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50588389 Pipeline Design for Water Engineers

50588389 Pipeline Design for Water Engineers

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PIPELINE DESl6N fOR WATER EN6IMEERS

THIRD REVISED AND UPDATED EDITION

DEVELOPMENTSIN WATER SCIENCE, 40

OTHER TITLES IN THIS SERIES VOLUMES 7 3 ARE OUT OIF PRINT 4 J.J. FRIED GROUNDWATER POLLUTION 5 N. RAJARATNAM TURBULENT JETS 6 D. STEPHENSON PIPELINE DESIGN FOR WATER ENGINEERS 7 v. HANK AND J. SVEC GROUNDWATER HYDRAULICS 8 J. BALEK HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES IN TROPICAL AFRICA 9 T.A. McMAHON AND R.G. MElN RESERVOIR CAPACITY AND YIELD 10 G. KOVACS SEEPAGE HYDRAULICS 1i w.n. GRAF AND C.H. MORTIMER (EDITORS) HYDRODYNAMICSOF LAKES: PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM 12-13 OCTOBER 1978. LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND 12 W. BACK AND D.A. STEPHENSON (EDITORS) CONTEMPORARY HYDROGEOLOGY: THE GEORGE BURKE MAXEY MEMORIAL VOLUME 13 M.A. MARlfJO AND J.N. LUTHIN SEEPAGE AND GROUNDWATER 14 D. STEPHENSON STORMWATER HYDROLOGY AND DRAINAGE 15 D. STEPHENSON PIPELINE DESIGN FOR WATER ENGINEERS (completely revised edition of Vol. 6 in the series) 16 W. BACK AND R. LETOLLE (EDITORS) SYMPOSlClM ON GEOCHEMISTRY OF GROUNDWATER 17 A.H. EL-SHAARAWI (EDITOR) IN COLLABORATION WITH S.R. ESTERBY TIME SERIES METHODS IN HYDROSCIENCES 18 J.BALEK HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES IN TROPICAL REGIONS 19 D. STEPHENSON PIPEFLOW ANALYSIS 20 I. ZAVOIANU MORPHOMETRY OF DRAINAGE BASINS 21 M.M.A. SHAHIN HYDROLOGY OF THE NILE BASIN 22 H.C.RIGGS STREAMFLOW CHARACTERISTICS 23 M. NEGULESCU MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT 24 L.G.EVERETT GROUNDWATER MONITORING HANDBOOK FOR COAL AND OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT 25 W. KINZELBACH GROUNDWATER MODELLING: AN INTRODUCTION WITH SAMPLE PROGRAMS IN BASIC 26 D. STEPHENSONAND M.E. MEADOWS KINEMATIC HYDROLOGY AND MODELLING 27 A.M. EL-SHAARAWI AND R.E. KWIATKOWSKI (EDITORS) STATISTICAL ASPECTS OF WATER CIUALITY MONITORING - PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP HELD AT THE CANADIAN CENTRE FOR INLAND WATERS, OCTOBER 1985 28 M.JERMAR WATER RESOURCES AND WATER MANAGEMENT 29 G.W. ANNANDALE RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION 30 D.CLARKE MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMS IN GROUNDWATER 31 R.H. FRENCH HYDRAULIC PROCESSES IN ALLUVIAL FANS 32 L. VOTRUBA, 2. KOS. K. NACHAZEL, A. PATERA ANDV. ZEMAN ANALYSIS OF WATER RESOURC_ESYSTEMS 33 L. VOTRUBA AND V. BROZA WATER MANAGEMENT IN RESERVOIRS 34 D. STEPHENSON WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 35 M.A. CELlA ET AL. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN WATER RESOURCES, VOLUME 1 MODELING SURFACE AND SUB-SURFACE FLOWS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE VII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, MIT. USA, JUNE 1988 36 M.A. CELIA ET AL. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN WATER RESOURCES, VOLUME 2 NUMERICAL METHODS FOR TRANSPORT AND HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES. PROCEEDINGS OF THE V11 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, MIT, USA, JUNE 1988 37 D.CLARKE GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE TESTS: SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS

THIRD REVISED AND UPDATED EDITION

DAVID STEPHENSON
Department of Civil Engineering University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa

ELSEVlER
Amsterdam - Oxford - N e w York - Tokyo 1989

ELSEYIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V. Sara Burgerhartstraat 25 P.O. Box 2 1 1, 1000 A€ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Distributors for the United States and Canada:

ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHINGCOMPANY INC. 655, Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10017, U.S.A.

ISBN 0-444-87373-2

0 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1989
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V./ Physical Sciences & EngineeringDivision, P.O. Box 330, 1000 AH Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Special regulations for readers in the U.S.A. - This publication has been registered with the Copyright Clearance Center Inc. (CCC), Salem, Massachusetts. Information can be obtained from the CCC about conditions under which photocopies of parts of this publication may be made in the USA. All other copyright questions, including photocopying outside of the USA, should be referred t o the publisher. No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher for any injury and/or damage t o persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Printed in The Netherlands

V

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION

Pipelines lengths are for has and

are

being

constructed

in

ever-increasing and rational

diameters, bases have work of

working to

pressures.

Accurate and

design

essential years

achieve economic to done

safe

designs.

Engineers Much

resorted been

semi-empirical

design

formulae. the

recently

in

an

effort

to r a t i o n a l i z e

design

pipelines. This as well book as col lates pub1 ished some material new on rational and design methods data. the to Although aim of

presenting

techniques in many

retaining the or oook

conventional is to bring

approaches

instances, techniques an

the most modern design It is suitable the as most

the c i v i l
to

hydraulic but

engineer. also contains

introduction

the in will Many

subject the a l so of

d a t a on

advanced

techniques the book

field. be

i3ecause of useful to

the sound theoretical and

background

under-graduate

post-graduate

students.

the s u b j e c t s , and the

such as mathematical optimization, book may provide for leads for

are s t i l l

in t h e i r

infancy methods modern graphs The planning ancillary with codes design piping at in

further bear and

research.
in

The the the

of

solution

proposed of

many and

problems

mind of

acceptance in the book half

computers

calculators

many

were of

prepared with book the is

the assistance of
with

computers. and and

first of

this In

concerned half, book

hydraulics design in

pipelines. are

second The

structural does not

features

discussed.

deal

detail

manufacture, of of practice large are

l a y i n g a n d operation, from the engineer's as in opposed other will

nor should desk. to

i t replace design
is

Emphasis

on

the

Pipelines covered

industrial

and

domestic directed

which

pub1 ications.

Although

the water the It

engineer, of be be many

t h i s book other that by

be of use to engineers i n v o l v e d as of well the as solids and and gases.

piping should may

fluids some

noted

designs

techniques of pre-

described stressed

covered pipes,

patents. of

These

include pipes

types and

concrete

methods

stiffening

branches

and v a r i o u s coatings.

VI

The S . I .

system of

metric u n i t s i s preferred i n i n brackets

the book although Most g r a p h s Worked to

imperial u n i t s a re g i ve n a n d equations examples work in

in many

instances.

a r e represented i n uni versa1 dimensionless form. for as many they problems a n d the reader

are given these The the

i s advised

through the text. at

often elaborate on symbols chapter used

ideas not in each with

highlighted chapter are and

algebraic end

summarized general chapter.

of

that in

together the

specific

references a r r a n g e d The appendix data.

the order of further

subject matter i n the and standards and

gives

references

other useful

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

The

gratifying

response

to

the f i r s t

e d i t i o n of

t h i s book

resulted

in small
ations The replaced

amendments to

the second

impression,

a n d some major a l t e r -

i n t h i s new edition. chapters by data on transport relevant of to solids water and sewers have Thus a been new

more

engineers.

chapter on the effects of a i r i n water pipes i s included, chapter on pumping systems for water pipelines.

as well as a latter was

The

reviewed by B i l l Glass who added many of h i s own ideas. There are additions and u p d a t i n g throughout. There is additional

information on p i p e l i n e economics and optimum diameters i n Chapter 1 . A comparison of currently sections are used friction formulae is now made
in

Chapter and

2.

The flow

on non-circular These are are

pipe and p a r t l y largely in of the

full

pipes to the book basic water

sewer

omitted. as and hammer

interest

drainage

engineer

and

such

covered

author’s

‘Stormwater introduction

Hydrology to water

Drainage’ theory

(Elsevier, preceeds the

1981).
design

A
of

hammer protection of pumping a n d g r a v i t y

l i n e s i n Chapter 4 . flexible pipes are brought limit

The
together.

sections An

on

structural section

design on

of

enlarged

soil-pipe

interaction

and

states of f l e x i b l e pipes preceeds the design of s t i f f e n e d pipes. Although recognised needs some of the new edition
is

now

fairly

basic,

it

is

that

this

i s d e s i r a b l e for both the p r a c t i c i n g engineer who the student who comes
across

refreshing

and

the

problem

of

p i p e l i n e design f o r the f i r s t time.

VIII

PREFACE

TO THIRD E D I T I O N

Recent research i n c a v i t a t i o n a n d flow control h a s prompted a d d i t i o n a l sections on pipes a n d make up this. There a r e also new sections on references in supports and a to new exposed layout

secondary this edition.

stress. Some

Additional sections

appearing

p r e v i o u s editions,

noteably on p i p e network systems a n a l y s i s a n d o p t i m i z a t i o n have been ommitted as they were considered more appropriate in the alJthOr’S

p a r a l l e l book

‘Pipeflow A n a l y s i s ’

b y the same p u b l i s h e r .

IX

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The b a s i s for course of and my

t h i s book was d e r i v e d from my experience a n d i n the with the Hand Water Engineers. may Board a n d Stewart, S v i r i d o v extensive be knowledge reflected of

duties

0 iver, 1
in

Consulting these

The

Engineers although I the

organizations

therefore

herein

I am solely to blame f o r any inaccuracies o r misconceptions.
to my wife Lesley,

am g r a t e f u l twins during

who,

i n a d d i t i o n to looking a f t e r assiduously typed the first

many

a

lost

weekend,

d r a f t of t h i s book.

David Stephenson

X

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

ECONOMIC PLANNING

lntroduct ion P i p e l i n e Economics B a s i c s of E c o n o m i c s M e t h o d s of Ana I y s i s Uncertainty in Forecasts Balancing Storage

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1 2 9 10 11 14

CHA?TER 2

HYDRAULICS

The F u n d a m e n t a l E q u a t i o n s of F l u i d F l o w F l o w H e a d Loss R e l a t i o n s h i p s . . Empirical Flow Formulae 2 a t i o n a l Flow Formulae C o m p a r i s o n of F r i c t i o n F o r m u l a e M i n o r Losses . . P r e s s u r e and F l o w C o n t r o l i n P i p e s lntroduct ion T y p e s of V a l v e s I so l a t i n g V a Iv e s Control Valves C a v i t a t i o n in C o n t r o l V a l v e s . . I n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n C a v i t a t i o n a n d W a t e r Hammer P r e s s u r e s

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16 18 18 19 24 26 28 28 28 29 29 32 34

CHAPTER 3

P I P E L I N E SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Network A n a l y s i s E q u i v a l e n t P i p e s for P i p e s in S e r i e s o r P a r a l l e l Loop Flow Correction Method The Node H e a d C o r r e c t i o n M e t h o d A l t e r n a t i v e M e t h o d s of A n a l y s i s iqetwork A n a l y s i s b y L i n e a r T h e o r y O p t i m i z a t i o n of P i p e l i n e Systems D y n a m i c P r o g r a m m i n g f o r O p t i m i z i n g Compound P i p e s T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P r o g r a m m i n g for L e a s t - c o s t A1 l o c a t i o n o f Resources L i n e a r P r o g r a m m i n g f o r D e s i g n of l e a s t - c o s t Open N e t w o r k s

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37 37 38 40 41 43 44 45

48
52

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XI

CHAPTER 4

WATER HAMMER AND SURGE

R i g i d Water Column Surge Theory M e c h a n i c s o f W a t e r Hammer E l a s t i c W a t e r Hammer T h e o r y Method o f A n a l y s i s Effect of F r i c t i o n Protection of Pumping Lines Pump I n e r t i a Pump B y p a s s R e f l u x V a l v e Surge Tanks Discharge Tanks A i r Vessels In-Line Reflux Valves Release V a l v e s Choice o f P r o t e c t i v e D e v i c e

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58 60 64 64 68 69 73 76 77 79 85 89 91 93

CHAPTER 5

AI3

IN P I P E L I N E S

Introduction Problems of A i r Entrainment A i r I n t a k e a t Pump Sumps A i r Absorption a t Free Surfaces H y d r a u l i c Removal of A i r H y d r a u l i c Jumps Free F a l l s A i r Valves Head Losses in P i p e l i n e s W a t e r Hammer

. . . . . . . . . . . .

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97 97 99 101 102 102 104 105 108 109

CHAPTER 6

EXTERNAL LOADS

Soil Loads Trench conditions Embankment Conditions Superimposed Loads T r a f f i c Loads Stress Caused b y Point Loads Uniformly Loaded Areas . Effect o f R i g i d Pavements

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.

113 113 116 120 121 121 122 123

XI1 CHAPTER 7 CONCRETE PIPES

The Effect of B e d d i n g Prestressed Concrete Pipes Circumferential Prestressing C i r c u m f e r e n t i a l P r e s t r e s s a f t e r Losses Circumferential Stress u n d e r F i e l d Pressure L o n g i t u d i n a l Prestressing L o n g i t u d i n a l Stresses A f t e r L o s s e s P r o p e r t i e s o f Steel and C o n c r e t e

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

127 129 131 131 133 134 136 136

CHAPTER 8

STEEL AND F L E X I B L E P I P E

I n t e r n a l Pressures Tension R i n g s to Resist I n t e r n a l Pressures D e f o r m a t i o n of C i r c u l a r P i p e s u n d e r E x t e r n a l L o a d Effect of L a t e r a l Support S t r e s s d u e to C i r c u m f e r e n t i a l B e n d i n g More General Deflection Equations S t i f f e n i n g R i n g s to R e s i s t B u c k l i n g w i t h no side support Tension R i n g s Stiffening Rings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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142 143 146 149 151 152 156 156 156

CHAPTER 9

SECONDARY STRESSES

Stresses a t Branches Crotch Plates Internal Bracing Stresses a t Bends T h e P i p e a s a Beam Longitudinal Bending Pipe Stress a t Saddles . . Ring Girders Temperature Stresses

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160 162 165 172 173 173 174 175 176

CHA?TER

10

P I PES.

F I TT I NGS AND APPURTENANCES

?ipe M a t e r i a l s Steel P i p e Cast I r o n P i p e Asbestos Cement P i p e Concrete P i p e Plastic Pipe

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179 179 179 180 180 180

L i n e Val ves Sluice Valves B u t t e r f l y Valves Globe Valves Needle a n d Control Valves Spherical Valves Reflux Valves A i r Valves A i r Vent Valves A i r Release Valves Thrust Blocks Forces Induced by Supports . L o n g i t u d i n a l Stress Temperature Stresses Forces at Bends L a t e r a l Movement Forces on Supports Unbalanced Forces Flow Measurement Venturi Meters Nozz I es Orifices Bend Meters Mechanical Meters Electromagnetic I n d u c t i o n Mass a n d Volume Measurement Te I erne t ry

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182 182 183 184 184 185 186 186 186 188 190 194 195 195 196 196 197 197 198 198 199 1 99 200 200 201 201 201

CHAPTER 1 1

L A Y I NG AND PROTECTION

Selecting a Route L a y i n g a n d Trenching Thrust Sores Pipe Bridges Underwater Pipelines Joints a n d Flanges Coatings Linings Cat hod i c Prot ec t ion Galvanic Corrosion Stray Current E l e c t r o l y s i s Thermal I n s u l a t i o n

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205 206 208 208 210 212 2 6 1 2 7 1 218 21a 222 223

XIV

CHAPTER 12

PUMP I NG I NSTALLAT I ON5

I n f l u e n c e of Pumps in P i p e l i n e Design T y p e s of P u m p s P o s i t i v e Displacement Types C e n t r i f u g a l Pumps T e r m s and D e f i n i t i o n s Head Total Head Net P o s i t i v e S u c t i o n Head S p e c i f i c Speed Impeller Dynamics Pump C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C u r v e s ivto t o r s Pumpstat ions

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228 228 228 229 231 23 1 231 232 233 234 236 239 240

GENERAL REFE2ENCES AND STANDARDS

. . . . . .

242

BOOKS FOR FURTHER READING

. . . . . . . . .

250

APPEND I X

Symbols for p i p e f i t t i n g s Properties of p i p e shapes P r o p e r t i e s of w a t e r P r o p e r t i e s of p i p e m a t e r i a l s Conv ers i o n f a c t o r s

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252 253 254 255 256

AUTHdR SUBJECT

INDEX INDEX

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258 260

1

CHAPTER 1

ECONOMIC PLANNING

I NTRODUCT ION

Pipes

have

been

used

for

many c e n t u r i e s

for

transporting fluids. and lead pipes iron, was pipes

The Chinese f i r s t u s e d bamboo p i p e s t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s ago, p i p e s were were used unearthed a t
in

Pompeii. It was

In
only

later with

c e n t u r i e s wood-stave the advent of Cast cast iron

England. pressure
in

however, used

that

pipelines 19th

were

manufactured. and is still

extensively

the

Century

used.

Steel

were f i r s t

introduced towards small and

t h e e n d of t h e l a s t c e n t u r y , The

facilitating

c o n s t r u c t i o n of high grade

large bore pipelines.

i n c r e a s i n g use o f pipelines 10 Newtons have with per been or

steels a n d

large r o l l i n g m i l l s has enabled and working pressure over Welding

diameters square

over

3

metres to be

millimetre

manufactured. and

techniques

perfected spiral

enabling

longitudinally

circumferentially P i p e l i n e s a r e now

welded

welded

p i p e s to b e m a n u f a c t u r e d .

a l s o made plastics formulae thereby

in r e i n f o r c e d concrete,

p r e - s t r e s s e d concrete, varying design conditions. of

asbestos cement, Reliable this flow

and

claywares, available

to

suit the

became

for

pipelines

century,

a l s o p r o m o t i n g t h e use of p i p e s . Prior fluids common
to

this

century by

water

a n d sewage Nowadays gases and

were p r a c t i c a l l y pipelines oils over are long

the o n l y the most

transported means for

pipeline.

transporting solids

distances. are also

Liquid chemicals

and

in slurry

form or

in containers

being

pumped

t h r o u g h p i p e l i n e s on ever kilometres of

i n c r e a s i n g scales.

There a r e the

now o v e r world.

two m i l l i o n

pipelines i n service throughout

The g l o b a l

e x p e n d i t u r e on

p i p e l i n e s i n 1974 was p r o b a b l y o v e r

5 5 000 m i l l i o n .
There are many advantages rail, the of pipeline transport compared with o t h e r methods s u c h a s r o a d , waterway most and air:form of transport

(1)

Pipelines

are

often

economic

( c o n s i d e r i n g e i t h e r c a p i t a l costs,

r u n n i n g costs o r o v e r a l l c o s t s ) . susceptible to fluctuations in

(2)

Pipelining

costs

are

not

very

2
prices, since the major cost i s the c a p i t a l o u t l a y and subsequent

o p e r a t i n g costs are r e l a t i v e l y small. Operations are not susceptible to labour disputes as little

attendance i s r e q u i r e d .

Many modern systems operate automatical-

lY.
Being hidden beneath the ground a pipeline will not mar the

n a t u r a l environment.

A b u r i e d p i p e l i n e i s reasonably secure against sabotage. A
pipeline is independent of external influences such as traffic

congestion and the weather. There is normally no problem of r e t u r n i n g empty containers to

the source.

It

is

relatively

easy

to

increase the c a p a c i t y of

a pipeline by

i n s t a l l i n g a booster pump.

A b u r i e d p i p e l i n e w i l l not d i s t u r b surface t r a f f i c a n d services.
( 1 0 ) Wayleaves
for pipelines are usually easier to obtain than for

roads and r a i l w a y s .

(11)

The

accident

rate

per

ton

- km

is

considerably

lower

than

for

other forms of t r a n s p o r t .

(12) A

pipeline

can

cross

rugged

terrain

difficult

for

vehicles

to

cross. There are of course disadvantages associated w i t h p i p e l i n e systems:The initial capital in
the

expenditure demand

i s often

large,
of

so i f there i s any

uncertainty necessary.
There is

some

degree

speculation

may

be

often

a

high

cost

involved

in

filling

a

pipeline

( e s p e c i a l l y long fuel Pipelines (although bases). cannot there be are

lines). used for more than one m a t e r i a l operating at on a time batch

multi-product

pipelines

There
solids,

are

operating

problems

associated

with

the

pumping

of

such as blockages on stoppage. to locate leaks o r blockages.

I t i s often d i f f i c u l t

P I PEL I NE ECONOM I CS

The main cost

of

a p i p e l i n e system i s u s u a l l y that of the p i p e l i n e

3
itself. gravity The pipeline cost is
in

fact

practically

the

only

cost

for and

systems b u t

as the adverse head

increases so the power

pumping s t a t i o n costs increase.

Table p i p e l i nes. With the
time

1.1

indicates

some

relative

costs

for

typical

installed

the of

economic writing relative

instability pipeline costs of

and rates of may

inflation prevailing at by 20% o r more per will as vary. PVC In may

costs for

increase

year,

and

different

materials

particular increase

the

cost than

petro-chemical of concrete

materials for

such

faster

those

instance,

so these f i g u r e s

should be inspected w i t h caution. TABLE 1 . 1 Relative P i p e l i n e Costs Bore mm Pipe M a t e r i a l 150 450

1 500

PVC Asbestos cement Reinforced concrete Prestressed concrete M i l d steel High tensile steel Cast i r o n
<:,,-s,

6 7

10 11 25

23 23 23 33 28 25

80

90
100

-

150

90

75

- 180 - 120 -

indicates not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . i n 1974 under average conditions

1 u n i t = d;/metre

The components m a k i n g up the cost of a p i p e l i n e v a r y widely from situation to situation but for water pipelines in open country and

t y p i c a l conditions are as follows:Supply of p i p e

- 55% - 20%
may

(may

reduce

as

new

m a t e r i a l s a r e developed) Excavation (depends reduce as on terrain,

mechanical im-

excavation prove) L a y i n g and j o i n t i n g

techniques

- 5% (may increase w i t h
bour costs)

la-

F i t t i n g s a n d specials Coating and w r a p p i n g Structures ( v a l v e chambers, anchors)

- 5% - 2% - 2%

4

L

10

a
L 0

r

m ._
U

5
Water hammer protection access roads, cathodic structures, fences

- 1%
.

Land acquisition, protection,

security

- 1% - 5% - 1% - 3%
For water from It is

Engineering and survey costs Admi n i s t r a t i ve costs Interest d u r i n g construction

Many factors have to be considered in s i z i n g a p i p e l i n e : pumping mains the flow to velocity at on the optimum diameter flow and working

varies

0.7

m/s

2

m/s,

depending

pressure.

about

1 m/s for

for

low pressure of

heads and a flow and

of 100 C/s

increasing

to 2 m/s of water, factor

a flow

1

000 C / S

pressure heads at

about 400 m The c a p a c i t y optimum Fig. flow

and may be even h i g h e r f o r h i g h e r pressures. power

and

cost

structures

also for

influence any

the

v e l o c i t y o r conversely

the diameter

p a r t i c u l a r flow.

1.1

i l l u s t r a t e s the optimum diameter of water mains f o r t y p i c a l conditions. I n planning scale costs. of By a p i p e l i n e system i t should be borne i n mind that of a pipeline diameter has of considerable pipe, effect on the such the unit as

operation doubling

the

the

other

factors

head remaining constant, hand the cost

the c a p a c i t y increases six-fold. doubles the lines. main so that It it is the is

On the other per unit effect

approximately to

cost

delivered which to

decreases

1/3

of

original. Whether at the

this

scale

justifies a

multi-product large diameter

i n fact

economical on the

install

outset

depends

f o l l o w i n g factors as well as scale:Rate of low growth i n demand ( i t may be uneconomical factors during initial years). to operate a t factor is

capacity

(Capacity

the r a t i o of a c t u a l average discharge to design c a p a c i t y ) . Operating to factor (the ratio of average the throughput period), can be at any time

maximum on

throughput the rate
of

during

same and

which improved

will
by

depend

draw-off

i n s t a l l i n g storage a t Reduced power costs

the consumer's end. due to low friction losses while the

p i p e l i n e i s -not o p e r a t i n g a t f u l l c a p a c i t y . C e r t a i n t y of f u t u r e demands. V a r y i n g costs w i t h time ( b o t h c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g ) .

(6)

Rates of

interest and c a p i t a l in

availability. a second pipeline i f

(7)

Physical d i ffi cu l ti e s required. The optimum not cost design

the construction of

p e r i o d of a p i p e l i n e depends

on

a

number

of

factors, rate of

least b e i n g the r a t e of inflation,
in

interest on c a p i t a l to the r a t e of

loans and the scale and

addition

growth,

c e r t a i n t y of f u t u r e demands In waterworks for practice up

(Osborne a n d James, it to has been to

1973).
economic hence. to size large

found years

pipelines throughput size of

demands

10

30

For

and h i g h growth rates, so that

technical

c a p a b i l i t i e s may

l i m i t the

the p i p e l i n e , Longer

supplementation may stages are normally

be r e q u i r e d w i t h i n justified for small

10

years.

planning

bores and low pressures. It Where may not always are be economic it is to lay to a uniform bore pipeline. and

pressures

high

economic

reduce the diameter

consequent1 y the wal I thickness. In there planning may be a a trunk main of be with progressive decrease of on i n diameter diameters. the most

number should

possible compared

combinations before deciding

Alternative economic.

layouts

Systems a n a l y s i s techniques such as l i n e a r programming and

dynamic programming are i d e a l l y suited f o r such studies. Booster pumping high to pump a stations may be installed along lines instead of

high pressure head a t the i n p u t end and m a i n t a i n i n g a
along the entire line. By providing for intermediate

pressure

booster at the

pumps a t input end,

the design

stage

instead of pumping to a h i g h head and consequently the p i p e w a l l

the pressure heads

thicknesses may b e minimized. even though additional

There may be a s a v i n g i n o v e r a l l cost, stations are required.

pumping

The

booster

stations may not be r e q u i r e d f o r some time. The c a p a c i t y booster this is pumps not at of the p i p e l i n e may often be increased b y i n s t a l l i n g should losses
the

a

later

stage

although The

it

be

r e a l i s e d that a pipeline

always

economic. with

friction of

along flow,

increase

approximately

the

square

consequently

power losses increase considerably The diameter be selected cost by of an a

f o r h i g h e r flows.

pumping main economic with

to convey a known discharge can
of alternative whereas sizes. The

comparison increasing

pipeline

increases

diameter,

power cost

7

TOTAL
COST

5

DIAMETER

Fig.

1.2

O p t i m i z a t i o n of d i a m e t e r of a p u m p i n g p i p e l i n e .

C

COST I N CENTS

P E R m3

Cl
c2

C

4 =

0,

+

0; 0

01

02

Q3

Discharge

Fig.

7 -3

Optirriization of

throughput

for certain diaweters

8
in

overcoming costs by

friction

reduces as

correspondingly. the p i p e l i n e

On

the

other

hand

power Thus costs,

increase

steeply

i s reduced

in d i a m e t e r .

adding

together a

pipeline and such as An

the present Figure example

v a l u e of from

operating which the

one

obtains system

curve be

1.2,

least-cost chapter. rate. If at

can

selected.

is given

later

in the

There

will

b e a h i g h e r cost

the g r e a t e r the design d i s c h a r g e

some of a

stage pumping as

later

it

is it

desired

to

increase to

the

throughput

capacity diagram different kilolitre

system, 1.2

i s convenient the form of

replot d a t a from a 1.3. Thus
for

such

Figure

in

Figure

possible
or

throughputs, is plotted

the cost,

now e x p r e s s e d i n c e n t s p e r (real)

similar,

a s the ordinate w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e

pipe diameter a parameter. It any can be demonstrated is is a minimum twice the that when the the cost per unit of throughput for an

pipeline basis)

p i p e l i n e cost
of

(expressed on

annual friction.

annual

cost

the

power

in o v e r c o m i n g

T h u s t h e cost C,(P) c = C,
-

in cents p e r c u b i c metre of water

is

+ C2(d)

61
wHQ + C 2 ( d )

Q
2gdA

(1.1)

= c,w

+

Hs)

+

CZ(d)/Q

2C1 wHf/Q minimum C i.e. P
of

- C2(d)/Q2

C Z ( d ) = 2 C,(P) i s power H is is requirement, the total proportional subscript C2(d) of power is to wHQ.
s

(1.2)
w i s the u n i t weight to static a and f to of

water,

head, rate,

refers cost

friction, diameter

Q
d,

pumping is

the

of

pipeline

C,(P)

t h e cost

( a l l costs converted

to a u n i t

time b a s e ) . (In a given similar manner penstock friction it c a n b e shown supplying head
loss

that

the

power o u t p u t of a station the total is a

diameter

a is

hydroelectric one third of

maximum

if

the

head

a v a i table).

9
R e t u r n i n g to F i g u r e 1.3, the f o l l o w i n g w i l l Q, there be observed: is a c e r t a i n diameter at

(1)

At

any

particular

throughput

w h i c h o v e r a l l costs w i l l

b e a m i n i m u m ( i n t h i s case D

2

1.

(2)

At

t h i s d i a m e t e r t h e c o s t p e r ton of if throughput was increased.

throughput could be reduced Costs would be a minimum is

further at not some the

t h r o u g h p u t Q2. same as the

Thus a p i p e l i n e ' s optimum throughput throughput for which it is the

optimum

diameter.

(3)

If Q
Q4

1

were

increased

by

an

a m o u n t Q3

so t h a t
not but to to

total install

throughput

=

Q1

+

Q3

i t m a y b e economic optimum diameter diameter

a

second flow

pipeline through

(with

D3 )

increase

the

the p i p e w i t h

D2,

i.e.

Q4C4

i s l e s s t h a n QIC1

+ Q3C3.
(4)
At

a

later the

stage

when

it

is

justified the

to

construct line

a

second be

pipeline reduced. The power

throughput

through

overloaded

could

cost

per

unit
so

of the

additional

throughput

decreases of it

with being line

increasing most

pipe

diameter to

corresponding

likelihood an

economic

increase

throughput

through

existing

increases w i t h size (White,

1969).

B A S I C S OF ECONOMICS

Economics designs. some

is

used a s a b a s t s f o r c o m p a r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e schemes o r schemes m a y have different cash flows necessitating

Different

rational is

form of the on

comparison. rate

The c r u x o f a l l methods o f economic which may funds. be
in

comparison interest

discount loans or

the

form

of

the may to

rate

redemption from

National

projects

r e q u i r e a discount reflect b e more a time rate

r a t e different of preference,

the p r e v a i l i n g interest r a t e , private organizations

whereas

will

interested

in the a c t u a l c a s h flows,

a n d consequently

use the

real borrowing The cash compared basis.

interest rate. i.e. of payments another may and returns, of one scheme may b e to a common time

flows, those

with

by

bringing

them

Thus a l l one

cash

flows

be discounted next it year is

to t h e i r p r e s e n t the same
as

value.

For

instance

pound this

received year

fl/l.05
invested

( i t s present

value)

if

could earn

5% i n t e r e s t

if

10
this a year. It is usual t o meet capital interest expenditure rate. from a loan over

definite

period at load by annual

a certain
paying

Provision

i s made f o r

r e p a y i n g the interest.
to amount

into a at

s i n k i n g fund w h i c h a l s o c o l l e c t s the e n d of each year required

The

repayments

to a71

in n y e a r s i s

where

r i s the

i n t e r e s t r a t e on t h e p a y m e n t s i n t o t h e s i n k i n g f u n d . i s R, then the t o t a l a n n u a l payment i s

If

t h e i n t e r e s t r a t e o n t h e toan

R(l+r)"+

r-R (1.4)

( 1+ r ) n-t
Normally the interest rate on the loan i s equal to the interest rate

e a r n e d b y t h e s i n k i n g fund so t h e a n n u a l p a y m e n t on a l o a n of

El
(1.5)

is

Conversely

the

present
IS

v a l u e of

a

p a y m e n t of

S1 a t

t h e e n d o f each

year over n years

The p r e s e n t v a l u e of a s i n g l e amount of f l i n n y e a r s i s

Interest on loans,

tables

are

available

for

determining annual

the a n n u a l

payments for

and

the present rates and

v a l u e s of redemption

payments o r (lnstn.
of

returns, Civil

various 1962)

interest

periods

Engs.,

Methods of A n a l y s i s

Different engineering may and b e compared incomes for

schemes r e q u i r e d
in a

to meet

t h e same o b j e c t i v e s

economically
with

n u m b e r of

ways.

If a l l
to

payments

associated

a

scheme a r e d i s c o u n t e d is termed a

t h e i r present value or

value

comparison,

the

analysis

present

11
discounted cash flow analysis. On the other this hand if annual net

incomes of d i f f e r e n t return method.

schemes a r e compared, latter tax is most and

i s termed used

the r a t e of by private In

The

frequently profits

o r g a n i s a t ions

where

returns

feature

priminently.

such cases i t i s suggested that i s obtained. u t i I i t ies. Present value

the assistance of q u a l i f i e d accountants are most common for public

comparisons

A

form

of

economic

analysis

popular

in

the

United to a l l is

States

is

benefit/cost of a

analysis. for

An economic benefit a certain

i s attached value

products to

scheme,

instance

economic

attached the

water

supplies,

although t h i s

is difficult

to e v a l u a t e

in

case of values

domestic supplies. a r e attached

Those schemes w i t h priority. Where

the highest schemes are

benefit/cost mutually

highest

exclusive the

such as i s u s u a l l y the case w i t h p u b l i c u n t i l i t i e s the scheme w i t h largest present value a
of

net

benefit

is

adopted.

It the

the

total

water supply

requirements of

town f o r

instance were f i x e d ,

least-cost

scheme would be selected f o r construction.

Uncertainty i n Forecasts Forecasts of demands, whether they be f o r water, risk. o i l o r gas, a are

i n v a r i a b l y clouded w i t h

uncertainty

and

Strictly i.e.

probability benefit of

a n a l y s i s i s r e q u i r e d f o r each possible scheme, a n y p a r t i c u l a r scheme w i l l by their probability for a be the sum of number
of

the net

the net

benefits mul t i pl i ed demands. Berthouex

possible

(1971) recommends under-designing
for uncertain forecasts, but his

b y 5 to analysis

10% f o r p i p e l i n e s to a l l o w
does not account
for

cost

inflation. An a l t e r n a t i v e method of a l l o w i n g f o r discount or interest scheme, rate: increasing uncertainty rate
will

i s to a d j u s t favour future a

the low

the

c a p i t a l cost

which would be p r e f e r a b l e i f

the

demand

were uncertain.

Example

A consumer r e q u i r e s 300 P/s of
increase economic his consumption to 600

water P/s

for a

5

years further

then

plans

to

for

25

years

(the

l i f e of h i s f a c t o r y ) .

12
He draws for

75% of

the

time

every

day.

Determine

the

most

economic diameter and the number of p i p e l i n e s r e q u i r e d . i s s u p p l i e d b y a p u b l i c body p a y i n g no t a x . Power for

The water a flat and

costs

0.5

p/kWhr,

which

includes

an

allowance

operating

maintenance.

The interest r a t e on loans ( t a k e n over 20 y e a r s ) a n d a n d the is rate of p.a. kW, inflation in Pump and

on a s i n k i n g f u n d i s 10% p e r annum, cost of pipelines, pumps and

power

6%

pumpstations costs amount

to 5300 p e r

incremental

(including

a n allowance f o r standby p l a n t ) a n d pump e f f i c i e n c y i s 70%. The effective discount r a t e may be taken the r a t e of i n f l a t i o n , x i.e. as the interest rate less

4% p.a.,

since E l

t h i s year i s worth

f l

1.10/1.06

+

51 x 1.04 next year.
be made t h r o u g h one
or

The s u p p l y

could

large

pipeline each

capable

of

h a n d l i n g 600 O/s, one

P/s,

two

smaller after

pipelines the

delivering comparison a

300
of

installed

five

years

other.

A

a l t e r n a t i v e diameters pipeline. Similarly

i s made

i n the f o l l o w i n g was made f o r

table for two

single each

an a n a l y s i s This

pipelines

d e l i v e r i n g 300 P / s . for

i n d i c a t e d an optimum diameter of 600 mm total present value for both p i p e l i n e s of w i l l be the

each p i p e l i n e a n d a

5 7 500 p e r 100 m.

Thus one p i p e l i n e ,

800 mm diameter,

most economic solution.

Note pipeline,

that

the

analysis it was

is

independent that

of

the

length such Water cost

of
that

the a

although

assumed

pressure

was

continuous low-pressure p i p e was a l l t h a t was r e q u i r e d . protection costs a r e assumed incorporated
in

hammer
The

the p i p e

here.

a n a l y s i s i s also

independent o f

the c a p i t a l

loan period,

a l t h o u g h the

r e s u l t s would be s e n s i t i v e to change i n the interest o r i n f l a t i o n rates. Discount factors were obtained years periods. from present v a l u e tables was not for

4% over
for but

5,

25

and

30

Uncertainty

allowed

would f a v o u r the two smaller p i p e l i n e s . Another i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t emerged from installed from initially, due to the a n a l y s i s : a high then the I f a 600 mm of the did and

p i p e l i n e was demand increase,

uncertainty if the

increasing
it

300

to

600

P/s,
to

demand head

would

be more economic

boost

pumping

13
Sol u t i o n :
1.
I n s i d e D i a .mm
FIOW

2. 3. 4.

e/s

N O
0.14

600 _ _ _ _ ~ 600

700 600

300

800 300 600

900 300 0.02

600

H e a d loss

m/100 m
loss kw/100 m = (3.)xQ/70

0.55

0.06

0.24

0.03

0.12

0.07

Power

0.60

4.,72

0.26

2.06

0.13

1.03

0.09

0.60

5.

Energy requirem e n t s kW h r / y r / 100 m
= (4.1~8760 x 0.75

3900

31000

1700

13500

850

6600

590

3900

6.

Annual cost

pumping

silo0 m 7.
Equiv.Capita1 c o s t of p u m p i n g over 5 years = (6Jx4.452 Equiv .capital c o s t of p u m p i n g o v e r 25 y e a r s .
=

20

155

e

67

4

33

3

20

90

--

40

-

20

-

10

-

e.

( 6 . )x15.622

-

24-30

-

1060

-

520

-

310

9.

P r e s e n t v a l u e of p u m p i n g cost

= (8.)/1.170

2 070

900

440

260

10.

Cost of p u m p s
etc.

f/100
11.

m : = ( 4 . ) x300

180

1410

80

620

40

310

30

180

Present v a l u e of pump cost = (10.,)/1.170 for second s t a g e P i p e l i n e cost f/100 m TOTAL COST

180

1200

80

530

40

260

30

150

12.

3600

4200

4800

5400

13.

f / 1 0 0 m f o r 300 G 600 e / s 7. '9. + 1 1 . t i 2

7140

5750

5560 ::
(least cost)

5850

14

Rate

-

_ - -

m’ls

Reservoir empty

cumulative demand =/Qdt

Reservoir f u l l = c a p a c i t y required

24h I

Fig.

1.4

Graphical c a l c u l a t i o n of r e s e r v o i r capacity

pump

the

total rather by a

flow than

through provide of a

the

one

existing

600

mm

diameter This
is

pipeline indicated one

second present
with

600

mm of

pipeline.

comparison

the

value

pumping through value of pumping

600 mm

line

(57 140/100 m )

the

present

through two 600 m m lines ( 5 7 500/100

m).

BALANCING STORAGE

An system

aspect is

which

deserves storage.

close a t t e n t i o n

in p l a n n i n g the p i p e l i n e

reservoir water

Demands such as those f o r the season, the day of

domestic the week twice

and and the

industrial time mean may of

fluctuate

with

day.

Peak-day

demands a r e sometimes peak draw-off for a day. the It

i n excess of

annual be six

demand whereas times the mean to

from r e t i c u l a t i o n systems would be uneconomic rates, to

provide

pipeline

capacity

meet

peak

draw-off

and

b a l a n c i n g r e s e r v o i r s are the head of

n o r m a l l y constructed at the consumer end ( a t system) to meet these peaks. The storage

the r e t i c u l a t i o n

c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e d v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h the p i p e l i n e c a p a c i t y . The b a l a n c i n g storage and pipeline capacity requirement for any known draw-off pattern diagram:

may

be determined

w i t h a mass flow

15
Plot curve cumulative plot a draw-off with line over slope down
a

period
to

versus

time,

and a b o v e t h i s
of the

line this

equal till

the discharge capacity just touches the

pipeline. period.

Move Then

it

the mass draw-off lines represents

the

maximum o r d i n a t e

between
1.4).

two

the b a l a n c i n g storage r e q u i r e d (see F i g . An storage economic capacity comparison for is

necessary

to

determine

the

optimum

a n y p a r t i c u l a r system (Abramov,

1969) b y adding

t h e cost o f r e s e r v o i r s and p i p e l i n e s and c a p i t a l i z i n g running c o s t s f o r different cost is c o m b i n a t i o n s and c o m p a r i n g them, selected. It is found that the system w i t h least total

t h e most economic

storage capacity

v a r i e s f r o m one d a y ' s s u p p l y b a s e d o n t h e mean a n n u a l r a t e f o r s h o r t pipelines Slightly than to more mm two
day's

supply

for

long

pipelines small-bore

(over

60

km).
(less

storage

may

b e economic

for

pipelines of

450

diameter). should be

In a d d i t i o n
provided;

a
up

certain to

amount

emergency

reserve

storage

12 h o u r s d e p e n d i n g u p o n

the a v a i l a b i l i t y of maintenance f a c i l i t i e s .

