_ _."1 !_

is cate , Abdul deceased!
ic1i@a

stamped Cctobe

P 21,

1902.

oetroit, fof: a!

n ccaiingri,
H%PR&D, Whii, Lation of
iubject Ir. witn aliases

Qua care, bi es; card,

matey 1O/1j/ Isl am, dated 9/23/M2.
, I&#39;l¬[_1" of Isl o, a first officer" Taxana am, negromonawnedan

eating "T rc;crt: letroit "Temple"
cult, was host of

of nation
Satakata

of

"ragon Society Tetroit in early
that he came to

of Japan, 1930s.
etroit at

at time In 1939
instan

sni, agent
of latter&#39;s

of Black
arrival in

TAKAHASHI advised

FBI

colored minister

in Tacoma,

Fashi
9 d to said

- colored
&#39;1&#39;"!!! "

communications from_Subject in that territory to procee

ce of A-hULJUL&#39; ngton, who
B uraging

Rev. John WHITE, nad received

people." TAHaEaSEI
week stav

"some

Japanese

&#39; nome

after two

~- Tnereafter,

according to

- ization Islam ref.
Mecca, with

really for 0! that

the

Development of Our Own. Subject is opposition

etrcit to work among the be cause that no left $ubject&#39;s TAKAEASE he thought nim a "fraud." best inter I, he founded an organMe anwhil est of negroes, called to the doct e it is reported that
rine of the Nation: of

&#39; America

and tnat

they were

Negro-ohamme
citize
to th

dans

and "organized
the cardinal the Cnited

allegiance only

a small

Hosl

em gro

ns of
e mos

did not

tnefiolg Citydog
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5&#39;1-Anoum room no. 64

Oltfc A/i677201"6ldZ¢772sures GOVERNM -U3. &#39;. ED
T0 =
....
FROM :3;-L

SAC, Dtroit oo_2s3:e WE=
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12/18/5&#39;7

S&#39;~BJw=

0: Chicago!

Director

10/3/5? and captioned as above, as well as Detroit letter
in the same matter of ll/29/57,: and Detroit,
be old it is the latter It is noted that

Reference is

made to Chicago letter

to the

Birector dated

to the

was current

IRDEATE DUANE ECFYON at ChandlerStreet, Flint, 212
as recently
Records.

LEADS at Detroit of some 25 years

this Office

at Flint

sets out

appear to ago, while

addresses and former contacts noted that the LEAD to contact of

Kichigan. A

UNDEVELOPED LTADS in

review of

the

hichigan Alumni

as Harch 1956 from the University

3, Michigan

with the reference letter from the Director. In
effort will be made at Detroit to locate
UNDEVELQ?ID_LRhD$

Therefore, it is recommended that a LTAD CARD be prepared _ to locate and interview FEYYON at Flint, Michigan in accordance
BBHYON at old the

the interim, no

addresses.

THE DETROIT OFFICE, At Flint, Hichigan:
for appropriate handling to locate and

Will forward

to

Resident Agency covering serials 5 and 10 of captioned file
interview BBNYON.

H5asu&#39;£ Ihgég
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Ghendler Street. Hint,

Leqaslsegro inDetroit. edvieedhedied I13:-eat: She that -bed in 1 A. She edvieed that he bed ebteieed the materiel for hie
interviews he took either her or his den hter. She related

IRDMIB BEIIOI, wee-ertic -entitled The VoodooBult D. who i&#39;orner1Lneeoc1eted with Ileiverllty tide at lliehigu, had written the

On ehigee,edvieed her.huebend, Jung Ire. D. 212 9 1958,thet BTIOI, human
that

eicle eee interviewing theofthe hill-t~el;"eoai?&#39;ref edvieed by hie idea to write enenbere gnu]: himself.the She t t it ertio
eddreeeee or pieces mentioned

the thate fepe:-ed weethe thatwriting noteshe lostwhile inSheprocess he or ehe the article were the: er dedtmyedt eteted
dugieg ietervimre eieno presentthe when
_- t touid not remember any eeeee

eelykene her eoneereiu e eoeielegrI01!. written hie wee oeeIetion Ielu by the ef pm-eteaeor She eteted that hneteed to
IJ
&#39;-A

it She eteted that he:-_!me&#39;head&#39;e the article wee

ewe end her huabendvere both htereeted92IIB!i. e eteted nivereity hidego LOUIS the8 Qt thltthat at neneci in H_ I01
iaertieuler time937! eedit ne her reeoilectipn Ilihr that the Q51-. -&#39;J Q-eneln-en QI .h Ig In-IUQAQI QQQQII
fjl

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laker, Iiohigan, oftn.interviewa eonpete Flint advised her father, the anoaaetatedthat did tu.= e annular oha nany ehe accoapaay he relative to I01. that ahe renenhere leade the
went on to explain that L0
that her father and a

0a January 10, 1958, Ia.

IlRIOI,KIIBlR

609 laet__

Jewieh nationality IIRTH true nJewiahatated and aa had nane aane. haeézg died in 1952. lhe the e
detective tron the Detroit Police

nane ae being FARAD, but could not renenber anything elee about hie and ehe did not know anything about his being of the

_

Department who vac in charge of the into tigation knowledge her father
interviews with I01

conferredother fregueatgyhergroup with the quitehe a rieed awapped each group. and totho - on intornatioa concerning that
had gotten all ct his information
the Detroit

from

Department. lhe etated that ehe had never eeen FLRD as he had already left Detroit. She atated that aha had visited the University of lalan which woo locatcd in Paradise Valley in
iietroit
in a

aenherc orvthrough

Police

and had aeeo a
on the
the cane of

photo of Faii which
floor.
etreet.

was hanging on a
that this

wall

roon

eeooad
the

She adriaed

house was

located cloee to the police precinct
rennber

although the could not

wait titer tho iiii or IiRB ii totroit, aid attoitt to locatc any close aaeociatee c!I!RTH who eight he in a poeitioo to
turoiah
.1.

The Bhioago ehould toattengt Division in atteapt o tolocate octet nterialformerlythepcceeeeion an! or the late LOU S UIRTH toraorly with the Sociology Bepartneot of the UaivereityChicago night to identify nan at that help the who
intcrnetion concerning IARD.

.o

0a January 17, 1958,
I8 IIG Vli

IQ

,th:t&#39;E:e thigh tail or Q recerde If to oeollaheiatioa th:latePrereeeo:ll!IOI. wi h

ct Bepartneat, Sohvereive

to

Subject

I

1
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00047

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00-5519!
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92

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CHICAGO 5

20607!

HATIOIIISLAM or no: IS -

an 1NF0§MAY92 $i92

92S92 g<_g A _

nsmu 92.»392£_<§S&#39;B o1~YE-£1

in the pl a
the Rational Leader of

Q

who !&#39;92..*.rr.ishel.! 192.=.= 1-=1.1=o1= 1»-.r-. _ .. in olose oontactwith ELI-IAH MUHAMMAD,
the H01, on January h, 1958, furnished

the followinginformation:

,6

"" J!

individual who identified himeelf as from Detroit, Michigan, oontaoted CLARAMUHAMMAD of wife ELIJAH!» He stated that he is an artist and the person who drew the picture "with the jewels and of Brother ELIJAH about ten years ago". He stated, "1 am a good Muslim and I have had

Informant that w advised on

-P

1958, an

a whole lot of toment the last fur days and something ie trying to kill no to keep ms from helping him possibly ELIJAH!, and told no that I wall siippoeed to help the temple raise him up because I am a_good Huali and get messages I

from W.

0. MOHAMMED H. D. man!, ph!
Detroit is re it

mation eonoerning 41
Although

eted to furnish

identifying

infor-

Detroit ie requeated to conduct investige on to determine if there is any basil for his atatement that he is reoeiving messages from H. D. MOHAHMED D. FARE! H.

appears

that

may peyoop be a

!100-33653 /&#39; Y.FILED"!, D.
Detroitareply
"&#39;

should be direoted

to Chicago file

_

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T° = SAC, Detroit 00-26356! DATE 1/16/58

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WALLACEnon FORD, WAS.,
sm -

Re Chicago letter
Detroit file

to the Director 10/30/57. whi

qa/16>/43, SECURITY J; entitl at Detroit ., NTERNAL cusron ET AL,

100-6603-lto

that}ntervi SA
THROW OR DESTRUCTION

GOVERM TENT 0 .

ts

e

re

ects

De Mich

gan on

L3.