REFERENCES A b r a m o v , N., 1969. M e t h o d s o f r e d u c i n g p o w e r c o n s u m p t i o n in p u m p i n g w a t e r . I n t . W a t e r S u p p l y Assn. C o n g r e s s , V i e n n a . Berthouex, P.M., 1971. Accommodating u n c e r t a i n forecasts. J. Am. W a t e r Works Assn., 66 ( 1 ) 14. I n s t n . o f C i v i l Engs., 1962. A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E n g i n e e r i n g Economics, London. and James, L.D., 1973. M a r g i n a l economics a p p l i e d t o Osborne, J.M. p i p e l i n e d e s i g n . P r o c . Am. SOC. C i v i l E n g s . , 99 ( T E 3 ) 637. W h i t e , J.E., 1969. Economics o f l a r g e d i a m e t e r l i q u i d p i p e l i n e s . P i p e l i n e News, N.J.

L I S T OF SYMBOLS

C D
n

-

cost p e r u n i t o f t h r o u g h p u t diameter number of y e a r s throughput i n t e r e s t r a t e o n s i n k i n g fund i n t e r e s t r a t e on loan

Q
r

R

-

CHAPTER 2

HYDRAULICS

THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF FLUID FLOW

The

three

most

important

equations

in

fluid

mechanics

are

the

continuity For tion the flow' with

equation,

the momentum equation a n d one-dimensional equating flow

t h e energy

equation. equato

steady, is flow is

incompressible, obtained at another there by

the c o n t i n u i t y any

simply rate meant

the flow the

rate at

section By

section is no flow no

along

stream in that

tube. at

'steady point a of

that

variation implies flow

velocity the

any

time. tube

'One-dimensional' and there is

flow the

is

along

stream

lateral

across

boundaries

stream tubes. The and

I t also implies that equation the of stems in

the flow from

i s irrotational. basic law of motion sections For

momentum that sum

Newton's

states the

change forces

momentum f l u x the fluid

between the

two

equals steady,

the

on

causing

change.

one-dimensional

flow t h i s i s

AFx where

=

pQAVx

(2.1
p i s the f l u i d

1

F

i s the force, i s velocity energy of

mass density,

Q

i s the volumetric 'x' direction. done the

flow r a t e , V The basic

a n d s u b s c r i p t x r e f e r s to the
is

equation by

d e r i v e d b y e q u a t i n g the work and pressure transfer forces to

on

an

element in

fluid

gravitational

change from tion for

energy.

Mechanical

a n d heat energy

a r e excluded

the equation. and this.

In most systems there i s energy

loss due to f r i c -

turbulence and a t e r m i s included i n the equation to account The resulting equation for steady flow of incompressible

f l u i d s i s termed the B e r n o u l l i equation and i s conveniently w r i t t e n a s :

where V V2/2g 9

= = = =

mean velocity velocity

at a section length)

head ( u n i t s of

g r a v i t a t iona I acce I e r a t ion pressure

P

17
p/y
Y
=

pressure head ( u n i t s of

length)

= u n i t weight of f l u i d

Z

= e l e v a t i o n above an a r b i t r a r y datum
=

he
The sum
of

head

loss

due

to

friction

or

turbulence

between

sections 1 G 2 the velocity head plus pressure head p l u s e l e v a t i o n is

termed the total head. Strictly the v e l o c i t y head should be m u l t i p l i e d b y a coefficient to

account f o r the v a r i a t i o n in v e l o c i t y across the section of the conduit. The average v a l u e of the coefficient f o r t u r b u l e n t flow laminar uniform variation conduit. For i.e. the Bernoulli should be equation no change to apply in the flow at should be steady, flow or in it
is

i s 1.06 and f o r termed there along either
is

2.0.

Flow

through on

a

conduit or

is

non-uniform the

depending

whether

not

a the

cross-sectional

velocity

distribution

there

velocity

any

p o i n t w i t h time. The f l u i d applied
to

The flow should

i s assumed to be one-dimensional incompressible, although the

and i r r o t a t i o n a l . may be

be

equation 1960). i n Fig.

gases w i t h reservations (Albertson et a l . , The tical respective heads are illustrated

2.1.

For most p r a c -

cases the v e l o c i t y head i s small compared w i t h the other heads,

and i t may be neglected.

ENERGY LINE ENTRANCE LOSS
FRICTION L O S S COtiTRACTION L O S S

FRICTION LOSS

I

PRESSURE H E A D P/ x

E L E \ A T ION

Fig.

2.1

Energy heads along a p i p e l i n e

18
F L O W HEAD LOSS RELAT I ONSH I PS

Empirical Flow Formulae The throughput o r c a p a c i t y of a p i p e of f i x e d dimensions depends T h i s head i s consumed

on the t o t a l head difference

between the ends.

b y f r i c t i o n and other ( m i n o r ) losses. The first friction head loss/flow relationships were derived from in

f i e l d observations. waterworks developed.

These e m p i r i c a l although loss/flow
,+-

relationships are rational

stil I

popular have are form

practice The head

more

formulae thus

been termed of the

formulae

established

conventional type

formulae a n d a r e u s u a l l y

i n an exponential

v

= K

R~

sY

or

s

= K*Q"/D~

where V the

i s the mean v e l o c i t y of flow, radius and (cross-sectional for a circular

K and
area

K' a r e coefficients, R i s
of flow divided full, by the one equals

hydraulic

wetted

perimeter,

pipe flowing

q u a r t e r of per
m

the diameter) a n d S of pipe). Some of

i s the head g r a d i e n t

( i n m head loss

length

the equations more f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d

a r e l i s t e d below:

Basic Equation Hazen -Wi I I iams Manning Chezy Darcy S=K1 ( V / C w ) 1.85

SI units

f.p.s.

units (2.3) (2.4) (2.5) (2.6)

/D

1.167

= 6.84

1
K2= 6.32

K =3.03

1

S=K2(nV)2/D

1.33

K2=2.86
K =4.00

s=K~(v/c~)~/D
S= X V /~2 g ~

K 3=13.13
DimensionI ess

3

Except f o r the Darcy formula the above equations a r e not u n i v e r s a l a n d the form of the equation depends on the u n i t s . I t should be borne

i n m i n d t h a t the formulae were d e r i v e d f o r normal waterworks p r a c t i c e a n d take no account liquid. friction of p i p e . of variations in gravity, temperature o r type of The

They a r e f o r t u r b u l e n t flow coefficients vary

i n pipes over 50 mm diameter. type of

w i t h p i p e diameter,

f i n i s h a n d age

1 9
The conventional do not involve fluid formulae a r e comparatively viscosity. They simple to use as they

may be solved d i r e c t l y as they

do not r e q u i r e an i n i t i a l estimate of Reynolds number to determine the friction solved diameter rule, paper. pipe factor directly or (see next for flow. section). Solution The of rational the equations for cannot be

formulae

velocity, a slide log-log flows to in be

friction

head g r a d i e n t

i s simple w i t h or graphs use for

the a i d of p l o t t e d on analysing have

calculator, The

computer, are the

nomograph of

equations where

particular

networks

flow/head

loss

equations

i t e r a t i v e l y solved many times. The most popular formula. flow formula in waterworks for practice is the

Hazen-Williams are tabulated solution with

F r i c t i o n coefficients

use in t h i s equation

i n Table 2.1. the aid of

I f the formula

i s to be used f r e q u e n t l y , most efficient way. Many plotted
As the

a
use

chart

is

the of

waterworks

organizations

graphs

head

loss

gradient

a g a i n s t flow f o r v a r i o u s p i p e diameters, v a l u e of

a n d v a r i o u s C values.

C decreases w i t h age,

type of

p i p e a n d p r o p e r t i e s of water,

f i e l d tests a r e d e s i r a b l e f o r an accurate assessment of C.

TABLE 2.1

Hazen-Williams f r i c t i o n coefficients

c
Badly corroded 130 100

Type of Pipe New

Cond i t ion 25 years 50 years old old 140 130 130 110 100 140 120 100

PVC: Smooth concrete, AC: Steel, bitumen I ined, ga I vanized : Cast i r o n : Riveted steel, v i t r i f i e d woodstave:

150 150
150 130 120

60
50

90

80
( 1 - Dmm

45
) C

For diameters less than 1 000 mm,

subtract 0.1

1 000

Rational F l o w Formulae Although use for the conventional more flow formulae are likely to remain in

many

years,

rational

formulae

are

gradually

gaining

acceptance fic

amongst engineers.

The new formulae have a sound scientiare uni v ers al l y

b a s i s backed b y

numerous measurements a n d they

20
applicable. Any consistent units of measurements may
be

used

and

I i q u i d s of v a r i o u s viscosities a n d temperatures conform to the proposed
formulae. The for inal of flow rational past flow formulae for flow plates i n pipes a r e s i m i l a r to those

bodies o r over was on

flat

( S c h l i c h t i n g 1960). The o r i g roughness. Lack

research

smal I-bore

pipes w i t h a r t i f i c i a l

d a t a on

roughness f o r

l a r g e pipes has been one deterrent to use of

the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n waterworks practice. The v e l o c i t y maximum in in a full p i p e v a r i e s from zero on the boundary to a

the centre. layer

Shear forces on the w a l l s oppose the flow and w i t h each a n n u l u s of f l u i d i m p a r t i n g concentric annulus. The

a boundary a shear

i s established an inner motion flow

force
to

onto

neighbouring of
it

resistance viscosity,

relative in

the is

fluid imparted

is
by

termed

kinematic mixing

and

turbulent

turbulent

w i t h t r a n s f e r of p a r t i c l e s of d i f f e r e n t momentum between one l a y e r and the next. A this point boundary layer i s established expands until The at it the entrance to a conduit and Beyond t h i s

layer gradually the f l o w

reaches the centre.

becomes uniform.

length of

pipe required for f u l l y

established flow

i s g i v e n by

S c h l i c h t i n g , (1966).

D

X

= 0.7

Re'"for Reynolds

t u r b u l e n t flow. number

(2.7)
VD/V
v

The

Re

=

is

a

dimensionless

number

i n c o r p o r a t i n g the f l u i d viscosity flow formulae.

which i s absent

i n t h e conventional than

Flow i n a p i p e i s l a m i n a r f o r for higher Re is

low R e !less

2 000)

and becomes t u r b u i e n t The shear basic force head over
loss

( n o r m a l l y the case by to setting the
loss

i n practice!. the in boundary pressure

equation length of

derived equal

a

pipe

m u l t i p l i e d by the a r e a :

TnDL = v h

f

nD2/4

=

L X E vz 29

21

Fig.

2.2

Moody r e s i s t a n c e d i a g r a m for u n i f o r m f l o w

i n conduits

22
where X is the
=

( 4 7 / y ) ( V Z / 2 s ) ( r e f e r r e d to stress, a

as

the

Darcy and

friction factor), hf is the !he friction relative i.e. X

shear

D

is

the

pipe

diameter

head

loss over

length L .

X i s a f u n c t i o n of

Re

and

roughness e/D.

F o r l a m l n a r flow,

Poiseuille found that L a m i n a r flow zone but

X

= 64/Re

i s independent of the r e l a t i v e roughness. i n normal and engineering flow is practice. complex The and

will

not occur laminar of little

transition undefined

between

turbulent

is

also

ivterest

i n practice. flow conditions The may occur for
with

Turbulenr rough

either

a

smooth for

or

a

boundary. are
in

equations from the

the

friction equation which

factor for is the

both

conditions distribution

derived a

general

velocity

turbulent

boundary

layer,

derived

from

m i x i n g l e n g t h theory:

Integrating,

w i t h k = 0.4

a n d c o n v e r t i n g logs to base 10,

where

v

is

the

velocity

at

a

distance

y
is

from a

the

boundary. sub-layer,

For a and

hydrodynamical l y

smooth b o u n d a r y there y‘= v / m s o that

laminar

Nikuradse found that

/+=
The constant 5.5 Where Thus
V /%=

5.75

log Y

m
V

+

5.5

(2.10)

was found e x p e r i m e n t a l l y . i s r o u g h the l a m i n a r sub-layer
= e/30

the boundary y’

i s affected and

Nikuradse found that

where e i s the boundary roughness.

5.75

log

+ 8.5
a n d 2.11 and expressing v

(2.11)
i n terms of

Re-arranging

equations 2.10

the average v e l o c i t y V b y means of the equation Q = 1

vdA w e get

J-T

= 210g Re

fl

-

0.8
layer, smooth b o u n d a r y ) a n d

(2.12)

( t u r b u l e n t boundary

Jf

~

2 log -

D

+

1.14 rough boundary)

(2.13)

(turbulent boundary layer,

23
Notice tive that for a smooth boundary, a very

A

is

independent of it is

the r e l a -

r o u g h n e s s e/D

and for

rough boundary

independent

o f t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r Re f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s .

Colebrook

and

White

combined

E q u a t i o n s 2.12

a n d 2.13

to p r o d u c e

a n e q u a t i o n c o v e r i n g b o t h smooth a n d r o u g h b o u n d a r i e s a s w e l l a s t h e t r a n s i t i o n zone;

1 = 1.14 - 2 l o g

(D +Rx e 9.35)
reduces rough for to E q u a t i o n 2.12 pipes. various This for smooth pipes,

(2.14) and to

Their Equation

equation 2.13 for

semi-empirical

equation pipes.

yields Nikurough-

satisfactory

results

commercially

available

radse's original ness. h!atural

experiments

used s a n d as a r t i f i c i a l

boundary

r o u g h n e s s i s e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e e q u i v a l e n t s a n d g i v e s v a l u e s of e f o r v a r i o u s s u r f a c e s .
( H y d r a u l i c s Research station, unles? otherwise stated Average

roughness.
TABLE

T a b l e 2.2

2.2

Roughness of p i p e m a t e r i a l s c l e a n surface Smooth

1969)

V a l u e o f e ~n mm f o r n e w , Finish:

Glas?, d r a w n metals S t e r l , DVC or AC

0 0.015 Coat?(( strel 0.03 GaIvnr>cze-d, v i t r i f i e d c l a y 0.06 Cast i r c r o r cement l i n e d 0.15 Spun concrete or wood s t a v e 0 . 3 R i v e t e d steel 1.5 F o u l sewers, t u b e r c u l a t e d 6 water mains Ur,Iinrd rock, e a r t h 60

_-__.

0.003 0.03 0.06 0.15 0.3 0.6

_____
0.006

Rough

0.06 0.15 0.3 0.6
I .5

3
15

6 30
300

150

__-

Fortunately A increases constant linearly

i s not v e r y with age

sensitive
for

to t h e v a l u e o f e assumed.
pipes, There may the

e

water

proportionality be reduction

d e p e n d i n g on

local

conditions.

also

i n c r o s s s e c t i o n w i t h age. The v a r i o u s r a t i o n a l f o m u l a e f o r
::J

A

were
as

p l o t t e d on a Fig. 2.2. are

single The

graph

Moody

and
of

this water

graph at

is

presented

kinematic
in

viscosities Apprndix.

various

temperatures

listed

the

The Moody d i a g r a m pipe velocity
or

i s useful for calculating manually rate is known. the Unfortunately i.e. is
for

head is

loss

if

flow

it

not

very given guess

amenable head
loss,

to d i r e c t
and a

solution for trial and

convrse, approach

veloc:ity, i.e.
A

error

necessary read off

velocity

to

calculate

Reynolds

number,

then

,

then

r e c a l c u l s t e v e l o city etc.

Convergence

i s f a i r l y r a p i d however.

24
The Colebrook W h i t e e q u a t i o n i s e a s i e r to use i f h e a d loss i s g i v e n and velocity
loss
or

i s to b e c a l c u l a t e d . velocity

It

i s not however.

so e a s y

to

solve f o r

head

X
at

given

or

flow

The the

Hydraulics variables

Research

Station

Wallingford equation
to

re-arranged produce

in

the
1055

Cclebrook-White graphs

simple

explicit

flow/head

( H y d r s u l i c Research S t a t i o n ,

1969):
i n t h e form-

E q u a t i o n 2.14 may b e a r r a n g e d

(2.15) Thus e, a for any f l u i d at a certain temperature a n d defined roughness
and S.

g r a p h may water

b e p l o t t e d in terms of V,D at 15OC a n d e = 0.06. graphs for

Fig.

2.3

i s such a

graph for

The H y d r a u l i c Research S t a t i o n conditions. The graphs are

has

plotted

similar

various sections,

also a v a i l a b l e for a step further,

non-circular the

b y r e p l a c i n g D b y 4R. Station re-wrote

Going the

Hydraulics in but terms o f

Research

Colebrook-Whi te e q u a t i o n tional and to

dimensionless for

parameters viscosity, they

propor-

V,

R a n d S,
Using

including factors form

roughness a

gravity.

this

of

the

equation

produced This

universal was also

resistance diagram published with

in dimensionless parameters.

graph is

their

charts.

Fig.

2.3

as

an

example

d e r i v e d on a s i m i l a r b a s i s

(VVatson,

1979).

Comparison of F r i c t i o n F o r m u l a e Diskin (1960) p r e s e n t e d a useful comparison of the f r i c t i o n f a c t o r s

f r o m t h e Hazen-Will iams a n d D a r c y e q u a t i o n s : The D a r c y e q u a t i o n may b e w r i t t e n a s

or

v v
cz
The

=JTprn
=

(2.16) (2.17)

c Z &R

w h i c h i s termed t h e Chezy e q u a t i o n a n d t h e Chezy c o e f f i c i e n t i s
=

& p
equation may be rewritten
for

(2.18)

Hazen-Wi I I iams

a I l

practical

purposes in the f o l l o w i n g dimensionless form:
S
=

5 1 5 ( V / C W ) * (Cw/Re) this with

0.15

/gD

(2.19) equation (2.16) i t may

By c o m p a r i n g be deduced t h a t

t h e Darcy-Weisbach

26
The and 2.2). Hazen-Williams and will values be coefficient be

Cw

is a 2.2

therefore Moody that

a

functionof (see

X

Re
It

may

p l o t t e d on from Fig. with

diagram lines for

Fig.

observed

constant

Hazen-Wi I I iams coefficient coincide
in the t r a n s i t i o n zone.

the Colebrook-Whi te I ines o n l y

I n the completely t u r b u l e n t zone f o r non-smooth
wi II

pipes number with

the

coefficient one

actual l y

reduce

the

greater

the

Reynolds

i .e.

cannot associate a c e r t a i n Hazen-Wil I iams coefficient i t v a r i e s depending on the flow rate. The

a p a r t i c u l a r p i p e as

Hazen-Will iams equation should therefore be used w i t h c a u t i o n f o r h i g h Reynolds numbers and r o u g h pipes. of C w above approximately practice ( R The around 10 ) . equation is widely used for open channel flow and It will also be noted that values

155 a r e impossible t a t t a i n in water-works o

6

Manning

p a r t f u l l pipes.

The equation i s

(2.21 where

K

is

1.00

in SI

u n i t s and

1.486

in ft

I b units,

and R

i s the

h y d r a u l i c r a d i u s A/P

where A

i s the cross-sectional for

area of flow and

P the wetted perimeter.
for non-circular

R

is D/4

a c i r c u l a r p i p e , a n d i n general

sections, 4 R may be substituted f o r D.

TABLE 2.3

Values of M a n n i n g ' s ' n ' 0.010

Smooth glass, p l a s t i c Concrete, steel ( b i tumen I i n e d ) galvanized Cast i r o n Slimy or greasy sewers Rivetted steel, v i t r i f i e d wood-stave Rough concrete

0.01 1 0.01 2 0.013 0.015 0.017

MINOR

LOSSES
method of expressing head loss through f i t t i n g s and changes often Modern used when the con-

One

i n section ventional press

i s the e q u i v a l e n t friction
loss

l e n g t h method, are used.

formulae

p r a c t i c e i s to exhe =
loss

losses through f i t t i n g s where

in terms of

the v e l o c i t y head i.e. Table 2.4 gives typical

KV2/2g

K

is

the

loss

coefficient.

27
coefficients plementary opening. although data and valve manufacturers coefficients may also provide vary with supgate

loss
to

K

which

will

The v e l o c i t y V

use i s n o r m a l l y the mean t h r o u g h the f u l l

bore of the p i p e o r f i t t i n g .

TABLE 2.4

Loss coefficients f o r p i p e f i t t i n g s

Bends hBKBV2/ 2 g Bend a n g l e Sharp r/D=l

2 0.07 0.10 0.12 0.13

6 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.08

30" 45" 60 O 90 1 80° 90" w i t h g u i d e vanes
r =

0.16
0.32

0.68
1.27 2.2

0.07 0.13 0.18
0.22

0.2

r a d i u s of bend to centre of p i p e reduction in bend
loss

A significant

i s possible

if

the r a d i u s i s

f l a t t e n e d i n the p l a n e o f the bend. Valves Type: SLuice Butterf I y Globe Needle Ref I u x
hv = KvV2/2g

Opening:

1/ 4 24 120 4

1 /2

3/4

Ful I 0.2

5.6 7.5
1

1 .o 1.2

0.3
10

0.6

0.5 1-2.5

Contractions a n d expansions in cross-section Contract ions : hc= KcVJ29 Expansions h = K V 2/2g c c l

Wal I-Wal I Angle ___

0 -

A 2 4 0.2 __ __ - 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 -

Al /A2

0
.13 .32 .78 1 .O

0 2 0 4 06 08 10 . . . . .
.08 .24 .45 .64

7.5" 150
30 O

180"

.5

.37

.25

.15

.07 0

.05 .15 .27 .36

.02 .08 .13 .17

0 0 .02 0 .03 0 -04 0

28
Entrance and e x i t losses:

he = KeV2/2g
Entrance Exit

Protruding Sharp Bevel l e d Rounded

0.8 0.5 0.25 0.05

1 .o 1 .o

0.5 0.2

PRESSURE AND F L O W CONTROL

IN PIPES

I ntroduct ion
Valves the is and other vapour fittings in pipes which reduce the When h e a d may the be

cause of reduced rise et

bubble formation The

downstream. may pipe the

pressure collapse

water to al,

vaporizes.

bubbles to the of

subsequently or valve as

giving Knapp

cavitation

damage

(Ball; well as and

1970,
the flow

1961).

The

geometry

valve valve the

upstream

and

downstream

pressure,

degree of as well as

closure

r a t e affec? the c a v i t a t i o n p o t e n t i a l the fluid. to The as conditions critical. and under

vapour

p r e s s u r e of are flow

which

cavitation damage

commences as

referred velocity

The as

cavitation ratio of

increases
to

increases

the

upstream

downstream

p r e s s u r e increases. A of number of empirical control of relationships for identifying the s a f e zone

operation popular

of

v a l v e s h a v e been p r o p o s e d b y v a l v e s u p p l i e r s . potential cavitation problem is the pressure Many for

The

measure i.e.

reduction

ratio,

r a t i o of

u p s t r e a m to d o w n s t r e a m p r e s s u r e s . are said
to

commercially

available ratios

valves less

operate

efficiently

pressure reducing to of work the

than

3 or 4.

It

i s h o w e v e r more l o g i c a l Since t h e geometry the or application of is

w i t h a c a v i t a t i o n index a s indicated valve types influences of valves the for critical

Jater.

conditions, reducing

various

pressure

flow

control

described.

TYPES OF VALVES

Valves

are

used

for

two

aistinct

purposes

in

pipelines,

namely

i s o l a t i n g o r flow control.

29
I s o l a t i n g Valves Isolating They only. i.e. and gate should They valves be are used in to the close fully off the or flow fully through closed a pipe.

operated

open

position

h a v e poor flow c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the p a r t l y open position. the flow i s l a r g e l y the exposed area of a gate flow control is until the and

the o b s t r u c t i o n to there is is often

l i t t l e pressure reduction o r shut. and At that stage

practically
to

cavitation

possible

damage not

the seat to

v a l v e body may r e s u l t .

T h i s type of v a l v e i s i.e. it i s designed

designed

reduce the pressure a p p r e c i a b l y .

to pass the f u l l flow when f u l l y open w i t h minimal head loss. Such spherical designed valves valves. to close include These as gate valves, are butterfly generally valves operated and by r o t a r y or hand valves and are

valves

rapidly with

as

possible. threads,

Although butterfly

gate

operated b y

spindles

screw

valves and rot ary

v a l v e s can be operated b y t u r n i n g a h a n d l e t h r o u g h 90" to f u l l y close the valve from the fully open position. I n order to overcome high

seating these

pressures however a n d sometimes to control may have from reduction the gear boxes in

the r a t e of closure order to drive the and

valves

spindle

indirectly

handwheel.

Alternatively

electrical

pneumatic control systems can be used to operate these valves. Typical i!lustrated open sl(iice in valves, butterfly valves and The spherical valves are

Figs.

10.1,

10.2

and

10.4,

relationship
is

between generally that This the is

bore area

a n d degree of

t u r n i n g of

the

handwheel the gate
of

non l i n e a r , area

I t can be observed i n the case of

valve

reduces

rapidly

in to

the

final

stages

closure. as the

u n f a v o u r a b l e w i t h respect i s reduced r a p i d l y rise
to

water

hammer

pressures closure tne of

velocity gives
of

d u r i n g the f i n a l hammer in the

stages of than

and

this

higher in

water

pressures pipe. The

uniform

rate

reduction

velocity

problems

cavitation

are

g e n e r a l l y avoided w i t h such \ ~ a l \ / e s as they a r e not operated i n p a r t l y closed c o v d i t i o n s except i n emergencies.

Control Valves Various water types of v a l v e s h a v e been designed to control linearly the flow of

i n pipelines b y

r e d u c i n g the open a r e a a n d to c o n t a i n

the c a v i t a t i o n effect due to reduction of pressure through the v a l v e .

A

30
typical valve). 2.4) valve in common use is illustrated in Fig.

10.3

( a needle

Diaphram type valves, type control

slotted

r a d i a l flow sleeve v a l v e s ( F i g . is

and plunger

v a l v e s a r e also employed a n d there valve which and

a v a r i a t i o n of slots. control Multiple valves

the r a d i a l flow expansion (Fig. type are

has a piston covering the basket type high duty

valves even

2.5)
types

more

appropriate

for

pressure and

reducing. any have

The former

r e l y on a s i n g l e

increase i n velocity

head d i s s i p a t i o n due to expansion whereas the l a t t e r types which variable resistance trim rings or layered baskets reduce the

pressure damage

i n a number of as a result.

stages a n d a r e s a i d to s u f f e r less c a v i t a t i o n is largely because
it

This

the

pressure

reducing

r a t i o i s l i m i t e d at It

each stage b u t o v e r a l l these v a l v e s a r e

may be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . less noisy when reducing

i s a l s o recognised that

h i g h pressures. The needle v a l v e was once used widely i n power s t a t i o n p r a c t i c e

as
at
or
COI

it

was

recognised as a streamlined

v a l v e which could control flow

a l l stages of opening. the initial opening.

I t often h a d a p i l o t needle f o r f i n a l seating

The

valve

i s however expensive owing

to

its

struction and

i s now replaced to a materials such as

l a r g e extent by simpler valves elastometers ( t h e sleeve type

using valve) (e.g.

sophisticated or by

pistons o r

diaphrams i n the case of latter type of valve

low pressure valves
to

Dvir,

1981).
as On

The the the

i s not sensitive ingress of cannot

poor into

quality the

water

f l e x i b l e d i a p h r a m prevents other hand the diaphram

dirt

workings.

accommodate

h i g h pressure d i f f e r e n t i a l s and s u f f e r s wear a f t e r prolonged operation.
It

may

also

be

subject

to

vibration

and

instability

as

a

venturi

action i s caused d u r i n g the l a s t stages of closing. Piston is type v a l v e s can b e accurately the exposed face of the c o n t r o l l e d p r o v i d e d the flow piston. to In some types the

towards

downstream or

face of

the p i s t o n

i s exposed

the downstream

pressure

the atmosphere face of

and

i s supported

by a spring.
to

I n others the down-

stream on

the p i s t o n can be subject of a p i l o t control that is off

f l u i d pressure depending Such p i l o t systems can be pressure. tubes I n t h i s case blocking. or The a

the operation

system.

operated strainers system

hydraulically,

the water

a r e often r e q u i r e d to prevent also be operated off

the p i l o t

can

electrical

solenoids

from

31

Fig.

2.4

F l e x f l o Sleeve v a l v e f o r f l o w control

~

i 2.5 ~

, . i g h d u t y control i reduction

v a l v e n i t n t r i p l e aasi(ets

foi'

heao

p n e u m a t i c s u p p o r t system. The sure to control system c a n be designed to limit t h e downstream pres-

a c e r t a i n maximum f i g u r e . d o w n s t r e a m senses means o f

As t h e u p s t r e a m p r e s s u r e b u i l d s UP an i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e i t w i l l open

a n d t h e sensor
a

pilot

valve held b y

a spring and this pilot valve will

in

t u r n p e r m i t a b i g g e r p r e s s u r e f r o m u p s t r e a m t o come b e h i n d t h e p i s t o n and partly flow or the close rate venturi the in is ports. which Alternatively case the The the valve may b e u s e d to side of an turn

control orifice controls get

p r e s s u r e on pressure

either

measured.

difference

in

p i l o t v a l v e w h i c h w i l l e i t h e r p e r m i t a g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e to the piston to close the valve or exhaust the pressure

behind

b e h i n d t h e p i s t o n to open t h e v a l v e d e p e n d i n g on w h i c h i s r e q u i r e d .

CAVITATION

IN CONTROL VALVES

The

mechanism valve velocity as

whereby is by

flow

is

reduced o r the

p r e s s u r e i s reduced upstream is

in a

control high

converting and then into

pressure energy velocity open energy

into a in

jet it

the the

dissipated The

turbulence from

emerges

pipe

again.

conversion

statical

pressure energy

to v e l o c i t y e n e r g y

i s obtained from

the

Bernoul I i e q u a t i o n ;

(2.22)
Here that P is the is upstream the pressure, head, W is is Thus the the
if

unit

weight

of

water a

so

P/W

pressure

Z

elevation

above

fixed

datum a n d V velocity be V
=

i s the w a t e r

velocity.

2

i s a c o n s t a n t then t h e

p o s s i b l e assuming

t h e p r e s s u r e h e a d i s r e d u c e d to z e r o w o u l d This however n e g l e c t s u p s t r e a m v e l o c i t y the latter can for be accounted f o r b y velocity
in

w h e r e H = P/W.

a n d downstream p r e s s u r e a l t h o u g h replacing coefficient velocity v = c where the the

h
is

by often

ah.

To

account in the

upstream and

head

a

introduced

equation

fact

the p i p e

i s often given

in t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m

d

JzsnF;
Cd
is

(2.23)
discharge Apart the coefficient the f a c t which that may vary depending on

the

v a l v e opening. valve affects

from

t h e d e g r e e of o p e n i n g o f even if the discharge

discharge

coefficient,

33
coefficient to v a r y open. The only be actual found i.e. stage of from the i.e. throttling at which c a v i t a t i o n has been commences can classified as was separated from the degree of opening i t would be found to the d i f f e r e n t contraction r a t i o as a d i f f e r e n t area i s

owing

experiment. which

Cavitation vapour

incipient

p o i n t at

bubbles commenced to

form,
the

a n d choking valve stream. and a is

the stage a t affected

which by

the d i s c h a r g e coefficient o f of the water

appreciably

vaporization

down-

The v a p o r i z a t i o n occurs because the pressure head i s reduced i s transformed i n t o k i n e t i c energy which impinges i n t o downstream. been
in

the energy pressure have

low

A

number (Winn of

of

parameters and Johnson, is

for

assessing The

cavitation significant index.

proposed

1970). the

factor

the

indication

cavitation

cavitation

(2.24)
where P is the pressure a n d s u b s c r i p t d r e f e r s to downstream, u to

upstream a n d v to vapour pressure.

For
tation

streamlined index

valves low at

cavitation as 0.1 a

may

not

occur

until

the

cavi-

drops as occurs

whereas f o r index

p o o r l y designed v a l v e s nearer

cavitation case i t w i l l

often

higher

i.e.

1.0.

In

any

be found on inspection that most control v a l v e s experience at normal o p e r a t i n g pressure r a t i o s . index reduced ratio that by if a the c r i t i c a l factor
with

a degree of c a v i t a t i o n Pv it

Neglecting index nearly

i s seen from the c a v i t a t i o n the the pressure pressure can be

is
10

0.1

then

of

whereas

reduction

possible

unstreaml ined index of 0.33 pressure,

v a l v e s i s much lower. the pressure reducing

For an average c r i t i c a l c a v i t a t i o n ratio i s from 2.24 neglecting

vapour

4.0.
Various forms of 1970). Very little the c a v i t a t i o n is however index have been proposed ( T u l l i s , the scaling down of
the

known

about

c a v i t a t i o n index and much work T h e method of Various velocity quantitatively

has to be done i n t h i s f i e l d yet. assessing c a v i t a t i o n i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t . estimation of the increase of volume caused by bubble due to

methods have been attempted i.e. owing to the increase in bulk

format ion,

photographic

methods,

pressure

measurements

collapse

of

the

bubbles

and

sonic- methods.

Fig.

2.6

shows

the

v a r i a t i o n i n noise measured on a r a d i a l flow sleeve v a l v e at d i f f e r e n t c a v i t a t i o n indices f o r a f i x e d degree of opening.

I n t e r a c t i o n between C a v i t a t i o n and Water Hammer Pressures

It

is

recognised

that

the

collapse

of

vapour

bubbles

when

the

pressure subsequently the accompanying

increases may cause erosion of steel. the symptoms of a poorly

T h i s and selected

noise a r e often

valve. There hammer is wave the however celerity an and interesting the relationship between As a the water is

cavitation increases

potential.

valve

closed so

b u b b l e formation

a n d t h i s reduces the water

hammer wave c e l e r i t y downstream (Ch. 4 a n d 5 ) . If which then the it the in free turn gas is a fraction can

be

related

to

the

cavitation

index

f u n c t i o n of

the upstream or

downstream pressure

i s possible to solve sirnuttaneously

the water hammer equation, cavitation release
to

valve

discharge the

equation

and

the gas

index

equation index,

together

with

equation

relating

cavitation

f o r free gas volume downstream, mer of wave c e l e r i t y . the cavity the It

downstream pressure a n d water hamhowever b y the fact that p a r t turns into l i q u i d gas the may drop If be
in

i s made d i f f i c u l t

i s not gas b u t vapour again bubbles may increases. as they

which r a p i d l y Small

when

pressure in The are the

q u a n t i t i e s of due
to

contained pressure. equations pressure

are

released

bubbles solved

therefore

not then drop

collapse it will

completely. be found the

the the is

(iteratively) would initially

that valve

downstream
to

rapidly

as

closed due begin
to

the
the

water hammer deceleration effect. wave c e l e r i t y reduces r a p i d l y the flow and
so

Then as bubbles

form

and the consequent

pressure This

lowering

i s reduced so that wave reflections cavitation

reduces more s t e a d i l y .
on

study

neglects

but

it

does

hold

promise f o r

the p o t e n t i a l of

to effect

better control of flow

as a v a l v e closes especially this theory indicates that

d u r i n g the i n i t i a l stages of closure where flow reduction is more rapid than was

previous1 y considered the case.

35
REFERENCES

1960. F l u i d M e c h a n i c s A l b e r t s o n , M.L., B a r t o n , J.R. a n d Simons, D.B., f o r E n g i n e e r s . P r e n t i c e H a l l , N.J. B a l l , J.W., 1970. C a v i t a t i o n d e s i g n c r i t e r i a . I n T u l l i s (1970). Proc. I n s t . Colorado State Univ. D i s k i n , M.H., Nov. 1960. The l i m i t s o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e HazenW i l l i a m s f o r m u l a e . L a H o u i l l e B l a n c h e , 6. D v i r , Y., 1981. P r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s in w a t e r s u p p l y systems. Water a n d I r r i g a t i o n Review, Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n o f I s r a e l . H y d r a u l i c s Research S t a t i o n , 1969. C h a r t s f o r t h e H y d r a u l i c Designs o f C h a n n e l s a n d PiDes. 3 r d E d n . . H.M.S.O., London. K n a p p , R., D a i l y , 'J.W. a n d Hammitt, F.G.',1961. C a v i t a t i o n . McGrawHill. S c h l i c h t i n g , H., 1960. B o u n d a r y L a y e r T h e o r y . 4 t h E d n . , McGraw-Hill N.Y. T u l l i s , J.P., 1970. Control o f f l o w i n c l o s e d c o n d u i t s . Proc. I n s t . Colorado State U n i v e r s i t y . Watson, M.D., J u l y 1979. A s i m p l i f i e d a p p r o a c h t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f p i p e f l o w p r o b l e m s u s i n g t h e Colebrook-White method. C i v i l Eng. in S.A., 2 1 ( 7 ) , p p 169-171. Winn, W.P. a n d Johnson, D.E. December 1970. C a v i t a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s f o r o u t l e t v a l v e s . Proc. ASCE, HY12. LIST O F SYMBOLS

A
C

-

cross-sectional

a r e a of flow

Hazen-Will iams f r i c t i o n f a c t o r friction factor Chezy f r i c t i o n f a c t o r d e p t h o f water diameter N i k u r a d s e roughness Darcy f r i c t i o n factor ( e q u i v a l e n t to A )

C' Cz
d

-

D
e f Fx
g

he

-

force
gravitational h e a d loss f r i c t i o n h e a d loss
loss c o e f f i c i e n t

acceleration

hf K L
n

-

length of c o n d u i t Manning friction factor wetted p e r i m e t e r pressure

P
p

36

Q
R

-

flow rate
hydraulic radius Reynolds number h y d r a u l i c gradient mean velocity across a section

Re S

v
V X

velocity a t a point distance along conduit distance from boundary elevation specific weight

Y

2

Y
P
T
V

mass density shear stress k i n e m a t i c viscosity Darcy f r i c t i o n f a c t o r - ( f i n USA)

x

F i g . 2.6

Noise output from a control

valve

37

CHAPTER 3

PIPELINE SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
NETWORK ANALYSIS

The

flows by

through the the flow

a

system

of

interlinked

pipes or

networks a r e the input

controlled points

difference between residual pattern pressure will

the pressure heads a t heads at the in a drawoff network

and

points.

A

steady-state

be established

such that

the f o l l o w i n g two c r i t e r i a a r e satisfied:-

(1)

The net

flow

towards

any

j u n c t i o n or

node

i s zero,

i.e.,

inflow

must equal outflow,

and around any closed loop is zero, i.e., only

(2)

The

net

head

loss

one head can e x i s t at any point a t any time. The and loss h l i n e head losses a r e u s u a l l y methods the o n l y based on significant this head Losses Head form € the I

most

of
for h

analysis pipes is the

are

assumption. to be of the

relationships where

are

usually

assumed

= K?Qn/Dm

head

loss,

P

i s the p i p e

length,

flow and D the i n t e r n a l diameter of the pipe. The calculations are simplified if the friction factor

K

can

be

assumed t h e same f o r a l l p i p e s i n the network.

E q u i v a l e n t Pipes f o r Pipes i n Series o r P a r a l l e l

It
the in
of

i s often head or

useful loss

to and

know flow

the

e q u i v a l e n t p i p e which a number pipe of may

would g i v e

same series

as

interconnected pipes be used in place

parallel.

The

equivalent

the compound pipes to perform f u r t h e r flow c a l c u l a t i o n s .

The
of

equivalent

diameter and

of

a

compound in

p i p e composed of may be

sections by

different
the

diameters total

lengths for

series flow to

calculated
loss

equating

head

loss

any

the head

through

the e q u i v a l e n t p i p e of

length equal

to the l e n g t h of compound pipe:-

K ( Z P ) Q ~ / D ~ K~P Q " / D ~ =

z

..

De

=

(3.1)

38
( m i s 5 i n the Darcy f o r m u l a a n d 4.85

in the Hazen-Williams f o r m u l a ) .

Similarly,

the e q u i v a l e n t diameter of a system of pipes i n p a r a l l e l total flow through the equivalent pipe ' e '

i s derived by equating the

to the sum of the flows through the i n d i v i d u a l pipes ' i ' i n p a r a l l e l : Now h = h.
i.e.

KP Q " / D ~ = K P ~ Q ~ ~ / D ~ ~ ~ e

So

Q.

=

and Q =
So cance l i n g out Q , a n d b r i n g i n g D

and

P

e

to the

l e f t h a n d side,

and i f each

P i s the same,
(3.2)

De = [ C ( D i m / n ) ] n / m The equivalent diameter could also

be d e r i v e d u s i n g a flow/head

loss c h a r t .

For pipes flow

in parallel, each

assume a reasonable head loss and pipe from
the

read

off

the

through

chart.

Read o f f

the

e q u i v a l e n t diameter which would g i v e the total flow a t the same head
loss.

For p i p e s i n series, head

assume a reasonable flow a n d c a l c u l a t e the the c h a r t . Read off the equivalent with the total

total pipe

loss w i t h assistance of

diameter which would discharge

the assumed flow

head loss across i t s length.