At that

Q!< he refers as&#39;MOOSELEMS&#39;. to
&#39; LEAD A PONTIAC MICHIGAH:&#39; Will attempt to locate

several years previously an indiv id al u by the name of FARD whom he believed to be an Algerian, was instrumental in ha many mem b ers leave the r NSTA and affiliate themselves with a group which interview e

the MSTA

Temple at Pontiac, iii

.

According

the from I ;_!uA2u§._4__ schism the MSTA.
FARD, Detroit PD #b5l38 to determine f this is t e

leda sehism the from MSTA. Showqattached photograph of W.D.
" &#39; &#39;d&#39; Eon thé_infOKm§t.J oft he Resident Agency atifontiapj kwJ

.

_ - at Pontiac, Michigan. interview as to a

whoas above reported in l9b,3 wa

t one FARD

of the

that led

i0n
r .

to date etro "this at t
D i
,1 ,

has failed

to

locate

5 2

AssignLEAD Pontiac. at W&#39;

,-.&#39;

4° HERE:N. 3-S1q E, $1"59
Ml {NF ,7, V T _~qf,-3,-&#39;__:&#39;nr .E "H I
BY

Enclosure-Photgaph
1

of W.D.FARD, Detroit

PD h5138. RETURN PLS.!

Oice Mwfdum
# T¬//

-UNITED sures GOVERNM
January 28,iess

=SAC, Detroit 00-26356! DArr=

4;M: Director, FBI 05-636a2!"
SUBJECT:

Au:himYf*92Q;" &#39; w ~~ Jr ,"NTNNED 8
_..A§$F in

sacuarrr NOI nrehslihéi ¢29 - MATTER
WALLACE DON FARD W*" "Reurlets 10-22-57 and 1-17+58.

Relet dated
of the

10-22-57 advised
available to

that

a photograph
Relet dated her father

1-17-58 advised
Flint, Michigan,

subject was

that Mrs.

Marion Kieber,

your office.

609 East Baker,
to
had that she

advised she

had accompanied
also stated

during the
the Nation

time he
of Islam

conducted many
N01!. She

interviews relative

observed a photograph of the subject which was hanging on the wall of a building which she apparently visited
with her father.

You should
to §;§&_K1eber

exhibit

a photograph
if he is identical

of the

subject
with the

to determine

individual she knew named Farad, who was the leader of the N01 at the time her father was interested in this organization.
lChicago 00-33683! For information!

D 1;
T" I

i

r 14 00051 9292 ,/ ; gar
/ an § i _ , 5EARCi1Eg 1" M an nr _ _-I - _92 &#39; i_ V r

_ _ 4 150 9_21 Rev. 94!

E XXXXXX 92__

_i
XXXXXX BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION

FEDERAL

FOIPA

DELETED

PAGE

INFORMATION

SHEET

Page s!withheld entirely at this location in the file.
statements, where indicated, explain this deletion.

One or more of

the following

[I] Deletions were made pursuant to the exemptions indicated below with no segregablematerial available for release to you.
ecti III b!! on 552 ection 552;

E1 b!! A! El b!<*/! B>

1:1 tots! E1 om! [:1 loo!

El b!!
II] b!!

El tb><v> c>

El b! ?! D! El <b1<1!tE>

E1 loo! El tot:-1!

III b>! F!
El b!! 1:1 b!! El W6!
E]
Inf ormatio request.

El 00!
El lots!

III tbxs! El 9! b!

E1 low! E1 loo!

n pertained only to a third party with no reference to the subject of

your

1:] Information pertained to a third only party. Thesubject yourrequest listedin the of is
title only. E] Documents originated with another Government agency/ ies!. These documents were referred

to that agency ies! for review and direct responseto you. Pagescontain information furnished by another Government agency ies!. You will be advised by the FBI as to the Yeleasability this information following our-consultation of
with the other agency ies!. Pagets! withheld inasmuch as a final release determination has not been made. You will be

advisedas to the dispositionat a laterdate.

J

Q F

Pageswere not considered for release as they are duplicative of __ =_.-II A

_g

_ -

. or inforrnatronl your .
ééjjc-92_4&

g The following number beused reference isto for regarding pages: these
11121-=0 ,. - W n .

r-

-

XXXXXX

XXXXXX XXXXXX

XXEO X DELETED PAGE S! X
XNO DUPLICATION X FOR THIS PAGE FEE X X FBI/DOJ

axascroa,ra1&#39;t1os~6a6a2I 10000:: me, anaorr o-26356!
inn

20. 1950 0 0..-...,

Q

0%:-éb-ieaga &#39;

saauaxrr nlrrza ... no.1:
lie Harem letter to Detroit qua

80

mg

"

January 23, 1953.

4% the at-ogre or the personeheknevt.o§eeeeedlARn &#39;::*."%..:;°i.;::..*:::&#39; 1.1. *2? 2:212" &#39;=&#3 92 to
"._.._"_ 5-..---.._2..-,._._-e_l_-:2 ._ nee __e.11__-__

iiehroit

lit, liehlfen, ehoam In I photiograia obtained Po lee Department bearing date In

0.»February 1953,10-0; 11, ukxontmma, 609am:

whoee 01 Isle:

viewing pereons whowere lieaion of Isle: V
the Iain:-01: &#39;

cbare e bed seen on the wall at the Unite:-elty some twenty yeere ego while with her {ether inter-

S011 nenbere. rm

_
l i

nun

advised that, the photogrlph 0:
eith r e 5" -x 8" or e

at

y at Ielen e

10" phat-egm ph

in bleak end white end me e "glean:-1sed" or touched up Apicture. She etet-ed that ehe resell: thet. uhe ltletnre us

¢92prnfille
-

tekea Iran e

#5 deg:-§.eng,1e instead at e
wee eeked if

fell hoe or e

92v Q; no doubt. identification madeehe were the was had andplrlmil that net-ed eene. there n1.n:l__&#39;H:ee--the we
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eke was positive

of the

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,&#39;_

nxamcron, FBI 05-636h2! "lr=h
SAG, CHICAGO 00-33683!
an

1°. 1958

s__

UALIAGE mun

mm, use.

1

v. n.

VellaeeFord Halei -DAT Don Mohammad mR re:-3, he Great Mahdi ,F.
nl, rm-eaMohammad SECURITY nsrzma -to:
00: cnxcsoo &#39;

Rallaee Puree, D. reand MLMHRMMWNQ H.
j

A11, F1-edodd, mu-ea, Well

were "A11m&#39;: Hehanmed

omm z 3- es/r

N

_ <39
s

correlation lummery preps:-ed at the Beat er Government. For the inromstien or Iew York, the following infer-netien is
presented: Aecurdlng to the apeeehee and irritings of ELIJAH

Reulet

to Ohicege

January 28,- 1958, enelosing

rmammm, lat-ional
eeme to Detroit,

Illlm. FARD;::g,ht in Islam Detroit from 1930 it Ich to 1933
time he wee lubsequently eame
until l93J+,
e eee.

one H. FARD taught D. who MUHAMMAD tor eeneemigi three years
to leave Detroit by the Police Depertment and to Ghleago, Illinois where he teught Isles:
time he disappeared and nothing hes been at which

Michigan 1&#39;:-om Fleece in 1930 Ln the pez-sen er

Leader er the neuen

er Islam

non. "Allen"

tea; teen since, his nuaamuu lmlleeted has that returned FARD
in the The philoeophy United States-tram or the ROI teaches that FABD arrived. Heeee eh July 1|. 1930, and that he

returned lol-round Ietien the khdlliedg time to after bringing w at been held Ibeua their identity to the of Ielen eh hed
me "&#39;

in slaveryin United the States :20 {earn glleaeggi tea ue e1&#39;theIOI.iIdel1&#39;1,ed Handheel httlelhilli the
mveeaistien eubjeetby the lumberidentified mm emdueted hes whole FBI 5eo62 the er re: last lmeun lgpelrlne weeen-est en in Ohleege, IllinoisLn aeptenber,l33e /¢_ 0/ Du:-eau A tered lie fijjl =""/
as being Meat: use

cé: Detroit lg£26356; l!es1Itered! 2 -In York Registered!
1 -Ghleage

P 4?:
~ ~ -

jg
W Weeeooosva 730

ca 100-33663
bi

19&#39;-I-2; bee 8-eienoe Temple of
the Detroit

information

Page 27 or

contained

referenced correlation aunau-1 I-erieeta
in a Detroit I8 re ea, J, ue odial

w.-Ie ll; Detention,
in a
that a

slated 1Iovenber~12.

on.

u

eontained information which Thin report Office by the Michigan State Police ihia memorandum reflected dlt-Cd J9292nQ 16;

was given to

memorandum
U. D.