I t often speeds network analyses to s i m p l i f y p i p e networks as much
as possible Of using equivalent course be the diameters for minor pipes in series or

parallel. could this

methods of to

network

a n a l y s i s described below compound pipes and than

always is in

used the

a n a l y s e flows

through

fact

p r e f e r r e d method f o r

more complex

systems

those discussed above.

Loop F l o w Correction Method

The both

loop

method

and

the node method of approximations

a n a l y s i n g p i p e networks by a mathematical

involve

successive

speeded

technique developed b y Hardy C r o s s (1936).

39
The steps are: Draw all ent). If there is more than one constant head node, connect pairs the pipe network schematically fixed heads to a clear booster scale. pumps Indicate (if presi n ba ancing the flows i n a network b y the loop method

inputs,

drawoffs,

and

of constant head nodes or r e s e r v o i r s b y dummy pipes represented by the dashed flow lines. Assume to pipe a diameter head and length In n and calculate flow head

corresponding omit this

fixed but

loss.
it

subsequent calculating

corrections,

include

I osses.
Imagine the network as a of form of pattern of the closed some loops of i n any major order. pipes of

To
may

speed be

convergence assumed a are series to

solution

the loops

large side

superimposed by side. each

instead as at

assuming loops as

loops
to

Use pipe

only is in

many least

needed

ensure

that

one loop. Starting with the any pipe assume a flow. Proceed i n each at around a loop sub-

containing tracting flows one a t as to a

pipe,

calculating flows to

the flow other

pipe by nodes.

drawoffs other time,

and if

loops to

Assume

loops
on

unknown.

Proceed

n e i g h b o u r i n g loops

a s i m i l a r basis. as there

I t w i l l be necessary to make loops. The more accurate

many

assumptions

are

each assumption the speedier w i l l be the solution. Calculate formula the head as
loss
in

each or

pipe use a

in

any

loop

using loss

a

such

h =

Kk'Qn/Dm

flow/head

chart

( p r e f e r a b l e i f the a n a l y s i s Calculate around arriving the ing loop the the net head

i s to be done b y h a n d ) . around t h e loop, i.e., proceeding

loss

the at

loop, the

add head starting

losses and s u b t r a c t head g a i n s u n t i l
point. If the net head the
loss

around

i s not zero, following

correct

the flows
in

arol;nd the

loop b y adddirection that

increment

flow

in

same

head losses were c a l c u l a t e d :

(3.3)
T h i s equation i s the f i r s t o r d e r approximation to the differen-

t i a l of the head loss equation and i s d e r i v e d as follows:-

40

Since

h = KEQn/Dm dh
=

KtnQn-'dQ/Dm

=

(hn/Q)dQ

Now t h e t o t a l head loss around each loop should be zero,

i.e.,

c ( h + dh) = 0

C h +

x

(hn/Q)dQ = 0

The v a l u e of h/Q i s a l w a y s p o s i t i v e ( o r zero i f h a n d Q a r e z e r o ) .

(7)

I f there

is a

booster pump

i n any

loop,

subtract

the generated

head from equations.

C before m a k i n g the flow h

correction

u s i n g the above

(8)
(9)

The flow around each Steps 5-8

loop i n t u r n i s corrected thus

(steps 5-71. loop balances

a r e repeated u n t i l the head arourld each

to a s a t i s f a c t o r y amount.

The Node Head Correction Method
With loops, the initial node method, are instead

of
at

assuming each node.

initial

flows

around

heads

assumed

Heads a t

nodes a r e

corrected b y flows were

successive approximation for the loop

i n a s i m i l a r manner to the way

corrected

method.

The

steps

in

an a n a l y s i s

a r e as follows:-

(1)

Draw all

the

pipe

network

schematically

to

a clear

scale.

Indicate

inputs,

drawoffs,

f i x e d heads a n d booster pumps. heads at The be each node more the (except i f the head the the initial solu-

(2)

Assume at that

initial node

arbitrary is

fixed). will

accurate

assignments, tion.

the

speedier

convergence of

(3)

Calculate head

the

flow

in

each

pipe

to

any

node
or

with a

a

variable flow/head

using

the

formula

Q

=

(hDm/Kt)'/"

using

loss c h a r t .

(4)

Calculate zero,

the

net

inflow

to

the specific

node a n d

if

this

i s not

correct the head b y a d d i n g the am'ount

*"

=

C(Q/nh)

-Q

(3.4)

41
T h i s equation i s d e r i v e d as follows:-

dQ = Qdh/nh
W require e

c ( Q + dQ)

= 0

But

dH = -dh

so
F l o w Q a n d head loss h a r e node. considered positive if towards the

H i s the head a t the node.

i n p u t s ( p o s i t i v e ) a n d drawoffs

( n e g a t i v e ) a t the node should be i n c l u d e d i n E Q .

(5)

Correct i.e.

the head a t

each variable-head

node in s i m i l a r manner,

repeat steps 3 a n d 4 f o r each node. the procedure degree of a pipe (steps 3 accuracy. at to 5 ) until a l l flows balance to a

(6)

Repeat

sufficient ends of

I f the head difference between the any stage, omit the pipe from the

i s zero

p a r t i c u l a r b a l a n c i n g operation.

A l t e r n a t i v e Methods of A n a l y s i s Both the loop method and the node method of a computer b a l a n c i n g flows in

networks can networks. tables space. or If

be done m a n u a l l y b u t done manually,

i s preferred for be if set out

large in

calculations

should

well

even

on the pipework

layout drawing

there

i s sufficient

Fig.

3.1

i s an example analysed m a n u a l l y b y the node method.

There a r e s t a n d a r d computer programs a v a i l a b l e f o r network a n a l y s i s , most of which use the loop method. The main advantage of the node method i s that more i t e r a t i o n s a r e required especially than if for the the loop method is very to achieve the same convergence, to start with. It is

system

unbalanced

n o r m a l l y necessary f o r a l l pipes to h a v e the same o r d e r of head loss. There are a number of methods in some for speeding or the convergence. using a second These order

include

overcorrection

cases,

approximation to the d i f f e r e n t i a l s f o r ca I cu I at i n g correct ions. The node head correction method
i s slow

to converge on account of

42
the fact time. that corrections d i s s i p a t e through equation the network one p i p e a t a has an amplification factor

Also

the

head correction

( n ) a p p l i e d to the correction which causes overshoot.

60m
h
*26

3Oomm

x

2OOOm

s/h
0.7

!a

lQIh

1140 1 7

0 0

0,7 0.7 97

0.7

N

+
0 .1.7 *0,7 0 0

+5s 80 1.5 + 5 4 80 1.5 tS2.7 80 1,s

0
6

5,3 9

NOTES
Heads i n metres, flows i n l i t r e s per second, diameters i n millimetres, lengths i n metres. Arrows i n d i c a t e p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n of h C Q ( a r b i t r a r y assumption). Blackened c i r c l e s i n d i c a t e nodes w i t h f i x e d heads, numbers in circles indicate order i n which nodes were corrected. Head losses evaluated from F i g . 2.3.
H =

1.85

Q in Q/ h

Fig.

3.1

Example of node method of network flow a n a l y s i s

43
The loop flow correction be method assumed has the disadvantage in data are in

preparation. defined data gence. with

Flows must in and

around pipe

loops, The

and drawoffs added e f f o r t

indirectly

the

assumed

flows.

preparation This data

interpretation

often offsets

the q u i c k e r conver-

i s so because of assembly. Trial

relatively and error

low computing costs compared design is also cumbersome if

loop flows h a v e to b e changed each time a new p i p e i s added.

Network A n a l y s i s b y L i n e a r Theory The ual in Hardy Cross methods of solution but network a n a l y s i s a r e s u i t e d to manin the effort required The latter

methods of comparison the

suffer

drawbacks

w i t h computer o r i e n t a t e d numerical simul taneous balance. solution of sets of

methods. equations has the

involve flow very with

describing effect that

and few the

head

Simultaneous

solution

iterations are required number of iterations

to balance a network when compared the loop flow correction a n d node a l a r g e numrequires

for

head correction methods. ber of simul taneous

O n the other h a n d solution of
even if rendered

equations,

linear,

a l a r g e computer memory a n d many i t e r a t i o n s . Newton-Raphson linear equations becomes techniques for successive approximation of non-

a r e mathematically subordinate
to

sophisticated b u t mathematics.

the engineering Thus Wood and

problem

the

Charles (1972) approximation

l i n e a r i z e d the head loss equation, at each step and establishing

i m p r o v i n g the l i n e a r equations for head

balance around loops. Isaac and M i l l s

(1980) s i m i l a r l y

l i n e a r i z e d the head loss equation

as follows f o r flow between nodes i and j :

8..
IJ

= C..+(H.-H.) IJ I J

//m
the square

(3.5)
sign
is

where

the

term

in

root

assumed

a

constant

for

each i t e r a t i o n .

If the Darcy f r i c t i o n equation is employed,

Substitute node :

equation

3.5

into

the

equation

for

flow

balance

at

each

EQ..

i IJ

= Q.

J

where

Q.

J

is
j,

the

drawoff if

at

node j
j

and

i

to

node

negative

from

to

i.

Q.. i s the flow from node iJ There i s one such equation

f o r each node.
If has be a each set
Q.. 'J

is

replaced

by

the

l i n e a r i z e d expression (one for each is node) to

i n 3.5,

one

of for

simultaneous

equations node. The

which can

solved node

H

at

each then

procedure

estimate

H

at

each

initially,

solve f o r

new H ' s .

The procedure i s repeat-

ed u n t i l s a t i s f a c t o r y convergence i s obtained.

OPTIMIZATION O F PIPELINE

SYSTEMS

The in pipe

previous networks

section with

described or without

methods closed the

for

calculating

the

flows

loops. flow nodes

For

any

particular

pipe to

network

layout or

and

diameters, at

pattern could

corresponding be calculated.

fixed

drawoffs a new

inputs

various

To design sary be to

network a if

to meet c e r t a i n drawoffs, of possibilities. flows A

i t would be neceswould meet

compare and

number

proposed layout just layout sufficient would to

analysed and If

corresponding

were the to

demands table. for

pressures were s a t i s f a c t o r y ,
it

be accepdiameters

not,

would

be

necessary flows

try

alternative

pipe

sizes a n d a n a l y s i s of is for at hand. This

i s repeated u n t i l

a satisfactory would final then be

solution repeated

trial

and

error Each

process of that the

another then

possible

layout.

networks least

so d e r i v e d

would

have to b e costed a n d

network w i t h

cost selected. A out technique recourse to of determining and the least-cost would be network desirable. directly, No direct of withand

trial
is

error,

positive with

technique loops. flows,

possible

for

general

optimization

networks

closed

T h e problem
head losses

i s that costs

the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p i p e i s not linear and most rourelation-

diameters, tine ships. tion

and

mathematical There a r e a

optimization number of be used

techniques

require

linear

s i t u a t i o n s where mathematical optirnizato optimize The l a y o u t s a n d these cases a r e are normally confined to

techniques and

can

discussed

described

below.

cases

45
single mains or
is

tree-like optimize
a

networks network

for

which

the

flow loops,

in each b r a n c h

known.

To

with

closed

random

search

t e c h n i q u e s o r s u c c e s s i v e a p p r o x i m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e needed. Mathematical analysis design optimization (which not a is techniques an are also known as as systems they are

techniques techniques (again

incorrect

nomenclature
or

analysis name

techniques), not really will

operations

research The name Such

techniques mathematical techniques a

descriptive). be retained

optimization

techniques

here.

include simulation technique such

( o r mathematical

modelling) coupled with ascent or random

selection

as

steepest

path

searching. The which ation and direct optimization methods include dynamic programming, transport-

is useful for optimizing programming, linear which

a series of events o r things,

is u s e f u l
for

for a l l o c a t i n g s o u r c e s to d e m a n d s
(van der Veen,1967 the use and of a

programming, Linear

inequalities usually

Dantzig, computer,

1963).

programming

requires

b u t there a r e standard optimization programs available.

D y n a m i c P r o g r a m m i n g f o r O p t i m i z i n g Compound P i p e s One o f can the simplest optimization be used without technique is a techniques, and indeed one which i s dynamic proway of selecting involve any

normally the

recourse to computers,

gramming. an optimum

i n fact o n l y a systematic

program from The a

s e r i e s of e v e n t s a n d does n o t may be used may flows. to select

mathematics. diameters length trunk of

technique

t h e most economic along its a

compound on

pipe which

vary

in diameter

depending main of

pressures
a

and
of

For

instance, a

consider

supplying the trunk The

number main may is

consumers

from

reservoir.

The

diameters along the

be reduced as drawoff select

takes place

line.

problem

to

t h e most economic d i a m e t e r

f o r each section of p i p e . A simple example demonstrates the u s e of the technique. Consider

the p i p e l i n e in Fig. and the head at the

3.2.

Two c o n s u m e r s d r a w w a t e r f r o m t h e p i p e l i n e , i s n o t to d r o p b e l o w 5 m, below neither any

each d r a w o f f p o i n t grade of line

should point.

hydraulic

drop

the p i p e p r o f i l e a t

The e l e v a t i o n s

each p o i n t a n d the l e n g t h s of each section of p e r mm d i a m e t e r per m of

pipe are indicated.

T h e c o s t o f p i p e i s EO.l

46
pipe. (In this head, case
the

cost it is

is

assumed simple
to

to

be

independent account of

of such

the a

pressure

although

take

variation). pipe

The a n a l y s i s w i l l

be s t a r t e d at the downstream end of the arrangement w i l l The head,
H,

(point A ) .

The most economic

be w i t h minimum at p o i n t B may be

residual

head i.e.

5 m,

at

point A.

a n y t h i n g between 13 m a n d 31 m above the datum, analysis, we

b u t to s i m p l i f y the heads with

will

only

consider

three

possible

5

m

increments between them a t p o i n t s B a n d C.

Fig.

3.2

P r o f i l e of p i p e l i n e optimized b y dynamic programming

The each o f

diameter

D

of

the

pipe

between

A

and

B,

corresponding

to

the three allowed heads may be determined from a head l s os
2.3

c h a r t such as F i g .

and

i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table 3.1

(1)

along w i t h

the corresponding cost. W e number 3 = 9,
will

also

consider

only

three grade

possible lines

heads
B

at

point C.
C

The
x

of but

possible one of

hydraulic these 3.1 grade
the

between

and
so

is 3

is

at

an set

adverse g r a d i e n t of figures is

may be dis-

regarded. possible and the

In

Table

(I I) a
line

presented f o r each Thus to B if

hydraulic 19 then

between

6 and
from 110 P / s
x

C.
C

H

B

=

13 and

HC =

hydraulic for a flow

gradient of

i s 0.006

diameter

required

is

310 rnm

(from
=

Fig.

2.3).
Now
B,

The cost of to this
cost

t h i s p i p e l i n e w o u l d be 0.1 must be added the cost of

310 x 1 000

f31000.

the

p i p e between A a n d

i n t h i s case f60 000 (from Table 3.1

(I)).

For each possible head

47
TABLE 3.1
D y n a m i c p r o g r a m m i n g o p t i m i z a t i o n of

a compound p i p e

I

1 1: 1 1 I
.004
300 1 6 0 0 0 0
.0065

260

52000

23

.009

250

50000

111

19
L

1

-006

I

310

62000

- ._
24
.0035

340

68000

29

.001

430

8 3000 __I. 5 1000:'f

I --i

86000 79000 165000

48

HC

there an

i s one asterisk. be

minimum

total

cost

of

p i p e between A

a n d C,

marked

with which

I t i s t h i s cost a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i a m e t e r s o n l y when proceeding to the next section is the of last pipe. and

need

recalled the

In

this

example,

next

section

between

C

and

D

t h e r e i s o n l y one p o s s i b l e h e a d a t

D,

namely

the r e s e r v o i r and To

level.

In

Table and this

3.1

(It I)

the

hydraulic

gradients

corresponding t h e c o s t s of pipe and

diameters pipe for

costs f o r section to

Section are

C

-

D are
the

indicated. of the

added

costs each

optimum at C,

arrangement the least

up

C.

This

i s done f o r Table

p o s s i b l e head

total total and

cost cost

selected from is

3.1

(I1 I).

Thus

the minimum diameters
-

possible

S151
for

000

and

the

most

economic
-

are

260,

310
It

340
be

mm

Sections to

A

- B,
pipes

B

C and C
standard

D respecin

tively. which section

may the

desirable

keep

to

diameters for

case as

nearest

s t a n d a r d diameter proceed the next
or

could

b e selected

each

the c a l c u l a t i o n s one w i t h

each

length could

be made up a n d one head

of

two

sections;

l a r g e r s t a n d a r d diameter

with

t h e n e x t smal l e r s t a n d a r d d i a m e t e r , result.

b u t w i t h t h e same t o t a l

loss a s the theoretical

Of

course many would be

more s e c t i o n s o f increased by

p i p e c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d and t h e more possible heads at

accuracy

considering

each s e c t i o n . booster i t s cost pump

The cost o f station

the p i p e s c o u l d be v a r i e d w i t h presssures. be considered a t a n y should point. in

A

could

i n w h i c h case the tables.

a n d c a p i t a l i z e d p o w e r cost p r ove useful if many

be added

A

c o m p u t e r may

p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e to b e c o n s i d e r e d ,

and there a r e s t a n d a r d dynamic programming programs a v a i lable. It the will b e seen t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e of dynamic programming reduces

n u m b e r of at

p o s s i b i l i t i e s to be c o n s i d e r e d b y s e l e c t i n g each step. Kaliy

t h e least-cost

arrangement

(1969) a n d B u r a s a n d Schweig

(1969)

describe a p p l i c a t i o n s of

t h e t e c h n i q u e to s i m i l a r a n d o t h e r p r o b l e m s .

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n programming f o r least-cost
Transportation does not required programming the use of a is

a l l o c a t i o n of resources
technique The which is a normally
of

another

computer.

technique sources to

use

p r i m a r i l y for of consumers

a l l o c a t i n g t h e y i e l d o f a n u m b e r of such the that a least-cost along system each is

number cost of

achieved. should

The be

delivering

resource

route

linearly

49
proportional the to the is throughput of along no use that in route and for t h i s reason pipe

technique

probably

selecting

the

optimum

sizes.

I t i s of use, however, i n selecting a least-cost
an existing in pipe distribution with system, head,

pumping p a t t e r n the friction a

through head is

provided or for

small

comparison

static

obtaining

p l a n n i n g g u i d e before demands a r e accurately known.

CONSUMER REQUIREMENT

M
10 L l S

N
15 L I S

SOURCE

YIELD

12 L I S

Fi9.

3.3

Least-cost example

a l l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n programming

An

example serves

to

i l l u s t r a t e the

technique.

I n t h i s example,

there
A

a r e two sources o f and €3 could d e l i v e r

water,

A and B,

a n d two consumers, respectively

M

and N.

1 2 a n d 20 e / s

a n d M and N r e q u i r e The cost

10 a n d 15 4 / s respectively.
of

thus t h e r e

i s a s u r p l u s of water.

pumping along

routes A - M, A - N,

I3

-

M
for

and B - N a r e 5,

7, 6

a n d 9 p/1 000 l i t r e s respectively. The data are set out in a tabular source each block form solution column a in Tabel

3.2
The

(I).
unit

Each cost of

row
of

represents

and

each

demand. the top step

delivery

along

route in

i s indicated i n

right
i s to

corner

the

corresponding

the table.

The f i r s t

50
make that block an each of arbitrary yield the the initial assignment is of resources Starting

in such a manner
with the top is 10.
in

and

demand the

satisfied.

left This the

table,

maximum M

possible
and

allocation amount is

satisfies bottom

d e m a n d of

column

the

written

left

c o r n e r o f b l o c k AM. i s completed,

P r o c e e d i n g to t h e n e x t c o l u m n , the maximum possible a l l o c a t i o n r o w A.

since

the f i r s t first row

column i s 2,

in the

which satisfies the y i e l d of

So t h e n e x t b l o c k
through the

t o b e c o n s i d e r e d i s i n r o w 0 , n a m e l y c o l u m n N. table making resources allocation column.

Proceed

the maximum possible assignment a t each stage u n t i l a l l (even
in

a r e allocated
is

i f to

the slack row,

column). t,he

Thus
in

the next the third

the

13

the

second

then

7

TABLE 3.2

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o g r a m m i n g o p t i m i z a t i o n o f an a l l o c a i o n CONSUMER : M REQUIREMENT 5 :

( 1 )
SOURCE Y I E L D

A

12

B

20

m i
N
SURPLUS

EVALUAT ON

10

15

7

NUMBER : 0

---J

2

7 13

EVALUATION NUMBER:

5

7

-2

( 1 1 )
0 A

12

~~

2 B
20 10
7

4
Once
an

7
the

-2
figures are re-arranged

initial
until a

allocation least-cost

is

made

methodically would be the

d i s t r i b u t i o n emerges. assign
a

To d e c i d e w h i c h
relative evalua-

most

p r o f i t a b l e arrangement,

t i o n n u m b e r t o e a c h r o w and c o l u m n a s f o l l o w s : Assign numbers the value that 0 to row
1 and

work

out

the

other

evaluation

such

t h e sum o f is equal to

the row evaluation the cost coefficient

number a n d column for
any

evaluation

number

occupied

51
block. The v a l u e f o r
so

column M write
the

is 5, sum of

for

column

N i s 7,

f o r row B i s

2,

and

on.

Now

the row each of

and column e v a l u a t i o n If this

numbers sum if

beneath bigger

the cost coefficient the cost

of

unoccupied block it

than

coefficient

the block,

would p a y to

introduce a resource a l l o c a t i o n immediately, sum from r a t e of but

i n t o t h e block.

T h i s i s not easy to see

stems from the method of determining each e v a l u a t i o n T h e biggest possible

the cost coefficients of occupied blocks.

improvement sum and

i s i n d i c a t e d b y the biggest difference between the the cost coefficient. The biggest introduce be put and i n fact in into
is

evaluation our

case the o n l y , BM. The

improvement amount

would b e to which can

an amount in block

Block

maximum drawing

BM

determined b y

a closed loop u s i n g occupied blocks as corners i n Table 3.2 would ( I ) ) . Now f o r each u n i t which i s have to be subtracted from block from block to the block keep the

(see the dotted c i r c u i t added BN, to block
to

BM, block

one u n i t A N and

added and

subtracted In

AM

yields

requirements BM

consistent. since this

this

case

maximum

allocation

to

is

10,

would

evacuate

AM.

The

maximum r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n

i.e.

10 i s made,

and the amount

i n the block

a t each corner of the closed loop adjusted by 10 to s a t i s f y y i e l d s a n d requirements. a time. After making number to the and most there that
in

Only one r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n

of

resources should

be done at

the

best

new

allocation, as in

re-calculate (11).

the e v a l u a t i o n resource procedure by

evaluation

sums

Table 3.2

Allocate

p r o f i t a b l e block is no there further

and

repeat cost

the r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n improvement, than at

until the

possible

indicated the cost the

fact

i s no e v a l u a t i o n

sum g r e a t e r we

coef-

ficient

any in

block. two

In

our but

example more

arrived

optimum involving

distribution

steps,

compl icated

patterns

more sources and consumers may need many more attempts. The example can o n l y serve to introduce the subject of t r a n s p o r t a tion with programming. in textbooks such as There on the der as are many of other conditions which are dealt technthis

subject Veen

mathematical optimization and Dantzig (1963) if

niques

Van

(1967)

and two

example o n l y in the table

serves

an to a

introduction. be evacuated small

For

instance,

blocks of the say.

happened

simultaneously,

one

blocks could Computat ions at the end.

be allocated then

very

quantity

denoted by
'e'

'e'

proceed as

before and

the q u a n t i t y

disregarded

52
L i n e a r Programming f o r Design of Least-Cost Open Networks L i n e a r programming niques. systems, The use of the a

i s one of
computer simple

the most powerful is normally given

optimization for

tech-

essential here is

complex hand.

although

example if in the

done

by

The technique may o n l y
is

be used

the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s application. design of Linear pipe programming with be in

linear, be loops to

so

it

is

restricted optimizing resort mains
to

cannot closed used each
loss,

used

for

networks
It

without trunk

successive tree-like the

approximations. networks where

can

design is

or

the flow flow,

branch diameter to

known. and the cost

Since are

relationships the

between

head is a

non-l inear,

following

technique

used

render of

system

linear:

For each

b r a n c h o r main p i p e , the length of

number p i p e of

pre-selected

diameters a r e allowed and is

each

different

diameter

treated as the v a r i a b l e .

The head losses The

and costs a r e l i n e a r l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the respective p i p e lengths. program thereby can be will indicate that some diameter pipes h a v e zero

lengths,

i n effect e l i m i n a t i n g them. treated at in the analysis. in

Any other type of I t may

linear constraint the (a a

be r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a i n above a f i x e d minimum within

pressure

certain of

points

the network

I inear
certain

inequality range. The

the greater-than-or-equal-to-type) length o f p i p e of

or

total

a c e r t a i n diameter may be

r e s t r i c t e d because there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t p i p e a v a i l a b l e .

DIAMETER m m
UNKNOWN L E N t T H m OPTIMUM L E N G T H m HEAD LOSS m

250
X,

200
x2 I50

2 OD
x3

150
XL L 00 1 - 6 6 TOTAL 5 . 0

50
012

3.2

0 0

Fig.

3.4

Least-cost

t r u n k main b y a trunk

l i n e a r programming two drawoff points (Fig.

The example concerns

main w i t h

53
3.4). and The p e r m i s s i b l e diameters of of the second leg, 200 the f i r s t 150 leg a r e 250 a n d 200 mm, There are thus four dif-

and

mm.

v a r i a b I es , X,, ferent

X2,

X3
This

and X4 simple of

which are the example could alternatives used here

lengths of

pipe of

diameters.
of

be optimized b y giving to the

manual head tech-

comparison
loss,

the

costs

all is

correct the

but

linear

programming

demonstrate

nique. The head losses per 100 m of p i p e a n d costs p e r m for the v a r i o u s

pipes a r e i n d i c a t e d below:-

D iameter
mm

Head loss @ 40 e / ’ s m/1OO m 0.25 0.71

@ 14 e/s
m/1OO m 0.1 0.42

cost i~100/100 m

250 200 150 The form linear

5

4
3 expressed are in equation in

constraints the

on

the
of

system the

are

below

and

coefficients

equations

tabulated

Table 3.3 Lengths

(I).

Lengths a r e expressed i n h u n d r e d metres.
+

x1
0.25X1

X2
+

5
x3

x4

= 4
= 5

Head L o s s : Objective Function: The computations
so

+ 0.71X2 + 0.1X3 + 0.42X4 5x1 + 4x2 + 4x3 + 3xq
by setting all real variables variables

= m i n i mum

proceed to the

to zero,
into each

it

i s necessary to
c

introduce equality. 3.3
(I),

artificial The slack and To

slack

equation a, at b

satisfy in

v a r i a b l e s a r e designated cost coefficients are set

and

Table

their

very

h i g h values designated m. b a n d c a r e assigned

i n i t i a t e the solution,

the slack

variables a,

the values 5,

4 and 5 respective-

l y (see the t h i r d column of Table 3.3 The numbers i n any indicate placed the by amount of particular the one

(I)),
the

l i n e of

main body of the t a b l e which would be Thus disone

program unit

variable the

introducing

of

column

variable.

u n i t o f X, To

would displace 1 u n i t of a and 0.25 whether
it

u n i t s of c. replacing any variable

determine

is

worthwhile

i n the program b y

any other v a r i a b l e ,

a number known as the oppor-

54
T A B L E 3.3
L i n e a r P r o g r a m m i n g S o l u t i o n of P i p e P r o b l e m s

P-qg.

co>t

V c r a b l e _ e_ Co ff.

A _ _v o u n t

a
b
C

m

5 4 5
dALUE:

!: l

x2 4

x3 4

x4 3

a
m

b
m

c
m

Red.

s

,

m
m

0.25

0.71

0.10

0.42

1

5/.71

OPPORTUNI T Y

i
a
x2
b
C

x1

2 4 1

5
1

x3 4

x4 3

a

b

4
m m

5 4 1.45

1 1 1
1

I

-0.46 lt0.46
0

0.1

0.42-

-0.71
1 .71m-4

1

j

l 4
3.45'

4 - 1 . l m 3-1.42m

0

0

I l l

x1

2 4
1

5 x2 b
x4

x3 4

x4 3

a m
1

b m

c m

4
m

5 0.55

1 1.I

5 -2.38 2.38 3.38-8.2

0.76

1.69
1

0.5"

3

3.45

-1.1 11-1.lm

0.24

-1.69 1.1-0.69m

0 3.28-0.76m

0

IV

x2 x1

4

4.5 0.5 4
0
1

-0.69 0.69
1 1

2.16

5 3

1.52

-2.16
I

x4

0

0.31

0

m-

rn

m-

( N o f u r t h e r improvement posc iD l e 1

55
tunity number i s calculated the cost which for for each column. I f one u n i t of

X

1 (0 x i.e.

introduced,

then x

would

increase b y

(5 -

(1

x

m)

-

m
the the of

)

-

(0.25

m)),
value that

i s designated each by the cost column the is

the o p p o r t u n i t y calculated by cost

value,

opportunity entries the in

multiplying coefficients the

column in

corresponding column of and

program

variable from

second

subtracting

total

thus

formed

the

coefficient

the column

variable.

The most p r o f i t a b l e v a r i a b l e t o the The is greatest cost is reduction now the per

introduce would be X2, unit

since i t shows value). column mini-

( o r negative o p p o r t u n i t y the key column. value

X2
that

column which

designated lowest

The

key

shows

opportunity

( i n the cost

mization case). To which

Only one v a r i a b l e may be introduced a t a time. the maximum amount the
of

determine may be

the

key

column ratios

variable for each

introduced,

calculate

replacement

row as follows:Divide the amount number
of

the

program

variable The

for

each

row

by

the

corresponding ment be the the ratio is

i n the key column. as that is the
of

lowest p o s i t i v e replacewhich The row could with

selected

maximum amount the constraints.

introduced without lowest number positive at the

v i o l a t i n g any ratio of

replacement intersection

is

designated column

the key and key

row a n d
row,

the

key

the

key number. After ( T a b l e 3.3 introducing a that new the variable, replacement the matrix is rearranged correct. The

(11))

so

ratios

remain

program v a r i a b l e and by the new variable

i t s cost coefficient and its cost

in the key row a r e replaced

coefficient.

The

amount

column

as well as the body of t h e t a b l e a r e r e v i s e d as follows:Each number i n the key row i s d i v i d e d b y the key number. From each number in the number in a non-key row,
the

subtract

the

corresponding

i n the key key column

row m u l t i p l i e d b y divided
(11).

r a t i o of the o l d row number number.
The

by

the

key

new

tableau

is

g i v e n as T a b l e 3.3 The ratios procedure and

of

studying the table

opportunity is repeated the
so

values until

and is

replacement no
(IV)

revising

there 3.3

further shows hand

negative all

opportunity

value.

In

example

Table

positive opportunity

values

the

least-cost

solution

i s at

56
(indicated values). The ming reader Van the should der r e f e r to a s t a n d a r d textbook on l i n e a r programa full descan by the current program v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r corresponding

(e.9. of

Veen,

(1967) a n d D a n t z i g
There are many

(1963)) f o r other cases

cription

technique.

which

be mentioned below:If

the

constraints equations, into

are

of

the 5 (less-than-or-equal-to) variables of with zero cost

type

and

not are

just

slack the

coefficients them coef-

introduced The

1.h.s. slack

each

constraint with

to make cost

equations.

artificial

variables

high

f i c i e n t s a r e then omitted.

If

the

constraints artificial 1.h.s. cost of

are

of

the 2

(greater-than-or-equal-to)
with

type,

introduce into with the zero

slack the

variables

high

cost slack to

coefficients variables make them

constraint from

and each

subtract inequality

coefficients

equations. If the objective with
is

function highest be

is

to

be

minimized, is

the

opportunity but

value

the
to

negative

value

selected,

if

the the

function

maximized,

the

opportunity

value

with

h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e v a l u e i s selected. The opportunity values i.e. represent they shadow the values value of the corres-

ponding

variables that

indicate

of

introducing

one u n i t of If the when very two

v a r i a b l e i n t o the program. ratios a r e equal, in whichever the other row row
it

replacement of

i s selected,
will to be

amount the

program is

variable

zero
a

matrix

rearranged.

Merely

assume

have

s m a l l v a l u e a n d proceed as before.

example then the

of

two

stage

optimization,
is

namely

first

the

layout

and

pipe

diameters search

given

in are

Stephenson also

(1964).

Non-linear instance

programming

and

methods

discussed. method.

For

Lam (1973) described a g r a d i e n t o p t i m i z a t i o n

57
REFERENCES Buras, N. and S c h w e i g , Z., 1969. A q u e d u c t r o u t e o p t i m i z a t i o n b y d y n a m i c p r o g r a m m i n g . Proc. Am. SOC. C i v i l E n g r s . 95 ( H Y 5 ) . Cross, H., 1936. A n a l y s i s o f f l o w i n n e t w o r k s of c o n d u i t s o r c o n d u c t o r s . U n i v e r s i t y of I I I i n o i s B u l l e t in 286. D a n t z i g , G.B., 1963. L i n e a r P r o g r a m m i n g and E x t e n s i o n s , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, Princeton. Isaacs, L.T. a n d M i l l s , K.G., 1980. L i n e a r t h e o r y m e t h o d s f o r p i p e n e t w o r k s a n a l y s i s . P r o c . Am. SOC. C i v i l E n g r s . 106 ( H Y 7 ) . Kal l y , E., 1969. P i p e l i n e p l a n n i n g b y d y n a m i c computer programm i n g . J . Am. W a t e r W o r k s Assn., (3). Lam, C.F., 1973. D i s c r e t e g r a d i e n t o p t i m i z a t i o n of w a t e r systems. P r o c . Am. SOC. C i v i l E n g r s . , 99 ( H Y 6 ) . S t e p h e n s o n , D., 1984. P i p e f l o w A n a l y s i s , E l s e v i e r , 204 pp. V a n d e r Veen, B., 1967. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e T h e o r y of O p e r a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . C l e a v e r Hurne, L o n d o n . Wood, D.J. and C h a r l e s , O.A., 1972. N e t w o r k a n a l y s i s u s i n g l i n e a r t h e o r y . ? r o c . A X E , 98 (HY7) p 1157 - 1170.

L I S T O F SYMBOLS

C D

-

cost diameter head loss head const a n t Iengt h flow

-

h

H
K

e
Q

58

CHAPTER 4

WATER HAMMER

AND SURGE

R I G I D WATER COLUMN SURGE THEORY

Transient are often the

pressures cause
of

caused bursts.

by

a

change of

flow

r a t e in conduits associated

The

pressure fluctuations

w i t h s u d d e n f l o w s t o p p a g e c a n b e s e v e r a l h u n d r e d metres head. Transients gories: surge,
of

in

closed

conduits are normally oscillation

classed fluid is by

into

two cateto a

Slow

motion

mass

of

the

referred elastic

whereas fluid

rapid

change is

in

flow

accompanied to

strain slow yield

the

and

conduit
in

referred or

as w a t e r
the

hammer. two

For

or

small

changes

flow

rate

pressure

theories

t h e same r e s u l ts. It i s normally the easier is to a n a l y s e a applicable) system b y than by r i g i d column elastic theory. theory With

(whenever

theory

r i g i d column pressible the tion umq

theory A

the w a t e r pressure an

in the c o n d u i t
difference

i s t r e a t e d a s a n incomacross The the ends of

mass.

applied

column

produces the

instantaneous

acceleration.

basic

equacol-

relating in
a

head bore

d i f f e r e n c e between conduit to the

t h e e n d s of rate
of

the

water in

uniform

change

velocity

i s d e r i v e d from Newton's b a s i c

l a w o f motion,

a n d is (4.1

where conduit

h

is

the

difference v is the

in

head

between g

the is

two

ends,

L i s the
accelera-

length,

flow

velocity,

gravitational

tion and t The with

i s time. is useful of a for calculating column. the head rise associated calcupower in

equation

slow the

deceleration water level up

water

I t may surge or

be used f o r following load

lating trip a or

variations a pumping fed of

in

a line, a

shaft power

starting

in

changes The

hydro-electric may be

installation in steps

by At

pressure

pipeline. in

equa-

tion

solved

b y computer,

tabular

form o r method

graphical ly.

The f o l l o w i n g

e x a m p l e demonstrates

the numerical

of s o l u t i o n o f t h e e q u a t i o n : -

59
Example

A

100 m l o n g penstock w i t h a c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a , water hammer b y area, velocity load water a

A,,

o f 1 m2

is protected against bine, with a cross

surge s h a f t a t the tur-

sectional The initial complete rise
in

A2,

of

2

m2

and

an

unrestricted orifice. and there is the a

i n t h e c o n d u i t i s 1 m/s

sudden

rejection level in

at the

the t u r b i n e . surge shaft

Calculate

maximum

neglecting friction. Take -0.098h. A t
=

1 sec.

Then from Equ.

4.1,

Av

= -ghAt/L = 0.5~.

= -9.8h/

100 =

By c o n t i n u i t y ,

A h = A1vAt/A2 = l v / 2

t 0.1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7

Ah = 0 . 5 ~

h
0.5 0.976 1.404 1.763 2.035 2.207 2.271" m,

A v = -0.098h -0.049 -0.096 -0.138 -0.173 -0.199 -0.216 -0.223

V

0.5 0.476 0.428 0.359 0.272 0.172 0.064

0.951 0.855 0.717 0.544 0.345 0.129 0.094

The maximum r i s e i s 2.27 tical

w h i c h may b e compared w i t h t h e a n a l y 4.16, o f 2.26 taking m. The a c c u r a c y o f t h e time intervals
A h

s o l u t i o n o b t a i n e d from Equ. method

numerical or and taking A v

c o u l d be i m p r o v e d b y

smaller

t h e mean v a n d h o v e r t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l s to c a l c u l a t e The method c a n r e a d i i y b e e x t e n d e d to

respectively.

include

h e a d losses, Another water

a n d i s calculator-orientated. a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e r i g i d w a t e r column e q u a t i o n i s w i t h Following line, at
the

useful

column end to

separation. of a

the the

stopping pressure along

of

a

pump

at

the

upstream

pumping

frequently the line. will
In

drops such

sufficiently cases slowly Equ. the the and

cause

vaporization beyond theory

peaks

water

column

vapour

pocket

decelerate analysis.

r i g i d column be the

is s u f f i c i e n t l y
with

accurate for time
t

4.1

may

integrated twice water column the

r e s p e c t to

to d e t e r m i n e If the

distance stop

will

travel of

before the
0

stopping. pocket
0

pumps the

instantaneously

volume

vapour

behind i s the

water

column o f

length t w i l l

be Q = A t v * / 2 9 h

where v

i n i t i a l flow velocity.

60
MECHAN I CS O F WATER HAMMER Water hammer occurs, as the name implies, The when a column of

water i s r a p i d l y decelerated theory would indicate an

(or accelerated).

r i g i d water if a

column in a is, the the gate

infinitely

l a r g e head r i s e

valve

p i p e l i n e c a r r y i n g l i q u i d were slammed s h u t however,

instantaneously.

There due to at

a c e r t a i n amount o f r e l i e f u n d e r these c o n d i t i o n s , the p i p e is shut itself. the a Thus

e l a s t i c i t y of the f l u i d a n d of d i s c h a r g e end of will will pack rise against a pipeline the gate, to

if a

valve of The

fluid

upstream rise.

the

causing the

pressure in

pressure with the

sufficiently

stop

liquid

accordance

momentum l a w . the amount of

The amount o f water required

water to

stopped p e r u n i t the volume

time depends o n created

replace

by

the

compression of w a t e r a n d e x p a n s i o n o f t h e p i p e . I t can thus
Ah,

be shown

that

the

relationship

between

the

head r i s e the wave (4.2a)

the r e d u c t i o n in v e l o c i t y i s A h = -CAV/g

A V

a n d the r a t e of p r o g r e s s of

front

where c i s t h e w a v e c e l e r i t y a n d g i s g r a v i t a t i o n a l equation is often referred to a s J o u k o w s k y ’ s law.

acceleration. It can

This be

further

p r o v e d from a mass b a l a n c e t h a t

c

=

1/ If

3 .iw

kd EY the p i p e h a s a

(4.3a) rigid lining ( e l a s t i c m o d u l u s E2 a n d t h e e q u a t i o n to use i s thickness

y) ,

and r i g i d side f i l l

( m o d u l u s Es)

(4.3b)

where w

i s the u n i t

w e i g h t of

liquid,

K

i s i t s b u l k modulus, y the p i p e w a l l fixity for of a the

d

is

the

p i p e diameter, k a factor

E i s i t s e l a s t i c modulus, depends

thickness a n d (normally tunnel plastic low

which

on

the

end

pipe

about 0.9).

c may b e a s h i g h a s 1370 m/s
for thin wall i s present

r i g i d walled

o r as low a s 850 m/s

steel p i p e s . (see C h a p t e r

I n t h e case o f

pipe,
a s ZOO

or

when

free a i r

51,

c may

be a s

m/s.

The earlier,

pressure thus
in

wave

caused

by

the

valve

closure the

referred head, the

to as

travels Fig. the
so

upstream, 4.1(1).

superimposed on the wave

static

illustrated reservoir the

When in the

front

reaches

open into

end,

pressure that the

pipe now

forces

water and

backwards

reservoir,

velocity

reverses

pressure drops

b a c k to s t a t i c ( r e s e r v o i r ) p r e s s u r e a g a i n .

61
PRE5WRE NAVE

Fig.

4.1

Water hammer wave at d i f f e r e n t stages

A
That in The back

negative wave

wave will

(2)
in

thus

travels

downstream from

the r e s e r v o i r . the velocity velocity. travels it

front

t u r n reach

the closed end. v
0

Now

the

entire

pipeline wave pipe

is

-v

0

where

was

the

original static, the

negative up the

of

head the pipe,

amplitude

C ,g v/ Upon

below reaching

to

reservoir.

reservoir

sucks
to +v

water

into the

the head

so

that
to

the

velocity head.

in the p i p e r e v e r t s waves

and

reverts

static

The sequence of

w i l l repeat i t s e l f

i n d e f i n i t e l y unless damped b y f r i c t i o n .

---+---1

Hz g

‘with

no

friction

0

2 L/c

I

3 L/c

4L7c

I

t

Fig. 4.2

Head f l u c t u a t i o n s at v a l v e end.

62
The 4.2. In variation the case in of head at the v a l v e lines, with the will be as indicated i n Fig. change The water in a i n flow downsudden dis-

pumping

most violent trip.

conditions stream of

i s normally the in pump

associated is suddenly The

a pump

decelerated, wave velocity

resulting

reduction charge wave

pressure. (Fig. 4.3),

negative the

travels

towards and a

the

end

where

reverses at

positive alter-

returns

towards

the

pumps.

The

pressure

the

pump

nates from a pressure drop to a pressure r i s e .

Wave front

snit i d l y

Vapour pressure
Initial V

= Vo

F i g . 4.3

Water hammer head drop a f t e r pump t r i p

The tion,

wave

i s complicated or the

by

line friction, flow variation. vaporize

changes Thus air

in if will

cross there be

secis a

vaporization, pressure, air be as valves seen it

gradual water

negative
in

will

and

drawn most

via

and from solution. Fig. up 4.4 which

The effect of illustrates a

f r i c t i o n can wave shut at

readily stages

from

different The to

travels

the p i p e l i n e from the wave are not

a rapidly quite

valve. due

pressure the

heads

behind

horizontal,

' p a c k i n g ' effect causing some flow across the wave f r o n t . The effect of equation. changes i n section The wave or b r a n c h pipes can be Ah' after included

in

one

head change

r e a c h i n g a junc-

tion

i s r e l a t e d to the o r i g i n a l head change Ah' 2Ah'A./c.
I I

by the equation

Ah'

=
A1/c, A h

I

2

/(1

+ A 2 / A 1 + A3/A1

+

where A . i s the cross sectional area of p i p e i and c

+

+

+

A 2'=2

A3/C3

...
1

i4.4a)

.. .
. c2

(4.4b)

c3-

63

~

1
Xz- F 'x

c vo 9

3 "Distance from valve"
2

F i g . 4.4

Head a t p o i n t s a l o n g along p i p e l i n e w i t h f r i c t i o n , instantaneous stoppage

for

When a

valve

i n a g r a v i t y main i s closed g r a d u a l l y , minute waves emanating numerical ly for valve or

the effect i s The

analogous to a series of system form could of be analysed is of

from the v a l v e .

graphically. the

The g r a p h i c a l principles and of

analysis solution

useful the

demonstrating discharge

simultaneous

equation

the water

hammer equation. lar to the

In fact

the sines

d r a w n on a g r a p h a r e v e r y similines adopted in numerical solu-

so-called

characteristic

t ions.

Fig. valve at to

4.5

illustrates

a

graphical

analysis

of

a

pipeline

with

a

the discharge end. and the valve

The v a l v e

i s closed over for

a p e r i o d equal four different

4

L/c

discharge

characteristics

degrees of

closure a r e p l o t t e d on the g r a p h . i s also indicated. at water the valve at

The l i n e r e l a t i n g f r i c t i o n

head loss to p i p e velocity

To
closure a n d S.

compute one Thus

the

head the

time

L/c
4.2

after

initiating

applies

hammer

equation

between p o i n t s R

64
A h

-(c/g)
Ahf

Av - A h

f

(4.2b)
Similarly

where

i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n f r c t i o n h e a d b e t w e e n R a n d S. t h e w a t e r hammer e q u a t i o n f r o m S t o R ,

applying
A h

+ (c/g) Av
thus

+

hf
l i n e s of slope

(4.2~)

Computations the at waves point

proceed a l o n g then t
=

+

or

- c/g.

Ultimately

peak a n d at

die out

d u e to f r i c t i o n . and is

The m a x i m u m h e a d to t h e

S occurs

4

L/c

182 m e t r e s a c c o r d i n g

computations on F i g .

4.5.

ELAST I C WATER HAMMER THEORY

The velocity

fundamental
in

differential may

wave

equations

relating

pressure

to

a

conduit

b e d e r i v e d from

consideration of

Newton's

l a w o f m o t i o n a n d t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of mass r e s p e c t i v e l y ,

and are:

(4.5)
ah - + -c 2 = v - ao at g

ax

The t o obey tion of

last

term

in Equ.

4.5
with

accounts for

friction

which

i s assumed The assumpi s not flow

Darcy's equation a steady-state Tests

a constant f r i c t i o n factor. factor that for transient

friction indicate

conditions

strictly

correct.

head

losses d u r i n g t r a n s i e n t

are higher normal flow

t h a n those p r e d i c t e d u s i n g t h e f r i c t i o n f a c t o r a p p l i c a b l e to conditions. Energy is probably absorbed during flow

reversals

when t h e v e l o c i t y

i s low and t h e f r i c t i o n f a c t o r c o n s e q u e n t l y

relatively high.

Methods of A n a l y s i s

A

common used
for

method

of

analysis

of

pipe

systems

for

water

hammer i s such

pressures a chart for zero no

to be g r a p h i c a l l y

(Lupton,

1953).

Fig.

4.6

the maximum a n d minimum heads a t the downstream v a l v e The v a l v e and the area i s assumed discharge
to r e d u c e

line friction. time T

linearly is

to

over

valve

coefficient

assumed

constant.

To u s e t h e c h a r t

c a l c u l a t e t h e v a l v e c l o s u r e p a r a m e t e r cT/L

65

H
( m 1
20c

6'

- 200

::m
R 5

55

S'cVALVE

SHUT

_/--

R 2

.
/--_ / - -

52 53

t'

RI

_/--

51

t d t = L/c

R, -R

x -t

CHART

S

' 0

F i g . 4.5

Graphical

water hammer a n a l y s i s f o r

slow valve

closure with f r i c t i o n

66
and axis valve head
loss

parameter

he/(cvo/g).
/g)

Read

off on

the vertical

the maximum

head parameter h ' / ( c v (dashed

( f u l l lines) a n d minimum by cvo/g a n d the

head parameter -h/(cvo/g) answers are the

lines).

Multiply

maximum a n d minimum heads respectively Note t h a t the c h a r t is for

above a n d
in a r e a

below s t a t i c w i t h time, tics of

head.

linear reduction

a c o n d i t i o n r a r e l y encountered in p r a c t i c e . and butterfly valves the are such that

The c h a r a c t e r i s most of the flow

sluice

reduction occurs a t the water hammer

the e n d of heads are

valve stroke, than

with

the result t h a t the c h a r t .

higher

predicted

by

A

more a c c u r a t e a n a l y s i s i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y f o r T h e most economical tions for by particular the method of systems is solution of by digital

important I ines.

t h e w a t e r hammer e q u a computer. Solution is

usually

method o f

characteristics

(Streeter

and Lai,

1963 a n d

Streeter a n d Wylie, graphical expressed intervals. set equal method.
in

1950) w h i c h d i f f e r s l i t t l e i n p r i n c i p l e f r o m t h e o l d The differential form water and hammer for equations successive are time is

finite

difference

solved

The c o n d u i t
to

i s d i v i d e d i n t o a number of

i n t e r v a l s a n d At

ax/c. Fig.

The x 4.7.

- t g r i d on which s o l u t i o n takes p l a c e i s
from known conditions along the

depicted

in

Starting

pipeline at

time

t,

one proceeds to c a l c u l a t e the h e a d a n d velocity a t

each p o i n t a l o n g the l i n e at time t By adding, expressing equations 4.5

+

At. 4.6 as total differentials and

and

one gets two simultaneous equations

i n v o l v i n g dh a n d d v :

(4.7b) Equs. time 4.7a and
4.7b

may

be

solved

t

+

At

i n t e r m s of

known

and v ' at point p at P P h a n d v a t two other points q a n d r for
h'

at time t : (4.8a)

(4.8b)

67
Valve closure factor C T/L

F i g . 4.6

Maximum a n d minimum head a t downstream v a l v e f o r l i n e a r c Io s u r e

At either speed.

the terminal

points,
or

a n additional condition i s usually is 4.7a a function or 4.7b
is

imposed; or pump with

h

is

fixed, correct

v

of

a

gate

opening

The

Equ.

solved

simultaneously

the known condition computat ions

t o e v a l u a t e t h e new at known

h a n d v at time t

+ A t . The
when

commence

conditions

and

are

terminated

the pressure f l u c t u a t i o n s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y damped b y f r i c t i o n . Where t h e n Equs. a branch 4.8a pipe s occurs or there
is a

change

i n diameter,

a n d 4.8b

snoulci b e r e p l a c e d b y E q u s . 4.9

a n o 4.10:

68

TIME

A

/
Fig. 4.7 x - t G r i d for water method. hammer a n a l y s i s b y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c

Effect of F r i c t i o n
Fluid along the friction conduit. die away damps the is water no hammer waves influence as the they travel will to

If

there the

exciting

waves will

gradually

and

pressure along

the conduit

tend

s t a t i c pressure. The dicts wave. method the characteristic effect a method of solution by computer accurately is no discontinuity in prethe

the At of

of

friction

provided it

there

sharp

wave front,

i s necessary an analytical

t o r e s o r t to some o t h e r solution is feasible at a

analysis. front.

Fortunately (1950)

wave

Ludwig wave

demonstrated back is along

that a by

t h e a m p l i t u d e of line the with

water

hammer

travelling stoppage

friction

fol lowing tion

instantaneous 4.4):

indicated

hyperbolic func-

(see F i g .

xxv
-

tanh lines

( 4gd '

--./p)] 4
sudden pump the stopping pumping
0

cv

(4.11) the maximum

In

pumping

following pump than

over-pressures friction cates head

at is

the greater

will

exceed

head 4.8

if

the indiwith

approximately head

0.7cv / g . along

Fig.

minimum

and

maximum

envelopes

pipelines

69
various stream plot friction end. To heads use the following chart, instantaneous multiply the stoppage by at the upand

ordinates

cv / g

the maximum a n d minimum hf/(cv / g ) ,
0

head envelopes f o r the correct f r i c t i o n

factor The when

above o r below s t a t i c on a p i p e p r o f i l e d r a w i n g . only valid provided there is no column separation

chart

is

the negative wave t r a v e l s up the p i p e l i n e i.e. should at no point fall below

the minimum head below the pipeline

envelope profile. mum

10

m

It

has, with

however,

been found from experience that a r e often s i m i l a r to

the maxi-

heads

column separation

those without

separation. Fig.

4.8 may also be used to determine the maximum and minimum
pipelines w i th fri cti o n end b y following sudden flow the c h a r t stoppage a t upside down versa. a closing valve. Turn

heads along the

downstream

a n d r e a d o f f maximum envelope instead of minimum a n d vice-

PROTECT I ON OF PUMP I NG L I NES (Stephenson, 1972)

The

pressure

transients

fol lowing

power

failure

to

electric

motor

d r i v e n pumps a r e u s u a l l y the most extreme t h a t a pumping system w i l l experience. should often also Nevertheless, be checked. the over-pressures Pumps with when steep caused b y s t a r t i n g pumps head/flow characteristics This

induce h i g h over-pressures i s small head equal the pump

t h e power i s switched on.
when the pump

i s because the flow
so

( o r zero)

i s switched on

a wave partly

with

a

to

the closed v a l v e valves

head i s generated. starting, the

By

closing

delivery

during

over-pressures can be reduced. The over-pressures caused b y closing l i ne valves or scour valves

should also be considered.
If

the the to

pumps flow

supplying will

an

unprotected p i p e l i n e a r e stopped sudIf line, the the
to

denly, close water

a l s o stop. grade the

pipeline sudden drop to

profile is relatively deceleration a value

the

hydraulic may cause

of

the

column

pressure value

less than

atmospheric

pressure. pressure. at peaks

The

lowest

to which

pressure could drop

i s vapour
thus occur

Vaporization or even water column separation may along the pipeline. When the pressure wave is

r e t u r n e d as a

p o s i t i v e wave

the water columns w i l l

rejoin g i v i n g rise

to water hammer over-pressures.

70

Fig.

4.8

M a x i m u m and m i n i m u m h e a d e n v e l o p e s f o l l o w i n g instantaneous pump stopping in pipelines w i t h friction

71
Unless pumping some pipeline method system of water will hammer protection to be is installed, for a a

normally
0

have I n fact

designed

water hammer overhead equal to cv /g. high-pressure comparison lines the where water head. even

t h i s i s often done w i t h may be small
in

hammer For if

heads

with

pumping and

short water

lines

this m a y

be the
is

most

economic

solution,

hammer

protection

i n s t a l l e d i t may

be prudent to check that the u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h of t h e

p i p e l i n e i s s u f f i c i e n t should the p r o t e c t i v e device f a i l . The against reduce The philosophy water the behind is the design of most object methods of in most protection is
to

hammer

similar.

The

cases

downsurge i n the p i p e l i n e caused b y will then be correspondingly most into common pipe

stopping or

the pumps. even be

upsurge

reduced, of

may

entirely surge is

eliminated. to feed

The

method

limiting

the

down-

water

the

as soon as the pressure tends

to drop.

Fig.

4.9

Pipeline p ro fi l e i I lustrat ing suitable devices f o r water hammer protection. locations Most of for various protective

locat ions f o r

various

Suitable i n Fig.

devices

are

i I lustrated

4.9.

the systems

i n v o l v e feeding water i n t o the pipe.

Observe column

that

in

all the

cases tank

the is

sudden

momentum c h a n g e of so the elastic

the

water

beyond is

prevented a slow of the

water

hammer Part into

phenomenon of the

converted kinetic

to

motion water

surge column

phenomenon. i s converted

original energy

energy

potential ly the

instead of under the

e l a s t i c energy. effect to of the

The w a t e r c o l u m n g r a d u a l in

decelerates ends. If

difference the and If,

heads

between would the

it

was in

allowed the

decelerate direction

water impact

column

gather pump column to

momentum cause is

reverse

against the

water at

hammer its

over-pressures.
of

however,

water which

arrested with the

point of

maximum kinetic

potential energy, no

energy, there water

coincides no sudden

point

minimum and may

will

be

change The

in

momentum flow

consequently be stopped
to

hammer a re-

over-pressure. flux or v a l v e or vessel,

reverse

by

installing

throttling
or in

device a t

the entrance

the discharge t a n k

air

the pipeline. allow the

A small o r i f i c e b y p a s s to the ree i t h e r s i d e to g r a d u a l -

flux

valve

would

then

pressures on

l y equalize. Fortunately and for charts are of not available the pump for the design so of air that water vessels

investigation analysis is

inertia

effects,

a

water column and

hammer theory

normally for the

necessary. of

Rigid

may

be

employed

analysis

surge

tank

action,

i n some cases,

of d i s c h a r g e tanks. system an incorporates water done are in-line hammer reflux valves is if a
or

If
pump

the

pipeline valve,

a

bypass The of

elastic may be

analysis or,

usually number program

necessary.
of

analysis similar

graphically a

solutions

systems

envisaged,

computer

could

b e developed. of a

Normal ly the location, device and such as

s i z e and d i s c h a r g e c h a r a c a discharge and to is be tank size
of

teristics be or

protective by trial

have

to

determined bypass In

error.

The

location have

in-line by most

reflux these

valves instances

may a

similarly

determined the

trial.

computer as a

program

usually

economical oped, and

method of by

solution, the

general

program could methodically,

be develan opti-

varying

design

parameters

mum s o l u t i o n a r r i v e d a t . The following sections describe various methods o f reducing water

hammer in p u m p i n g l i n e s ,

a n d offer design aids.

73
Pump Inertia
If to the r o t a t i o n a l the pump i n e r t i a of for may a be a centrifugal after pump and motor continue failure, water hammer and

rotate

while

power

pressure

transients will

reduced.
to

The water

rotating

pump,

motor

e n t r a i n e d water on of the delivery

continue

feed

i n t o the p o t e n t i a l vacuum the sudden deceleration short

side,

thereby

a1 l e v i a t i n g

the water column.

The effect

i s most noticeable on low-head,

pipelines. After gradually the the power down supply until to it at the can motor no is cut off, the pump will

slow

longer

deliver

water

against

delivery than in the

head e x i s t i n g the suction

the time. it

If

the d e l i v e r y force water

head i s t i l l s through in the the on

higher pump

head,

will

then

reverse

direction,

with is

the no

pump reflux

still or

spinning control

forward the and

direction, side

provided of the in

there pump.

valve

delivery gather

The

pump

will

rapidly and of will the

decelerate act pump as a

momentum these

the

reverse The

direction,

turbine

under

conditions.

reverse

speed

will

increase u n t i l is a rapid

i t reaches r u n a w a y speed. of the

Under these conditions there a n d water hammer over-

deceleration

reverse flow

pressures w i I I resu I t. I f there i s a r e f l u x v a l v e reverse still flow wi II be arrested, on the delivery water at side of the pump, the wil I

but

hammer

overpressures

occur.

The

pressure

changes

t h e pump f o l l o w i n g power f a i l 1963) o r b y computer. i s obtained b y equattransferred

u r e may be c a l c u l a t e d g r a p h i c a l l y (Parmakian, The pump speed N ing the work done after a time increment A t

i n decelerating

the pump to the energy

to the water:

Solving f o r N 900wHQ A t A N = n MNFN ' where

1

- N2

= L N we get

(4.12)
the moment of
in

M

is

inertia

of

the

pump

impeller

and

motor,

N
of

i the speed s
the time above

rprn,
w

FN i s the pump e f f i c i e n c y a t the b e g i n n i n g
i s the u n i t weight of f l u i d ,
q

interval, suction

H i s the pumping
As

head

head a n d

i s the discharge.

an approxima-

74
tion, FN = (N/No)Fo where s u b s c r i p t o r e f e r s to i n i t i a l conditions. head/discharge characteristics of the pump can be fairly

The

accurately

represented b y the equation

t i = aN2 + bNQ - cQ2
a, b and on c the are constants which can be evaluated of

(4.13)
provided the three are

points known.

head/discharge/speed

characteristics

pump

Substituting pipe, and

q

=

vA

where

A

is

the

cross

sectional

area

of two

the un-

u s i n g Equ.

4.8,

two equations

result

involving

knowns which may be solved f o r h and v at the pump. Fortunately summarized in the r e s u l t s of form. a l a r g e number of presented by analyses have been Parmakian indicate along

chart

Charts

the maximum downsurge and the pipeline
for

upsurge at of

the pumps and midway inertia and the

various charts flow

values also

pump the

pipeline speed
re-

parameter and the

P.
times

The of

indicate zero

maximum speed and

reverse

reversal,

pump

maximum

verse speed. Kinno which speed ing and Kennedy the effect

(1965)
of

have

prepared

comprehensive

charts

include of

l i n e f r i c t i o n and pump e f f i c i e n c y ; specific Of interest of be the

the pump

i s also discussed. if the the reverse upsurge pump was

i s a chart
pump is

indicat-

maximum

upsurge that

rotation could

prevented. if

Kinno reverse

suggests flow

reduced but

considerably

through

permitted,

with

reverse r o t a -

tion prevented. Fig. will ues

4.10
in

summarizes various minimum values
t

the

maximum systems taken

and

minimum

pressures

which Valthe

occur for

pumping head are

following from

power f a i l u r e . paper, and

the

Kinno's typical

maximum

head

a r e adjusted will

to cover that

pump efficiencies

around 85 p e r cent. occurs when
ues

be observed r e t u r n s to at

the minimum head often ( t = 2L/c). flow reversal The v a l i s per-

the f i r s t subsequen

wave

the pump if

of

the are

upsurge in

the pump

mitted, the

also presented of a the

the c h a r t .

These values if

are lower than was the

magnitude with

upsurge which valve. If

would occur flow head reversal

reverse flow prevented

prevented maximum

reflux above

was be

headrise

operating

Ho

would

approximately

equal to the lowest head-drop

below H

.

75
The the author has a simple have r u l e of an effect thumb in for a s c e r t a i n i n g whether the water hammer 0.01,

pump

inertia If the

will

reducing

pressures. the pump Here M and AL ed from

inertia

parameter

I

=

MNZ/wALHoZ at least

exceeds

i n e r t i a may reduce the downsurge b y i n e r t i a of the pump,

10 per cent.
i n rpm

i s the moment of

N i s the speed

i s the volume of water i n the pipe. Fig.

The expression was d e r i v that

4.10,

and

it

was

assumed

c/g

is

approximately

e q u a l to 100.

F i g . 4.10

M a x i m u m and rninimiJm h e a d s at p u m p a f t e r power f a i l u r e

76
Some i n s t a l l a t i o n s have a fly-wheel the
be

f i t t e d to the pump to increase
the

moment

of

inertia. heavy,

In also

most

cases

flywheel

would

have

to

impractically

i t should be borne i n mind that

start-

i n g c u r r e n t s may thereby be increased.

In

subsequent

sections

the

effect

of

pump

inertia

is

neglected

and the pumps a r e assumed to stop

instantaneously.

Pump Bypass Reflux V a l v e

One against the

of

the

simples hammer 4.11).

arrangements is The a reflux reflux

of

protecting installed

a in

pumping parallel

line with dis-

water (Fig. in

valve or

pump

non-return the pumps. be

v a l v e would

charge o n l y ing head

the same d i r e c t i o n as the pumping head

Under normal pumpthan the the reflux suction valve

conditions and the

would would

higher

pressure

difference

maintain

i n a closed position.

On stopping the pumps,

the head i n the d e l i v e r y The head may water would be drop drawn drop The

Pipe would tend to drop b y the amount to below the the suction bypass head, in The which

cvo/g. case

through to the

valve.

pressure friction

would
loss

therefore o n l y in the bypass.

suction

pressure

less

any

r e t u r n wave overpressure would be reduced a c c o r d i n g l y .
REFLJX VALUE

J
S U C T I O N PIPE

F i g . 4.11

Pump w i t h bypass r e f l u x valve.

This cases, tion er

method

of

water

hammer

protection

cannot

be

used

in

all

as

the d e l i v e r y

pressure w i l l

often never drop

below

the suc-

pressure. hammer The

I n other cases

there may s t i l l b e an a p p r e c i a b l e wati n v a l u e to use only
the

overpressure method

(equal has

initial the

drop

i n preshead is

sure).

really

when

pumping

77
considerably sure tion along less the than cv /g. pipeline should I n addition, length be the be initial drop i n presThe there sucmay

entire level

should

tolerable. high or

reservoir

also

relatively line.

s t i l l be column separation Normally reservoir. fairly long the intake

i n the d e l i v e r y pipes may draw be

directly cases

from the

a

constant intake

head is

However, and

there

where

pipe

water

hammer could be a problem i n in a similar way

it

too.

I n these

cases a bypass r e f l u x v a l v e would, ed above, prevent the suction

to that describpres-

pressure

exceeding

the d e l i v e r y

sure.

It
pump head, speeds,

should during

be the

noted period

that that

water the

may

also

be

drawn i s below
for

through

the

delivery was

head

the suction specific
the

especially as is the

if

the

machine

designed pumps.

high

case

with

through-flow be omitted,

In

some cases

bypass r e f l u x

v a l v e could even

a l t h o u g h there i s normal-

l y a f a i r l y h i g h head loss through a s t a t i o n a r y pump.

Surge Tanks
The pressure, tank occur, in case of acts water while as a surface the in a surge the tank tank for
is

exposed to

to

atmospheric The may

bottom of

i s open flow in

the p i p e l i n e . which or

balancing in case

tank of a

the

variations the pipe,

discharging

head tanks

drop are

filling at the can

of

a

head

rise.

Surge

used

principally

head be

turbine in

penstocks, pumping

although It

there
is

a r e cases where seldom that
the

they

applied

systems. line is

hydraulic tank

grade

l i n e of

a pumping

low enough

to enable an open a surge tank at the

to be used. in and surge end of

I t may

be possible to construct and water protect hammer the by

a peak pumps If the

the
the

pipeline tank
is

profile against

pipeline some

between

other as

means.

tank the

relatively

large,

i t could length,

be treated and in this

the discharge could be

intermediate

pipeline

section

treated

as an

independent p i p e l i n e shorter

length than the o r i g i n -

a l pipeline. The f l u c t u a t i o n s of the water surface level ing ween power the failure pumps may and be surge studied tank i n a surge tank followThe transients water bet-

analytically. are

high-frequency

hammer

78
phenomena ably. The which will not affect the water level in the tank of the noticewater

analysis

concerns

the

slow

motion

surges

column between the surge tank and d e l i v e r y end of R i g i d water column water hammer waves theory will

the line. since e l a s t i c The rate of

may b e used in the s t u d y , not pass the open tank.

deceleration of the water column i s d v / d t
where

= -gh/P

(4.14)
the level of the

h

is

the and The

height

of

the

delivery

head

above

surge very

tank end.

P

i s the p i p e l i n e length between h gradually increases as

the tank level in

and delithe tank

head

the

drops (see F i g . 4 . 9 ) . Another equation r e l a t i n g h a n d v c o n t i n u i t y of flow a t the tank o u t l e t : may be d e r i v e d b y considering

A v = Atdh/t
P where

(4.15)
are the cross sectional the flow from areas of the p i p e a n d tank i s assumed to be

Ap

and At

respectively. zero. Solving

Note that

the pump side

Equs.

4.14

and 4.15

a n d u s i n g the fact

that at t = 0,

h =

0 and v = v

to e v a l u a t e the constants o f

integration,

one o b t a i n s an

express ion f o r h :

(4.16)
From surge surge in is t h i s equation the
(II

it v
-

i s apparent ,
r

that the

the amplitude of the downtime

tank

is
P

m
-

and

till
to

the f i r s t

down-

/ 2 ) J AtP/A

g:

Time zero

i s assumed

be that

i n s t a n t at

which the water hammer wave reaches the surge t a n k . If pump the there i s a g r a d u a l deceleration of the water column between the then the above expressions w i l l and the rigid column for not hold, and for
time

a n d surge t a n k , correct continuity will have

equation to be

equation

deceleration i n t e r v a I s. The orifice, extreme

solved

numerically

successive

fluctuations

in

tank

level

may

be

damped
in

with

a

throttling

I n t h i s case the pressure v a r i a t i o n s than
for

the l i n e may be more

the

unrestricted orifice.

Parmakian

( 1 9 6 3 ) presents

c h a r t s i n d i c a t i n g the maximum upsurge f o r v a r i o u s t h r o t t l i n g losses. A have number of been sophisticated (Rich, variations in the design of surge tanks surge tank for

proposed

1963).

The

differential

79
instance The tank includes may are a small-diameter varying riser in the m i d d l e of the tank. Such

have a more

cross section o r to hydro power

m u l t i p l e shafts. plant than

variations systems,

applicable

pumping

as they

a r e useful f o r

damping t h e surges i n cases o f r a p i d

load v a r i a t i o n on turbines. Discharge Tanks I n s i t u a t i o n s where the h y d r a u l i c g r a d e one which under tank would the p i p e l i n e p r o f i l e i s considerably lower than tank, from
but

l i n e i t may s t i l l be possible to use a operating surface conditions is isolated

normal water

the

pipeline.

The

would

be subjected to atmostpheric line, as opposed to

pressure b u t

be below

the h y d r a u l i c g r a d e

that of a surge tank.

Fig. 4.12

Discharge tank

A
along
rises.

discharge

tank

would

normally

be

situated

on

the

first

rise

the p i p e l i n e a n d possibly on subsequent The tank the
will
b e more e f f i c i e n t

a n d successively h i g h e r

i n r e d u c i n g pressure v a r i a t i o n s

the

nearer be

level

in to

the the

tank

is

to via

the h y d r a u l i c g r a d e a if reflux valve

line.

It

should

connected from

pipeline

i n s t a l l e d to

discharge below valve the

the tank surface held

i n t o the p i p e l i n e elevation by the in the

the p i p e l i n e head drops Normally the to the reflux line. valve
it

water be

tank.
in

would

shut

pressure

pumping a float

A in

small-bore the tank,

bypass to should Fig. be

the r e f l u x v a l v e , installed depicts a
to

connected the tank

fill

slowly tank

after

has

discharged.

4.12

typical

discharge

arrangement.

80
The use of discharge tanks was reported in detail by Stephenson

(1972).
The f u n c t i o n of caused The by pump column a a discharge stoppage, between tank i s to f i l l any low pressure zone separation. end of the the be

thus p r e v e n t i n g water column the tank) tank will and the discharge

water

pipeline action of

(or

subsequent head

g r a d u a l l y decelerate the two ends.
It

under may

the
to

difference

between

necessary

prevent

reverse motion of
-

the water

column which could instal-

cause water

hammer overpressures

t h i s could be achieved by

l i n g a r e f l u x v a l v e i n the line.

A
the drop first tanks tank

discharge lowest level

tank to

will which

only the

operate head Thus be in

if

the

water

surface would

i s above otherwise

the

pipeline

following tank

pump stopping. a line

the normal o p e r a t i n g head on the less than c v /g,
0

along

should

and

subsequent

should

be successively

higher. cv /g,

I n cases

where

the head on the theory may

i s considerably

less than

r i g i d water

column

be used to c a l c u l a t e the discharge from the t a n k : Integrating expression f o r Multiplying yields the Equ.

4.1

twice

with

respect column

to

time,

one

obtains

an

the distance the water distance by

travels

before stopping. the pipeline is

this

the cross sectional by the the tank;

area of
0

the volume discharged sectional tank one, area of

Q = APv 2/2gh,

where A

cross

pipe,

P

is

the

distance between the or the next tank measured below if the

discharge there
is

a n d the open end of and h is the

the p i p e l i n e , the tank

head on

h y d r a u l i c g r a d e l i n e ( o r level of the next t a n k ) . Fig. a

4.13
of

depicts the of

the volume

discharged from a the

tank expressed as

fraction

discharge the g r a p h

indicated by

r i g i d column equation. a computer analysis

The coordinates using elastic the head,

were obtained from

water hammer theory. at the tank is less

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that when
than by approximately

h,
is

0.5

cvo/g, and heads

the

discharge hammer column

accurately

predicted low. less

r i g i d column successively and that

theory, higher the

water rigid

overpressures theory

are

For

becomes increase. exceeds

applicable

water

hammer from

overpressures
a

I t appears, that

however, by

the discharge column

tank

never

indicated

rigid

water

theory,

p r o v i d e d the conditions discussed below a r e compl ied w i t h .

81
Fig. tank

4.13

i s only to

a p p l i c a b l e f o r a s i n g l e tank along the line.

The

i s assumed

be a t

the pump end of the p i p e l i n e , o r else there immediately valve, upstream (on the pump would

should be an side) of the

in-line tank.

reflux valve

Without

this reflux

a p o s i t i v e wave

r e t u r n from

the tank

towards

the pumps.

I n a d d i t i o n to water hammer the discharge from the

overpressures which would r e s u l t a t the pumps, tank

would exceed that f o r the assumed case where i t o n l y discharged The maximum overpressures indicated by the c h a r t occur

downstream. along h' is

the p i p e l i n e on measured of above

the d i s c h a r g e side of the tank. the the discharge head, and is

The overpessure expressed as a

fraction

cv / g .

If

upstream r e f l u x

valve

i s omitted F i g .

4.14

should be used. For peaks, line. very more The long than pipelines one with a number may
the

of be

successively installed

higher the

discharge

tank

along

tanks is

should be likeliest. as

i n s t a l l e d at lowest

peaks where which

water column occur line at any

separation

The

head

will

p o i n t beyond a tank

the downsurge t r a v e l s along

the

i s that

of the water surface elevation of the preceding t a n k . Fig. along first valve second of it. Fig. between and for the a tank

4.15

indicates The at

the chart the

discharge

from

two

tanks

installed the

pipeline. is

is

also o n l y

appiicable line, of or

provided else

located be

pump end of immediately a reflux

the

a reflux The

should tank

installed also

upstream valve

the

tank.

should

have

immediately

upstream

4.15
the

is

really is of

only

applicable to the

for

cases where

the distance tank

tanks end length

equal

distance between however,

the second

open

the
ratios

pipeline; and Fig.

the c h a r t s be

hardly vary

different

4.15

could

used a s a g u i d e

f o r other cases. in and Fig.

4.15
tank, and

h,

is

the

difference the

in

elevation

between

the

first the The

second tank

and the

h2 i s

difference

i n elevation

between

second

head at

the discharge end of that between the

the p i p e l i n e . two tanks

corresponding is that

pipe the

length

t 1 is
tank

and J?

2

between

second

a n d the discharge tank tank is is

end of

the pipelines lines. the

line. and The

The the

discharge discharge h

from the f i r s t from the are second

indicated by indicated

broken full

by

relevant

and

e

substituted i n

the v a l u e

i n d i c a t e d on

82

tc

08

06

O L

9 h' c vo
0 2

0
10

08

Q ?gh __
A

LV,'
06

OL

0.2

0

0

Fig.

4.13

D i s c h a r g e f r o m t a n k a n d m a x i m u m head r i s e w i t h i n - l i n e r e f l u x v a l v e u p s t r e a m of t a n k .

83

F i g . 4.14

Discharge from tank a n d maximum head r i s e (no in-line r e f l u x v a l v e ) .

F i g . 4.15

Discharge from two t a n k s a n d maximum head r i s e ( e l = @ a n d r e f l u x v a l v e upstream of each tank).

2

85
v e r t i c a l scale to o b t a i n the respective discharge Q from each t a n k . The maximum overpressures i n d i c a t e d b y F i g . 4.15 i n the downstream side of the second tank. limit the lateral extent of I t is, i n v a r i a b l y occur

however, possible to location of a end of the

the overpressure b y j u d i c i o u s the last tank and the

further the

reflux

valve In

between

delivery

pipeline. hammer the tank

t h i s case the r e f l u x v a l v e on could then possibly exceed should be dispensed

the pump s i d e of with. the

water from water

tank may

The discharge chart, on the and a theory

that
be

indicated b y out

hammer

analysis

carried

based

out1 ined e a r l i e r i n the chapter. The best p o s i t i o n f o r selected by trial and discharge error and tanks and i n - l i n e For ref l ux valves i s simple cases the

experience.

c h a r t s presented may suffice, or major pipelines with

b u t f o r complex friction

cases w i t h many peaks a complete analysis In parti-

large

heads,

should cular,

be c a r r i e d out, a final check

either

graphically o r

b y computer.

should be done f o r flows

less than the maximum

design c a p a c i t y o f the p i p e l i n e . Even though a number of tanks may be i n s t a l l e d along a p i p e l i n e , vaporization tanks. steeply water on is always there tanks, possible no along rising and sections the between the

Provided between

are

local

peaks,

l i ne rises f a i r l y not lead
to

this

I imited v a p o r i z a t i o n
However, are air

should

hammer overpressures. rising sections.

vessels should be i n s t a l led where vaporization and

all

Cases

known

vapour

bubbles t r a v e l l i n g along g e n t l y

r i s i n g mains have r e s u l t e d i n

severe c a v i t a t i o n of a l i n e a l o n g the top of the pipe.

A i r Vessels If tank force the
or

p r o f i l e of discharge into air in

a tank

pipeline
to

is

not the

high line,

enough
it

to

use

a

surge
to

protect

may

be

possible

water

the in a

p i p e b e h i n d the vessel The (a

low-pressure air

wave b y means of arrangement will is

compressed illustrated

typical

vessel

Fig.

4.16).

pressure

i n the vessel

gradually

decrease as water that in the

i s released u n t i l line. At

the pressure i n the vessel equals stage the decelerating the outlet be of water the a i r

adjacent tend be
to

this

column vessel

will

reverse.

However, the

whereas inlet

should

unrestricted,

should

throttled.

A

86
suitable reflux arrangement valve, which is to have the water the discharge out through a

shuts

when

water

column

reverses.

A

smaf I - o r i f i c e

bypass would a l l o w the vessel

to r e f i l I slowly.

Fig.

4.16

A i r vessel

Parrnakian be

( 1 9 6 3 ) suggests that
the outlet head

the a i r

vessel

inlet

head

loss should
i s em-

2.5

times

loss.

However,

t hi s relationship

pirical effect vessel ratio

a n d recent of the inlet

research w i t h the a i d of computers has enabled the head

loss

to

be by to

i n v e s t i g a t e d thoroughly. parrnakian forward

The a i r the to

design of

charts flow has

reproduced head
loss

were compiled f o r head loss an equal

reverse author

flow

2.5.

The

compiled

design

charts

covering

extended

r a n g e of to 4.19).

p i p e l i n e s a n d v a r i o u s degrees of

i n l e t t h r o t t l i n g ( F i g s . 4.17

The c h a r t s a r e s u i t a b l e f o r checking water column separation a n d f o r r e a d i n g off the r e q u i r e d a i r corresponding to any specified

a l o n g the e n t i r e p i p e l i n e length, volume and degree of inlet

throttling

l i m i t to the overpressures. The c a l c u l a t i o n s for er; lies it was assumed that adiabatic

Outflow t h r o t t l i n g i s neglected.

p l o t t i n g the c h a r t s were performed b y computthe expansion law f o r and the a i r the i n the vessel

between

(HS

1.4

-

constant)

isothermal

(HS

=

Fig.

4.17

Maximum a n d minimum pressure envelopes w i t h a i r vessel. 2 = 0.5.

F i g . 4.18

M a x i m u m and m i n i m u m p r e s s u r e e n v e l o p e s w i t h a i r vessel. P = 1.

88
constant). further pumps, flow The relationship adopted

was

HS1'3

=

constant.

It

was

assumed t h a t t h e a i r vessel t h a t the pumps would stop

was i m m e d i a t e l y

d o w n s t r e a m of t h e

instantaneously and that no reverse

t h r o u g h the pumps was permitted. dimensionless parameters associated with the charts are

The
fol l o w s :

as

Pipeline parameter A i r vessel parameter Throttling parameter where S i s the initial air volume

P = c v /gH
0

0

B = v 0'AL/gHoS
C = Z/Ho in the vessel, and 2 i s the head
0-

loss t h r o u g h

t h e a i r vessel

i n l e t c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a l i n e v e l o c i t y -v assumed
to

The

outlet

head

loss

was

be

negligible.

Note t h a t

Ho i s

the absolute head ( i n c l u d i n g atmospheric head)

i n t h i s case.

0.2 I

Fig.

4.19

Maximum a n d minimum pressure envelopes P = 2.

with

a i r vessel.

The c h a r t s a r e u s e d a s f o l l o w s to d e s i g n a n a i r v e s s e l : line parameter,
P,

The p i p e -

i s c a l c u l a t e d from the maximum l i k e l y

line velocity

89
and pumping to 4.19. head, and the corresponding chart selected from Figs.

4.17

T h e p i p e l i n e p r o f i l e i p l o t t e d on the a p p l i c a b l e set of s
curves a n d a minimum-head fall The below value the The the of pipeline envelope selected at
to

minimum-head it does not

such that to cause line is

profile

any the

point selected

vaporization. used
the

B

corresponding

to

read off

maximum-head overpressures

envelope a l o n g the p i p e l i n e from actually depend on design the degree of i s to equal

same c h a r t . throttling

inlet

represented b y

C.

The normal

procedure

minimize the overpressures, to a

achieved b y s e t t i n g C approximately
of
m,

10 ( o r more).
pumping head

( F o r a p i p e l i n e velocity of to the be order l/lOth of of

approximately the

2 m/s a n d
inlet I f the will be

200
the

corresponding

diameter

works

out

main be

pipe diameter). tolerated, it

overpressures necessary
to

indicated select a

thus

still value

cannot of

smaller

B (corresponding to a

larger

volume of a i r ) The volume

than i n d i c a t e d b y the minimum pressure requirement. of air,

S,

i s c a l c u l a t e d once B

i s known.

The vessel

c a p a c i t y should line,

be s u f f i c i e n t

to ensure no a i r escapes volume. This

i n t o the pipei s the volume

a n d should exceed the maximum a i r

d u r i n g minimum pressure conditions a n d i s S ( H /Hmin) The outlet diameter is usually designed to

1/1.3
the

be about one-half

main p i p e diameter. suppress dissolve vortices
in

The outlet should be designed w i t h a bellmouth to air entrainment. The air in the vessel will

and

the water

to some extent

and w i l l

h a v e to replenished b y

means of a compressor.