1&#39;.A_Rl3, Devi; gin;
an the Grand Sheik or

Ll,

93l6

the Morrieh

Science iemple or

Aveniae, Detroit,

wee known

America and

that he

Chicago. mu

wee believed to

12". in 192&#39;-i. Ra-pa-.:=t r-oiiooto.-3 5. L. FARErooraaniz. tn: 5"".&#39;."9.l§ 1930 but was run out of town by the Police in 19314and returned
in 1936.

in Detroitin 1913 ROBERT by D. OLLIE was out who run of

memorandum advised that the Hoaleru were organized

be from Kaneae 011:1, Ieeouri

or 1&#39;1-on

Detroit

1-egu-am; man, wu.,2401, st 11,SSA mxam aka. ieue,
1953 a

Page 31; or information appear

rererenoed correlation eumuaryretieote in iew Tori: report of otober 26 1953.

in ~..-L. 0.» 1...-1.
he would o

Street.Be minted that oould deaoribe but outhe not ALLAH that
7 be abie to identity bin it he eaihim again. FLRD, he

he eav the god ALLAH

arm...

in New York City at the H01 Rmpll on

At um time 1..

lmoernMoelen, voluntarily

"M" M

"W"

advieedthat in 1951

appeared

*1-

115th

the nae w.0.mum |% namevieibly ekettled an or e
Ii &#39;

a ed the

1

»-

co 100-33683
n-P.

with Iubot at thisinI&#39;eat15at1on¢ than vidual If aubjaot lotarninod it in or this that that in is identical with th investigation, ainoa tha data shouldoonduotod logical lnvoatigation dotornina his be to tbllov his norononta and to
proaant location.

Detroit L alloged to

should attempt be an alias

to roaolva uhothar or not tho or H. Bi FARE1: iéentisal

ZQQ

iha lav D
rointarviow

a roquaatad to
and determine

attanpt to
from him all

information oonoarn _ at tho MCI Tomplc in

0 appearance of ALLLH or U. D. FARD Row York in 1951. tn: photograph shown to

uas
this

low York should advise it verity

Dapartmont number h5l3B. FARDor ALLAHlppolrid at
information in
bin»

tho photograph tho subject of Detroit Polloo or
law York d onduot all
or diaprov

logical

invostigation to

tho new York Tomp 0

atatamont that

in 1951. It

voririod,

low York should oonduot all

involtigation
oonoornlng

noooalary to

looato FARDor any information

4&#39;

1 I I

i

92."&#39;-r &#39;

sac, cmugo 00-33L»83!

Q

szctmrrr Dam ..=_j_¢;,-; mwrm Of -not Dau.i__
rum: new roan Exempt fr ~

Dirnctor, rm c1;|a1e192qaug.?~ 05-meme; /Q Aj92
CONFiPP~NTiAL
Ito Ghicqgo lottarl
nu cmaago lcttcr 2-Q-53
_

rm-¢n 12, 1958

1;.&#39;1-_&#39;;. J92..&#39;92-"-f§&# PF
and
nu:-an

mmaz1n=1m1-31-58. q
gtter in 25¢! !¢;_.l;nQ-.

2-3-5-*3and 2-I8-58
nquutcu

consider rtquiting muutiytxm eenduobad no in this
f intervicuad as n result

A1-win: a£&#39;%ot&#39;a Butile Ihan reects by the cnlifumin Stats PIPOIQ authorit-lea,
of ma smut in has Angela in 1926, the ant-11 1913.

where no reaide

subject advised he an

born 2-25-1591 It

The army information in

?u:-tuna, In I tamer

016go::,
th

possession of tha Bureau indiantigg mbjact New Eellnndar is that mminhad by subject:

e¢__n_n:;n-Lg! age, Hus; Rvqlniur. Inc admittncl me mew nothim about |ubJ¢at&#39;a background and cozuiderod hm 0 Haw Zealandor tram nu:-lay. Iiurthnr, aha oavind the

|ubJe<:t Iilited

bar tithe!

in the Summer01 1932 er 1933
Btu:-ningto in noted the rubjeet

ltlhiahtinohulndoartmrkhlllll How toaland. In this

commotion it

was urrutcd 5-25-33 at Detroit, luehian, at Ihmh time he Ill ehncribcd an bung or Arabian muatw. After

Q vcririoa. true&#39;:ume.fools invbstxgntian in I!1bJU¢1>&#39;l yum, la Du:-an his birth bu wt been wlptaro, tho &#39;

Ghicggo until lam tum in _,3-Qwhen he diupparad. Actually, it 1:-not dctinituly Imam 11&#39; or D066 is Iord

lowing nntroit In 0110??!have he to taught in Ilium

U] IIIIIIIIIIG I:Bil-IIIIO-$.31-lllIUI1$0lfII1$III&#3 invont. -in tmlrttar, is!by 502;: ticm ! nd vocally wimp the dirialanll tmntigution by latter
mm 1-31-58
ll I1 3216!! "manly:

{J
--H. _
_,,____ ,___ ____,,__,.A ,_, _,,___ . . .,

mmmwmmuup um -"?,4@o5»@*:&#39;r
c0NF1s;u1:M 92
I4» ._ _ .._.___. _. .__.__......~..._.-..__..__....._..-..-1-.-....-....,___..__.92_.. .__...

_ &#39;

L4,-,_-_,.,g,&#39;,§5e» I

in

4-

Lawn

to

hiaga

Ba: IIALI.-AGE mm FGFJJ

%@o~m@ ~R~ 1
ai indnrmualn 10 a numbers

I

51

be rrinvarrzuud

um 1990&#39;». thntglhnulxi early mm tool: mmau
for amen

tilt $92=I-I"$.94u
1.1 my,

at the £92uwu1&t at Our Gum cult 19%!: ma my additional information furnish regarding iuhJaat&#39;I letivltica I92m~&#39;onar, mtila tan

during tin: urly he can pcuibly am Drteruit. aiuring Int 1FNUIb1g,IH;i0&#39;Ya,

to r-cfleat.

was I1-rested qrith the subject in Lou Angelou in 1926&#39;. I&#39;rnn< Ban letter um: El-3"?-5&#39;. reflected Dmwldaca: tubjéos an partm-P.
This xmu-mu:
the

has been aonductmz ta locate ward
could possibly
nubgeot.

Bu-swim,

um

turmaia

hoakgmund inforltiara
sf the raulta af

Gunearning

The Bu:-nu

nhould

be advised

invutiggation aonduamd by um Herwlulu Ottawa an requested by Chiaaqo letter anm 10--3-5? eomermm; cubjaatw tmaxly.
ne Bureau Malian that mveatigption in thin matter-

i

ealln tor 1ng&#39;,1.mt1on, initiative, and rumareatulnald. Lganm handling; this mlttlr atmuld not be eontent to unruly cwer sagas-stud loads, but uhouid thurmagky and 1531011-12&#39; aalmime tho Bureau in email:

this and use puuuo 1 WII toll this

load. this In auanecstion mvutzgttm.

i f

?&#39;
-2A

.._ __

_

A-M-%.._.._.-_-._.--_.&#39;._.~ ~-----» A._»-~ V V~~»- ~

COI~£F§T>§ I 3/ &#39;*T.EAi{

&#39;~----=------=&#39;----~--;---=U!

Immnn¢q--p-_w"

1111105-4:042! ___" 1--_ -ww

Q;-£1

18,

1958

IE , HIGH!!
4-I

00-I368!!

Ill-I-&l%IllD lRIIlII"l&#39;B--IO!
lnlfh G/15/B8. Ibo In-an tools tilt autumn! npadtan-0

or investigative
and u

time in tun antic; is at Lon Angolan! In
012100 Iinuld
the lu-

an-aid.