In-L ine R e f Iux V a Ives
Normally not al a reflux valve i n s t a l l e d on i t s own in a pipeline w i l l the later-

reduce water extent of of the

hammer pressures, shock. In fact, in a if

although in some

i t may

limit

situations

indiscriminate to water

positioning

reflux For the

valves

l i n e could

be detrimental

hammer pressures.
led

instance

a pressure r e l i e f v a l v e was i n s t a l the may reflux also valve amplify would counteract from

upstream of effect of the

reflux

valve It

the

other

valve.

reflections

b r a n c h pipes o r collapse of vapour pockets. In-line surge down, side of reflux valves would tanks n o r m a l l y be used or air vessels. i n conjunction pump
with

tanks, the

discharge or

Following into the

shut-

tank

vessel valve.

would This

discharge would

water

the p i p e e i t h e r violent pressure

the

reflux

alleviate

90
drop valve a n d convert the phenomenon i n t o a slow motion effect. would then arrest the water column at the time of

The reflux
reversal,

which coincides w i t h the p o i n t of m i n i m u m k i n e t i c energy and maximum potential energy of in the water column. There would therefore be little

momentum change

the water column when the r e f l u x v a l v e shut and

consequently n e g l i g i b l e water hammer pressure r i s e . There a r e s i t u a t i o n s where water column separation and the format i o n of be in vapour pockets provided i n the p i p e l i n e f o l l o w i n g the vapour pockets d i d pump stoppage would not collapse resulting

tolerable, water

hammer pressures.

Reversal of

the water

column beyond the reflux valve column

vapour at the

pocket could

i n fact be prevented w i t h an i n - l i n e of the vapour pocket.

downstream extremity be arrested at

the water
so

would

i t s p o i n t of

minimum momentum,

there would

be l i t t l e head rise. Vaporization water If the hammer first the would occur at peaks

in

the

pipeline

where

the

pressure dropped to rise along the wouJd

the vapour was

pressure of higher to the than first

the water. subsequent peak. The

pipeline be

peaks, extent theory.

vaporization vapour

confined be

of

the

pocket

could

estimated

using

rigid

column

The decelerating the last peak

head on and

the water column between two peaks would be the d i f f e r Integrating an

o r between
ence the

the discharge end

in e l e v a t i o n p l u s the intermediate f r i c t i o n head loss.
rigid water column equation with respect pocket, to t,

one o b t a i n s

expression f o r

the volume of

a vapour

k?AvoZ/2gh, where h i s

the decelerating head, cross sect iona I In lateral at a locating area. the

C i s the water column l e n g t h a n d A i s the p i p e
valve, allowance should be made f o r some

reflux

dispersion

of the vapour pocket. i n the p i p e l i n e functioning

The v a l v e should be i n s t a l l e d to trap the vapour pocket the water

suitable dip to ensure

i n order

and

proper

of

the v a l v e doors when

column r e t u r n s .

A small-diameter
permit slow

bypass

to

the r e f l u x v a l v e should be i n s t a l l e d to pocket,
or

r e f i l l i n g of

the vapour

else overpressures may should be air release

occur on of the

restarting of

the pumps. of

The diameter of the bypass the pipeline diameter. An

order

one-tenth

91
valve should be i n s t a l l e d in the p i p e l i n e a t the peak to release a i r

which would come out of solution d u r i n g the p e r i o d of
It

low pressure.

i s a common p r a c t i c e to i n s t a l l r e f l u x v a l v e s immediately downof the pumps. in and Such the reflux valves They would not prevent water

stream hammer through pumps. In

pressures the pump

pipeline.

merely

prevent

r e t u r n flow r e a c h i n g the

prevent

water

hammer

pressures

some pump

installations,

automatically

closing

control

valves,

instead of r e f l u x valves, Kinno delivery
to

a r e i n s t a l l e d on the pump d e l i v e r y side. the a effect of c o n t r o l l e d closure return water flow through of a pump pump can

(1968)
valve.

studied Assuming he

limited how

the

be

tolerable,

describes

hammer

overpressures

be s l i g h t l y reduced b y c o n t r o l l i n g the r a t e of closure of the v a l v e .

Release Valves There are a number of sophisticated water hammer release v a l v e s

(often r e f e r r e d to as surge r e l i e f a b l e commercial l y . matically The pipe in open are These valves gradually the

v a l v e s o r surge suppressors) a v a i l -

have h y d r a u l i c actuators which autoclose needle the valve after pump tripping. into a

then

valves leading

normally

type, or

which

discharge valves,

to the suction r e s e r v o i r , reservoir. complete The range

else sleeve

mounted throttling valves

the

suction over the

v a l v e s must of closure.

have a gradual Needle a n d

effect are with

sleeve

suitably the

designed to minimize c a v i t a t i o n discharge velocities which

a n d corrosion associated d u r i n g the t h r o t t l i n g

high

occur

process. The v a l v e s a r e u s u a l l y reflux should valves not and i n s t a l l e d on directly suction
to

the d e l i v e r y side of the pump the suction as they reservoir. They

discharge into the

discharge

pipe

i n v a r i a b l y draw

a i r through the throat,

and t h i s could reach the pumps. by an e l e c t r i c a l fault or b y a pres-

The v a l v e s may be actuated sure sensor The returns on (as Fig. 4.20). should pumps open as
a

valve to the

fully

before

the

negative wave.

pressure

wave

p o s i t i v e pressure

As

the pressure

the top of

the piston pressure

increases a g a i n within

the v a l v e g r a d u a l l y closes, limits. The closing rate

maintaining

the

desired

may be a d j u s t e d b y a p i l o t v a l v e i n t h e h y d r a u l i c c i r c u i t .

92

Reflux Pump valve

Acc u mu lot or

Suction
Fig.

reservoir
4.20
Water hammer release h y d r a u l i c actuator valve arrangement with simp1 i f i e d

The returns on

valve to the

should pumps

open as a

fully

before

the

negative wave.

pressure

wave

positive

pressure

As

the pressure

the top of t h e p i s t o n the pressure

increases a g a i n within desired

the v a l v e

g r a d u a l l y closes, The closing rate

maintaining

I i m i ts.

may be a d j u s t e d by a p i l o t v a l v e i n the h y d r a u l i c c i r c u i t . If no overpressure higher than the operating the f u l l is head at is a tolerable, head equal and if

the v a l v e to the

would be sized head. likely

to discharge Where to be

flow of

operating hammer pumps,
is

reliability a problem

importance, partial installed lower

water of the

during may be

shutdown i n paradelivery

t w o or

more release valves set
to

llel. heads. In

They

could

be

operate

at

successively

the

event

of

normal

pump

shutdown a g a i n s t

throttled

delivery

valves, at ion.

the release v a l v e s could be disengaged to prevent

t h e i r oper-

The types of ing use This lines is

control

v a l v e s a v a i l a b l e as release valves f o r pumpin less than over is about f i v e seconds. Their kilometers most
in

n o r m a l l y cannot open limited water to

therefore of

pipelines

two

length.

method

hammer

protection

normally

economical

93
for cases when the pumping head greatly exceeds cv /g, since the

l a r g e r the pumping head, Since hammer there analysis is no

the smaller the v a l v e needed. protection be against
to

underpressures, check that water

a

water column

should

performed

separation i s not a problem.

A
above,

less

sophisticated has been

valve used

than on

the

control pump

valves

described is the

which

small

installations,

spring-loaded sure reaches

release v a l v e . a prefixed

The v a l v e

i s set

to open when

the pres-

maximum.

Some overpressure

i s necessary to

open the v a l v e a n d to force water out.

Choice of Protective Device The will best method on the of water hammer and protection physical for a pumping of line the

depend The

hydraulic table

characteristics the ranges over

system.

accompanying

summarizes

which

v a r i o u s devices a r e s u i t a b l e . ting When valve values tank the method of protection

The most i n f l u e n t i a l parameter i n seleci s the p i p e l i n e parameter P = cvo/gHo. the pumping head Ho, a reflux smaller

the head cvo/g bypassing
of

i s g r e a t e r than pumps may

the

suffice.
to

For

successively
a

P

it

becomes necessary

use

a surge t a n k ,

discharge

i n combination w i t h an i n - l i n e r e f l u x v a l v e , The protective order of

a n a i r vessel, o r a

release v a l v e . in approximate

devices l i s t e d i n the t a b l e a r e a r r a n g e d cost, thus, until
to

increasing down

select

the

most are

suitable

device,

one checks

the

table

the

variables

w i t h i n the r e q u i r e d range.
It

may line.

be

possible

to

use

two

o r more p r o t e c t i v e devices on not

the

same omical In

This

p o s s i b i l i t y should

be ignored as the most econ-

arrangement often the

i n v o l v e s more than one method of protection. i n e r t i a of the of pump a often has a slight
A

particular in

rotational the

effect

reducing

required

capacity

tank

or a i r vessel.

comprehensive water

hammer

analysis

would be necessary

i f a series

of protection devices i n combination i s envisaged.

94
TABLE 4.1 Summary of methods of water hammer protection

Method of Protection ( i n approximate order of increasi n g cost)

Required r a n g e of v a r i a b I es

Remarks

I n e r t i a of pump

MN*
wALHo2 > 0 * 0 1

Approxi mate on I y

Pump bypass reflux valve

Some water may a l s o be d r a w n through pump cv Normally used i n conj u n c t i o n w i t h some other method of protection. Water column separation possible P i p e l i n e should be n e a r h y d r a u l ic g r a d e l i n e so height of tank i s Dractical P i p e l i n e p r o f i l e should be convex downwards. Water column separation l i k e l y .

In-line reflux va I ve

__
gh

0

> 1

Surge tank

h small

Automatic release valve

D i scharge tanks

cv

0

>

'

gh

h = pressure head a t t a n k , p i p e l i n e prof i l e should be convex upwards P i p e i ine p r o f i l e p r e f e r a b l y convex downwards

A i r vessel

o __ <
gHO

cv

l

95
REFERENCES Kinno, H. and Kennedy, J.F., 1965. Water hammer charts for c e n t r i f u g a l p u m p systems, P r o c . Am. SOC. C i v i l E n g s . , 91 (HY3) 247-270. Kinno, H. ,1968 W a t e r h a m m e r c o n t r o l i n c e n t r i f u g a l p u m p s y s t e m s , P r o c . Am. SOC. C i v i l E n g s . , 94 (HY3) pp 619-639. L u d w i g , M. and Johnson, S.P., 1950 Prediction of surge pressures i n l o n g o i l t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , P r o c . Am. P e t r o l e u m I n s t . , N.Y. 30

.

(5).

L u p t o n , H.R., 1953 G r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f p r e s s u r e surges in pumpi n g s y s t e m s , J . ~ n s t . W a t e r E n g s . , 7. P a r m a k i a n , J . , 1963. W a t e r Hammer A n a l y s i s , D o v e r P u b l i c . I n c . , N.Y. R i c h , G.R., 1963. H y d r a u l i c t r a n s i e n t s , D o v e r p u b l i c s . I n c . , N.Y. and L a i , C., 1963. W a t e r h a m m e r a n a l y s i s i n c l u d i n g Streeter, V.L. f l u i d f r i c t i o n . P r o c . Am. SOC. C i v i l E n g s . , 88 (HY3) pp 79-112. Streeter, V.L. and Wyl ie, E.B., 1967. H y d r a u l i c T r a n s i e n t s , McGrawHill. D., 1966. W a t e r h a m m e r c h a r t s i n c l u d i n g f l u i d f r i c t i o n , Stephenson, P r o c . Am. SOC. C i v i l e n g s . , 92 (HY5) pp 71-94. Stephenson, D., 1972. D i s c h a r g e t a n k s f o r s u p p r e s s i n g w a t e r h a m m e r i n p u m p i n g l i n e s . P r o c . I n t n l . Conf. o n p r e s s u r e surges,B.H.R.A., C r a n f ie l d. Stephenson, D., 1972. Water hammer p r o t e c t i o n o f p u m p i n g l i n e s , t r a n s . S.A. I n s t n . C i v i l E n g s . , 14 ( 1 2 ) .

.

L I S T O F SYMBOLS

A B

-

p i p e cross sectional area
a i r vessel

p a r a m e t e r v 'AL/(gHoS)
0

c
d E F

-

t h r o t t l i n g p a r a m e t e r Z/H p i p e l i n e diameter

modulus of e l a s t i c i t y of p i p e w a l l m a t e r i a l pump rated efficiency Darcy friction factor g r a v i t a t i o n a l acceleration p r e s s u r e h e a d a t an i n t e r m e d i a t e s e c t i o n o f t h e p i p e l i n e water hammer h e a d r i s e measured above the d e l i v e r y h e a d f r i c t i o n h e a d loss h e a d loss t h r o u g h d o w n s t r e a m v a l v e f u l l y o p e n head (in
in

( e x p r e s s e d as a f r a c t i o n )

f
9

-

h

-

h'
hf H

-

he -

p i p e l i n e measured
air

above

pump suction reservoir H as absolute, i.e.

level plus

c a s e of

vessel

design,

take

atmospheric head) Ho I J p u m p i n g head above suction r e s e r v o i r level p u m p i n e r t i a p a r a m e t e r MN'/WALH
0

0

'

p u m p p a r a m e t e r F M N Z c / l 80wALv gH

0

K

-

b u l k modulus of water length of an intermediate p a r t of p i p e l i n e pipeline length moment of inertia of rotating p a r t s of pump, motor and en-

e
L

-

M
N
P

-

t r a i n e d water

( = mass x r a d i u s of g y r a t i o n ' )

pump speed i n rpm p i p e l i n e parameter cv /gh
0 0

Q

-

volume of water discharged from discharge tank volume of a i r i n i t i a l l y time l i n e a r v a l v e closure time water v e l o c i t y i n p i p e l i n e i n i t i a l water velocity in pipeline i n a i r vessel

s
t

-

T
v v
w

-

weight of water per u n i t volume distance a l o n g p i p e l i n e from pump wal I thickness o f p i p e head loss through a i r vessel Darcy f r i c t i o n factor i n l e t f o r p i p e l i n e velocity
=

x
Y

-

z -

97

CHAPTER 5

A I R IN PIPELINES

INTRODUCTION

It The flow or

is

recognised

that

air

is

present

in or

many

water in

pipelines. turbulent solution

a i r may be absorbed at at the entrance to the

free surfaces, line. The air An

entrained thus be

may air

in

i n free form large section. will

i n bubbles or
of

pockets. to

pocket

implies a r e l a the pipe

tively
cross

volume

air,

likely

accumulate on top of along the

The pockets may remain in

travel

l i n e to peaks.

There

they

either

equilibrium,

be e n t r a i n e d by

the f l o w i n g

water or be released through a i r valves.

Air
It air

i n solution when

i s not

likely

to present many engineering problems
to permit

i s only
to

the pressure reduces s u f f i c i e n t l y that problems may arise.

dissolved

form

bubbles The

The water and rise then

b u l k s a n d head
to

losses the to

increase. to
in

bubbles

coalesce

the

top

of

pipe those

form

large full

pockets. drain

Flow pipes,

conditions except

become s i m i l a r a pipeline
it

partly

that

in

i s l i k e l y that

the system,

i n c l u d i n g the free a i r ,

w i l l be pressurized.

Air
on also the top

valves are frequently of the
to

used to e l i m i n a t e the a i r of a slightly
of

which collects design filling are of

pipe. release

Air

valves

different during the

used

large air

quantities

air

l i n e a n d to draw

i n from

the atmosphere d u r i n g vacuum con-

d i t i o n s i n the line.

PROBLEMS O F A I R ENTRAINMENT

Air
fects.

drawn

in

through

a

pump
air

supply in

can

have can

a number of

ef-

Minute a i r

bubbles o r vacuous

solution which

promote c a v i t a t i o n rapidly col-

- the formation of
lapse and erode lers in particular

cavities

subsequently

the pump o r pipe. due in to in the

T h i s effect occurs i n pump impelperipheral cause speed which by lowers causing

high

pressures.

Air

drawn

gulps

can

vibration

flow to be unsteady.

98

Large quantities intermittent1

-

-__

-

a.

Low level sump

I-

i
Air e n t r a i n e d by a falling jet
o

I
'

* 1

+

To pump

Air enters intake b. Free fall into sump

__1-

____

---+
c . Vortex formation
FIG.

-=-+
Well define surface dimple
.
4

Surface dimple barely detectable

Air drawn intermittent ly from bottom of vortex into intake

Air core extends into intake (fully developed entraining vortex)

5.1

Inlet arrangements conducive

to a i r

entrainment.

99
Air
emerge i n a r i s i n g main, from solution if whether ambient i n s o l u t i o n o r i n b u b b l e form, pressure the top of or temperature may

i s reduced.

Air

in free form w i l l collect a t

the p i p e l i n e and then r u n

u p to h i g h e r points. vent air the pipes o r pocket

Here i t w i l l e i t h e r escape through a i r v a l v e s o r by the velocity will result of the water past the

be washed along The

in the pipe.

latter past

i n a head loss due to Even if air is in

acceleration

of

the water

the a i r

pocket.

b u b b l e form, pipeline w i l l may

dispersed increase.

i n the water,

the f r i c t i o n head loss a l o n g the

Other problems caused b y a i r present i n pipes corrosion, reduced pump e f f i c i e n c y , malfunction-

include surging,

i n g o f v a l v e s or v i b r a t i o n s .

Air
water, size

may in

be

present

in

the

form or

of in

pockets solution.

on

the

top

of

the

bubbles,

micro

bubbles

Bubbles

range

in

from is

1

to
so

5 mm. slow

Micro

bubbles may
mm

be smaller,

and t hei r r i s e
mm

velocity mm/s) rising

(e.g. in

1

bubble, for

90 rnm/s,
a

0.1

bubble,

4

that to

they

stay

suspension

considerable

time

before

the

surface.

I n fact

turbulence that

may create a n e q u i l i b r i u m sediment s t a y s i n suspen-

concentration

p r o f i l e i n the same way

sion i n f l o w i n g water.
w = dgZ/18 v

The r i s e velocity of small a i r bubbles i s (5.1

1

where the kinematic

viscosity

v of water a t 20 C i s 1.1

x 10-6m2/s, d

i s b u b b l e diameter a n d g i s g r a v i t a t i o n a l acceleration. For air bubbles to form readily a nucleus or uneven surface

should be present. be released on by from the

Then

when conditions a r e correct, The capacity of At water

air will rapidly
to

solution.

dissolve

air

depends

temperature

and pressure. standard

20 C water may absorb
pressure. This

2% a i r

volume

measured a t

atmospheric

f i g u r e v a r i e s from 3.2% at O°C

down to 1.2% a t

looo.

AIR

INTAKE A T PUMP SUMPS

The major source of a i r i n pumping lines i s from the i n l e t sump o r forebay. Here the water exposed to the a i r on its temperature, will absorb a i r a t a r a t e of saturation of

depending the water.

pressure a n d

degree

100

a.

Air

pocket w i t h s u b c r i t i c a l

flow past.

b.

Air

pocket w i t h super-critical

flow past.

c.

A i r pocket Air

in e q u i l i b r i u m position.
pockets in pipelines.

F i g . 5 .2

101
Air
flowing in
free

form The

may

also

be of

dragged a vortex

in or

to

the conduit

by

the the

water.

formation

drawdown

outside

suction p i p e entrance w i l l entrance likely to velocity be and in. the

entice a i r greater free

i n t o the conduit. the turbulence, may later

The h i g h e r the more air is or

the

drawn

This

air

dissolve

wholy

partially carried

when along

pressures increase beyond the pump. the conduit.
As

I n any case i t i s
it may be

pressures

again

reduce,

released from solution. The the configuration
to

of

the pump sump has an

important

b e a r i n g on

tendency

draw

in air.

Extensive studies b y Denny a n d Young i n d i c a t e d how to design sumps

(1957), Prosser
to

(1977) and others have intake.

minimize a i r

C i r c u l a t i o n i n the sump should be avoided b y and straight facing inflow. The inlet should be

concentric be1 lmouthed

approaches and

preferably

downwards

upstream.

Hoods ( s o l i d

or p e r f o r a t e d ) above the i n t a k e minimize a i r intake. The degree of submergence hydraulic should jumps be are as
to

great be

as

possible. Fig.

Air
5.1

entraining

drops . o r

avoided.

indicates some i n l e t arrangements to be avoided.

AIR ABSORPTION AT FREE SURFACES

The

rate

of

diffusion

of

gas

across

a

liquid

interface

can

be

expressed i n the form

-dM _
dt

-

AK

(Cs-

C)

(5.2) transfer per u n i t time t,

where M i s the mass r a t e of exposed,
Cs

A

i s the area

K

is a

l i q u i d f i l m constant, saturation.

C

i s the gas concentration a n d

is the concentration a t

K is a f u n c t i o n of temperature,

v i s c o s i t y a n d turbulence.

T h i s equation i s often w r i t t e n i n the form

(5.3)
where r i s the d e f i c i t r a t i o , Co i s the concentration a t time 0,
i s the volume of water per surface area A ( V / A = depth of water).

and V

102
HYDRAULIC REMOVAL OF A I R

Air

trapped the

in

a p i p e and allowed to pocket size. The water

accumulate, cross

will

gradually area will

increase

air

sectional

therefore d i m i n i s h a n d the velocity of the water w i l l some stage, the water. some o r a l l of Alternatively air and a

increase u n t i l at

the a i r w i l l be dragged along the l i n e b y hydraulic i t away jump may form
as

in

the

pipe in

entraining F i g . 5.2 The pipe

carrying

i n b u b b l e form,

depicted

relationship has

between been

a i r pocket volume, by a

washout

velocity workers,

and and

diameter

investigated

number of (1975).

these r e s u l t s a r e summarized by Wisner et a l

Kal inske a n d B l i s s (1943) produced the f o l l o w i n g equation f o r r a t e
of water flow Q at which removal commences:

5

Q2

gD

= 0.707

tan

e

(5.4)

where D

i s the p i p e diameter and g

i s g r a v i a ional acceleration and

e

i s the p i p e slope angle.

The term on the l e f t h a n d side of K a l i n s k e ' s the parameter and removed

equation energy

i similar s
diagrams that

to

in

the In

specific fact
it

momentum a n d points drops
to

(Figs. the air

5.3
is

5.4).
if

the

possibility critical. air. Wisner air

the

water

depth

below

Then a h y d r a u l i c jump forms downstream which could e n t r a i n

et

al

(1975) produced d a t a from which They

the r i s e velocity of
i s practically

pockets may be deduced. slope and air

i n d i c a t e r i s e velocity

independent of

is a

function

of Reynolds number

vD/v

and

r e l a t i v e volume of (see F i g .

pocket 4U/71D3 where U i s the a i r pocket volume

5.5)

Hydraulic
A

Jumps

hydraulic

jump

draws

in

air

in

the

form

of

bubbles.

These

bubbles e x h i b i t a s u r p r i s i n g l y low tendency free form f o r the water, a long time.

to coalesce a n d remain i n the bubbles by

A i r may be absorbed from

b u t t h i s takes a long time a n d many of the bubbles r i s e to

the surface before they a r e absorbed.

103

104

1

>

1o2

= VD/v

Fig.

5.5

E q u i l i b r i u m velocity of water f o r at l o 0 to 70° to the h o r i z o n t a l .

air

pockets

in

a

pipe

Kalinske rate of

and air

Robertson entrainment

(1943) at a

found from model experiments that hydraulic jump was given by

the the

equation
Qd/Q
= 0.0066(F1

- 1)le4
volumetric r a t e of upstream a jump air entrainment, number

(5.5)

where flow

Qd rate

is

the

Q i s the water
I

and

F1

is

the

Froude

vl//gyl.

That

r e l a t i o n s h i p was d e r i v e d f o r free surface downstream. greater air

i n a r e c t a n g u l a r channel w i t h a by the author pipes indicate
a

Experiments entrainment

considerably 5.6)

rate

i n closed

(see Fig.

Free F a l l s

A

jet

falling

free

into

a

pool

of

water has a s i m i l a r

air

intake

105
effect was to a hydraulic by Avery they jump. Oxygen i n t a k e at the base of initial up free f a l l s

studied

a n d Novak

(1978).
a

For an r a t e of

oxygen defik g 0 /kWh

ciency of for
m

50%,
head

found

a e r a t i o n at for

to 1.6 losses,

2

low head

losses, the

decreasing

higher was
or

head

e.g.

at

1 kW

loss

aeration the

efficiency expended this

only lost

1
in

k g 02/kWh. the jump

The

term

represents

energy in air,

or

fall. for

Assuming

21% oxygen

would

indicate

aeration

rates

a i r u p to 8 kg/kWh. Water flowing into inlets with a free

fall

e.g.

morning

glory

type s p i l l w a y s , able amount of

o r even siphon s p i l l w a y s w i l l a l s o e n t r a i n a consider-

air

(Ervine,

1976).

Gravity

pipelines

are

therefore

as much of a problem as pumping lines.

0
Fig.

2

4

6

F:

~

v

J3A/B

5.6

A i r removal a t h y d r a u l i c jumps

in c i r c u l a r conduits.

A I R VALVES

Air
valves. fices air

accumulating These up are to

in

a

pocket of

in

a

pipe

may

be released b y type

air

normally
mm

the

'small

orifice'

(typical orisufficient released

are is

3

i n diameter). a chamber

The v a l v e opens when to permit a ball to be

accumulated

in

from a seat around the o r i f i c e . On the other hand a i r discharge d u r i n g f i l l i n g operations (before

106

This sectio parallel t o hydraulir gradient constitutes1 peak Section Of pipeline running parallel t o hydraulic gradient and constitutes peak Section of pipeline forming peak with respect t o horizontal and 0150 t o hydraulic gradient and peok with respect t o hydraulic gradient only

No peok
Horizontal Section Of Pipeline having d w n w a r d grade and point of increaseof downward grade Datum

Section of pipeline having upward grade and point of decrease of upward grade

Scour

Horizontal Long descending section of pipeline

Datum

Long ascending section of pipeline

FIG.

5.7

P o s i t ~ o no f

a i r valves along pipelines

107
pressurization) may be through from is
low.

and

air

i n t a k e d u r i n g vacuum conditions a i r valves, the orifice the b a l l of when air

in

the p i p e i s rethe a

'large orifice' seat around

which

leased pipe

the Fig.

pressure valve

inside

10.6

illustrates a

double

with

both

small and a l a r g e o r i f i c e . The sures size a n d spacing of outside the pipe and a i r valves w i l l permissible depend on ambient presinside, the size

pressures

of p i p e a n d water flow rates. The equations for the air discharge r a t e and are as through an orifice 1951). involve If the

the c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y of

follows than

(Marks,

pressure beyond the o r i f i c e p 2 i s g r e a t e r absolute i.e. gauge p l u s atmosphere a n d p,

0 . 5 3 ~ ~a l l (

pressures

i s i n i t i a l p r e s s u r e ) , then

(5.6)
For p 2 ' 0 . 5 3 ~ ~ then pendent of p2. Then the flow becomes c r i t i c a l a n d flow r a t e i s inde-

(5.7)
where W a is i s the mass r a t e of flow of a i r , rn is the mass

C i s a discharge coefficient,
of air and

the o r i f i c e area,

density

k

is

the

a d i a b a t i c constant. Normally or out of whether it, p2 is the less air valve is for letting air into the pipe 1.405

than

0 . 5 3 ~ ~ Then .

substituting

k

=

for a i r a n d C = 0.5
Qa = 0.34 a

i n t o the last equation,

i t s i m p l i f i e s to

/ tne volumetric r a t e of flow of measured air at units are employed) h the initial

(5.8)
( i n c u b i c metres p e r pressure,

where second a

Qa

is SI

if

i s the area of

the o r i f i c e , is the

i s the i n i t i a l absolute head i n metres density to of air at initial pressure.

of

water a n d S a Since a i r density f u r t h e r to

relative

i s proportional

the absolute head,

t h i s simp i f i e s

Qa = lOOa where
Qa

( 5 9)
is the air volume flow r a t e at initial pressure

(+

O m

absolute) in m 3 / s a n d a i s in m'.

Thus

t o r e l e a s e 1% a i r f r o m a p i p e f l o w i n g a t a v e l o c i t y of 1 m/s, low head (10 m absolute being the minimum f o r no vacuum)

a n d under t h e n (5.8) 0.01 i.e. thus
x

r e d u c e s to
~

~ . _ _ _

1 m/s x A = 0 . 3 4 a J 9 . 8

x

10/1.15

x

lo-’
(5.10)

d = 0.006D

the o r i f i c e diameter should

be about

1% o f

the

p i p e diameter

to

r e l e a s e 1% a i r b y v o l u m e i n t h e p i p e . The (1950) cavity metres theory to of flow through for an the orifice flow was used air by Parmakian to f i l l a
in

derive

equations

through

valves

formed b y

p a r t i n g water columns.

If initial beyond

head (absolute) the orifice,
g

o f

water

is

hl,

h2

is
is a

the

head

i s

gravitational d is the

acceleration, diameter, water for

C

discharge coefficient f o r the valve,

orifice of the

D i s the p i p e diameter,
each a s i d e of the air

V

i s the r e l a t i v e

velocity

column

valve,

k

is

the then

a d i a b a t i c constant f o r h2 > 0 . 5 3
hl,

a i r and S

i s t h e r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y of a i r ,

(5.11)
a n d f o r H <C).53hl

2-

(5.12)
For

air

at

300

m

above

sea

level

and
3

air

temperatures

of

24OC

p l u s 20% h u m i d i t y equivalent a b o u t 0.5. t o hl
=

t h e n Sa 9.97

i s 1.15

x 10-

a n d atmospheric pressure i s For a i r valves
C

m of

water.

k

i s 1.405.

is

HEAD LOSSES I N P I P E L I N E S

Air

suspended

in b u b b l e form o r

in p o c k e t s i n f l o w i n g

water

will

increase

t h e s p e c i f i c volume.

T h e mean v e l o c i t y

i s consequently h i g h e r

109
to convey a c e r t a i n volume of water per u n i t time. The head loss w i l l

increase i n accordance w i t h an equation such equation

as the Darcy- Weisbach

(5.13) The velocity where v
W

v to use w i l l be v = ( 1 of

+

f)v

W

(5.14) i s the volumet-

i s the velocity

p u r e water f l o w i n g and f

r i c concentration o f free a i r i n the pipe. The head loss around a s t a t i o n a r y a
loss

a i r pocket air

i s due p r i m a r i l y to is such that a

of

velocity

head.

If

the

size of

pocket

h y d r a u l i c jump I f the velocity difference in

forms,

the head

loss may be e v a l u a t e d from F i g .

5.4.

i s subcritical velocity head

throughout, is lost.
It

i t may be assumed t h a t the could be established more

closely u s i n g momentum p r i n c i p l e s though.

WATER HAMMER

The water

presence of hammer

free

air

in Fox

pipelines (1977)

can

reduce the s e v e r i t y of that the celerity

considerably.

indicates

(speed) of an e l a s t i c wave w i t h free a i r i s

c =

/ *
p i s the mass density

(5.15) (5.16)

For l a r g e a i r contents t h i s reduces to c =where pipe
of water,

K i s i t s b u l k modulus, D i s the
p i s the

diameter,

b

i t s thickness,

E i t s modulus of e l a s t i c i t y ,

absolute pressure and f
c

i s the free gas f r a c t i o n b y volume. Thus

i s reduced r e m a r k a b l y f o r even r e l a t i v e l y low gas contents. air at a pressure head of 50 m of water

2% o f

reduces the c e l e r i t y

from about 1100 m/s f o r a t y p i c a l p i p e l i n e to 160 m/s. The Joukowsky water hammer head i s
A h = SAv

9

(5.17) is the Ah. change in velocity of flow. There i s thus a large

where

A v

reduction

in

I f the a i r collects a t the top of the p i p e there i s no

110
reason on to see why the same equation cannot a p p l y . Stephenson (1967)

the other

h a n d d e r i v e d a n equation f o r the c e l e r i t y of a bore i n a The c e l e r i t y d e r i v e d from momentum p r i n c i p l e s i s for

partly full

pipe.

smal I a i r proportions
c =
J gAh/f

(5.18) This indicates a celerity

where

Ah

i s the head r i s e b e h i n d the bore. a n d Ah = 50m. thought a is

of 158 m/s f o r f = 0.02 There valves in i s a school of pipelines The as

which f a v o u r s the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a i r of reducing to water the hammer impact of overap-

means

pressures.

intention

primarily
wi II ,

cushion

p r o a c h i n g columns. cessively reduction large in

Calculations of air idea in

however,

indicate that

an ex-

volume The

i s r e q u i r e d to produce any stems from the use of air

significant vessels air to in

head.

a l l e v i a t e water air

hammer

pipelines.

I t will

be r e a l i s e d that

vessels i s under h i g h pressure i n i t i a l l y a n d therefore occupies a smal I volume. Upon pressure reduction following a pump

relatively trip,

the a i r from an a i r vessel expands according to the equation (5.19) air. low The size of air v a l v e s to draw i n the be found on

puk = constant
where

U

i s the volume of volume of

necessary

air at

(vacuum) pressures w i l l

a n a l y s i s to be excessive f o r An unusual

l a r g e diameter pipelines. to a i r coming out of solution in

problem due possibly

a r i s i n g main was reported b y Glass (1980). Here a t h i n stream of a i r along after the a top of trip. the line a supposedly number of collapsed on years
the

a

pressure

rise

pump

After

p i p e b u r s t along a

l i n e a l o n g the s o f f i t .

REFERENCES

Avery, S.T. and Novak, P, 1978. Oxygen t r a n s f e r at h y d r a u l i c structures. Proc. ASCE, HY11, 14190, pp 1521-1540. 1957. The prevention o f vortices i n Denny, D.F. a n d Young, G.A.J., intakes. Proc., 7th Con. I n t . Ass. Hydr. Res., Lisbon E r v i n e , D.A., 1976. The entrainment of a i r i n water. Water Power and Dam Construction. pp 27-30. 1977. H y d r a u l i c A n a l y s i s o f Unsteady Flow i n Pipe NetFox, J . A . , works. Macmillan, London. Glass, W.L., 1980. C a v i t a t i o n of a pump p i p e l i n e . Proc. I n t . Conf. Pressure surges. BHRA, Canterbury.

111
K a l i n s k e , A.A. and B l i s s , P.H., 1943. Removal o f a i r f r o m p i p e l i n e s b y f l o w i n g w a t e r , C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g , ASCE, 13, 10. p 480. K a l i n s k e , A.A. and R o b e r t s o n , J.M., 1943. C l o s e d c o n d u i t f l o w , T r a n s . ASCE. 108, 2205, pp 1453-1516. M a r k s , L.S., 1951. M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r s H a n d b o o k , 5 t h Ed. McGraw H i l l , N.Y. 2235 pp. P a r m a k i a n , J., 1950. A i r i n l e t v a l v e s f o r s t e e l p i p e l i n e s . T r a n s . , ASCE, 1 1 5 , 2404., pp 438-444. P r o s s e r , M.J., 1977. T h e H y d r a u l i c D e s i g n of Pump Sumps and Int a k e s , BHRA, and C I R I A , L o n d o n . 48 pp. Stephenson, 1967. P r e v e n t i o n o f v a p o u r p o c k e t s c o l l a p s e i n a p u m p i n g l i n e . T r a n s . , S o u t h A f r i c a n I n s t . C i v i l E n g s . 9 , ( l o ) , pp 255-261. W i s n e r , P . , Mohsen, F.M. and Kouwen, N., 1975. Removal o f a i r f r o m w a t e r l i n e s b y h y d r a u l i c means. Proc., ASCE. 101, HY2, 11142, pp

243-257.
LIST
a -

OF SYMBOLS
orifice area area wal I thickness wave celerity

A

-

b
c

-

c
c

-

d i s c h a r g e coef f i c i e n t
gas concent r a t ion i n i t i a l concentration c o n c e n t r a t i o n at s a t u r a t i o n b u b b l e diameter p i p e internal diameter modulus of e l a s t i c i t y volumetric concentration of a i r Froude number g r a v i t a t i o n a l acceleration head a d i a b a t i c constant

co cs

d
D E
f

-

F
9

-

h
k
k

-

I i q u i d f i Im c o n s t a n t
bulk m o d u l u s

K m

-

mass d e n s i t y o f a i r m a s s r a t e o f t r a n s f e r o r s p e c i f i c momentum pressure water discharge r a t e volumetric r a t e of air entrainment
gas d e f i c i t

M
P Q
‘ d
r

-

-

ratio

112

s
t

-

r e l a t i v e density o r s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y time a i r pocket volume water v e l o c i t y volume of water p e r surface area r i s e velocity

u
v

-

v
w

-

o f bubbles

w
Y

-

mass r a t e of flow of a i r

depth of flow Darcy f r i c t i o n factor p i p e slope a n g l e k i n e m a t i c viscosity mass density of water

x
e
v
P

-

113

CHAPTER 6

EXTERNAL LOADS

Low large as tion

pressure

pipes,

especially mains

sewers,

gravity

mains

or

even loads

diameter as

pumping

should

be designed f o r e x t e r n a l soil load a c t i n g cause

well

internal vacuum

loads.

The v e r t i c a l inside the

in combina-

with

pressure

p i p e could

the

pipe

to

collapse unless the p i p e i s adequately supported o r stiffened.

S O I L LOADS

The

load

transmitted

to

a

pipe

from

the

external

surroundings

depends on a number of factors: Rigidity sidefill of pipe: The more r i g i d take. a pipe is relative to the trench thus

the more load i t w i l l l a r g e p a r t of

The s i d e f i l l

tends to settle,

causing a

the b a c k f i l l

to rest on the pipe.

T h i s occurs

w i t h f l e x i b l e p i p e too to some extent,

as a p i p e i s supported l a t e r a l l y

b y the f i l l a n d w i l l not y i e l d as much as a free s t a n d i n g pipe. Type lation of trench o r f i l l : for Fig. 6.1 i l l u s t r a t e s v a r i o u s possible i n s t a l load transmitted to the p i p e v a r i e s

conditions

pipes.

The

w i t h the w i d t h

a n d depth of

trench since f r i c t i o n on the sides of the load. Embankment f i l l s may on the relative also t r a n s m i t settlement of

trench affects the r e s u l t a n t different loads to a pipe,

depending

s i d e f i l l and topfi I I . Young sive and Trott and and (1984), a n d C l a r k e charts for (1968) have developed soil loads on extenin

equations trench

evaluating conditions.

pipes of

various

embankment

Although

many

their

assumptions a r e subject yet no other

to question,

the f a c t remains t h a t there i s as

theory w i t h which to c a l c u l a t e s o i l loads on pipes so the (ref. Spangler, 1956).

engineer must use t h i s theory w i t h d i s c r e t i o n

Trench Conditions

The s o i l

load transmitted

to a

r i g i d pipe

in a

trench depends on

t h e w i d t h a n d depth of

trench a n d the s o i l b a c k f i l l properties. trench (Fig. 6.la), fill at the sides of

For

a

normal

vertical-sided

114
the p i p e w i l l be neglected. the sides of trench fill settle more than On the other the pipe, a n d the s i d e f i l l support can the b a c k f i l l a g a i n s t The cohesion between The
of

h a n d the f r i c t i o n of the load. is the

the trench and the

takes some of of the

sides

trench to

neglected. coefficient

friction friction
the

developed

is

therefore

proportional

between the f i l l active

a n d the sides of pressure
to

the trench, vertical on any

a n d the r a t i o K of pressure horizontal in the
in

horizontal the

the

soil. the

Equating trench
to

vertical

u p w a r d forces

slice

the downward forces,

Marston e v a l u a t e d the total

load on a

p i p e at depth H ( 1 9 1 3 ) : Upward load per unit length
of

Pipe a t

depth h + ah below ground

s u r f ace :
W + d W = W

+

yBdh

-

2K t a d

Wdh/B

Solution g i v e s

W = CdyBZ
-2K(tane )H/B where t h e load coefficient C

d

=

2Ktan6 load.

K

=
-

r a t i o of

l a t e r a l s o i l pressure to v e r t i c a l

1 - s i n 9 f o r a c t i v e s o i l conditions 1 + sin 0
a n g l e of

a n d cohesionless soil

@

= =

i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n of b a c k f i l l

e
H B

a n g l e of f r i c t i o n between b a c k f i l l a n d sides of trench h e i g h t of f i l l above p i p e trench w i d t h u n i t w e i g h t of b a c k f i l l m a t e r i a l n o r m a l l y ranges from 0.11
Cd

=
=
=

Y

Ktane

for

soft c l a y s to 0.16

for sands and

coarse crushed stone. Ktan8. Note that

i s given

i n Fig. (H/B

6.2

for

v a r i o u s values for than approximately

f o r deep

trenches,

greater

l o ) , Cd

approaches a

l i m i t i n g v a l u e of 1/(2 K t a n e ) . T h i s implies that takes more of or
so
the

the s i d e f r i c t i o n trench. For

i n the trench shallow

load the deeper t h e (H/B < l ) ,
Cd
is

very

wide

trenches

approximately

equal to H/B,

W = yHB

(6.2)

i.e.

most of

the b a c k f i l l

load i s taken b y the pipe.

The trench equa-

115

ALTERNATIVE /-FORM

SIDE

o S R R O W TRENCH

b : WIDE TRENCH SHALLOW EMBANKMENT

c

W I D E TRENCH D E E P EMBANKMENT

_-

dSHALLOW EMBANKMELT PLSlTlVE PROJECTION

c :

DEEP

POSITIVE -__

EMBANKMENT PROJECTION

f : EMBANKMENT NEUTRAL PROJECTION

TA2r
- - - - - -- - - - --- -g SHALLOW E M B A N K M E N T
h:

NORMAL DENSITY FILL
---/

__-_.__

----

N E GAT1VE PROJECT1 ON

DEEP EMBANKMENT N E GAT IVE P R O JE CT ION

i

EMBANKMENT I N D U C E D _R- N C H T E

1 TUNNEL OR H E A D I N G OR THRUST BORE

Fig.