Illhilgton 11014
this

the It-trait,

Meantime

lurk Hvtuons

1I7Ol1i1lI&#39;H-OIL 1: to ldvtn

plmnd tn 1. closed status rqort I111 be mhntttod.

co»

=4

I

&#39; I-I! 00-uasoull! on us-4lea! u! " ll! - nnun;-eon nu: 00-0-u:I0! u! 1:

Iu.rQn

i

- lcago 4}

ALL wonmmuow CONTNNEB

__ 65$

&#39;

HEREEN ms WE uems MI U A Y 35/?<§@

I

/

_ srimnulurtllul ID-I

Oité NlewommiumUNITED sures GOVERNMENT
TO

5116, tctroieiflloo-2c.35§_!g=" vm= 2+/is/52

...

4%
- :-

svnJn¢T= .;.aLL,LCL;

5 _i_Lj&#39;

.,-0"-on ;<&#39;c-1111, ALLlNF0fMATi@N

HEFZ§:N ls Ui92iCLé§ Q1 "&#39;

CONTAINED
P

.

He Chicagoletter
The follovin;

to Director,
cg

dated 3/10/53.
c4

invc;*&#39;e;tion wrs

last Lansing,

A/U/5~

1- 92 r&#39;_&#39;

Lickigen, by

J

<_». f

Referenced_letter requested that the Detroit
Division contcct the no: to oetel mf
ln

"" &#39;¢&#39;"

source of the Moorish
to resolve

the information

eppesrin" e the E1 Cut
- ,K

Qf Qunel5, l§4Z,
whether or

I
OTlUln&l
-7 ,92 92 L:-A-ilk-.LJ l if _. &#39; 1 " iei reflected

pcience Temple
not.

in their
Q lain

memorandum

elias, Davis

.- u -I-10 its-1.1.-&#39;-J,

investigation.

El, @316

was uulGK ol Oakland Ave &#39;2 drone oi eno in an attempt of hmeric
the i;Vl5 entical ti

I;chi;;n State

C, &#39;1+/ .-"51: 1&#39;1 92_,// P011

4L, alleged

to be

an

th the

babject of

this

East Lansing,
in any
advised that

Lie.
r
the fi

sub eqtent
addition the alias

S c
hose identity
JJQ_1vrj_S i pl, other

F92

contain no
4!&#39;l&#39;li$

having in the report
in the

of I

communication at e port or .c92_&#39; &#39;_"_&#39;_. Oi, B59 AAICJ1 l must be

Q/> e
,92 T3 " &#39;

information oatod cl
o

regireing
{fl 92-than --

oossession

3 r-

protecteo Hher reeuest!
&#39;;1. 0 --&#39;0 414&#39;-JLAJ, contsineo

92.JCr92_, O_LlC¬ that A - T1

report

uh

June lo, 1942

State Police Detect station ll in East in this matt advised the

the Detroit

FBI Office.

a copy

of which

is

from the
i

LSP

ive,

3.I1 .L 1&#39;1 OW £L

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to

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K

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lOO-26356

p» -1
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is deceased. LEADS DETROIT:
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3-.~ ,~-92

appearing in

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11111, "r
rvien "~¢

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to tne

information

47¢
as that

the l

_

report is

tvailgble in

1&#39; O1, the report be rgcollection inasmuch his the Detroit Ufficc.

..ted June

16, 1902.
made

It is
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FROM: SUBJECT:

smg Datr*o_it

DATE? 11/6/5,
n|.m..u-

- an
N01 .

IS NOT

L? INFORMANT|,&#39;_,31!
ACTIVITY RECEIVED RECEIVED BY!

$ who
i e pa n

*41¢

mioammn B0"W"E° 92 &#39;-" &#39; bill" umdhiéfi
~

st tact n P75

has furnished inform roliable
personally

1 92 92 I 1 -a

October Eh,

1959

October 279 1959 ;¢7q92

LOCATION
.,_ i

Lip

Coar I

/M "
_ FBI

,3~:.>""C»-*%¬"
Inde

Saria11/6/ss Z0
_ ;- nmmojlm

<-

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----,_ ----

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--was _J!

.
92

---q--- ._

nE L100-551,1;
stcr-P515: Meeting of
I T <

Mich.» 10/Bu/E9; Background c
DETAILS =

Twelve Tribes

Committee at

Temrie lg
_

Detroit,

- of

._ The

11529&#39;Linwood9 Detroitg Michigan, the
The various tribes met

the Twelve

Tribes Committee-held

report

is dated

October Eu, I959,-concerning
same date.

at B4UHAMMADs Temple #1,
ways and

a meeti

and discussed

means

of raising funds, Inasmuch as all groups intend to keep their plans 3901-vgr no -1 ---ar-&#39;1-.~.: 4.n Y&#39;92+!Y1&#39;!°H new Hé hf the
e reporx was

5
._, U

ever-s an

was in

the temple

during the

days of

WALLACE FARD, the alleged

MesSiHh.

.

- -=1; W
1

gated she
TD but

was

icon s residence,?i@§;sa1d, F ta"fo11ower of MARCUS GARVEY.
WALLACE FIRE appeared, according

She °Fm9..§°.

V

of Detroit,

to her

l

well, she

on Hestings

the roll

report. Bherolaims

of the

said. She

Street near
the blame

temple. -She

there was

indicated the
attributed to

Wilkins Street,

said the

once 25,000

first temple

holy names on

turn came when the killing
the Muslims. .-

For a while

was located

things went

oceurred and

P9pO§$§!§§!f§_f§?9 e few Muslims in_Detroit

_/ Q E -J 7?: 1 :45 .5? 1.

_"&#39;.-2

Ef;92 -, &#39; VYE
g *7Elir &#39;1 I

T I
-92 _1.,~ .,2 . - *1." _, "_. _ "J 5. 7 _,, , A .,_!.__ ___. . .H

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., r . .it T.

DE&#39;lOO55h9

1,-

Aq"

were arrests an ried as leaders of the Muslims shortly after the slaying, FARD was told to get out of Detroit, she said, Prior to leaving FARD designated ELIJAH POOLE minister of the group. She said there had been many ministensprior to this time

Q

reported WALLACE FARD and ELIJAH_._ POOLE
She states
no know

but
is

they all
alive but

seemed to fail.
a few days later
indicates shedmes

WALLAGEFARD departed
where

Detroit

been in seenDetroit since. *say&#39;s
if any of the Muslims

and as far

as she knows

sheFARD believes
he is. She

he has never

said

she doubted

know where FARD

is.

She

strongly believes FARD was a foreigner and came to America from Saudi Arabia. She says she follows ELIJAH POOLE because she was present when WALLACE FARD designated him minister and leader of the Muslims, She says there are hundreds of old Muslims in Detroit but they do not recognize ELIJAH as the leader and, therefore, refuse to follow him, ROSCUE MAPPS, SR.,
he had been in the presence

spoke
of

to

the

group
during

and suggested
dinner the

ELIJAH POOLE

previous

day.

Apparently

ELIJAH

sneaked

in

for

a brief

visit.

RECOMMENDATION

It

is

recommended

that who were

a copy noted

of

the above

memo

be disseminated
of the above

to at in

the

organizational

file
by

and
the

to

the

files
as

individuals

Informant

being present consideration in each case,

instant meeting for the next investigative u

use

and possible report submitted

ue
I

1*

-3-

00067

SAC, ::ra&#39;1&#39;1=nI&#39;r17, 00-55h?! <3 February 1960
"" AU.

mm
NO I
IS nor

i
ll, 1960,

F

HER

92NFORMAHON QOTT E Ki .. HNCLASSIFL
in
p

Mm

On February

Sergeant
lep and ice

SIS,
t New were in te prison

MSP; East Lansing, Mic York State Troopers contact with Michigan State

officials

in regard

to captioned

organization.

The troopers

had been sent to Illinois and Michigan to discuss police problems in handling members of NOI , particularly while confined to state prisons. They were also interested in

information which would assist the New York Attorney Office in handling petitions to have their "religion"
recognized within the
on vebruary

General&#39;s
meetings

by the State New York
12, .

state
, an

in order that prisons.
rei era ed

they

could

hold

43¢ T100pers ndn contacted the Writer
the above information.

They also

stated

that,

if

possible,

they would like

to have

any information which would establish the whereabouts of .D. FARO, the originator of the NOI. The troopers advised that they realized the confidential nature of our records but requested any public source information or other items

that
with
FARD

would be of assistance
the
inasuch as the initial

to them.
Police
with check

They were furnished
Uepartment
the Detroit

FBI number and Detroit had failed is to to reveal a that

number of
Police

Department It

police extensive

record

for

FARE. has

bb noted

investigation

been previous1y_conductsd without establishing
or mno at my time Above for since he left

0.1::-Q12 in 19314.

the whereabouts

&#39; 100-26356t ;@w.D, FARD!
F5; 43¢

information only.

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DEPT. OF Michigan POLICE, nejtyqt, %
l"..2.... .=. us uuc

Bure_r;1_g Identic
f Prect. No.
7/1" IV ____V_

Date of Arrest

Time j
7? _7_

R&

e_e °i¢¢!L
Associates

R

WhefeArrestedj

Residence

" T Age

Hair 92

3

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Weight Nationaliw Burn

}

Color Eyes of Complexion Teeth

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Upper Lower

Build Occupation I

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DETAILS

OF

ARREST

Q i

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eeee

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ERDMANN BEYNON DOANE
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THE VOODOO

CULT IN

AMONG DETROIT

NEGRO

MIGRANTS

" --~ -

ERDIIANN noams BEYNON ABSTRACT The "Nation of lalarn," usuallyknownas the Voodoo Cult," belongs a chainol to movements arisingout the growingdisillusionment raceconsciousnessrecent of and of Negro migrantsto northernindustrialcities. The attention oi the generalpublic has beendirectedto sensational episodes the historyof this cult, suchas the occurrence in

of human sacrice,but the reorientation the personality its members been of of has ignored. members the cult havebeen The of isolated fromthe social organization of
the community in which they lived, but they have tn-maintained functionalrelatheir tionshipin the metropolitan economy from whichthey derivetheir means livelihood of and in which they have been able to make moresatisfactory adjustments As a result of the teaching thiscult. they havegaineda newconception themselves regard of of and themselves superior,rather than inferior. to other people. as

The Negro sectknown to its membersas the Nation oi Islam"

or the Muslim$." but to the police the Voodoo as Cult, hassignicance for socialscience research partly because its synthesis of
of heterogeneouscultural elements and partly bccau:-".v its uiiiqm oi

expression race consciousness. tl&#39;1t&#39; viewed as the of ll movement be

life-cycle a cult. however, various of its phases tend to showan
orderly progression through which the attitudes of its devotees were

moldedto a commonpattern. There developed among them a way of living which isolatedthem to a certain extent from all persons not members their cult. even though they themselvesremained of

scattered among urbanpopulation theirownraceand color. an of In their trade relations members this cult have continued the of
to live, like othvr N egroes, within the ecological organizationoi the Negro communityoi Detroit. Their principal occupationaladjustment hasbeenfactory labor, and thus the cult members have main4

tained functional a relationship the metropolitan with economy out-

side the Negro of community. the same At time,however, they
&#39; Spelling: Moslem"; pronounced: "Muslim."This is one of the changed pronunciations which initiates recognize by eachother. The Moorish-Americans are also Moslems," but pronounce wordas spelled. the

&#39; No effort made thispaper trace is in to relationship between cultandVoodoothis
I I ism in Haiti and other West Indian islands.The cult receivedthe name "Voodoo" solelybecause cases human sacrice. oi of 1 804

l

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VOODOO CULT AMONG NEGROMIGRANTS 395 have severed contacts with the social organization of the Oommunity in which they live, so that they have gained isolation almost as

1~-r _i

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l
92

eectively asdid the members of agricultural religious communities
who migrated to new homes.
THE BEGINNING OF THE MOVEHENT

i

The prophet and founder oi the cult made his rst appearance among the Negroes of Detroit 3.5B peddler. Like other fb ild Syrian petidlers, he went from house to house carrying his wares.
He Came rst to our houses selling raincoats, and then afterwards silks. In

this way he could get into the people&#39;s forevery houses. woman

was eagerto

see the nice things the peddlars had for sale. He told us that the silks he carried

.

were the same kind that our people usedin their home country and that he had come from there. So we all asked him to tell us about our own country. If we asked him to eat with us, hewould whateverwe eat had on the table, but after the meal hebegan totalk: "Now don&#39;t eatit this food. is poisonfor you. The peoplein _92-our country do not eat it. Since theyeat the right kind oi own
loud they have the best health all the time. If you would live just like the people ll] 9292.!UF home country, _92&#39;uu never would be sick any more." we all

wanted him to tell Us moreabout ourselvesand about our home country and
dlmut huu u uuld ht free i!0ITIrheumatism 3.CllCS jllilt-i.-i 1&#39; Ultl I

l.&#39;

At lih sirangt-r&#39;s suggestion of people a group was invitedto one of the houst-~ visited b_92&#39; him. aparticular evening so that on they all

n-light ht-nr story in whichall alike were litt so

much interested.

AttuSlun1etl as these people were to the mttage prayermeetings of the Negro.92it-thoelist and Baptist churches they foundno difficulty
in holding informal meetings in their homes.

ilhi- Iormi-r |!&&#39;tl il¬l&#39; now role oi prophet. During assumed the the early pcrimi oi his ministry he usedthe Bible as his textbook, since it was theonly rciigiousbook with which the majority of his
q__w-0.

hearers were familiar. Withgrowing prestige uconstantly inover
creasing group, prophet became bolder his denunciation of the in
the Caucasians and began to attack the teachings of the Bible in

such a way as shock hearers bring to his and them toan emotional crisis. Brother Chaliar Shairrieii ofthe crisis told through which he

himself passed hearing prophets after the message:
= Sister Henlir Mailed, iormerly, Mrs. Lawrence Adams.

_i i |

I

-

00.9.87

&#39;

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896 THE

AMERICAN JOURNALor socrowov

L
Q.

The very nt time Iwent to a meeting Iheard him say: The Bible tells you that the sun rises andsets. That is not so. &#39;I&#39;he still. All your sun stands lives you&#39; been have thinking that the earth never moved. Stand and look
toward the sun and know that it is the earth you are standing on which is

moving." Up to that day Ialways went to the Baptist church. After Iheard that sermon from the prophet, Iwas turned around completely. When Iwent home and heard that dinner was rady, Isaid: l dont want to eat dinner. Ijust want to go bad to the meetings." Iwouldn&#39;t mt my meals but Igoes back that night and Igoes to every meeting after that. ]ust to think that the
sun above me never moved at all and that the earth we are on was doing ail

the moving. changed That everything me! 1, for
The report of the prophets message spread throughthe Negro
community. Many of those who heard him invited their friends and relatives to come to the meetings, appealing either to their curiosity or to deeper interests. The attendance at the house meetings increased so much that the prophet was compelled to divide his hearers into several groups. the mt-nrhers of each of whirh were permitted to hear his mcssagr only 3t,th:&#39; time assigned to their group. The inconvenience was so ohviou:-"that the prophe-is followers readily Contributed money SUllll&#39;it&#39;HI towhirh was hire a hall

tted up the Temple. as _
rm; PROPHET

"§""l!

Although the prophet lived in Detroit from July 4, 19505 until June 3o. 1934, virtually nothing is known about him, save that he came from the East and that he "called" the Negroes of North America to enter the Nation of Islam. His very name is uncertain. He was known usually as Mr. Wali Farrad or Mr. W. D. Fard, though he used also the iollowing names: Professor Ford, Mr. Farrad Mohammed, Mr. F. Mohamrned Ali. One of the few survivors who heard his rst addresses states that he himself said: My name is W. D. Fiard and Icame from the Holy City of Mecca. More about myself Iwill not tell you yet, for the time has not yet come. Iam

your brother.

You havenot yet seen me my royal robes. Legin
Mecca. the son

ends soo&#39;n sprangabout this mysterious up personality. Many memhers of the cult hold that the prophet was born in

of wealthy parents of tribe the the of Koreish, the tribefrom which
Brother Challar Sharrie, formerly, Mr. Charles Peoples. i Interview with Iuirs. Carrie Ieopi|s Sister Carrie ivioharnmcdj.

J I

00088
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__.-._ .