6.1

A l t e r n a t i v e backf i I I s

116
tion the indicates trench that the load on a r i g i d p i p e increases i n d e f i n i t e l y as This i s not the case and a t some trench (see

width

increases. no

width

the equation then load

longer a p p l i e s a n d embankment conditions (see F i g . both the 6.lb

next section) evaluate and the the

apply trying

and 6 . 1 ~ ) . I t i s necessary to criterion (using Fig.
to

trench Fig.

6.2)
that

embankment

criterion

(using

6 . 3 ) , and

select

load which i s least. In the case of a

'V'

trench,

the trench

width

to

use

i s that

at

the crown of

the pipe.

I n t h i s case @ instead of 0 plane is is

i n the formula f o r the sides pipe the is

Cd
of

i s used since the shear

i n the f i l l not against well compacted pipe and the on

the

trench.

If

the then

side-fill the load

relatively

flexible

on

the

depends

pipe

diameter a n d not to the same extent on the trench w i d t h :
W
=

C YBD (flexible pipe) d C d = H/B and i n t h i s case

(6.3)

Note that f o r small H,
W
=

YHD

Embankment Conditions

A p i p e bedded on a f i r m surface w i t h a wide embankment f i l l over
it

is

said

to

be

under

embankment original 6.le). is

conditions. ground It is

If

the it
to

crown is as a a

of

the

pipe

projects

above

the

level referred

positive complete above If

projection positive natural

(Figs. projection

6.ld) if

and the and

pipe the

rigid

and is

lies

completely

ground

level,

embankment

relatively

shallow.

the p i p e crown projection or

i s below

the n a t u r a l ground (Figs. 6.lg

level

one has a negative For very deep

trench

condition

and 6 . l h ) .

trenches u n d e r embankments t h e conditions may be the same as f o r the trench If the condition crown is ( r e f e r r e d to level with here as the complete trench c o n d i t i o n ) . ground level it i s a neutral

the n a t u r a l

projection For tends to the to

(Fig. 6.lf). complete positive projection case the f i l l beside the p i p e tends

s e t t l e more than downwards on the

directly fill

above the pipe. above

The s i d e f i l l

drag

directly

the p i p e and

increase

the load on the pipe.
W
=

The r e s u l t i n g load per u n i t l e n g t h of p i p e i s

CcyD2

117
where the load coefficient

e
cc =

2K tan@. / D H
2Ktan@

-1

LOAD COEFICIENT C ,

F i g . 6.2

Load coefficient C d f o r trench conditions.

The l i n e v a l u e of condition C

l a b e l l e d complete p r o j e c t i o n condition for Ktan@
= 0.19,

in F i g .

6.3

g i v e s the

which i s the minimum adverse f r i c t i o n only
a c e r t a i n h e i g h t of f i l l

.

For deep embankments,

above

the p i p e w i l l s e t t l e at a d i f f e r e n t r a t e to the s i d e f i l l . depends on the product He, settlement r a t i o s where

This height, ratio
u

of

the

pipe

projection

and

the

u

=

projection of p i p e crown above o r i g i n a l ground level diameter of p i p e

118
s
=

settlement of adjacent f i l l o r i g i n a l l y at crown levelsettlement of p i p e crown reduction i n thickness of adjacent f i l l below crown level of adjacent fill includes the settlement of the o r i g i n a l

The settlement ground

level a n d the compaction of includes settlement of

the s i d e f i l l .

The settlement of the
the

p i p e crown

the bottom of

p i p e and v e r t i c a l

deflection of the pipe. The v a l u e of tion value well soil to 1.0 s n o r m a l l y v a r i e s from 0.3 for rock or unyielding for soft y i e l d i n g foundafoundation.

soil

A

common

i s 0.7

b u t 0.5 The

i s recommended i f the foundation a n d s i d e f i l l a r e product for su is used i n F i g . 6.3 to e v a l u a t e the I t i s not

compacted.

resulting

load coefficient

v a r i o u s embankment conditions.

necessary to e v a l u a t e H The equation for
C

.
for deep embankments a n d incomplete p o s i t i v e

projection conditions ment (i.e. condition, minimum but

i s more compl icated than f o r the shal low embankit

was e v a l u a t e d by Spangler f o r friction) condition, and

Ktan4

=

0.19

adverse

these

values

are

g i v e n i n F i g . 6.3. Fig. the pipe 6.3 also gives more values the of

C

for

the

case

when

the

top

of
5).

settles

than for

adjacent
=

backfill (i.e. are

(i.e.

negative

Spangler friction) label led

evaluated for this

C
case, and

Ktanb the

0.13

minimum in

favourable Fig.
the

and

values trench

indicated

6.3,
mech-

complete

incomplete

conditions

since

anics a r e s i m i l a r to those f o r trench conditions. For Fig. the negative projection (or incomplete trench) condition (see

6.19
=

and 6 . l h )

w i t h the p i p e i n a trench under an embankment, (6.6) i n Fig. 6.3 f o r negative su b u t with
D

w

CnYB2
Cn

where

i s the same as C

replaced b y 6 i n a l l expressions. u =

I n t h i s case the projection r a t i o i s

depth of p i p e crown below n a t u r a l ground level w i d t h of trench ratio i s

a n d the settlement

s

=

settlement of n a t u r a l ground level-settlement of level of top f i l l i n trench reduction in thickness of s o i l in trench above crown

119
1

F i g . 6.3

Load coefficient C (Spangler, 1956).

f o r embankment conditions

The settlement of the level of the top of the f i l l i n c l u d e the settlement of the bottom of the pipe, a n d compaction
of

i n the trench may

deflection o f the p i p e

the f i l l

i n the trench above the crown of the pipe. to - 1.0 f o r u = 2.0.

s may r a n g e from - 0.1

f o r u = 0.5,

It

i s possible to reduce the load on pipes under a n embankment b y a certain it by amount lightly condition of compacted fill d i r e c t l y above the p i p e i.e. inducing a
s

removing and

replacing

compacted (Fig.

fill

directly, For this

negative

projection

6.li).

condition

may

r a n g e from -0.5 The load

f o r u = 0.5 per unit

to -2.0

f o r u = 2.0. a completely f l e x i b l e p i p e under is

l e n g t h on

an embankment whether
W
=

i n p o s i t i v e o r negative projection condition

YHD load on a r i g i d pipe i n a trench up to i t s crown level

(6.7)
(neutral

The

p r o j e c t i o n c o n d i t i o n ) i s a l s o yHD.

120
C l a r k e suggests that pipe the l o a d on trench, a tunnel a

or

thrust bore i s simifactor allowing

lar
for this

to

that

on a

in a

w th

reduction

t h e cohesion of t h e m a t e r i a l above. conclusion are not convincing

The a s s u m p t i o n s i n a r r i v i n g a t

and

further

theory

would

be

we1 come. Clarke also suggests that uniform surcharges depth some of large extent This
be

t r e a t e d a s embankments a n d preferable take place to using

the equivalen t theory, different

determined. load

is

pure elastic soil fills at

as

transfer soil

must

between

densities

and

masses

which settle differently. The pipe is soil the density which (but less would not result

in

the

maximum The

load

on

a

saturated normally

submerged) than a for

density. the

submerged case, as less

conditions the water

are

severe produce

saturated

pressure

would

uniform load.

radial

pressure

l i k e l y to c r a c k a p i p e t h a n a p u r e v e r t i c a l Example - N e g a t i v e p r o j e c t i o n case The top of a pipe and
in

a

2 m wide
is a

trench high

is

1

m below

natural the

ground trench.

level

there

7

m

embankment

above

E v a l u a t e the load on the p i p e .
- =

Projection r a t i o u =

1 2

0.5

Settlement r a t i o s = -0.4 s a y .

H/B = 8 / 2 = 4 .
From F i g . 6.3, load coefficient

C

= 3.1

L o a d p e r m o f p i p e = CnyB2 = 3.1

x

18000 x 2*/1000 = 220KN/m

SUPER IMPOSED LOADS

It

is

customary by

to

use loads

elastic to a

theory

to

evaluate

the

pressures

transmitted infinite, The f a c t
in

surface

buried pipe and elastic material

to assume a semithe p i p e .

homogeneous, that

isotropic,

surrounds

t h e s i d e f i l l may s e t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y to t h e p i p e i s i g n o r e d and suitable factors if the p i p e s h o u l d be a p p l i e d to decrease the

the

theory

transmitted

load

is flexible.

U n f o r t u n a t e l y no such f a c t o r s

a r e a v a i l a b l e yet. If the t h e l o a d a p p l i e d o n t h e s u r f a c e i s of l i m i t e d l a t e r a l e x t e n t then induced pressure on any horizontal plane below the surface

121
decreases w i t h depth. consequently the The deeper the p i p e , the w i d e r the spread and On the other h a n d the

lower the maximum pressure.

total v e r t i c a l force must remain equal to the superimposed load. Formulde point the The load, for or evdluating the transmitted loads due
to

a

surface
in

a pressure of

limited or

i n f i n i t e extent,

are given

sections

below.

A

suitable vary

impact f a c t o r should a l s o be a p p l i e d . the type of
1.3

impact factor the surface,

will and

with

load a n d depth of p i p e slow moving vehicles to

below

varies

from

for

2.0

f o r fast

moving vehicles cover but depth

i f the p i p e i s shallow. than

The impact factor and isolated

reduces f o r point safe loads, to

greater

the p i p e diameter

the amount of full value

reduction of the

i s debatable and factor until

i t may be conclusive

adopt

the

impact

f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e (see also Compstan et a1 1978).

T r a f f i c Loads The following loads are 1969). loads each 30 kN spaced 0.9 m a p a r t . two wheel loads each 73 kN spaced 0.9m useful for design purposes (see a l s o

Concrete Pipe Assn. (1) I n fields Under apart. (3) Under eight main wheel roads

: two wheel

(2)

light

roads

:

and

heavy

traffic

(BS

153 type HB

load)

:

loads each 112 kN comprising two rows 1.8 m a p a r t l a t e r a l l y , measured from i n n e r

of four

wheels each 0.9 m a p a r t

a x l e to inner axle.

(4)

Airport 0.66 m.

runways:

four

210

k N wheel

loads

spaced

at

1.67m x

Pipelines

would n o r m a l l y be designed f o r f i e l d I f construction

l o a d i n g a n d strength-

ened under h e a v i e r t r a f f i c . design loads e x t r a t o p f i l l

loads a r e l i k e l y to exceed

should b e placed to spread the load d u r i n g

construct ion (Kennedy, 1971 )

.
g i v e s the v e r t i c a l stress a t depth H

Stress Caused by

Point Loads

Boussinesque's below p o i n t as

e l a s t i c theory

load a n d a distance X

h o r i z o n t a l l y from the p o i n t load P

122
3P H 3 27r(HZ + X ' ) The stress at the stresses any due 5/2 point to the due to two o r individual load o r

w

=

(6.8)

more loads w i l l be the sum of The maximum stress could and the

loads.

occur

d i r e c t l y under e i t h e r

somewhere between them,

worst case should be selected b y p l o t t i n g the stress between them. For the large pipe diameter, and some the stress w i I I v a r y value a p p r e c i a b l y across be taken. of The pipe and

pipe

diameter Pipe

average

should

Concrete for

Association loads

(1969) l i s t s the total

load i n kg/m

surface wheel

(l),

( 2 ) a n d (3) i n the p r e v i o u s section,

v a r i o u s p i p e diameters and depths.

Line Loads
The v e r t i c a l stress at any depth H below a l i n e load of i n t e n s i t y

q per u n i t l e n g t h is,

b y e l a s t i c theory,

w

=

2q~3 n ( X Z + H 2) 2

Uniformly Loaded Areas The surface stress could intensity at any depth beneath
the

a

loaded area on

the

be e v a l u a t e d b y assuming point loads,

distributed

load to com-

p r i s e a number of load. ma1

a n d summating the stress due to each i n f i n i tesiof a

F o r t u n a t e l y Newmark has performed the i n t e g r a t i o n of point loads loaded to give the vertical area. stress under the

corner

uniformly are given under each a with

rectangular

Newmark's

influence stress at

coefficients
any

i n Table 6.1. To e v a l u a t e the v e r t i c a l surface one loaded area, directly d i v i d e the above

point

loaded area

into rectangles Calculate

corner

the p o i n t

i n question.

the r a t i o s L / H the rectangle

a n d Y/H and read the load

where L the

a n d Y a r e the l e n g t h and b r e a d t h of influence factor of from load for the by the such

corresponding due
by

table.

Evaluate the

stress intensity and

to the

each

rectangle

multiplying particular rectangle. loaded

influence stress

coefficient due to

rectangle, If the p o i n t assume

summate

the

each

i n question f a l l s outside the boundaries of the loaded area extends to above the p o i n t and

area

the

s u b t r a c t the stress due to the i m a g i n a r y extensions.

123
TADLE 6.1 Influence factors f o r v e r t i c a l pressure under the corner of a uniformly loaded r e c t a n g u l a r area (Capper a n d Cassie, 1969).

o 0222
00435

Similar loaded into also

influence and or

coefficients strips, small but point

a r e available for

the stresses under can be resolved are

circles

normally loads

any

shape

rectangles influence

without

much e r r o r .

There

charts

available for

evaluation 1969).

of stresses under any

shape loaded area (Capper a n d Cassie,

The stress a t any depth under a uniform load of v e r y is the intensity of the surface load since there is

l a r g e extent no lateral

dispersion.

T h i s could also be deduced from Table 6.1

for large L and

Y.

Effect of R i g i d Pavements

A
load

rigid

pavement and The is
=
-

above a p i p e has the effect of therefore reducing a depth the
H

distributing due

the to a of

laterally load.

stress below a

intensity
rigid

surface

stress

at

pavement

thickness h,
W

C_P/R2
= r a d i u s of

(6.10) stiffness
or

where

R

E
h

=

modulus of e l a s t i c i t y f o r concrete)

(28 000 N/mrnz

4 000 000 p s i

=

pavement thickness

124
U

= =

Poisson's r a t i o (0.15 f o r concrete) modulus of subgrade for reaction, which varies from

k

0.028N/mm3

poor support

to 0.14 N/mm'.

A typical

v a i u e f o r good support

i s 0.084

N/mm3
thickness.

R

is

normally of H/R

about and

three

times

the

slab

Cr

is
for

a a

function

X/R

and

i s tabulated

i n Table 6.2

s i n g l e point

load P on the surface. normally has the effect of about five times its

A

concrete

slab

thickness of s o i l f i l l

i n a t t e n u a t i n g a p o i n t load.

TABLE 6.2

Pressure

coefficients

for

a

point

load

on

a

pavement

(Amer. Con.

Pipe Assn.,

1970)

W

Pressure on p i p e = CrP/R2 Depth of Top of Pipe Below Pavement Point Load Radius o f Stiffness Horizontal Distance from Point Load

H
P

R
X

__
H R (1

00 ___
l!3 101

-

08

1 2
ObX

-~~

20

24

28

n

03

(Ifil

08
12
16 ?0

089 076
062 051

061

054
047
l!d2

032 03 1 03? 032
010

020
U? i

0: 2
017

022

026
llib

o:?
021
019
OIR

24
28
32 36
40 41

043
037

036
03 I

073
O? I 019 018

012
027

025
013 0XJ 018
Olh 014

02%
020

016 015

015
013 012 cil? on9

014
012 01 I

48

52 56

018 015 014

01:

010
or19

60
63

012
011 010

Ol!

ni;
009

00s

008

68
12 75
gn

nux
007

uni
037
[I!)&

009
OOR

ons
'I-;

00OOh

007
~.

007

0' 0

-

125
REFERENCES

American Concrete Pipe Assn., 1970. Design Manual-Concrete Pipe, Arlington. Capper, P.L. a n d Cassie, W.E., 1969. The Mechanics of Engineering Soils, 5th Ed., Spon., London. 1968. B u r i e d p i p e l i n e s , MacLaren, London. Clarke, N.W.B., Concrete Pipe Assn., 1969. Loads on B u r i e d Concrete Pipes, Tech. B u l l . No. 2, Tonbridge. Cray, P., Schofield, A.N. a n d Shann, C.D., lc7C. Compston, D . G . , Design a n d Construction of B u r i e d T h i n Wall Pipes. CIRIA. Kennedy, H., 1971. E x t e r n a l loads and foundations f o r pipes, J . Arc!. Water Works Assn. March. Marston, A . and Anderson, A . O . , 1913. Theory of loads on pipes i n ditches and tests o f cement a n d c l a y d r a i n t i l e s a n d sewer p i p e . Iowa State Univ., Engg. Res. I n s t . B u l l . Spangler, M.G., 1956. Stresses i n pressure p i p e l i n e s a n d p r o t e c t i v e c a s i n g pipes, Proc. Am. SOC. C i v i l Engrs., 82 ( S T 5 ) , pp 1054-1115. Young, D.C. and Trott, J.J., 1984. B u r i e d R i g i d Pipes. Elsevier Applied Science, London. p p 230.

L I S T O F SYMBOLS

trench w i d t h load coefficient, case load coefficient, load coefficient, case load coefficient, d i ameter effective modulus of e l a s t i c i t y of s o i l modulus of e l a s t i c i t y pavement thickness or v a r i a b l e depth depth of cover r i g i d pavemerot trench condition embankment condition, negative projection embankment condj tion, positive projection

depth of f i l l below p l a n e of equal settlement momen t of inert ia

modulus of subgrade reaction modulus of subgrade reaction r a t i o of l e n g t h of l a t e r a l to v e r t i c a l s o i l pressure loaded area

bending moment bending and y
or

deflection
to

coefficient bottom and

(subscripts side

t,

b,

s,

x

refer

top,

moments a n d

hori-

zon t al and v e r t i ca I d i stort ions respective I y )

126
pressure p o i n t load l i n e load per u n i t length radius r a d i u s of stiffness settlement r a t i o wal I thickness project ion r a t i o v e r t i c a l pressure
W W W

l a t e r a l soil pressure permissible r i n g load permi ssi b l e v e r t i c a I load vertical load per u n i t length

w

horizon t a I distance w i d t h of load area

a n g l e of bottom support def I ect ion u n i t weight of soil a n g l e of trench friction between backfill and sides of

a n g l e of f r i c t i o n of b a c k f i l l m a t e r i a l Poisson's r a t i o

127

CHAPTER 7

CONCRETE PIPES
THE EFFECT OF

BEDDING
sewer not per or drain pipes are designed to withstand specify and the

Non-pressure external the loads, load

internal unit run

pressures. of pipe The for

Various

standards classes due to

design are

different stresses at the

pipes

reinforced accordingly. loads are at the the

main

vertical and the The soil

external bending main loads,

compressive stress crown, by live of the bottom

haunches the and

stresses are

and

haunches. horizontal

stresses self

caused and

loads, water

vertical

weight

weight

( i n t e r n a l water pipes).

pressure a n d

transient

pressures a r e neglected f o r non-pressure

Concrete pipes a n d the other ly a designed flat rigid loaded to withstand The a

r i g i d non-pressure pipes a r e normalline load while supported on the the
of

vertical per the unit

bed. thus

load called

length r e q u i r e d to f r a c t u r e strength. Although a number

pipe

is

laboratory

laboratory practical

strength factors of is

could

be

calculated the

theoretically, load (The of and

influence the load

theoretical reliable.
the

experimental strength constraint

determination of
of

is

more and

tensile lateral

concrete

very

uncertain

effect

the supports may be a p p r e c i a b l e ) . Alternative standard The will testing arrangements f o r is defined in pipes a r e
i I lustrat-

ed that

in

Fig.

7.1.

strength

B r i t i s h Standard 556 as inch

load which concrete

produce a c r a c k or

1/100

(0.25
load wide

mm) f o r unre-

inforced pipes, or

pipes the

60% of
inch

the

ultimate
mm)

for crack

reinforced load for

90% of

1/10000

(0.025

prestressed c y l inder type concrete pipes. The strength u s i n g the 3-edge in excess bearing bearing test test. is usually

5
the

to

10%

of

that was

for

the

2-edge and

Recently

3-edge

b e a r i n g test t o r y strength. Pipes wide higher

standardized

t h i s i s now defined as the labora-

laid of

in

trenches arc by

are

usually

supported The

over is

a

relatively

length than

the

bedding. strength

strength bending

consequently moments are

the

laboratory

as

the

128 less. F i g . 8.2 summarizes the theoretical b e n d i n g moment c o e f f i c i e n t s

for pipes supported over various angles (defined i n Fig.

8 . 4 ) (CPA, 1962).

0 mm

15&brmm
rubber

2 -EDGE

3-EDGE

3-EDGE
FOR ANY OIA UP TO l8OOrnrn

Fig.

7.1

S t a n d a r d c r u s h i n g test b e a r i n g s f o r r i g i d p i p e s

The the

ratio

of

field

strength

to

laboratory of bedding

strength and

is

defined

as

bedding

factor.

Various

types

the corresponding

b e d d i n g f a c t o r s a r e l i s t e d b e l o w (CPA,

1967; ACPA,

1970):-

TABLE 7.1

Bedding factors

Class A
Class A Class B Class C Class D

120" R.C. c o n c r e t e c r a d l e o r a r c h 120° p l a i n c o n c r e t e c r a d l e o r a r c h Granu Ia r bedding H a n d s h a p e d t r e n c h bottom H a n d trimmed f l a t bottom t r e n c h

3.4
2.6 1.9

1.5
1.1

For

rigid

concrete

pipes

the

lateral

support

of

the

sidefill

in

the t r e n c h does n o t a d d n o t i c e a b l y to t h e s t r e n g t h .

A

factor

of

safety

K of

1.25

to

1.5

i s normally

used w i t h u n r e i n -

forced concrete pipe.
so t h a t : -

When p i p e i s p r e s s u r i z e d ,

i t s h o u l d be designed

external load f i e l d strength Unreinforced

+
or

internal pressure bursting pressure reinforced (not

<

1
K

(7.1 concrete pipes are

prestressed)

129
normally drains. subjected certain only The to used concrete internal for may non-pressure be stressed and pipes in even such as if sewers the pipe and was a if

tension though

pressures,

concrete

has

tensile

strength,

c r a c k s may develop a n d

leaks a r e

likely

the tensile stress i s maintained (Kennison, 1950). Concrete Special pipes normally may be do not require for lining or wrapping. for in-

precautions

necessary

certain

liquids,

stance sewers a r e often made w i t h r a t e of corrosion of thus

limestone aggregate to m a i n t a i n the the same r a t e as the cement,

the aggregate a t

m a i n t a i n i n g an even surface.

The f r i c t i o n coefficients of concrete cast, can compare favourably

pipes, especially when c e n t r i f u g a l l y w i t h those of l i n e d steel pipes.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PIPES

Prestressed pressure for long pipes.

concrete

is

becoming

a popular competes

medium for

large-bore with It has steel the

Prestressed concrete over

economically diameter.

pipelines that for

approximately

800 mm

advantage ses steel than

the prestressing steel can be stressed to h i g h e r strespipes. The thick wall
to

plain-walled must be if

thickness o f prevent

p l a i n walled collapse

pipes

reasonably

buckling,

and d i s t o r t i o n even pressures. when

the thickness the use of

i s not r e q u i r e d to r e s i s t i n t e r n a l
high-tensi le pipes, steels is restricted

Consequently

manufacturing plain-walled

steel

b u t t h i s i s not the case

w i t h prestressed concrete pipes which a r e more r i g i d than steel pipes. Prestressed wires core onto a concrete core. The pipes helical each are formed is by winding pretensioned coated.

winding

subsequently

The

forming

the b a r r e l of

p i p e may be concrete cast

vertically is

i n a mould o r c e n t r i f u g a l l y then steam cured to ensure

i n a h o r i z o n t a l position. rapid strength increase

The concrete before

winding. lined with the

Alternatively mortar. The

the core may steel load cylinder under

be formed w i t h improves
wire,

a steel c y l i n d e r

watertightness, and acts as

distributes

concentrated forcing. stressed

the

longitudinal bars or

reinpre-

Plain

concrete cores

are

often

reinforced with The

longitudinally

as well

as c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l l y .

longitudinal

reinforcing resists

l o n g i t u d i n a l bending i n the trench as well as local

130
bending stress i n the core w a l l s d u r i n g c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l are pretensioned and released once winding. the core The has

longitudinal set.

wires

Fig.

7.2

Prestressed concrete p i p e

The prestressing close to y i e l d p o i n t .

wire
It

i s wound loses a

h e l i c a l l y onto the core a t a stress of i t s stress due to creep

proportion i s put

and s h r i n k a g e before the p i p e

into service.

A concrete c o a t i n g

i s a p p l i e d as soon as possible a f t e r w i n d i n g to get as much stress as
possible t r a n s f e r r e d to the c o a t i n g d u r i n g the s h r i n k a g e of the core. The tensile strength

of

the

core

is

neglected

in

accounting

for

f i e l d pressures b u t of manufacture do

i f t r a n s i e n t stresses i n the f i e l d o r i n the process cause cracking, the cracks A soon seal due
is

to

the

inherent done some stage. on

h e a l i n g p r o p e r t i e s of the pipe of immediately water

concrete. after the

h y d r o s t a t i c test but be

usually and this

winding core

before c o a t i n g permitted at

seepage Further

through

may

load tests may be done

immediately

before dispatch of

t h e pipes from the works,

and i n the field. joined with spigots a n d sockets sealed w i t h steel o r concrete b u t care i s sockets to ensure (bends no and

The pipes a r e u s u a l l y rubber needed stressing tees) may insertions. in or the

The socket may design
of

be of

of the

integral socket

concrete will occur.

spalling

Specials

be f a b r i c a t e d from steel

o r cast

iron,

and are f i t t ed with

matching

spigots a

and of

sockets. joints

Small which

angle may

bends take up

are to

n o r m a l l y made

up

over

number

2"

deflection,

depending on the type of j o i n t .

C i rcurnferent i a l
The wire This is tensile wound

Prestressing stress onto in the prestressing wires immediately a f t e r the

the core

i s less than

the a p p l i e d tensile force. side

stress. At the of the in The

i s because the core deforms under the p r e s t r e s s i n g of prestressing any section, the pipe side to one

instant section the

i s under at of the the

stress whereas point steel of

the other is

i s free. its final

The s t r a i n strain.

core

winding

half

relaxation

stress a f t e r

winding

wi II

therefore correspond

to h a l f the t o t a l s t r a i n of the concrete core and

Afs

=

i f

n co 1 the modulus o f fco elasticity of steel to that of

where n,

i s the r a t i o of the time, hence

the concrete a t

i s t h e core stress a f t e r

w i n d i n g and f

i s the steel stress, fso = where f f
SI

. -

i f

n co 1 initial steel stress and f

51

.

i s the

so i s the steel stress a f t e r

winding.
f

Since f o r e q u i l i b r i u m of forces f t co c

so

s =

(7.2)

and where S

fSo

=

fcotc'S

(7.3)

i s the steel cross sectional area per u n i t length o f p i p e , a n d

tc i s the core thickness.

Circumferential After static may

Prestress a f t e r the core,

Losses is usually which by this subjected to a hydrothe prestressing and a steel

winding to

the p i p e Any

test

detect has

cracks.

creep place

undergo

usually

taken

time,

certain

amount of

concrete creep

has occurred.

The concrete stress j u s t before

the test becomes f .
CI

=

fco

(7.4)

132
where
u

is

the

combined steel a n d concrete creep

coefficient

between

winding and testing.

The corresponding steel stress i s :

fsi
The

=

fCitC/S for any particular test loading may be calculated

(7.5)
using

stress

Equs.

7.9

- 7.15 b u t r e p l a c i n g subscripts 2 b y 1 a n d s e t t i n g the core
tb equal to zero. The c o a t i n g should be a p p l i e d and cured testing. This ensures t h a t the s h r i n k a g e as much compression to the as possible a f t e r of the

thickness

as q u i c k l y and creep

concrete core

transfer

c o a t i n g as possible. The c o a t i n g adds to the cross sectional area a n d reduces stresses

thereby a l s o l i m i t i n g the creep of the core. After up to the pipe has been cured and i s r e a d y for service (usually
is

three months a f t e r

m a n u f a c t u r i n g ) the c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l tension

taken by the core and the coating: fS,SCf Equating t + f t c2 c b2 b the movement due to e l a s t i c compression, creep

(7.6)
and s h r i n k -

age of the core a n d coatings to that of the steel: Deformation of the core:

fc2-f - + - c1 Ec2

w

c

f .+f
CI

c2

Ec2

2

+ v c2

=

sl -fs2
ES

(7.7)

( E l a s t i c ) (Creep )

(Shrinkage)

( E l ast ic-steel )

Deformat ion of coating : Sl b2 b2 b2 52

- f

ES

( E l a s t i c ) (Creep) ( S h r i n k a g e ) ( E l a s t i c deformation of steel) Now if the properties of the concrete core and coating are s i m i l a r , c2
-

the e l a s t i c modulus E

Eb2 v c2
= vb2 = v

and the s h r i n k a g e coefficient Solving Equs. 7 . 5 - 7 . 8 f o r f

say.

sl - f52’

133
2+ w
v E c 2 ( t c + t 6 K b ) + tcfcl w c

fsl - fS2 =

S ( l + w c ) + (tc+tb2+wc)/n __ 2 2 2+Wb

(7.9)

Hence from 7.8

(7.10)

(7.11)

Circumferential There are a

Stress Under F i e l d Pressure number of field loading conditions which should be

examined i n c l u d i n g :(1)

In open

trench

with

internal

test

or

operating

pressure p l u s

self weight a n d weight of water.

(2)

I n b a c k f i l l e d trench

with

i n t e r n a l pressure p l u s l i v e load p l u s

self weight a n d weight of water.

(3)

I n backfilled empty.

trench

with

live

load p l u s self

weight

and pipe

(4)

In

backfilled

trench

with

internal

pressure,

self

weight,

weight o f water a n d t r a n s i e n t pressures. The most highly plus stressed bending sections under are usually at the plus crown (due to pres-

prestressing sures), cal sing at

external

loads

internal

the haunches

( d u e to prestressing p l u s bending p l u s v e r t i a n d a t the support plus horizontal ( d u e to prestresplus internal

load p l u s plus

i n t e r n a l pressure) plus vertical

bending

loads

pressure). Compressive area per unit and tensile forces a r e taken of wall comprising the d i r e c t l y on p i p e core the effective pl us coating

length

p l u s transformed steel section:

A = t

+ tb + ( n 2 - 1 ) S
moments pipe plus
I

(7.12)
to

Bending weight moment
of

due

soil of

loads, are of

external resisted wall. The

live by

loads

and

weight per

water length

the

effective of the

of

inertia

unit

distance

c e n t r o i d of t h e effective section from the i n s i d e of the core i s :

134

(7.13) where d i s the diameter of the prestressing wire. The corresponding

distance to the outside of the c o a t i n g i s : e
0

= t c + t b - e i n e r t i a of the effective section i s :

(7.14)

The moment of e3 I=____

+
3

e

0

+ ( t c + ds/2 - e I 2 ( n 2 - 1 ) S.
(7.15)

Long itud in a I Prestressing Some prestressed pipes are prestressed longitudinally is added as
to

we1 I

as

circumferential l y . tensile c r a c k s the

The

longitudinal

prestressing

prevent

i n the concrete d u r i n g w i n d i n g of bending moment i n service.
The

the core a n d due to l o n g i t u d i n a l b a r s or

longitudinal

wires a r e p l a c e d i n the. mould f o r before causes in the casting local the core. When the

the concrete core a n d pretensioned
wire

is

wound

onto

the

core,

it

bending stress and shear bars assists in

i n the core walls. the

The tension principle

longitudinal

reducing

resulting

stresses b y i m p a r t i n g a compressive stress to the concrete core. As for the c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l wires, the longitudinal bars lose some

stress due to creep of the steel a n d concrete. SlL’ core cross sectional area ly stressed
to

I f the b a r s a r e i n i t i a l area i s AS, the p i p e is

f

.

their

total is A

cross sectional

and the creep r e l a x a t i o n coefficient

uL,

then immediately a f t e r release of the l o n g i t u d i n a l b a r s ,

the stress

i n the core becomes: u f c o ~L f . A SlL s + nlAS

(7.16)

a n d the l o n g i t u d i n a l steel stress becomes fsoL = fcoLAc’As The core is the normal l y prestressed circumferential l y The h e l i c a l wire (7.17) immediately after

release of

longitudinal bars.

i s wound from one at the p o i n t of theory for

end to the other. application of

The r a d i a l shear stress i n the core, the winding,
is

derived

from

elastic

pressurized c y l i n d e r s (Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger,

1959) and i s

135
approxima tel y
q
=

0.54 S f S O / v
f stress a f t e r winding,

(7.18) and D is

i s t h e circumferential steel so the e x t e r n a l diameter of the core.
where

The

maximum

local

longitudinal

tensile

and

compressive stresses

due to bending

i n the core w a l l d u r i n g w i n d i n g h a v e been determined

experimental l y to be approximately fcmL = 0.3fco where fco i s the core c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l stress a f t e r winding. The effect of the l o n g i t u d i n a l steel on the cross sectional a r e a has been neglected in Equs. 7.18 and 7.19 as the steel
is

(7.19)

near

the

neutral mum

a x i s a n d the expressions a r e approximate stress in the core wall

anyway.

The rnaxithe assis-

tensile

may be d e r i v e d w i t h

tance of a Mohr d i a g r a m ( F i g . 7 . 3 ) : I f fcmL > fcoL, c t L =/qz which i s u s u a l l y the case,
+

then

fcml

- f

( 2

and

i f

f c o L > fcmL

then f c t L =

h2

+ ( f C 0 L - FcmL 2

2

I

SHEAR

STRESS

Fig.

7.3

Mohr c i r c l e f o r stress i n core d u r i n g w i n d i n g .

+

""4

2 -

2

COL

( 7.20a )

-

fcoL

2

cmL

(7.20b)

136
It will be seen from Equs. 7.20 a
and

b
to

that f
COL

the

larger

the is

longitudinal

prestress,

which

i s proportional ctL'

the smaller

the p r i n c i p l e t e n s i l e stress in the core f

Longitudinal S t r e s s e s A f t e r L o s s e s

The pipe

longitudinal

bars

act

to

resist

longitudinal

bending

of

the

in the f i e l d . in

The p i p e a c t s a s a beam s p a n n i n g between uneven At this stage
in

points
and

the will

bedding.

a

c e r t a i n amount of
and some

shrinkage

creep

have occurred will is

the

concrete

longitudinal As the be

compressive longitudinal neglected.

stress stress

h a v e been not high,

t r a n s f e r r e d to the concrete

the c o a t i n g . can

creep

usually

S h r i n k a g e of

t h e c o r e does r e d u c e t h e t e n s i l e s t r e s s i n t h e

b a r s and t h e c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e s s i n t h e c o r e becomes:

u f A L siL s
fc2L
=
+

-

v

ESAS (7.21 )

Ac the the

n2AS is in due service, to longitudinal The bending extreme stresses fibre are

Once added to

pipe

stress

prestressing.

bending

stresses a r e
-

-

fc3L

-

MD 21
and

(7.22) t h e e f f e c t i v e moment o f inertia of

where M

i s t h e b e n d i n g moment

the section i s

I

=

64

l

l (D 4 -

d

4

(d

+ 2t + d 5 ) *
8

+ (n2

-

1 ) AS

(7.23)

P r o p e r t i e s of Steel and C o n c r e t e The steel used
for

w i n d i n g prestressed concrete p i p e should h a v e

a s h i g h a y i e l d s t r e s s a s p o s s i b l e and a y i e l d s t r e s s o f 1650 N/rnmz (240 000 p s i ) shrinkage concrete
it

i s n o t uncommon. taken place,

This will

e n s u r e t h a t a f t e r c r e e p and
in

have

the r e m a i n i n g compressive stress

the
and

is fairly to

high. confine

The steel stress w i l l d r o p a f t e r w i n d i n g , working stresses
to

is

normal

less

than

50% o f

yield

stress. Steels work with
high

yield

stresses

are often

b r i t t l e and

difficult

to

w i t h and

in f a c t

the u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h may not be much h i g h e r

137
than the yield stress. Care is therefore necessary of steel in selecting the

prestressing w i r e . 200 000 N/mm2 The
to

(30 x 10

T h e modulus of e l a s t i c i t y 6 psi).

i s approximately

steel

may creep s l i g h t l y between concrete they are is

a f t e r prestressing a n d steel creep

but

it

is difficult

distinguish test,
in
so

between w i n d i n g and This
loss

works stress

usually

considered around

together. occurs

in

the

steel

typically

5% a n d

w i t h i n a few

hours a f t e r w i n d i n g . Concrete day cores are cast under of vibration or centrifugally and 28

cube c r u s h i n g

strengths

60 N/mm2

( 8 700 p s i ) a r e f r e q u e n t l y 7 200 p s i ) i s desir-

achieved. able for of the

High e a r l y strength

(e.9.

50 N/mm2 o r

w i n d i n g as e a r l y as possible. strength at the time

Compressive stresses u p to 50% (any

cube will

a r e permitted d u r i n g w i n d i n g

cracks

most p r o b a b l y

h e a l ) . Working compressive stresses should

be confined to less than 1/3 of the 28 day cube strength. The less bending about tensile 10% stress of the in the core d u r i n g w i n d i n g strength in the at that due age, to should be and the

than

cube

calculated bending strength in

bending the

tensile

stress be

core to

longitudinal the cube

field

should

limited

about

5% of

i n order

to a l l o w f o r

unknowns a n d to prevent any p o s s i b i l -

i t y of cracks developing.

No c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l tensile stress i s permitted

i n the core i n the f i e l d f o r normal o p e r a t i n g conditions b u t tension i s sometimes the p e r m i t t e d under should be transient than conditions. about The the tensile stress cube in

coating i s for

less

10% of

strength. a n d the

(This

b u r i e d pipe.

Exposed pipes may develop cracks

tensile stress should be less t h a n t h i s . )

BS

4625

does

not

permit

tensile

stress but

in

the a

core tensile

for

normal
of

operating 0 . 7 4 7 m if 0.623

plus water

backfill

pressures,

permits

stress

hammer pressure i s included, works hydrostatic test.

a n d a tensile stress of is the crushing

/

F

during

(Where F

strength of 150 mm cubes a t 28 d a y s , a l I i n N/mm2 . ) The modulus of elasticity of concrete increases to w i t h the s t r e n g t h

and v a r i e s from 20 000 N/mm2
( 6 000 000 p s i ) (BSCP 2007,

( 3 000 000 p s i )

40 000 N/mm2

1970; Ferguson,

1958).

The creep coefficient, creep s t r a i n
=

w,

of concrete i s defined b y the equation

AL/L

= w

fc/Ec

138
where fc is the average compressive stress during the time that

creep occurs a n d E

i s the f i n a l

modulus of e l a s t i c i t y .

w varies with

time a n d the method of c u r i n g . the r a t e of after three creep reduces w i t h (at the time of

Creep i s high f o r time.
w

' g r e e n ' concrete and two days is 1.3 1.3

i s approximately 0.3 testing the core)

casting

factory

and

months a f t e r casting.

Hence f o r

the coating,

the coefficient

i s used to c a l c u l a t e creep, the time between f a c t o r y
I t may

b u t f o r the core, the creep coefficient f o r
a n d f i e l d conditions i s 1.3 - 0.3 = 1.0.

test

be 30% h i g h e r f o r

pipes not p r o p e r l y cured o r exposed to the

elements i n the f i e l d . Shrinkage ing, typical of concrete also depends l a r g e l y on the method of c u r v, v a r y i n g from

values of s h r i n k a g e per u n i t length,

to
Example

Calculate
winding,

circumferential curing and

concrete under

and field

steel

stresses

during for the

after

conditions

prestressed concrete p i p e described below: Effective p i p e tc = 75 mrn, length L = 4 m, tb
=

bore d i = 2 000 rnm, steel winding

core thickness

coating

25 mm,

5 mm diameter at
x

15 mrn c/c.
8
mm

S = 0.00131

m2/m of pipe.

L o n g i t u d i n a l wires 24 N o . internal live pressure

diameter, Vertical soil

A S = 0.00121
loading due x

m2.
to

Maximum

0.8

N/mmz.

soil
=

and

load 0.04

N/mrn2,

lateral

pressure 0.5 of

vertical

0.02

N/mmz.

Bottom support

e f f e c t i v e l y over 30" inside.

arc.

Neglect selfweight a n d weight of water

Steel: L o n g i t u d i n a l prestress = 400 N/mm2 .Winding prestress = 1000 N/mmz. ES = 200 000 N/mm2. Creep coefficient u = 0.95. Concrete:
= 30 000 N / m m 2 , CI from f a c t o r y test to f i e l d test. n

E

Ec2 = 38 000 N/mmz,

Wb

= 1.3,

Creep w 4 : v = 10 shrinkage

= 1.0

.