VOODOO CUIT AMONG NEGRO MIGRANTS

397

Mohamrned Prophet the sprang, that hewasClosely and related by bloodto the dynasty the Hashimide of sheriffs Meccawhobeof
.,-4

came Lings of Lhe Heju. He is said to have been educatedat at

-.a-..

_

college England,in preparationa in for diplomatic career the in service the kingdom the Hejaz, but to haveabandoned of of every thing to bring freedom, justiceand equality, to his uncle livingin the wilderness North America, of surrounded robbed and
completelyby the Cave Man.

There hasgrown,however, amongthe members the cult a of beliefthat the prophetwas more than man, as BrotherYussuf

Mohammed claimed: "When police the asked tivho was, him he he
said:I am the Supreme Ruler of the Universe.He told police moreabouthimself thanhe would CF31 US. [Ell
rue r-iioaoesWHOHEARD rue cAi.t"
Not all who attended the tn ng5 au AL .-I 61&#39;. -..-a92_&#39;-t 6.. -_.....,92 u&#39;¬?Li&#39;u L111: Suugcl a 1113-

those

sage a.tct"|ited as prophet.Many ridiculed attacks him a his against
the Caucasians and were angeredby his criticisms the churches of

andthe preachers. Duringthe touryears hisministry, of however, approximately thousand eight Negroes in Detroitheard thecall"
and became members of the Nation of Islam. Interviews with more than two hundred M05le1n families showed that with less than half-

a-dozen exceptions wererecentmigrants all from the rural South,
the majority having come to Detroit from small communitiesin

Virginia, South Carolina. Georgia. Alabama, Mississippi. and Investigations cult members of by the WayneCountyProsecutor&#39;s
ofce also indicated the sameorigin. The interviewsdisclosed that
Sister arrie Moharnrned certain and others claimthat the prophet graduated fromtheUniversity Southern of Ta|iIornia LosAngeles in I Syrnbolizcd thelettersJ E on theMuslim hanging thehome every by F in of
cult member. The AmericanNegroes-;the black men in the wilderness North Arnerica-of ;

arereferred symbolicallythecultritualasthe undc Mr. to in of W.
Mt. W. ll. Fard. 1&#39; &#39;

U. Ford." Mos-

lems theEast~Syri.ms, and oi Turh others--are toasthe referred second uncle of &#39; ProphetD.Farcl, W. Tnckiagfor Found of{shun0illntlleuuatical hie Last Notion in
Way, ProblemNo. 30.

" l-htimated ofcials thecult.Detective: theSpecial by of at Investigation Squad
of theDetroitPolice Department estimate 5,000.

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THEAMERICAN JOURNAL SOCIOLOGY OF
___

the Moslemsonly not

had migrated recently from the South,but
after

alsohad visitedtheir old homesin the Southoneor more times

theirmigration before and theyhadcome intocontact with the
Nationof Islam. Through these visitsthey hadbecome moreeonscious racediscrimination the part of the Caucasians. of on .-llter

their brief

sojourntheNorthth&#39;ey reinterpret in tended to with

sinister implications incidents race of contact the South. in They began realize lynchings theindignities thejim Crow to that and oi system wereperpetrated Caucasians. worshiped same by ilrho the Godastheydidandworshiped in thesame Him way. In many of its partstheSecret Ritualof thecultreectsthearoused feelings
with whichthese Negroes returned from their visitsto the South.

Me andmy people havebeen fromhome 37o_92t&#39;ars who lost for
havetried this so-called m_92-&#39;ster_92&#39; God for hreacl, clothingand lllJITlt&#39; a

And we receive nothing hard times,hunger. but nakedand out of doors.Alsowasbeat and killed by the ones that aclvoczited that
kind of God.""

The illitt-rac_92&#39; oi thesouthern .92&#39;egr0e.~I llir to Caucanowseemed

sian "triclrnollogj.&#39;." thedevilkeep [!t&#39;u|_1lI&#39; Why does our iliiu-r
ate? ho that he can We theni for a tool and also a slaw-. He l92 &#39;t&#39;]92~

them hlind to tlieni.-at-Ives that he can masterthem."" so

A92l92&#39;&l-ic&#39;l192&#39;1l t&#39;llSLllI&#39;lllI&#39;l21llHll. already a consciou.-enes.+ to ol rare ll&#39;lt.&#39;~l

migrants fromthe South came into contact with militant rnote
ments among ti921l&#39;lh¬I&#39;l&#39;l ol themhadbeen Negroes. llt&#39;£tll_92&#39; lf3 none in theNorth. priorto thecollapse the Marcus of Garveym0ver"nr11I
-wily-wi

A iew of tnem had comeunder the intluencc the Moorish-Arneri of can cult which succeeded The eettt of both these I" J92.tl1l.tl&#39;ll.92 it.

upon luture the memberstheNation Islam largely of of was indirect. that these people weredescendants Morrocans." newer of The migrants entered social a milieu which atmosphere tilled in the was
* 92

Noble Ali, prophet Moorish-Anuericans. Drew the ofthe proclaimed

Garvey taught Negroes their the that homeland Ethiopia. was The

" W11. Fard. .i&#39;ecn-!R1&#39;lua.I aflhe Notion Islam.Part sec. "Ihishas of IL ll. la-:cn preicrvedas an oral tradition, memorized verbatim the pupils the lniversit_v try at of Islam.Only fewmanuscript a Copies extant. are " A cult termpronounced lrickenollogy."
&#39;1 Sun! Ritual. |&#39;art Fard, 1. set. o.

Q, Koran &#39;* Qucsliansfor Americans H123!,r,quest Jfnorish l"hicago_ p. 14

00090

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1
VOODO0 CULT AMONG NEGRO MIGRANTS 399

with questions aboutthe originof their people. Long before their
i 5 J

new prophet

appearedthem among

they werewonderingwho they

were and whence they had oorne. The migrants did not nd life in the North as pleasant as they had expected it to be, when rst they came to the land of hope," as the North wasknown in Negro poetry and song. The depression

deprivedthem of their means livelihood,and they sufferedtheir of rst experience urban destitution. Though public relief cameto of
their rescue. the attitudes shown by the welfare agents increased their hatred of the Caucasian civilization. Fprced to stand waiting

for hoursto receive their dole,these people began believe to that
race discrimination was evident in the North as well as in the South.

The welfare workers including those even of their own racebecame symbolic oi all that these peoplehated.
An Asiatic trend among Negro dole recipients of the Elmwood district, noted

at the time as a.passing whim, to-daymme backwith hol&#39;ror women to two
welfare workers on learning that the fanatical Robert Harris had intended them for human sacrices as indels . . . . Harris stated to the police that each of these was a "no good Christian," and that they would have been sacriced if he knew where he could have found them."

A further disillusionment came from their own physical discomfort resulting from iiie in crowded quarters in a northern city. Un-

accustomed the climateof the North. and especially its winters, to to
these people soon developed many bodily ailments. Their oondition is described by the Prophet ard in his teaching: F
He had fever. headaches, chills, grippe, hay fever, regular fever, rheumatism,
also pains in all joints. I-le was disturbed with foot ailment and toothaches. His pulse beat more than eighty-eight times per minute: therefore he goes to

the doctor every day and gets medicine for every day in the year: one after
each meal and three times a day, also one at bedtime."

Themigrahts realized theysuffered that much more physical pain
than they had in their old homes.They connectedthis suffering

withthe ciyilization white towhose they come. ofithe man cities had
Even before they met the prophet, they had begunto blame the
Caucasian for their aches and pains.
i Delrail Times, November 22, 193:. " Teaclaingfar Lost Found Nation oflrlam in MathematicalWay, Problem No. 6. the a i &#39;0

1 I
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900

.&#39;!&#39;HE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
III ORGANIZED CULT

Malmdjusted migrant Negroes cameinto contactwith the prophet at the informal meetingsin thdr own homes.With the changeto
temple servioesthe movement took on a more formal character. The

teaching becamesystematized.Membershipwas recognizedand
"registered." The movement itself becameorganized in a hierarchi-

cal manner. ; The prophets message characterized his ability to utilize was by to the fullest measure environment his followers.Their physithe of
cal and economic difficulties alike were used to illustrate the new

teaching 5imilarly, biblical prophecies the teachingof Marcus and Garveyand Noble Drew Ali werecited as foretellingthe comingof the new prophet. As additional proofsof his message, prophet the referred his followersto the Writingsof Judge Rutheriord, of Jeh0va.hs Witnesses, to a miscellaneous collection of books on Freemasonry and its symbolism, and to some well-known works, such as Breasteds Conquest Civilization and Hendrik van Loons Story of

of Mankind. Sincemany of thesepeoplewere illiterate, it became necessary organizeclasses Englkh so that they might beable to in
to read the proofs about themselves." They
92

were also instructed

to purchase radiosin order that they might listen to the addresses of JudgeRutherford, Frank Norris, the Baptist fundamentalist, and others. The prophet explainedto the people that the recommended books and addresses were symbolic and could be understood only through the interpretation which he himself would give at the

templeservices.The Koran itself wassoonintroducedas the most authoritativeof all textsfor the study oi the newfaith. The prophet,

however, uded only the Arabictext whichhe translated exand

plained thebelieve:-s. tootheywere to, Here oompletely dependent
upon his interpretation.

To give more systematiccharacterto his teaching,the prophet
himself prepared certain texts which served as authoritative manuals of the religion and were memorized verbatim by all who became
members of the Nation oi Islam.

Theprophefsteaching in substance follows: was as

moth; stolen from City 379 ago. Shcblzz, by traders the of Holy Mecca years

blockmen NorthAmerica notNegroes. members thelost in are but of

I I

00092 L/M

1 qgqgjinhn-no-s---bu--mourn-Act-on-a-1-.-q-......_...i. ,-~-- -.~ -_.-""&#39;. -----&#39;-v

VOODOO CULT AMONG NEGRO IIIGRIANTS

90!

TH|IOphetelmetoAIsa&#39;iclt0ndlndtoh!in.3h hdlnn,fromwhomtheCauca|inmhndt1kenlInyth
%
&#39;< z

llltioalllitbirliigion. Hu&#39;einA.mericliheywerelivingot.ha&#39;thl.nthemselves.&#39;1heynu.nlurnt.hattheyI-retheoriginll peoplqnohleetoftheneonl oltheelrth. &#39;IheCeuen.nn.mu-etheoolored people,sincethey havelost their origiml color. The originalpeoplemust 1-"gain their religion,whichis Islam,
their language,which is Arabic, and their culture, which is astronomy and higher

mllhemltics, especially alculus.They mustlive according the law of to
Allah. avoidingall meetof "poison a.ninuu.s, hogs, ducks,geese, &#39;p0saums and <-,-mish. They mun giveup completely useof stimulants, the especially liquor. they mustclan: themselves up-both their bodies and their houses. in this If way they obeyedAllah, he wouldtake them hack to the Pandile ii-omwhich

theyhadbeen |tolenthe HolyCityof M0061."
u

A

Those whoaccepted teaching this became menandwomen, new or, as the prophet expressed wererestored theiroriginaland it, to true selves.As mark of thisrestoration prophet s the gavethem
back their original names which the Caucasianshad taken from

them. Since sumof money-~-usually dollars--was a ten required to secure original the name. workmusthave this been extremely protahlvIu theprophet.Eachnewbeliever wrote separate Q letterasking +- his originalname.whichthe prophetwas supposed know Ȣ to

inrough Spiritoi Allahwithinhim. Examples thechanged the of
names are;

jxph She,&#39;>e.rd Shr... %r::e jam
Lindsey Glrrett became Huziez A Henrv Wells became Anwar Pasha William Blunt became Slmrrie Allah.

Apparentmistakessometimes occurredwhen three or morebrothers

appliedfor new names. neglecting mention their lettersthat to in

they blood were brothers. despite omniscience, Thus, his the prophet
once gave the surnames Sharrie, Karrie-rn,and Mohammed to of
.92 arr.-=8

thethree Poole brothers. prophet The explained seeming @3takeasdueto hisdivine knowledgethedierentpaternity the of of

three brothers. ,&#39; i

p

TCompiled{lie tens by prophet: from three ialuedthe Taackingfor Found the Les!
Nation Islam Q Moth!-Ilalicdl eonliiting 34 problems. textIn of in Way. of "rm.

printed, given toregistered but only Moslcml. Rims! the Sucre: id Native Islam, of
Part I, in 14 e¢c5.;1&#39;1I|id.,P92It lacs. I1, in 40

The.*-cent Ritual and is,truumiited was, still orally. entire The teachingsymis bulic can understood b_y initiates. and be only the

i

902
.,,-n -

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF

SOCIOLOGY
--_

The people secured newnames who the value themastheirgreatest treasure. wouldn&#39;t my righteous I giveup name.That name
is my life." They became ashamed their old slavenamesthat so of

they considered theycouldsuer nogreater that insultthan to be
addressed the old name. They soughtto live in conformitywith by

the Law of Islamas revealed themby the prophet. that they to so might be worthyof their originalnames. Gluttony,drunkenness.

idleness, extra-marital relations, and sex except with ministers oi
Islam, were prohibited completely. They bathed at least once a

day andkept their houses scrupulously" so that they might clean,
put away all marks of the slaveryfrom which the restoration the of

original namehadsetthemfree. The rapidincrease membership in madenecessary develop the
ment of a formal organization. Subsidiaryorganizationshad been
established as the need lor them arose. Chief of these was the Uni~

versity oi Islam to which the children of Moslem families were

sentratherthan to the public

schools. Here they weretaughtthe
of the Cauca-

knowledge of our own," rather than the civilization

sian devils. Courses weregiven in higher mathematics,"astrono-

my,and general the knowledge ending thespook and of civilization. That women might keep their housesclean and cook food properly,therewasestablished MoslemGirls Training and Genthe

eral Civilization Class.Fearof trouble with the unbelievers, especially with the police, to the founding the Fruit of Islam~~ led of

a military organizationthelmen were for who drilled captains by
and taughttactics andthe useof firearms. Eachoi these organizations&#39;-vas tontrolof groupoi officers underthe a trainedspecially by the prophetfor their task. Finally the entiremovement was
..,--en;

placed under

a.Minister Islama corps assistant oi and of ministers,

all of whom been had selected trained theprophet. and by Within
threeyearsthe prophetnot only beganthe movementbut organized

it sowellthathe himself ableto recede thebackground. was into
appearing almost neverto his followers duringthe nal months of

hisresidenceDetroit.Thiswas in undoubtedlyimportant an factor in thecultssurvival theproph.-:t&#39;s after departure.
" Mrs. William Moy, renamedSister Rosa Karriem.

i

&#39;92 0 as

00094

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VOODOO CULT AMONG NEGRO MIGRANTS
SCHISMS AND PERSECUTIONS .,-0

903

Inher . apparently theprophets in masage werecertain teachingswhich, from the very beginning the movement,led to schisrns of

withinthe membership thecultandto persecution without. of from Theprophetthat proclaimed hisfollowers not belong Amerdid to ica. They werecitizens the Holy City of Meccaand of their only allegiance to the MoslemTheir was flag. childrenbe must removed from the publicschools sent to the University Islam. In and of

r___

revolt against position, this Abdul Mohammed, of therst offione cers thetemple, in seceded organized and a small Moslem group of
hisownin whichthecardinal principle loyaltyto theConstituwas tion oi the United Statesand to its flag;The attendance ofcers

of theBoard Education thepolice of and attempted break to up
the University Islamand to compel children returnto the of the to
publicschools.This led to a severeriot in which the members the of

cult tried to stormthe police headquarters. Fearfulof race riots, thejudges the recorders of courtreleased suspended with sentence almostall of the rioters.Sincethat time the University Islam of
has continued its classes.

Ii

Moreserious diiculties arose overthe question humansacriof tice The prophets position this question nevermadeclear. on was He taughtexplicitly that it wasthe duty oi everyMoslern oer to assacriure tour _aucas-ian devilsin orderthat he mightreturnto

hishome Mecca." prophet taught Allah in The also that demands
obedienceunto death from his followers.No Moslem dare refuse

the sacrice of himself of hislovedones Allah requires On or if it. November1932, the people Detroit became 21. of conscious the of presence thecult through rst widelypublicized of its human sacri-

tice.A prominent member, Robert Harris, renamed Robert Karriem,erected altar in hishome 1249Dubois an at Streetandinvited

hisroomer, john Smith, present j. to himself a human as sacrice, sothathemight become, Harris as said, the Saviour theworld. of Smithagreed, andlatthe hourappointed thesacrice~g:oo for
A11.-Harris plunged lmiie into Smiths heart. After constantrea.

currences rumors humansacrice or attempted of of sacrice, on
;lg.;1_g.;,-y --,.d&#39;, ggi rm-1 Vet-laneMr-Om:-an rnnarnnrlvu VF!-ensA1; 10;-0&3; s w"--rw -1-us--.9." us.-4_-hum; ;

" Fard, Secret Rilsci, 1, fro. Part 1&#39;... T I
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904 -

THE AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY

of oneof the assistant ministers, arrested he was as prepared for
___n

the ceremonial-slaying cookingof his wife and daughter. This and
sacricewas, as he said, to have cleansed him from all sin." These cases of human sacrice have directed to the cult much

--...