1

= =

200 000/30 000 200 ooo/38 000

= 6.7 = 5.3

n

2

Stresses due to w i n d i n g
-

fco

-

1 000 x 0.0131 0.075 i 0.00131 x 6 . 7 / 2

=

16.5

N/mm2

(7.2)

139
=

so

16.5

0.075 0.00131

= 880 N/mmz

(7.3)

Works t e s t o f c o r e : fcl fSl
=
=

0.95 x 16.5 0.95 x 8 0 8

=
=

15.7 N/mm2 840 N/mm2

(7.4)

a f t e r curing :

f

-f

=

s2
=

2+1 .o 1 O-4x38x1 0 (0.075+0.025m) 075x15.7xl.O ' +O. 0.00131 ( d ) ( . 7 + . 2 ) 5 3 2+1 0 l$+00500*/. 76 N/mmz 840-76 = 764 N/mmz 76 (200 000
38 Oo0 = 6.4 N/mmz 2+1 .3
=

(7.9)

s2
fb2

=

=
-

(7.10) (7.11)

c2

764~0.00131-6.4x0.025 0.075
loading:

11.2 N/mm2

Under f i e l d

Transformed section A =

0.075 + 0.025 + (5.3-1)0.00131
=

0.105 m'/m

(7.12)

C e n t r o i d to inner surface e

=

)(0.075+0.005/2)(0.00131) 0.12/2+(5.3-1 0.1+0.00131(5.3-1)

=

0.0515
01 .

(7.13) 0.0515 3

Cent r o id t o outer surface e Moment o f inertia

=

-

=

0.0485

(7.14)

I = 0*05' +0*04853 + (0.075+0.005/2-0.0515)2 53

x(5.3-1)(0.00131)
Stresses a t b a s e B : ( t e n s i o n
-

=

85.9~10-~m~/m

(7.15)

v e f o r concrete stresses)

T e n s i o n d u e to n e t i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e :

ft =

0 8 x 2 - 0.02 x 2.2 .

-

-7,4 N/mmz
8.2:
NS

2 x 0.105

B e n d i n g moment c o e f f i c i e n t s f r o m F i g . For vertical load, Nb =

0.235, and f o r h o r i z o n t a l l o a d ,

=

0.125
Net b e n d i n g moment =
=

0.235 x 0.04 x 2.2/2 - 0.125 x 0.02 x 2.2/2 0.00755

140
Stress on o u t e r face f
-

b3

fb2

- f

t

+ -MeO I
0.00755 85.9
x 0.0515= -IN/mm2

Stress on i n n e r face f Steel s t r e s s : e
=

c3

=

11.2-7.4-

x (on outer side of centroid)

0.075

+ 0.005/2-0.0515

= 0.026

= 764

+ 5.3

(7.4

0.00755

x 0.026)

=

791

N/mm2

85.9 x
Although stresses similarly, the stresses a t
at

t h e b a s e a r e u s u a l l y t h e most s e v e r e , on the circumference should

the

other

points

be checked

and c h e c k s s h o u l d b e d o n e b o t h w i t h and w i t h o u t t r a n s -

ient winding,

t e s t i n g and i n t h e f i e l d .

REFERENCES

Am.

C o n c r e t e P i p e A s s n . , 1970. D e s i g n M a n u a l - C o n c r e t e P i p e , A r l i n g ton. BSCP 2007 P a r t 2, 1970. R e i n f o r c e d and P r e s t r e s s e d C o n c r e t e S t r u c t u r e s , BSI, L o n d o n . C o n c r e t e P i p e Assn., 1962. L o a d s o n B u r i e d C o n c r e t e P i p e s , Tech. B u l l e t i n No.2, T o n b r i d g e . C o n c r e t e P i p e Assn., 1967. B e d d i n g and J o i n t i n g o f F l e x i b l y J o i n t e d C o n c r e t e P i p e s , Tech. B u l l e t i n No. 1 , T o n b r i d g e . F e r g u s o n , P.M., 1958. R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e f u n d a m e n t a l s , Wiley,N.Y. 1950. D e s i g n of p r e s t r e s s e d c o n c r e t e c y l i n d e r p i p e , J. K e n n i s o n , H.F., Am. W a t e r W o r k s Assn., 42. T i m o s h e n k o , S.P. and W o i n o w s k y - K r i e g e r , S., 1959. T h e o r y o f P l a t e s and S h e l l s , 2 n d Edn., McGraw H i l l , N.Y.

L I S T O F SYMBOLS

A d
D

-

cross sectional area inside diameter outside diameter distance from centre of g r a v i t y modulus of e l a s t i c i t y stress (compressive o r tensile)

e E
f

F

c r u s h i n g s t r e n g t h o f 150 mrn c u b e s a t 28 d a y s

141
I
K
L

-

moment of

inertia

factor o f safety length bending moment e l a s t i c modular r a t i o E shear stress steel area per u n i t length of p i p e thickness creep coefficient f o r steel and concrete before f a c t o r y test s h r i n k a g e coefficient creep coefficient s

M
n

-

/E c

q

-

s
t

-

u

-

v
w

-

Subscripts
b c
s

-

coating core steel bending shear tensile longitudinal initial after winding at time of f a c t o r y test a t time of laying

m

-

9
t

-

L
I
0

-

1 2

-

3

-

under f i e l d pressure

142

CHAPTER 8

STEEL AND FLEXIBLE P I P E
1 NTERNAL PRESSURES

The due pipe weight to

highest internal there

pressure fluid are The

a

pipe

has

to

resist is

are

normally

those the self

pressure.
no

The

pressure

uniform for

around and

and

bending

stresses

except for the

water

effects.

general

equations

resulting

stresses

in a hollow cylinder are:

Circumferential

wal I stress
Fw
=

p.d.'
I I

-

podo'

d i 2 doZ( P , P doL
-

)
(8.1 )

do2 - diL

d.'

p.d.' I 1

-

podo'

Radial stress where p is

Fr

=

do2 - d.' i s diameter at d

+

d i z do2 ( PP , -

1
(8.2)
d.

doZ - d i z

i s pressure, diameter i.e.

d

w h i c h the stress i s sought, diameter.

internal

and

i s external

The e q u a t i o n s a r e

f o r p l a i n stress, For

a cylinder free to expand

longitudinally.

the p a r t i c u l a r case of n o e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e the c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l

s t r e s s i s a m a x i m u m on t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e a n d i s di2
F max
W

=

di

+ do2 P + do 2t
the wall thickness is normally small
in

In
with

practice

comparison

the

diameter,

a n d the w a l l

thickness of a steel p i p e designed to

resist

i n t e r n a l pressure i s obtained from the formula

where

t is t h e w a l l t h i c k n e s s
p i s the i n t e r n a l pressure

d i s the e x t e r n a l diameter f i s t h e y i e l d s t r e s s o f t h e steel

G i s the design factor

J i s the j o i n t factor.
E q u . 8.4
overpredicts the true stress by some
1%

for

every

1%

of t/d.

On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,

just u s i n g d instead of
1% t / d .

(d-t)

would under-

3 r e d i c t s t r e s s b y 1% f o r e v e r y

143
The
will

design

factor

G

allows

a

safety which

margin.

What

factor

to use

depend on been

the accuracy the

with

loads a n d t r a n s i e n t pressure economics and the conse-

have

assessed, a burst.

working

pressure,

quences of

I f the p i p e l i n e i s protected a g a i n s t water hammer of 0.6 o r even 0.7 a factor i s reasonable, of the order b u t i f there to 0.5

over-pressure, are many

a factor

unknown

loads,

use of

of 0.3

would be wiser. The j o i n t varies pipes. Smal I-bore, pressures wal Is, the the only, more
in

factor

J allows
furnace

for

imperfections

i n welded seams, to

and

from

0.85

for

butt-welded

joints

1.0

for

seamless

high but

pressure the

pipes the

are

designed

to

resist the

internal the of

larger

diameter

and loads. in
in

thinner

important pipe should

become the e x t e r n a l also be possible,

Vaporization which case

fluid

the

may be

this with

internal

pressure

considered

acting

conjunction

e x t e r n a l loads. If the p i p e VF i s restrained longitudinally, v is a longitudinal ratio and tension of

magnitude

is

induced

where

Poisson's

F

is

the

circumferential

wal I tension.

TENS I ON R I NGS TO RESIST

I NTERNAL PRESSURES

Pipes

which

have

to

resist

very

high

internal It

pressures

may be

strengthened to form

b y b i n d i n g w i t h hoops a n d s p i r a l s . in the thick
On

i s often d i f f i c u l t

pipes

p l a t e s which would be r e q u i r e d to r e s i s t other hand
it

some

h i g h pressures.

the

may be possible to form

the p i p e of t h i n n e r p l a t e than would be r e q u i r e d f o r an unstrengthened pipe, a n d w i n d i t w i t h s t r a p s o r rods. internal rings pressures do not perform the required to resist col lapse

The r i n g s r e q u i r e d to r e s i s t same function as the

stiffening

against in

external and

loads. does load,

The w i n d i n g not need to

to r e s i s t
be

internal as

pressures acts the rings to

tension

as

prominent

resist the

external

which

should

increase the moment of

i n e r t i a of

l o n g i t u d i n a l section I n fact the

through

the p i p e a n d therefore be as h i g h as should be

possible.

tension r i n g s , as they w i l l be c a l l e d ,

144
as f l a t a n d b r o a d as possible to keep the distance between them to a There will be in high the longitudinal pipe wall bending rings stresses if and

minimum.

circumferential are f a r apart. are usually be

stresses

between

the r i n g s

I n comparison,
a number

s t i f f e n i n g r i n g s to r e s i s t e x t e r n a l loads of diameters a p a r t . pipes which are Tension r i n g s may to be subjected to

spaced to

also

used

strengthen

old

h i g h e r pressures than o r i g i n a l l y designed for. Using
of

the

stress-strain

r e l a t i o n s h i p and

the d i f f e r e n t i a l

equations

equil i b r i u m f o r c y l i n d e r she1 I s under the action of r a d i a l pressure, (1959) d e r i v e d a n equation f o r subjected
to

Timoshenko a cylinder

the

radial

displacement of

a radial

pressure a n d w i t h tension r i n g s at

equi-spaci n g Put and b4 a

.
= =

12(1-v2) dZt' bs

(8.5) (8.6) for s t e e l ) , d i s the p i p e diameter, r i n g spacing.

where v
t

i s the P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o (0.3

i s the w a l l
-

thickness a n d s the centre-to-centre cosh a sinh a sinh a sinh a cosh a sinh a

Let

+
-

x1

+
+

cos a sin a sin a sin a cos a sin a

(8.7)

-

x2
-

(8.8)

-

x3

+

Then the r i n g stress,

Fr,

i s g i v e n by

(8.11) where A = cross sectional area of The circumferential pipe wall
the r i n g .

stress,

Fw,

mid-way

between

rings

is

given by
=
FW

@[l 2 ( F - - 1 ) X 4 ] + 2t 2t r Pd bending stress in the p i p e under the

(8.12) rings,

a n d the

longitudinal

Fb

i s given by

145

g!
r i

i

D
C

a,

3

m
L a,
c

m

[r

C .-

U
a, C

I
I

I
I
< 0

I
1

I

m

P

2
. 0


m In
L a,
I

m

a C .LL

D

m
>
N

a a
C .L

m

C .-

L
C

d

0 .-

r
D .-

E
m m
QJ
c

m

a,

C

.-

5
U

m .U
m m

5
m

m
a, m

3 -

5 .-

- C
c

i a,

vi

m
L a, a,

-

m

5
i .-

a .LL

V

m

146
(8.13) The shown A) stresses that are indicated by Fig.
8.1,

for

v

=

0.3.

It

may

be

a s s i s d e c r e a s e d t h e r i n g s t r e s s Fr

tends to

f

pds/

(ts +

w h i c h c o u l d h a v e been anticipated. the circumferential wall

N o t e t h a t f o r s m a l l A,
a p l a i n pipe,
W

Fr tends
Also,

to equal

stress of

pd/2t.

f o r s m a l l s,

the circumferential p i p e wall stress F

tends to

4 pds/(ts
Fb

+ A ) , w h i c h w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d , and t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l
tends to zero. For l a r g e r i n g spacing ( > approx. F tends to 2-1,

beding stress

1 1

pd
2t

(8.14)

+ 0.9lA/t&
1.65 tJtd/A

Fb tends to

pd
2t

(8.15)

+ 0.91

and F

t e n d s to @ i.e. t h a t f o r a p i p e w i t h o u t r i n g s . 2t I t may be observed b y comparing F F r and Fb f r o m F i g s .
W

W’

8.la,

8.lb
in

and 8 . l c

t h a t t h e m a x i m u m s t r e s s f o r most p r a c t i c a l r i n g s i z e s i s the circumferential pipe wall stress.
Also,

fact

Fw, if

Fw

is

only the

reduced

s / J y z i s l e s s t h a n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.0.
l e s s than same 2 J l d of
and

I n other words,

r i n g spacing should be area A should be of

the r i n g cross sectional as the p i p e w a l l
ts,

the

order

magnitude
rings,

longitudinal

cross

sectional

area

between

to

enable

the

r i n g s t o b e o f use.

DEFORMATION O F CIRCULAR P I P E S UNDER EXTERNAL L O A D

For
sures, under

large

diameter

and

flexible

pipes

under

low

internal

pres-

the external external

load is frequently by
buckling,

t h e c r i t i c a l one. due

Pipes may f a i l to arching
or

load

overstressing

bending,
For

excessive deflect ion. elastic rings under plane stress subjected to vertical loads

only,

Spangler

(1956) e v a l u a t e d t h e b e n d i n g moments and d e f l e c t i o n a t the circumference. The worst b e n d i n g moments

critical occur at

points around the crown,

the

i n v e r t or t h e s i d e s .

T h e b e n d i n g moments p e r

147

Angle of bottom

suwor? p degrees

Angle of tmttom support

p

degrees

Fig.

8.3

D e f l e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s for

loaded pipe.

148
u n i t length a r e g i v e n b y a n equation of the form

M

=

N R W

(8.16) the a pipe radius,

where and N

R

is is

W
Nb

i s the v e r t i c a l and NS f o r

load per top,

unit

length sides are

coefficient. The

(Nt,

bottom and in

respectively).

vertical

and

horizontal

changes

diameter

p r a c t i c a l l y equal a n d opposite a n d a r e of the form
A
=

NnWR3/EI

(8.17)

where N

A

i s a coefficient. is (8.18) and the 8.3 g i v e values of bottom of the and

The moment of i n e r t i a I per u n i t length of p l a i n p i p e w a l l
I
=

t3/12
8.2 at

Figs. moments vertical line unit

Nt,

Nb a n d Ns f o r the and

bending for the

top,

sides

respectively, The

N

A

deflections a

pipe

diameter.

coefficients

are

for a

load or length),

load d i s t r i b u t i o n and for different

across the w i d t h of angles of bottom

the p i p e support 6

( W per

,

as

indicated i n Fig. Collapse of has
to

8.4.

a steel p i p e w i l l p r o b a b l y not occur u n t i l the diameter some 10 o r 20 percent. diameter limited to are sometimes I n p r a c t i c e deflections tolerated. up

been

distorted the be

5 percent of
normally

The deflection

should linings,

about

2

percent to prevent damage to

a n d for pipes w i t h mechanical j o i n t s . i.e. the cross sectional area a n d wetted

The h y d r a u l i c properties,

perimeter a r e not affected noticeably f o r normal d i s t o r t i o n s .
LOAD W /UNIT LENGTH OF PIPE

UPTHRUST

F i g . 8.4

Pipe l o a d i n g and deflections

149
Effect of L a t e r a l Support The of lateral support of sidefill in a and trench increases the s t r e n g t h deformations. Without

flexible

pipes

considerably

reduces

lateral

support

to a p i p e the r i n g bending stresses a t

the s o f f i t a n d

haunches o r deflections would l i m i t the v e r t i c a l e x t e r n a l load the p i p e could carry. But it is a pipe in a compacted fill

will

deflect

outwards

l a t e r a l l y as the may sidefill

loaded v e r t i c a l l y thereby the with sides the of the pipe. load

i n c r e a s i n g the pressure of An equilibrium condition to the

against

be

established

vertical

being

transferred The

haunches b y

a r c h action as well

as b y r i n g action.

stress due

to the a r c h action carry In the

i s compressive so that the load which the p i p e can

i s considerably h i g h e r than i f the p i p e were a c t i n g in bending. extreme case, the lateral stress will equal the v e r t i c a l load

stress a n d the p i p e wal I w i l l equal where If could to wd/2t
w
=

be i n p u r e compression,

w i t h the stress

W/d no noticeable determined by lateral
the

(8.19)

the

p i p e underwent would be

distortion bending

the

load

it

support arch

strength

plus

whatever

strength

i s given i.e.

to the p i p e b y

the s o i l pressure on load per u n i t area

the sides of the pipe, on the p i p e i s

the permissible v e r t i c a l

w
where
w

=

w

b

+ w

a bending load (limited either

(8.20) by ring

i s the permissible b bending stress or more l i k e l y to lateral soil

by deflection). w

equal

pressure on

i s the a r c h i n g load, a the sides of the p i p e , which, conbut i s usually For sand,

servatively, greater than

may be taken as the a c t i v e soil pressure, this as indicated in subsequent one

equations.

the a c t i v e

lateral

pressure i s approximately dead load o n l y

t h i r d of the v e r t i c a l i t i s approximately

pressure due to soil

and for clay

h a l f the v e r t i c a l pressure. I f the v e r t i c a l active and away lateral soil load i s g r e a t e r than the sum of the r i n g load p l u s pressure, the pipe wall will deflect out laterally

increase the from the

lateral pipe

pressure.

The h o r i z o n t a l stress w i I I decrease

and

Barnard

(19571,

using

elastic

theory,

150
suggests assuming a pressure equal wall triangular vertical stress d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h the horizontal pressure minus r i n g load a t the p i p e The

to total

decreasing l i n e a r l y to zero at 2.5d away from the p i p e w a l l . l a t e r a l deflection of each side of the p i p e i s
(w-w,)

corresponding AX/2
=

1.25

d/ES e l a s t i c i t y of the s o i l .

(8.21 ) The factor

where E 1.25

i s the effective modulus of

should be pressure

increased as the l a t e r a l deflection increases, since the increases for of as the r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e decreases. the diameter The and

radial factor 1.7 time, for

becomes 1.4 a

a deflection of 5 percent.

2 percent of

deflection

The deflection

also

increases w i t h

and an a d d i t i o n a l

25 to 50 percent of the i n i t i a l deflection can

be expected e v e n t u a l l y . If the creep On deflection other of hand the soil
is

large,

lateral

support

can

decrease. e.g. load. The

the

pipe

materials

which

exhibit

creep,

plastics,

can compensate f o r

this,

a n d could even shed v e r t i c a l

relationship from

between stress and s t r a i n f o r triaxial varies consol i d a t i o n widely

the s o i l should tests.

be

determined modulus degree of of of

laboratory of

The effective on soil type,

elasticity

soil

depending

compaction o r n a t u r a l density,

c o n f i n i n g pressure,
it

duration
low

l o a d i n g and moisture content. for is loose c l a y or as high

F o r example

may be as

as 2 The

N/mmz

as 20 N/mm2 f o r loosely

dense sands.

modulus for fill

approximately

3 N/mmzfor

compacted f i l l ,

5 N/mrn2
to 95%

compacted to 90% Proctor

density

a n d 7 N/mmz f o r f i l l

Proctor density. compacted sands. The r i n g as indicated to

Values h i g h e r than

100 have been recorded for moist

load on by Equ.

the p i p e 8.17.

i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e e l a s t i c deflection equal the
t o 0.108,

Taking N , 30' and

which corresthe entire

ponds

bottom

support

over

load over

pipe

width and p u t t i n g
AY
A =

AX

=

A , then s o l v i n g f o r A/d

from 8.17

and 8.21, (8.22)

d

-

0. 108wd3 8E I +0.043ESd3
pipe

For p l a i n

I = t3/12,

so one has an equation f o r deflection

as

a

function

of

diameter,

loading,

soil

modulus

and

the

ratio

wall

th i ckness/di ameter.
A -

d

-

0.108~ 0.67E(t/d)'

+ 0.043Es

(8.23)

151
The r e l a t i o n s h i p between deflection a n d wal I thickness f o r p l a i n p i p e i s p l o t t e d i n F i g . 8.5. I t w i l l be observed that a steel p i p e wall thickness as low to as

4%

of

the the

diameter soil

will

be is

sufficient greater

to

restrain

distortion

2% p r o v i d e d

modulus

than

5MPa a n d soil Pipes trench to are

load i s less than 50 kPa. sometimes the strutted vertical internally diameter during and backfilling the of the

increase The

reduce

horizontal

diameter.

lateral

support

increases

when

the s t r u t s a r e removed The v e r t i c a l deflec-

a n d the p i p e tends to r e t u r n to the r o u n d shape.

tion a n d tendency to b u c k l e a r e consequently reduced considerably.

G STRESS DUE TO C I RCUMFERENT I A L BEND I N

It

i s possible to compute w a l l stresses due to bending a n d a r c h i n g 1979). If i t can be assumed that the load i s spread over
( a =

(Stephenson, the f u l l 60'

w i d t h of

the p i p e

180')

and the bottom support i s over

( 6 = 60") f o r f l e x i b l e p i p e , then from (8.17) a n d F i g . 8.3,
=

AY

0.103wbd

4

/8E1

(8.17b) (8.21b) the r i n g load i n terms of w

Now from (8.21), A X = 2.5(w-wb)d/ES Equating the total

AY a n d A X ,
load, w I /d3 I/d3

a n d s o l v i n g for w b

w
The

b

=

+

0.006ES/E in the wall,

(8.24)

bending

moment

M,

is

due

to

ring

load a n d

is a

maximum a t the base a n d from (8.16)

M
where the

=

0 . 1 9 ~ d 2 / 2 hence b e n d i n g stress f = Mr/l b b is the distance from the centre of pipe). g r a v i t y of

(8.25)
the section the to

r

extreme f i b r e

(t/2 for p l a i n wall

The balance of

load

i s taken
W -

in a r c h action of the p i p e according to (8.20) so

0. 006wES/E

a

I /d'

+ 0. 006ES/E

(8.26)

The bottom w a l l hoop stress i s fa where
=

wad/2a is the cross sectional area
of

(8.27) wall per unit length
( t

a

for

plain wall pipe).

152
The
=

total

lateral

compressive stress permissible

i n the w a l l

at

the base i s f i n terms of

fb

+

fa,

therefore is

l o a d i n g p e r u n i t area

permissible stress f (l/d3 w =
0.1

+

0.006ES/E)f

(8.28)

r/d

+

0.003 dE /Ea load w i s a f u n c t i o n of the permis

Thus the permissible v e r t i c a l s i b l e stress,

the r e l a t i v e thickness t / d

a n d the r a t i o o i n Fig. 8.5

moduli of soi f o r p l a i n wal

ES to steel
pipe,

E.

The r e l a t i o n s h i p

i s plotted

w i t h E = 210 000 N/rnmz, a n d f = 210 N/mrn2. pipes, can the permissible load increases w i t h wal I thickness be taken
so

For t h i c k as more load

i n r i n g bending. that the soil the

For t h i n n e r

pipes,

the

deflection the pipe

becomes
is

large

side-thrust limit

increases
to

until wall

i n p u r e compression,
Actually side w a l l

and

i s due

the

hoop stress.

hoop stress exceeds that a t the base,

so (8.27) p l u s (8.25)

i s not the l i m i t i n g stress f o r h i g h a r c h i n g .

On the same c h a r t i s p l o t t e d b u c k l i n g load
W

=

/32ESEl/d3 proposed b y ClRlA (1978) allows for

(8.29a) lateral investiis

The

b u c k l i n g equation, This the

support. gated by

may be compared w i t h an a l t e r n a t i v e equation Transport and Road Research Laboratory

(which

found to o v e r p r e d i c t w ) :
W

=

(16Es2El/d3) / 3 1 g i v i n g a deflection of from
(8.23).

(8.29b) 2% i n the diameter i s also p l o t t e d

The

load w d

on the c h a r t for is any

The c h a r t

thus y i e l d s the l i m i t i n g c r i t e r i o n The lowest permissible load w by comparing and E rings deflection,

p a r t i c u l a r w a l l thickness r a t i o . in each case from the

selected

chart

overstressing and b u c k l i n g lines f o r the r e l e v a n t t / d Similar charts should be p l o t t e d where

.
a r e used
or

stiffening

a n d where a l t e r n a t i v e m a t e r i a l moduli and permissible stresses a p p l y . By careful design
it

is

possible

to

reach

the

limit

in

two

more

c r i t e r i a a t the same load.

T h i s i s c a l l e d balanced design.

More General Deflection Equations Spangler
the

(1956) in a

allowed more

for

lateral way

support than

to

the

pipe The

due

to

backfill

theoretical

Barnard.

equation

he d e r i v e d f o r v e r t i c a l deflection i s :

153
UZWd3 8 E l + 0.06Esd” i f UZ

A =

(8.30)
i s substituted for N
and a v a l u e of

T h i s corresponds to ( 8 . 2 2 )

A

0.15 i s assumed f o r N A i n the denominator ( i n s t e a d of 0.108 i n 8.22)
Here U = Z =

s o i l consolidation time l a g factor
bedding constant (varies from

( v a r i e s from 1.0

to 1.5). support to

0.11

for

point

0.083 f o r b e d d i n g the f u l l w i d t h of p i p e ) , n o r m a l l y taken as
0.1.
1
=

moment of i n e r t i a of p i p e w a l l per u n i t length. passive resistance modulus of s i d e f i l l . pressure the fact inside a that the pipe may
also

E = The Due to

contribute

to

its

stiffness.

vertical

diameter

i s compressed to s l i g h t l y

less t h a n the h o r i z o n t a l diameter, al pressure becomes g r e a t e r tends to return the than

the v e r t i c a l u p t h r u s t due t o i n t e r n the s i d e t h r u s t b y an amount of

2@

which

p i p e t o a c i r c u l a r shape.

A more general

expression f o r v e r t i c a l deflection thus becomes
A =

UZWd3

8 E I + 0.05ESd’

+ 2 UZpd3

(8.31)

Q

W

0.002

0.005

0.01

0.02

0.03

Relative thickness t / d

F i g . 8.5

Permissible load on p l a i n p i p e

154
ST

FFENING RINGS TO
Morley

RESIST

BUCKLING W I T H NO SIDE
theory for the The

SUPPORT

(1919) developed a
uniform external

buckling theory

of

stiffened indicates
in p r a c -

pipes

under

pressure. than the

often

stiffening tice. The

ring

spacings wider also neglects

i s considered necessary possibility of failure

theory

under

com-

bined internal

a n d e x t e r n a l pressures and bending.

The equations do,

however, y i e l d an i n d i c a t i o n of s t i f f e n i n g r i n g spacing. Using which an analogy the can with a strut, Morley external developed pressure, an
w,

equation which a

indicates she1 I

maximum v e r t i c a l take and without assumes

cylindrical no axial

b u c k l ing. the wall

The equation a l lows f o r thickness is small in

expansion,

comparison w i t h the diameter. w = 24 1 - v 2

v i s Poisson's r a t i o , (8.32)

El

d7
I = t3/12, so
t

For p l a i n p i p e ,

w

=

2E

1

-

v2

(3)

(8.33)

Experiments i n d i c a t e d a p e r m i s s i b l e stress 25% less than the theoretic a l , so f o r steel,
w
=

1.65 E

t

(8.34) tubes, material the to col lapse i t s elastic pressure limit
wi II

For

thick-wal led

be

that

which

stresses the w a l l

( w = 2ft/d)

whereas f o r

intermediate wal I thickness, and elastic yield. An

f a i l u r e w i I I be a combination of b u c k l i n g formula indicating the maximum

empirical

permissible pressure on a p i p e of intermediate thickness i s (8.35) where f i s the y i e l d stress. load may be increased i f s t i f f e n i n g r i n g s a r e used to It was found by experiment t h a t the collapse load,

The e x t e r n a l resist
w,
s,

buckling.

i s i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to if s

the distance between s t i f f e n i n g r i n g s ,

i s less than a c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l length,

L.

155
From experiment L = 1 . 7 3 E

(8.36)

so i f w
w

= =

2E ( t / d ) 3 for s t i f f e n i n g pipe, then f o r s t i f f e n e d p i p e ,
L2E ( t / d j 3 = 3.46
permissible stress is less than the theoretical

(8.37)
due to

The

actual

imperfections i n the m a t e r i a l a n d shape of p i p e , so the p r a c t i c a l r i n g spacing i s g i v e n by

(8.38)
If the full elastic r e n g t h of pressures i.e. he p i p e i s to be developed
w
=

o resist spacing

vertical shou I d be

external

'Jt,

then

the

ring

(8.39)
Rings w i l l o n l y t be of use i f w >1.65E ( - ) 3 . I t should also be ascerd 2f t tained that w z - , which i s the e l a s t i c y i e l d p o i n t . d = Pft/d, then r i n g s w i l l o n l y be of use i f If w t/d<f/E
=

1/30

(8.40)
F u r t h e r studies of b u c k l i n g of s t i f f e n e d p i p e a r e g i v e n

f o r m i l d steel.

b y Stephenson (1973) a n d Jacobsen (1974).

W

Y

Fig.

8.6

Pipe w i t h s t i f f e n i n g r i n g s

156
Example 1 :

Tension Rings
A
The

500 mm bore p i p e i s to take an
maximum and permissible the maximum working wall

internal in

pressure of wall can be is

5 N/mm2.
to be is 100 10

stress

the

N/rnm*,

thickness

which

rolled

mm.
and

Assume a calculate

10 rnm diameter w i r e
the required spacing

is av ai l abl e for of the binding.

b i n d i n g the p i p e An unstiffened

p i p e c o u l d take an i n t e r n a l pressure of

“ow

pd
2t

=

2 x

500 100

=

125,

s o we r e q u i r e F/@ 2t

=

120 0 1 5

=

0.8

Tension r i n g area parameter By inspection of Figs.

t

1 82A -r‘td

1 . 8 2 ~ ~ ~= 1o 02 ~ .

10 ~ ‘ 1 0 x 5 0 0
the r i n g spacing r e q u i r e d to

8.la

and 8.1b,

reduce both the c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l p i p e w a l l stress a n d the r i n g stress to the desired v a l u e i s g i v e n b y
s / m = 0.45,

: .

s = 0.45

J10
of

x 500

=

32 mm.
i s s l i g h t l y more than if

Notice t h a t

the

amount

steel

required

the p i p e were merely thickened to take the e x t r a pressure. becomes more noticeable the wider the r i n g spacing.
it

T h i s effect

For wider spacing is the limiting tensile

is

usually in the

the

circumferential
so

wall

stress

which

stress

system,

there

i s l i t t l e point

i n using high-

r i n g s i f the p i p e w a l l

i s of m i l d steel.

Example 2:

St i f f e ning R i n g s

Design a 3 m diameter a uniformly distributed

steel

pipe with stiffening 60 kN/m2 with
a

r i n g s to support modulus of 3

load of

soil

N/mm2. Maximum steel stress = 103 N/mm2, delection 2%. Select t = 10 mm Then s / d
=

(210 000/503) ( . 0 0 3 3 ) 3 / 2

(8.39)

157
=

0.39

: .

s = 1177 mm; Select

1200 mm. no b u c k l i n g i.e. ring

Use

100 mm h i g h r i n g s w i t h h/b

= 10 m a x f o r

t h i c k n e s s b = 10 mm Centroid from c e n t r e w a l l c Moment o f i n e r t i a
= =

(h+t)bh 2( bh+ts)

=

4.25

mm

(8.41) (8.42)

I

=

h3b -+ S(tc)'

+

12s

hb

t3 12

+

tC2

3104 mm3/mm
=

Extreme f i b r e d i s t a n c e r
=

h

+
(8.43)

100.8 mm A/d
=

Deflection:

0.1~0.060~3~

(8.22b)

8x210 0 0 x 3 1 0 4 ~ 10-9+0.05x3x33
=

0.017

=

1.7%

Maximum w a l l s t r e s s f =
=

(0.1x0.10/3.0+0.003x3x3/(210000x0.011
3 1 0 4 ~ 1 0 - ~ /+0.006x3/210000 3~ 1.7 N/mm2. The section
an

) ) 0.06

could or

thus

be modified. design

By

v a r y i n g the r i n g p r o p o r be possible i.e. both

tions,

optimum

balanced

may

deflection l i m i t a n d stress l i m i t a r e attaine d simultaneously.

REFERENCES

B a r n a r d , R.E., 1957. D e s i g n a n d d e f l e c t i o n c o n t r o l o f b u r i e d steel p i p e s u p p o r t i n g e a r t h l o a d s a n d l i v e l o a d s , Proc. A m . SOC. f o r T e s t i n g M a t e r i a l s , 57. C l R i A ( C o n s t r u c t i o n I n d u s t r y Research a n d I n f o r m a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ) , 1978. D e s i g n a n d C o n s t r u c t i o n o f B u r i e d T h i n - d a l l P i p e s , Report 78, L o n d o n , 93 p p . Jacobsen, S., 1974. B u c k l i n g o f c i r c u l a r r i n g s and c y l i n d r i c a l t u b e s u n d e r e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e , Water Power, 26 ( 1 2 ) . Morley, A . , 1919. S t r e n g t h o f M a t e r i a l s , L o n g m a n s Green E. Co., pp 326-333. S p a n g l e r , M.G., 1956. Stresses i n p r e s s u r e p i p e l i n e s and p r o t e c t i v e c a s i n g p i p e s . Proc. Am. SOC. C i v i l E n g s . , 82(ST5) 1054. 1973. S t i f f e n i n g r i n g s f o r p i p e s , P i p e s and P i p e l i n e s Stephenson, D., I n t l . , 18 ( 4 ) . Stephenson, D. ,1979. F l e x i b l e p i p e t h e o r y a p p l i e d to t h i n - w a l I nPVC p i p i n g , P i p e s a n d P i p e l i n e I n t l . , 24 ( 6 ) , 9-17.

158
Timoshenko, S.P. and Woinowsky-Krieger, S., 1959. a n d Shells, 2nd Ed., McGraw H i l l , N.Y., Ch. 15. Theory of Plates

LIST OF SYMBOLS

a

-

bs, o r area per u n i t length cross sectional a r e a of r i n g

A
b
C

distance from centre of w a l l to c e n t r o i d of w a l l section p i p e diameter i n t e r n a l p i p e diameter e x t e r n a l p i p e diameter modulus of e l a s t i c i t y passive resistance modulus of s i d e f i I I permissible w a l l stress

d d.

F

-

wal I stress bending stress circumferential stress

bending stress under r i n g r i n g stress, o r r a d i a l stress i n p i p e w a l l wal I stress

circumferential design factor r i n g height

depth of b a c k f i l l above pipe
I
J
-

moment of

inertia

-

j o i n t factor r a t i o of a c t i v e l a t e r a l pressure of f i l l to v e r t i c a l pressure c r i t i c a l r i n g spacing bending moment moment or deflection coefficient i n t e r n a l pressure pipe radius distance from c e n t r o i d to extreme f i b r e of beam r i n g spacing wal I thickness

K

159
U
V

-

deflection time l a g factor Poisson's r a t i o vertical pressure, subscript a refers to arching, b to

W

bending a n d d to deflection

W
Y

-

vertical

load p e r u n i t length ( W = wd)

r i n g thickness bedding constant def I ect ion

z

A

160

CHAPTER 9

SECONDARY STRESSES

STRESSES AT BRANCHES

If in the

a

hole i s cut wall will

in

the w a l l

of

a pipe, side of

the circumferential the of a hole. small The

stress

increase on axis

each at

tangential hole

stress

on

the

horizontal

the

side

elliptical

i n a p l a t e i s (Tirnoshenko a n d Goodier,

1951), (9.1

S'

=

S(l S

+ 2

a/b) uniform vertical and b stress is applied to the axis

where the
a

is

the

plate, length.

a

is For

horizontal hole

axis a
=

length b In and the

the

vertical

circular applied the also

the stress S ' case

i s consequently three times
hole o r of the branch on a

the pipe may

stress.

of
on

a

circular side

circumferential increase to

stress

each that

hole o r The

branch

three hole

times in a

in the p l a i n pipe.
is it given will in be Fig.

stress
If
the rein-

distribution pipe force able wall

beside a stress is

plate

9.1.
to

at a

all

significant

necessary

the w a l l to

where

b r a n c h p i p e occurs.

Reinforcing i s also desirespecially with low

minimize pipework entrance pipe is

distortion.
i s to

A

common

practice

pressure mize the the main

use s k i r t s at loss. than In such

the b r a n c h connection to m i n i cases the size of hole cut in

head larger

the bore o f

the b r a n c h p i p e and r e i n b r a n c h pipes at r i g h t the p i p e conthe branch

forcing angles nection pipe cular force of is the the

may to
is

be especially barrel to weld

necessary.

For small

a

a s u i t a b l e method of a collar onto the

strengthening pipe

main

around

(Fig.

9.2).

The w i d t h of c o l l a r may be c a l c u l a t e d f o r any p a r t i by assuming otherwise out of the w' the have main the of col t a r been pipe, takes taken i.e.

thickness which piece collar and

the

circumferential the diameter where t'

would cut

across 2t'w'
=

tD,

thickness, t the the

width, the

D

the of

branch the main

p i p e outside pipe. This pipe

diameter is

thickness

wall in

assuming are

that

permissible and that

stress the

the c o l l a r width is

and main small

walls

the

same,

collar

compared

w i t h the b r a n c h p i p e diameter.

161

s
t t f t t t t t t

Fig.

9.1

Stress d i s t r i b u t i o n beside a hole i n a p l a t e under a uniform stress S.

Fig.

9.2

Collar reinforcing at a branch pipe

7-

lp-Sornetimes

used

LI
Fig.

9.3

L a t e r a l w i t h e x t e r n a l crotch plates

162
For l a r g e r diameter b r a n c h pipes and branches at v a r i o u s angles

to the m a i n pipe,

crotch p l a t e s a r e p r e f e r a b l e to c o l l a r s ( B l a i r , 1946).

Crotch P l a t e s

Various

types of

s t i f f e n i n g p l a t e s have been proposed f o r r e i n f o r c (1941) pioneered the design a nomograph was

ing laterals. of crotch

The Swiss f i r m Sulzer Bros. and a design a i d

plates,

i n the form of

l a t e r p u b l i s h e d b y Swanson et a l plates pipes. cases. and which The Trial would be welded

(1955). The design was f o r e x t e r n a l the j u n c t i o n of the

i n t o the c r o t c h a t

nomograph was p r e p a r e d b y a n a l y s i n g a sections were selected were compatible.

l a r g e number of

and r e v i s e d u n t i l forces balanced r e c t a n g u l a r sections f o r crotch

deflections

Only

p l a t e s were considered although Figs. on use 9.3

T sections may have g r e a t e r r i g i d i t y .
p l a t e s based parameters f o r

to 9.7

a r e design c h a r t s f o r e x t e r n a l crotch but expressed in dimensionless

Swanson's in any

results, of

system

units. small

The design c h a r t s a r e f o r s i n g l e c o l l a r diameter laterals) and for double crotch

plates

(normally

for

p l a t e s ( f o r l a t e r a l diameter n e a r l y equal to the m a i n p i p e diameter). The method of design u s i n g the c h a r t s i s as follows: C a l c u l a t e Pd / f t knowing t h e maximum i n t e r n a l pressure P, the 1 main p i p e diameter dl, the permissible p l a t e stress f a n d an assumed p l a t e thickness t. Read off from Fig. 9.5 the crotch plate bl width expressed in

terms of plate

the main p i p e diameter dl. for a 90" lateral with

and cl

a r e the crotch as the

widths

the same diameter

main pipe. If are the branch is read at an a n g l e to the b a r r e l , and
or

the diameters correct the

unequal,

Kb

K

from

Fig.

9.6

and

crotch p l a t e w i d t h b y m u l t i p l y i n g bl The Read c/dl plate the and widths are now

b y K b a n d c1 b y Kc.

p l a t e top the angle

depth of

b=d (bl/d,) K a n d c=dl(c,/dl)K 1 b r a t i o a/dl corresponding to b/dl lateral from Fig. 9.7 and

.
or

the

hence

c a l c u l a t e a, Check plate

the top depth of each plate. either plate width If
so,

whether

i s g r e a t e r than 30 times the is liable again. to The buckle, shape so and

thickness. the plate

the

plate and

increase

thickness

try

weight of p l a t e s could be optimized b y t r i a l .

163

Fig.

9.4

E x t e r n a l crotch p l a t e s

The

shape the

of

the line

p l a t e should of intersection

then of

be the

drawn for fabrication pipes. Single plates

by may

developing often be

bent at

i n t o shape whereas double p l a t e s w i l l intersection point, and if

be f i l l e t

welded

together

the

t h i n enough,

may a l s o be

bent to follow

the intersection of the b r a n c h a n d the b a r r e l .

b /d,
c, dtJ,

8

1.0

0.5

0

0.5

20

-1

pd

15 .

f t

Fig.

9.5

Crotch p l a t e side w i d t h

164

Fig.

9.6

Effect of

l a t e r a l diameter and angle on c r o t c h p l a t e s i z e .

165
For right large installations
to

a

t h i r d p l a t e may the main pipe

be r e q u i r e d , 9.3).

placed at Although

angles

the

a x i s of

(see F i g .

design c h a r t s f o r merely a d d i n g a

3-plate

designs a r e not a v a i l a b l e , design.

Swanson suggests

t h i r d p l a t e t o a 2-plate

Discretion should be

used i n r e d u c i n g the thicknesses o r widths of the two c r o t c h p l a t e s i n such circumstances. The deflections are reduced considerably by

a d d i n g a t h i r d p l a t e though. Whether judgement. crotch The p l a t e s should advises be used at all i s also a matter of if the internal

author

using

crotch

plates

design pressure P of safety,
of

i s g r e a t e r than the wall

t,

is

y t a"/135Gd2 where G i s the factor 1 thickness of the main p i p e , d2 i s the a i s the a n g l e between the a x i s of

diameter

the b r a n c h p i p e a n d

the b r a n c h p i p e a n d b a r r e l . y

i s y i e l d stress.