_

attention from the Police Department so that the cult has been forced to pursue many of its activities in secret. The question of

sacrice has aiso serious ted to intemal ciashes. Rebels against the Will of Allah," asthey arecalled, have theTemple and left organized

another TempleIslam, oi desiring to remain within framework the of
the cult but to avoid humansacricegrthe necessity which an of as ezpiation ofsin forms oi the most hotlydebated s one ts among
the cult members.

Persecutions and

schisms alike have tended to increase the cul-

tural isolation of the members of this group. The eect oi the schisms was selective, leaving within the parent organization those who were bound togetherby common attitudes andcommon loyalties. Attacks madeon the cult by the Police Department have been

instigated usually the by leaders of Negro organizations. These perF

secutions have naturally to a led greater solidarity amongthe cult members and a to constantly increasing isolation the Moslems oi from the other residents of the Detroit Negro community.
EFFORTS TO EXPLUIT THE MUVEIIENT

The solidarity and cultural iwlation of

the Mosiems have ren-

dered ineectual
to redirect

the various
the activities

attempts madeby interested
order to further their

parties
own

of the cult in

particular purposes. rstof these The efiorts was madeby the Communists in r932, but the cult members rebuffed their appeal. Then came Major Takahashi,a reserve Japanese oicer, who soughtto

lead theiM0slems to swear allegiance the Mikado: a to Only small
minority of the members followed him into the new movement he
92

organiaedThe DevelopmentOur Own. Withhis deportation, oi this schmisrnatic movement came nought.An Ethiopian, to Wyatzewixard S. J. Challouehliczilczese, sought in June, 1934,to reorganize Lhe movement asmeans oi sendingnancial supportJo a Ethiopia. This too, was unsuccessful. At present themembers of
the cuit have come under the inuence of certain anti-Union inter-

l 4*

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00096
mun &#39;92

.s--.....

1 I

VOQDOD CULT AMONG

NEGRO

MIGRANTS

905

eats talkviolently thewar theC.I.O. and of of against Allah, and
the:-.% of removing thePlanet from EarthQ Union orgmizers.
While this trend seems very pronounced present, is unlikely at it to leaveany permanent impression uponthe movement, still and less likelyto detachfromthe Nation Islamany its members. of of
ADJUSTMENTS or cum" nrimaas URBAN aconolnr IN ma

T

t
|

At the time of

their rst contactwith the prophet,practicallyall
&#39;5

the members the cult wererecipients publicwelfare, of of unem-

ployed, living themost and in deteriorated areas Negro of settlementin Detroit.At thepresent time thereis noknownof case unemployment among these people.Practicallyof themareworkall
ing in the automobileand other factories.They live no longer in the slum sectionaround Hastings Street, but rent homesin some of the best economicareas in which Negroes have settled. They

tend purchase expensive to more furniture, automobiles, and clothes
E
than do their neighbors evenin these areas of higher-class residence.

Thisimproved economic adjustment due,doubtless. is partlyto postdepression conditions employment to the increased of and hiring of Negroes a result recent as of labortroubles. The members the of
cult, however.claim that they have secured work much more easily

than haveother Negroes.offer They
dence of

thanksto Allah for this evi-

his favor. To someextent their claim appearsto be justi-

1

fied,though statistical no study hasyet been of made comparative unemployment cult members otherrecentNegromigrants. of and Through Nation Islamthey havegained newstatus the of a and a
new condence in themselves. When they meet Caucasians,they

rejoice the knowledge theythemselves superiors in that are meeting
l i _

members an inferior race. Employmentmanagers of tend to accept

morereadilypersons whose appearance givesof evidence cleanlivingandself-reliance, those show marks debauchery, than who the of

defeat, despair. f and
The ascetic manner of I life of the Moslems also has contributed to

theireconomic improvement. money No whatever spent them is by on liquor,tobacco, pork. Their onemeal the day consists or of al"Written in August, I937.

J |
0

92

00097

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906 THE

AMERICAN JOURNALOF SOCIOLOGY

-#1!

most entirely of vegetables fruits.Consequently their and expenditure onfood issignicantly smaller than isthat of other Negroes in Detroit. This economy consumption, in however, not extended is to visible marks ofsuch status, as houses, automobiles, and clothes.
The prophettaught them that they are the descendants of nobles

in theHoly CityMecca. To show oi their escape slavery from and their restoration theiroriginal high to status, they obliged feel to live in good houses to and wear good clothes. Despite expenditheir
ture onthese items, members of cult constantly declare the that
1

they are ashamed that have been to they not able purchase better
commodities or rentliner homes to This furnitureis thebest we
could allordto buy here inthe wilderness North America, where of

we have liveother than to ourselves. When go we home to Mecca.

we will able get be to really good furniture, just allour people like
who live there use. RELATION ro OTHER NEGRO &#39;L&#39;l.TS

Thestory the oi Nation of Islam cannot be considered complete as in itself. Militant and cultist movements among migrant Negroes
in the cities of the North have formed a sort of tree. After one

branch has groyn. ourished. begun decay, and to another shoot.-1 up begin over to again the same l_92&#39;L&#39;ll, an though always with in-

creasing degree of race-Consciousm-5.-» and anti-Caucasian prejudice Out of wreck theMarcus Garvey the of movement, there sprang Phoenix-like the Moorish-Americanof which prophet cult the was
Noble Drew Ali. After this prophets disappearance and stabithe

lization of movement a the as formally organized denomination,
there sprang theNation ofIslam. Although cultural up the isola-

tion of members thiscult has declined the of not during the three
years oftheir prophets absence, there many are evidences of the
~>1nve"h"I

loss of militant aggressiveness once which characterized group. this

The organization is also tizndingbecomepmore amorphous. to From
among the larger group Moslems of there has sprung recently an
even moremilitant branch than the Nation of Islam itself. This

new movement, ltnown as Temple the People, identies prophet, the

Mr. W.D. Fard, with the god Allah. Mr.Fard alone To do they
offer prayerand sacrice. Since Mr. Fard hasbeen deied, the

i

92

00098

t. V. £7 i

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VOODOO CULT

AMONG NEGRO

MIGRANTS

907

-,,-an

Temple Peopleraise to the rank of prophet the former Minister of Islam, Rlijah Mohamrned, now a resident Chicago. of He is always referredto reverentlyas the Prophet Elijah in Chicago. A former assistantof his, the Haitian Theodore Rozier, has become the
minister and director of the new movement.

Thus continuesthe chain of these movements,each running through its cycleof growth and decay and all of them interwoven as strands a.web. Fundamentalto them all is the effortof migrant of Negroes to securea status satisfactoryto themselvesafter their

escape theoldsouthern from accommodation and ofwhite Negro.
l&#39;mvr;Rs1Tv or Mtctncm " Hi.-R slave name was Elijah Poole, The pmphel conferredon him the name of "Elijah Kan-iem. The TemplePeople claimthat Mr. W. IJ. Fard himselfchanged this namelater "Elijah Mohammed to indicatethe higherstatusto whichthe minister Lu W85 l&#39;tt|lt&#39;d. Moslems opposed the Temple People to deny this and continue speakoi to Brother l-Ilijah Karriern." " Une of the newerConverts, Brother TheodoreRozier, admits that he never saw the "Savior," Mr. W. I!. Fard. and that he learned [slamsolelythroughhis contact of

withthe"Prophet ElijahMoha.r1§tnetl"&#39; of theTemple Upponents People contend that
BrotherTheodoreRozier is not qualifiedto he ministernf [slamsincehe received the revelation "secot92dha.nil,

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