Internal Bracing

(Stephenson, in

1971) external crotch plates prompted Escher

Certain Wyss L t d . pipe

disadvantages

(Suss a n d Hassan, External crotch and

1957) to i n v e s t i g a t e i n t e r n a l b r a c i n g for plates act in bending, steel than consequently internal use

'Y's.

material

inefficiently

require

more

crotch

p l a t e s which could be i n p u r e tension.

An

internal

web may also act

as a guide vane.

T h i s effect,

com-

b i n e d w i t h a g r a d u a l taper of the pipes a t the j u n c t i o n , losses through
is

reduces head water flowing webs The

for

some

flow

configurations.

For

the

case of
loss w i t h

two

pipes

to a confluence, less than with

the head a

internal junction.

considerably

standard

'T'

arrangement of the b r a n c h p i p e j o i n i n g the main p i p e a t a skew angle with both pipes gradually flared at the confluence, together with

i n t e r n a l b r a c i n g f o r the acute a n g l e (see F i g . pcmping into two station branch delivery pipes, pipes. such as For

9.8)

i s recommended f o r

water f l o w i n g from a main p i p e station suction pipes and

pumping

penstocks f o r performed to

hydro-electric

stat ions,

h y d r a u l i c model

tests should be and

determine the best angles of

divergence a n d taper,

the arrangement of the i n t e r n a l b r a c i n g . The o v e r a l l external weight of steel for internal bracing is less than f o r transport

c r o t c h plates.

The

compact arrangement f a c i l i t a t e s

a n d reduces excavation costs. Unless confluence, ing the pipes are designed with cone-shaped flares paths, with at the

internal

bracing will and

p r o t r u d e i n t o the flow head losses than

caus-

increased

velocities

higher

external

crotch p l a t e s o n l y . there w i l l diffusers

On the other loss. with

h a n d i f the expansion

i s too a b r u p t

be a h i g h head increases rapidly

The head loss coefficient f o r conical the a n g l e of flare once the angle

between the w a i l a n d a x i s exceeds s u i t a b l e compromise f o r appears
to

about 7; degrees

(Rouse,

1961). A

the angles of f l a r e f o r a 45-degree confluence
to

be

74 degrees
internal pipes to

the

axis

for

the

main

pipe

and

15

degrees to the a x i s f o r t h e b r a n c h p i p e . The branch use and of main bracing a confines the angle between the

practical

range.

For

confluence angles

approaching 90 degrees ( I T ' j u n c t i o n s ) the b r a c i n g web would obstruct the flow in in the the main main pipe. For very small angles of confluence the

hole cut

p i p e becomes l a r g e r a n d the b r a c i n g would be

impractically a 45-degree pipe

heavy.

T h e design c h a r t s presented here a r e confined to and
to

confluence, would have

for

any

other

angle with a

of

approach

the

branch

be constructed the use of

bend

immediately

before the f l a r e .

Note that

i n t e r n a l b r a c i n g i s confined to

the

acute

angle,

as

internal

bracing

at be

the

obtuse

angle with

would

obstruct

flow.

The obtuse

a n g l e must

strengthened

external

crotch plates. To minimize head losses, the diameters of the main incoming p i p e , p i p e should be such t h a t the velo-

the b r a n c h p i p e a n d the confluent

c i t i e s i n a l l pipes a r e approximately equal. If all branches of the confluence are tangential to a sphere

whose centre l i e s a t the surfaces w i l l flat. the There may main pipe the

the intersection of t h e i r axes,

the intersection of

be i n planes.

T h i s means t h a t the b r a c i n g webs a r e

be a k i n k i n the obtuse a n g l e intersection l i n e where flare meets the confluent of
it

pipe

(see plate

Fig.

9.8). may

To be

eliminate continued would be

resulting the

problems where

torsion, should

'B'

beyond strong

point

bend.

The

pipe

walls

enough to t r a n s f e r

the

loads to t h i s p l a t e ,

and the

r e s u l t i n g arrangement simp1 i f i e s f a b r i c a t i o n . To determine the p r o f i l e s of were set distance the lines of intersection of the cone point

surfaces, and the

equations horizontal

up r e l a t i n g the cone r a d i i a t any along the

i n t e r s e c t i n g p l a n e to the disUsing the

tance from the intersection of the axes along the main a x i s . fact that the elevations of

the surface of both cones a r e equal on the

intersection I ine, The a n g l e of the

the coordinates of the intersection I ine were derived. intersection p l a n e to the main a x i s , 8 , i s given by

the equation t a n confluence a x i s and The ceeding angle,

B
@

=

(cos Q - cos a cos is the angle of

e

) / s i n a cos branch

e ,

where a i s the its

the

cone surface to

e i s the a n g l e of the main cone surface to i t s a x i s .
profiles the
w e r e obtained b y computer a n a l y s i s pro-

intersection in steps

along

i n t e r s e c t i n g plane.

T h i s was done simul-

taneously w i t h the stress a n a l y s i s . Although simple must pipe it i s possible to analytically, study the stresses case in the bracing for

'Y's

the general

i s v e r y complex a n d

be solved by computer, line. In fact

proceeding i n small increments a l o n g the previous studies have relied on model

intersection

studies to o b t a i n the stresses a t the intersecting plane. The analysis was based on membrane theory i.e. the pipe walls

can take no b e n d i n g stress. is

The c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l w a l l stress in a cone

PR/(cos 0 ) per u n i t w i d t h a n d the l o n g i t u d i n a l w a l l stress PR/(2

cos

e

)

per

unit

width

where P

i s the

l i q u i d pressure a n d R

i s the

r a d i u s of the cone p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the a x i s . The forces due to the cone wall stresses on an element of the

intersection

I i n e were resolved i n t o three components,

p e r p e n d i c u l a r to

the intersection plane, The results

v e r t i c a l l y a n d h o r i z o n t a l l y in the plane. that the perpendicular forces on the interthe

indicated

section p l a n e were i n a l l cases zero. resultant force line, of in the was plane, to

The p o s i t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of four was points along

the s i d e of It

the the

intersection l i n e of

plotted g r a p h i c a l l y .

observed that

action

the r e s u l t a n t

was constantly

i n s i d e the

intersection

p l a n e a n d a c t i n g i n tension on the i n t e r n a l b r a c i n g p l a t e . The tension. centre bracing crown, Hence most economical internal b r a c i n g p l a t e would be one i n pure

T h i s s t a t e could be assured i f the r e s u l t a n t force f e l l on the line of the plate. in Thus Figs. from plate the the 9.8 the may width to crown be of the at the widest the internal or

plates is twice

indicated the

9.10
to

centre,

distance of the

r e s u l t a n t force. in terms of the

the

thickness plate

derived anywhere

permissible

stress,

and

width

else

calculated the r e s u l -

knowing the p l a t e thickness tant be force on found the

and position and magnitude of l i n e of the cones. bracing thicker

intersecting the in most

I n some cases i t w i l l plate thickness is

that

economical case a

impractically and the

thin,

which shape

p l a t e may

be selected, The n a r -

corresponding are

interpolated bending

from

the c h a r t s . and

rower contain plate

plates

i n combined than to the the

and

tension

consequently the was

more steel perpendicular from the

p l a t e in p u r e tension. resultant for force at

The w i d t h of points
=

various f

obtained
/tw2

equation

extreme f i b r e

stress,

6F

(u-w/Z)

+ F/tw,
on
A

where f

i s permissible p l a t e tensile stress,

F i s magniin

tude of question

resultant the

force which acts a t a distance u from the p o i n t intersection analysis line, was

w

is

plate

width

and

t

is

plate crotch

thickness.

similar

performed

for

the e x t e r n a l

p l a t e s b r a c i n g the obtuse angle. The design flare charts, of to Figs. 9.8 to a 9.10, were compiled and f a c i l i t a t e the and The various angles of

crotch the

plates for pipe and

45 degree ' Y '
branch pipe.

main

most

suitable

flare

angles should be selected from h y d r a u l i c considerations. determine head losses could be conducted i f warranted.

Model tests to

169

-.---

6;

/

/

..L

I
j

Lc=!23 tcn2 2 G.03303

e

\

0 "

\

WITH R E C O M M E N D E D A N G L E S

b

TOP H A L F OF EXTERNALCROTCH PLATE B

TE c TOP HALF OF INTERNAL C R O T C H ~ P L ,

4

F i g . 9.8

Crotch p l a t e s f o r 7io/15O confluence.

170

b TOP H A L F OF EXTERNAL CROTCH PLATE 6

c TOP HALF OF INTERNAL CROTCH PLATE A
Fig. 9.9
Crotch plates f o r p l a i n p i p e confluence

171

I

OL

0.2

0

02

0.L X / D

0.6

b

TOP HALF O F EXTERNAL CROTCH PLATE B

c TOP HALF OF INTERNAL CROTCH PLATE A
Fig.

9.10

Crotch p l a t e s f o r confluence pipe.

plain

pipe

with

15"

taper

172
The design procedure f o r a trial plate width, t, say the crotch p l a t e s would then be to select maximum indicated, and compute the

the

p l a t e thickness, crotch plate for

from the corresponding formula. the obtuse angle is rigid

To ensure that the
to

enough

withstand

buck1 i n g under bending compression, less less than than

the p l a t e thickness should not be should also p r e f e r a b l y not be

w/30.
the

The wall After

plate

thicknesses
of

thickness selecting

the

main p i p e ,

to ensure d u r a b i l i t y

a g a i n s t wear.

the p l a t e thicknesses,

the corresponding

p l a t e shapes a r e interpolated from the a p p l i c a b l e c h a r t .

STRESSES AT BENDS

The than

wall

stresses

in

a

fabricated

or

cast

iron

bend

are

higher

those

i n a p l a i n p i p e w i t h the same w a l l thickness. induced are as the bend by tends to straighten thrusting the

Longitudinal out, local the

stresses bending outside

are

stresses wall,

caused

anchor

blocks on

against

and

circumferential the

stresses

inside of

the bend

a r e m a g n i f i e d because on the outside of

l e n g t h of The the

w a l l on the

i n s i d e i s less than

the bend.

increase in c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l stress stress a n d stress on

is
it the

normally is safe
of

more severe than to design the bend. only The

increase i n l o n g i t u d i n a l worst circumferential on the

for

the

inside

wall

thickness

outside of

the

bend

could a c t u a l l y stress, but it

be reduced i f account

i s taken o n l y of

circumferential

i s safe to keep the same thickness

as on the i n s i d e of

the b l o c k . Circumferential Using membrane theory i n g stress,
of

stresses a r e c a l c u l a t e d below. i.e. assuming the p i p e w a l l takes no bend-

the c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l force on a length of w a l l on the inside
to

the bend i s equated

the t h r u s t

due to the

i n t e r n a l pressure on
9.11,

the i n s i d e segment of p i p e shown shaded i n F i g . ft
f

(R-D/2)
= -PD

0

=

P(R-D/4)

0D/2
(9.2)

(R-D/4)

2t i.e. ratio

(R-DJ2)

the normal (R-D/4)

w a l l thickness at the bend should be increased i n the (R-D/2) where R i s the r a d i u s of the bend a n d D is

/

the p i p e diameter.

173

Fig.

9.11

Stress concentration a t a bend

In etc., work

addition discussed caused in for

to

the

so-called

secondary stress at

bends,

junctions
in pipe-

above,

there a r e sometimes movements,

t e r t i a r y stresses strains or

by

relative

elastic

temperature

variations designed pipeline installed. axial and

piping in

systems.

These stresses a r e r e a l and plant

a n d should be or at large

exposed

chemical

pipework thrust

interconnections

if

no movement

joints or

anchors a r e system w i t h could be

A

pipe lateral

system

can be treated and design

as a s t r u c t u r a l The such

thrusts

movements. techniques

system as

analysed bution,

using

structural or

moment-distriwhich a r e (See also

slope-deflection
in

f i n i t e element standard

methods,

many o f

available

the

form

of

computer

programs.

Crocker a n d K i n g ,

1967).

THE P I P E AS A BEAM

Longit udi na I Bend ing

Pipes should longitudinal settlement between of

normally even

be if

designed they are

to to

r e s i s t some bending be buried.

i n the

direction the

Unevenness o r o r span with the

bedding Three

could possible

cause

sections to c a n t i l e v e r patterns together

supports,

bending

174
corresponding critical The maximum b e n d i n g moments a r e i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . which a simply supported pipe 9.12

.

span

could

accom-

modate i s c a l c u l a t e d below.

The m a x i m u m f i b r e s t r e s s i s (9.3)

Fb

=

M/Z
M is t h e b e n d i n g
moment and Z t, is small

where

is t h e s e c t i o n m o d u l u s .

For a

p i p e whose w a l l d i a m e t e r D,

thickness,

in comparison w i t h the i n t e r n a l

Z

=

nD2 t / 4
=

(9.4) (9.5) (9.6)

So if M

WL2/8

Fb

=

W L Z / ( 2 n D 2t )
=

o r L2 and

2nD2 t Fb/W pipe of specific weight
y

if a yw

is conveying

water

at a specific

weight

L

=

J8DtFb/(ywD D = 1 m,

+
t

4ySt)
=

(9.7) F b = 100 N/mm2,
yw

Thus f o r
ys

0.012 m,
the

- 10 000 N/m simply

3 ,

=

80 000 N/m

then

maximum

permissible

supported

s p a n L = 26 m or 86 f t . For low internal water pressures, b u c k l i n g of the w a l l s may also

b e a p r o b l e m and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d ( e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e s u p p o r t s w h e r e t h e s h e a r s t r e s s is h i g h ) . See also P e a r s o n , P i p e S t r e s s at Saddles The m a x i m u m local stress in a continuous o r s i m p l y supported p i p e 1954): (9.8) 1977.

supported in a s a d d l e i s (Roark,
F
=

(0.02 - 0.00012

( B - 90°))(Q/t' )Loge (f)

where span, due to

Q
Q

i s the total saddle reaction.

Note t h a t f o r a s i m p l y s u p p o r t e d i.e. a

i s the r e a c t i o n d u e to two ends r e s t i n g o n the support, the weight of pipe of length equal to the span, as

for

continuous pipe.

If Q i s i n Newtons a n d t i n mm t h e n F i s i n N / m m 2 .

175

WlUNlT LENGTH

WlUNlT LENGTH

WlUNlT LENGTH

REACTION MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT.

WL12 wL2/a

Wll2

WLI2

WLl2

0

WL

DEFLECTION

5 x 2
3 z El

a.

Simply Supported

b.

Fixed Ends

c.

Cantilevered

F i g . 9.12

Beam moments and deflections

The a n g l e of crete width or of strap the

bottom support, 6 saddles.

,

i s n o r m a l l y 90" is practically is small

or

120'

for

conthe pipe

The stress provided it

independent of with the

support

compared

diameter.

To t h i s

local stress a t

the saddle must be added the rnaxi-

mum l o n g i t u d i n a l

bending stress a t the support f o r the p i p e a c t i n g as unless a j o i n t occurs a t the support.

a continuous beam,

R i n g Girders Steel ground may pipes etc. may be laid above ground over ravines, marshy

B u c k l i n g of

t h e p i p e a n d stresses

i n these circumstances as there i s no s i d e f i l l Rigid r i n g

be more severe than and

under

the

ground,

support

the p i p e saddles cause stress concentrations. a r e useful in cross i n these circumstances. section, The or

g i r d e r s at each support may the the be back plain fixed of

The rings
with in

rectangular all the

T o r H shaped,

r o u n d the pipe. ring may The be

local

p i p e bending stress using the ring

vicinity in

evaluated

theory

developed

Chapter

8.

longitudinal

bending stress

i n the p i p e

w a l l under a r i n g is

1.65 0.91

Pd

+

h J%T/A

2h

(9.9)

176
where be

A

i s the cross sectional any longitudinal

area of in

the r i n g . the pipe

To due

t h i s stress must to beam action

added

stress

between supports. T h e r i n g stress i n the r i n g g i r d e r i s

1
In

+

1 0.91A/(hj hd)
addition there

Pd

2 7
will be local stresses due to
t h e method of

(9.10) fixing

the

r i n g girder

to the supports.

Legs a r e securely

fixed

to the r i n g The weight

g i r d e r a n d rest on a s l i d i n g or of the p i p e a n d contents

r o l l e r b e a r i n g on a p i e r .

i s t r a n s f e r r e d to the bottom h a l f of the r i n g

g i r d e r a n d thence through the legs to the p i e r .

A

more comprehensive a n a l y s i s in Crocker and King

of

the stresses See also

i n r i n g girders Cates

is

presented Scharer

(1967).

(1950)

and

( 1933).

TEMPERATURE STRESSES

Pipes outside

with

high

differences to r a d i a l The

in

temperature

between

inside

and

will

be subject differences. maximum on
the

a n d c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l stresses due to l o n g i t u d i n a l stresses surfaces, being if

temperature have their

circumferential and on the inner

value

a n d outer

compressive the and

i n n e r surface and tensile on the inner wall is above

the outer

surface

temperature on the heat flow

t h a t on

the outer

wall,

i s steady.

I f the w a l l

is thin

i n comparison w i t h

the p i p e diameter, equations:

the stresses may be approximated b y the f o l l o w i n g

on the i n n e r surface F

=

Fe
c = F

=

-20
P = aET -2(1-u)

a ET

(9.11)

a n d on the outer surface F where

(9.12)

a

i s the thermal

coefficient o f expansion,

E i s the modulus of

elasticity,

T

i s the temperature difference,

v i s Poisson’s r a t i o ,

Fc i s

c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l stress and Fe i s l o n g i t u d i n a l stress. i s compressive a n d is always less than
the

The r a d i a l stress

maximum c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l

and l o n g i t u d i n a l stresses,
For

b e i n g zero on both boundaries. the stresses are rela-

normal

c I imatic

temperature differences

177
tively ‘C, A low.
v =

Thus f o r

T =

10°C, E = 200 000 N/mmz, a
=

= 12 x

per

0.3 f o r s t e e l p i p e , t h e n F m a x
stress a may of also be as result

17 N/mmz.
in
a

longitudinal

induced

pipe

restrained

longitudinally

temperature

change

after

instal lation.

The m a g n i t u d e o f after installation) supports).

t h i s stress (see Ch.

i s aET

(tensile if the temperature drops
an

10 f o r

analysis

including

effects

of

REFERENCES

B l a i r , J.S.,

1946. R e i n f o r e c e m e n t o f b r a n c h p i p e s . E n g i n e e r i n g , 162.

Cates, W.H., 1950. D e s i g n s t a n d a r d s f o r l a r g e d i a m e t e r s t e e l w a t e r p i p e , J. Am. W a t e r W o r k s Assn., 42. C r o c k e r , 5. and K i n g , R.C., 1967. P i p i n g H a n d b o o k , 5 t h E d . , M c G r a w H i l l , N.Y. P e a r s o n , F.H., 1977. Beam b e h a v i o u r o f b u r i e d r i g i d p i p e l i n e s . P r o c . Am. SOC. C i v i l E n g r s . , 108 ( E E 5 ) 767. 1954. F o r m u l a s f o r s t r e s s and s t r a i n , McGraw H i l l , N.Y. R o a r k , R.J., p . 418. Rouse, H., 1961. E n g i n e e r i n g H y d r a u l i c s , W i l e y , N.Y., S c h a r e r , H., 1933. D e s i g n of l a r g e p i p e l i n e s . T r a n s . Am. SOC. C i v i l Engs., 98 ( 1 0 ) . Stephenson, D., 1971. I n t e r n a l b r a c i n g f o r p i p e c o n f l u e n c e s . T r a n s . , S.A. I n s t n . C i v i l E n g r s . , 13 (11). Sulzer, 1941. P a t e n t e d s t i f f e n i n g c o l l a r s o n t h e b r a n c h e s o f highpressure p i p e l ines f o r hydroelectric power works. Sulzer Technical R e v i e w , 2 ,lo. Suss, A. and H a s s a n , D.R., 1957. R e d u c t i o n o f t h e w e i g h t and loss o f in d i s t r i b u t i o n p i p e s f o r h y d r a u l i c p o w e r l a n t s . Escher energy Wyss News, 30 (3) 25. Swanson, H . S . , C h a p t o n , H.J., W i l k i n s o n , W.J., King, C.L. and N e l 1955. D e s i g n o f w y e b r a n c h e s f o r s t e e l p i p e s . J. A m . son, E.D., W a t e r W o r k s A s s n . , 47 ( 6 ) 581. Timoshenko, S. and G o o d i e r , J.N., 1951. T h e o r y o f E l a s t i c i t y , McGraw H i l l , N.Y.

L I S T OF SYMBOLS

A a,b a,b,c

-

a r e a of r i n g g i r d e r h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l a x e s o f an e l l i p s e

-

c r o t c h p l a t e t o p and s i d e w i d t h s p i p e diameter modulus of e l a s t i c i t y permissible crotch p l a t e stress r e s u l t a n t force on c r o t c h p l a t e a t a n y point, factor o f safety wal I thickness o r stress

D or dE f F
G

-

h

178
span o r length bending moment water pressure (same u n i t s as f ) saddle reaction radius stress a p p l i e d to a p l a t e crotch p l a t e thickness temperature difference distance from p i p e w a l l to F w i d t h of crotch p l a t e at any p o i n t load p e r u n i t l e n g t h horizontal crotch p l a t e distance from crown along centre-I ine of

Y

-

vertical plate

distance

above

mid-plane

or

crown

of

crotch

section modulus a n g l e of confluence of b r a n c h p i p e w i t h main p i p e coefficient of temperature expansion a n g l e between crotch p l a t e and main p i p e a x i s , o r a n g l e
of support

specific weight angle of flare, or taper, of main pipe (measured from

a x i s to cone) a n g l e of f l a r e , Poisson's r a t i o o r taper, of b r a n c h p i p e

CHAPTER 10

PIPES, FITTINGS AND APPURTENANCES

PIPE MATERIALS

Steel Pipe
Steel i s one of the most high versatile materials for tensile strength. pipe walls, relatively as it to

i s d u c t i l e yet
work,

has a

It

is

easy

a n d the welded j o i n t f r e q u e n t l y used w i t h steel

i s the strongest

type of j o i n t . Steel grades used f o r p i p e s i n the U.K., and their corresponding

minimum y i e l d stresses a r e as follows:

BS 4360

Grade 40 Grade 50 Grade 55

:

230 N/mm2

355 N/mm2
:

450 N/mm2
290 N/mm2

US 572

Grade 4 2 Grade 50 Grade 60 Grade 65
: : for

345 N/mm2

414 N/mm2 448 N/mm2
high-pressure pipelines but

The for they

higher

grades

are

preferred

low pressure p i p e l i n e s the lower grade steels a r e more economical, a r e easier
to

weld,

a n d on

account loads. steel

of

the e x t r a

wall

thickness

they a r e more r e s i s t a n t to e x t e r n a l Small-bore seams, welded
to

(less

than

450

mm)

pipes

are

rolled

without and up

but

larye-bore

pipes

are

made

from

steel

plate, in

bent lengths

either

horizontally or

spirally. site.

Pipes a r e made Steel pipe
for

10 m and more a n d j o i n t e d on
asbestos cement and it

is

more expensive small bores to 2nd

than concrete, low pressures,

and plastic coating

pipe and

requires

sheathing

prevent

corrosion.

Cast Iron Pipe
Cast iron
is

more

corrosion-resistant I n fact actual

than

steel,

but

more

expensive and more r i g i d . used f o r p l a i n p i p e , tapers and flanges.

sand c a s t i n g 'specials'

i s now r a r e l y such a s bends, grey

a l t h o u g h i t i s used f o r Plain

p i p e s a r e n o r m a l l y formed of

iron

180
or and ductile iron by of centrifugal ductile iron spinning. pipes are Standard specified pressure in classes and

dimensions

BS 4772

of grey

i r o n p i p e s i n 854622.

Asbestos Cernent Pipe Asbestos cement is able to is resist p i p e i s made of relatively cheap, high cement and asbestos f i b r e , stresses. Although which

tensile and

asbestos it is

cement

relatively

strong

corrosion-resistant, 'specials'.

susceptible to shock damage and cannot be used f o r

Joints a r e made w i t h a sleeve f i t t e d w i t h r u b b e r sealing r i n g s .

Concrete Pipe Reinforced ical loads and in for large or prestressed concrete pipes a r e s u i t a b l e and economThey on are able
of

diameters. than steel

to

resist

external wall

buckling thickness, to be

easier are

account Their

their

extra

corrosion and

resistant. later

main

weaknesses There
i s as

appear

jointing

making

connections.

yet not much

long-term experience w i t h prestressed concrete pipes.

Plastic Pipe Technological this has been o f advances special in plastics in in the

1960's

were

r a p i d and Unplasti-

interest

pipeline

engineering.

cized p o l y v i n y l c h l o r i d e gases, Kingdom for small for drains, and

pipes a r e now used extensively irrigation is is and also sewer used pipes to more a

f o r chemicals, i n the United limited expensive has extent than

waterpipes, Europe. pipes

Polyethylene although High
it

bore large

usually

UPVC

diameters.

density

polyethylene

recently

been used w i t h some success f o r Glass lines.
it

l a r g e diameter p i p e l i n e s . used to a l i m i t e d extent with as an it
for

fibre is

and

resin

is

also

pipefiller

It

comparatively for some

expensive

but

used

inert

is

suitable

specialised

applications

i s corrosion-

resistant, r i g i d , Although and is still

l i g h t and strong. has not yet stood the r i g o r o u s test of
time

pla sti c pipe not

acceptable under many by-laws,

i t s many advantages

a r e causing The

i t to g a i n r a p i d acceptance amongst engineers.

working

stress

of

plastic

i s less

14 N/mrnz

so p l a s t i c cannot

be used f o r limited

l a r g e diameter

high-pressure

mains.

I t i s also subject to can cause

strength and

deterioration w i t h

time a n d to

its flexibility

buckting

collapse. in difficult loss as

It

i s resistant

many

corrosive f l u i d s a n d a n d gas i t can is less

can be used pipes. be The

locations such as undersea o u t f a l l s i s lower than f o r a l i n i n g to other

friction

most m a t e r i a l s a n d types of pipes. It

used

beneficially

subject

to encrustation

than other types of p i p e ,

accommodates g r e a t e r

ground movements a n d i s easier a n d l i g h t e r to l a y . On the other h a n d it has a high coefficient of thermal expansion,
so

joints

may

be

loosened and may

i f the p i p e contracts on cooling. distort or even collapse under

I t i s susceptible to damage load. Ribbed and stiffened

pipes a r e b e i n g developed to overcome these l i m i tations. P l a s t i c p i p i n g i s n o r m a l l y made of thermoplastic which i s r e l a t i v e ly easy to
As

extrude

when

heated.

Polyethylene

and it

PVC

are

thermoused Polyearlier

plastics. in an

PVC i s f l e x i b l e a n d e x h i b i t s creep, (UPVC) f o r than

i s generally pipes.

u n p l a s t i c i z e d form is easier were
to

the manufacture of and for this

ethylene

work

UPVC

reason

developments

with

polyethylene.

With

improvement

i n production

techniques UPVC i s now cheaper than polyethylene a n d i t holds c e r t a i n other advantages. expansion It is stronger and has a smaller coefficient of

thermal

than

polyethylene, (HDPE) has

although improved

recent ly-developed Polyethy-

high-density lene for

polyethylene

properties.

i s more d u c t i l e than UPVC a n d f o r t h i s reason i s often p r e f e r r e d gas p i p i n g . for Rubber toughened p l a s t i c s such as ABS have a l s o been pipework. of Properties low of plastics are tabulated of plastics, water

developed

flexible

in

the

appendix.

Because

the

elasticity

hammer pressures a r e less severe than f o r other m a t e r i a l s . Plastic though factory pipes may be j o i n t e d are or by solvents for large of fusion welding, al-

these fitted

methods flanges

difficult spigots

diameters. with rubber

Screwed o r rings are

and

sockets

also used. The manufacture of moulded bends, tees a n d branches is difficult

i n UPVC a n d even more so i n HDPE so steel o r C.I. quen t I y used. The p r i c e of the 1960's, PVC pipes i n the U.K.

f i t t i n g s a r e fre-

dropped b y more than

30%

in

whereas other p i p e m a t e r i a l s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g i n

182
cost. cast than In iron the U.K., for PVC pipes are less cheaper than than asbestos cement pressures and less

pipes

diameters

450 mm and

1 N/mmz.

I t i s r a p i d l y r e p l a c i n g salt-glazed

and asbestos-cement

pipes f o r sewers a n d low pressure systems. At out least 5700 m i l l i o n was world. used The in figure ever is spent i n 1972 on p l a s t i c p i p i n g throughto r i s e considerably and also new as plastic

the

likely

pipes

are

increasing

proportions (see

discoveries 1948;

may yet r e v o l u t i o n i z e BVMA, 1964; P a u l ,

pipeline

engineering

Boucher,

1954).

LINE VALVES

There a r e many which

types of v a l v e s f o r use i n p i p e l i n e s , the choice of The spacing of v a l v e s a n d the size w i l l smaller than side. In

depends on the d u t y .

depend on economics. the pipe diameter,

Normally v a l v e s a r e sized s l i g h t l y installed with a reducer on

and

either

waterworks the same

practice i t level as

i s p r e f e r a b l e to keep the s o f f i t of the v a l v e at soffit of the pipe, to prevent air being

the

trapped, be lined

whereas up.

in sewerage a n d sol i d s t r a n s p o r t ,

the i n v e r t s should

I n choosing the cost it

the of

size, the
be

the cost of loss to

the v a l v e should be it, although the full in

weighed certain

against

head

through

circumstances

may

desirable

maintain

pipe

bore ( t o prevent erosion o r b l o c k a g e ) . Isolating km, the valves are being of frequently a installed at
of

intervals and

of

1

to

5

spacing Sections the be

function

economics

operating

problems. leaks waste valves profile. It around and

the p i p e l i n e may water which

have to be isolated to r e p a i r would h a v e to be d r a i n e d to

volume of a

would are

f u n c t i o n of

the spacing of

i s o l a t i n g valves.

Scour

i n s t a l l e d at

the bottom of each major d i p

i n the p i p e l i n e

i s sometimes a d v i s a b l e to in-line

i n s t a l I smal I-diameter

by-pass

valves

v a l v e s to equalize pressures across the gate a n d thus ( w h i c h may be manual o r by means of an e l e c t r i c

facilitate

opening

o r mechanical a c t u a t o r ) .

Sluice Valves
Sluice v a l v e s , o r g a t e valves, a r e the normal type of v a l v e s used

183
for isolating or scouring. They seal well under high pressures a n d

when f u l l y open o f f e r l i t t l e resistance to f l u i d flow. There spindle are two is types attached of to spindles the for raising does the gate:

A

rising

which

gate

and

not r o t a t e w i t h the screwed

handwheel, attachment

and

a non-raising

s p i n d l e which

i s rotated i n a

i n the gate ( F i g .

10.1).

The r i s i n g s p i n d l e type i s easy to

I u b r ica t e.
The gate may be para1 lel-sided or wedge-shaped. the wedge-gate

seals best b u t may be damaged b y g r i t . gunmetal sealing

For low pressures r e s i l i e n t o r

faces may be used b u t f o r

high pressures s t a i n l e s s

steel seals a r e preferred. Despite sometimes sluice valves' to simplicity operate. and positive a action, force they to are

troublesome

They

need

big

unseat

them a g a i n s t a high unbalanced pressure, minutes to t u r n open o r closed.

a n d l a r g e v a l v e s t a k e many

Some of the problems can be overcome

b y i n s t a l l i n g a v a l v e w i t h a smaller bore t h a n the p i p e l i n e diameter.

Fig.

10.1

Sluice v a l v e

Butterfly Valves ( F i g . 10.2)
Butterfly a n d occupy for sluice valves less are cheaper The than sluice valves for larger sizes space. sealing at i s sometimes not as e f f e c t i v e as pressures. They also offer a

valves,

especially

high

fairly

h i g h resistance to flow

even

i n the f u l l y the flow

open state,

because

the thickness of

the d i s c obstructs

even when

i t i s rotated

184
90 degrees
to the fully open position. Butterfly valves, as well as

s l u i c e valves, the high gates and

a r e not s u i t e d f o r operation in p a r t l y open positions as seatings to open would them erode rapidly. high

As

both

types

require have

torques

against

pressure,

they

often

geared handwheels o r power d r i v e n actuators.

Fig.

10.2

Butterfly valve

Globe Valves
Globe v a l v e s have a c i r c u l a r seal spindle pipe and handwheel. The flow The seating connected a x i a l l y is a ring to a v e r t i c a l to the

perpendicular

axis.

changes d i r e c t i o n

through

90 degrees twice thus

r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h head losses. bore pipework valve. a n d as taps,

The v a l v e s a r e n o r m a l l y used i n small-

a l t h o u g h a v a r i a t i o n i s used as a control

Needle and Control Valves ( F i g . 10.3)
Needle v a l v e s a r e more expensive than s l u i c e a n d b u t t e r f l y v a l v e s but are w e l l ing action suited for they t h r o t t l i n g flow. whereas They and have a g r a d u a l butterfly throttloffer

as

close

sluice

valves

l i t t l e flow damage. springs,

resistance u n t i l p r a c t i c a l l y shut Needle valves may or be used to with

and may suffer c a v i t a t i o n counterbalance constant weights, pressure

accumulators

actuators

maintain

conditions e i t h e r upstream o r downstream of the v a l v e , a constant even axial at flow.

o r to m a i n t a i n

They a r e streamlined i n design a n d r e s i s t a n t to wear velocities. The cone method of i n t o a seat. sealing is
to

high flow

push

an

needle o r

spear-shaped

There i s often a p i l o t

needle which operates f i r s t to balance the heads before opening.

A v a l v e w i t h a s i m i l a r h y d r a u l i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to the needle v a l v e

185
is the sleeve valve which is suitable seal
for

use

discharging

into

the

atmosphere or orifices spray,

an open b a y . the tube

They

b y a sleeve

which s l i d e s over

around thereby

and

spread the flow

i n a n umbrella-shaped valves are

dissipating used as

the energy. water

Needle a n d sleeve

a l s o occasionally to an electric for cone
or

hammer release v a l v e s when coupled (see Chapter working of the

hydraulic

actuator as the

4). They
are

require the the

dismantling valve. sealing The

maintenance valve is away a

parts

inside but of

variation from the

needle v a l v e instead

cone

rotates

pipe

axis

being

withdrawn a x i a l l y .

Fig.

10.3

Needle v a l v e

Spherical Valves

( F i g - 10.4) have

Spherical
it.

valves

a

rotary opened

p l u g with there

an

axial

hole t h r o u g h as

When the v a l v e bore i s equal

is fully to that

i s no resistance to flow

the

of

the pipe.

The v a l v e s close b y action

rotating

the sphere,

a n d normally

have a n offset

to unseat them before

r o t a t i n g the sphere into the open position.

186

Fig.

10.4

Spherical

valve

Reflux Valves
Reflux, are used

(Fig.

10.5)

or
to

non-return, flow

or

check

valves

as

they

a r e also known, direction. Under

stop

automatically the gate

in

the

reverse by

normal the flow

flow

conditions

i s k e p t open

the flow,

and when

stops,

the horizontally

h i n g e d g a t e closes b y g r a v i t y o r w i t h

the a i d o f s p r i ngs.
to

A counterbalance can be f i t t e d to the gate s p i n d l e fully open a t practically all flows, does or it could be

keep

the

gate

used

to assist

in r a p i d c l o s i n g when
u s e d to a s s i s t c l o s i n g . which case the

the flow

stop.

Springs are

a l s o sometimes multi-gates, obstruct the in

Larger reflux

v a l v e s may h a v e partially difficult.

thickness of the

of e a c h g a t e w i l l
pipeline may be

flow,

and

swabbing

Mounted in h o r i z o n t a l tend to flutter at

pipes,

t h e g a t e s of and for

some t y p e s o f r e f l u x v a l v e s this reason an offset hinge

low

flows,

w h i c h c l i c k s t h e g a t e open is sometimes used.

AIR

VALVES

(see a l s o 1943). of air

Lescovich,

1972;

Parmakian,

1950;

Sweeton,

Two One

types

release

valves air

are

normally

used

i n pipelines.

is a

small-orifice

automatic

release v a l v e a n d the other i s a

large-orifice

a i r vent v a l v e .

A i r Vent V a l v e s When a p i p e l i n e i s f i l l e d , profile, thereby increasing a i r could be trapped a t peaks along the head losses a n d r e d u c i n g the capacity
of

187
the pipeline. air in

Air
the into

vent pipe the

valves

are

normally

installed by

at

peaks

to

permit also

to escape when

displaced

the f l u i d .

They the

let

air

p i p e l i n e d u r i n g scouring o r

when emptying

pipeline. collapse, It

Without or

them vacuum may occur a t peaks a n d the p i p e could

i t may not be possible to d r a i n the p i p e l i n e completely. u n d e s i r a b l e to hammer have a i r pockets in the p i p e as they during operation of may the

is also

cause

water

pressure

fluctuations

pipeline. is full,

T h e s e a l i n g element
i s seated

i s a buoyant b a l l which, the top of

when the p i p e When

a g a i n s t a n opening a t

the v a l v e .

t h e pressure i n s i d e the p i p e f a l l s below the e x t e r n a l pressure the b a l l

drops thereby p e r m i t t i n g a i r to be drawn i n t o the pipe. is being f i l l e d the valve will remain open u n t i l

When the p i p e the

the water f i l l s

pipe and

l i f t s the b a l I a g a i n s t

the seating.

The v a l v e w i l l

not open

a g a i n u n t i I the pressure fal I s below the e x t e r n a l pressure.

Fig.

10.5

Reflux v a l v e

The

valve

will

tend

to

blow

closed

at

high

air

velocities.

It

should be r e a l i s e d t h a t psi) will cause sonic

a differential velocity of

pressure of o n l y 0.1 through the valve

N/mmz

(13

air N/mrn2

(300m/s).

Pressure differences close some air vent

around valves.

0.027
The

( 4 p s i ) h a v e been found to
closed may damage
the

slamming

hollow b a l l seal. In practice a diameter approximately l/lOth of the p i p e diameter

188
is used, although larger diameters and duplicate installations the are

preferable.

The v a l v e

i s r e f e r r e d to b y

the size of

i n l e t connec-

t i o n diameter, The desired through same size

a n d the o r i f i c e diameter i s u s a l l y s l i g h t l y smaller. of air vent of valve w i l l the pipe. depend on The the r a t e of r a t e of filling or of air

scouring

rate

volume

flow

an o r i f i c e i s approximately difference, but ful I

40 times the flow of water f o r the
vacuum pressure should not be

pressure

a1 lowed to develop.

A i r vent
relative Various during to

v a l v e s should be i n s t a l l e d a t peaks i n the p i p e l i n e , the horizontal hydraulic should an air and relative to the hydraulic reverse normally in

both

gradient. gradients fitted the in

possible scouring, with for

gradients

including They as are

b e considered. release air valve,

Combination sec t ion. Equations a is rule the of of

discussed in be

next

sizing the
of

valves area

are in at

derived should

Chapter

5.

As
Q

thumb

orifice air

m2

Q/lOO

where

r a t e of free fitting

flow air is

in m 3 / s

initial factor

pressure. to

The r a t e of though. all

flow

the

most the

difficult r a t e of

determine of air

During vent taken

operations, equal

evacuation the

through

valves as a l l

will

the

r a t e of

filling

line.

Care should be

the a i r

i s evacuated as the flow of water w i l l suddenly hammer i s possible.

be stopped a n d water

A i r Release Valves Air
i s e n t r a i n e d in water

in many ways;

by

vortices in the pump at air

suction r e s e r v o i r o r pockets there
or

merely b y absorption a t exposed surfaces, suction reservoir. The air may be

in

the

released when

i s a drop

i n pressure,

e i t h e r a l o n g a r i s i n g main o r where the a r e s t r i c t i o n such as a p a r t i a l l y closed also cause a i r valves are to be released the

velocity valve. from

i s increased through

An

increase i n temperature w i l l Small orifice a i r

solution.

release

i n s t a l l e d on

p i p e l i n e to bleed o f f the a i r which comes out of solution. Smal I size, orifice air valves are designated by their i n l e t connection

usually

12 to 50 mm diameter.

This has n o t h i n g to d o w i t h the to 10 mm diameter. The

a i r release o r i f i c e size which may be from 1 larger size. the pressure in the pipeline,

the smaller

need be t h e o r i f i c e the a i r (at

The volume of a i r to be released w i l l which is
on

be a f u n c t i o n of
the

entrained

the

average

2% of

volume of

water

189
atmospheric p r e s s u r e ) , (see Chapter 5 ) . The small o r i f i c e release v a l v e s a r e sealed b y a f l o a t i n g b a l l , o r When a c e r t a i n amount of a i r has the p i p e , the the b a l l air. will drop

needle which i s attached to a f l o a t . accumulated or the i n the connection on valve will open

top of and

needle

release

Small vent

orifice valves

release v a l v e s

a r e often

combined w i t h

large orifice a i r

on a common connection on top of the pipe. a double air valve, (see Fig. 10.6).

The arrangement i s c a l l e d isolating sluice valve is

An

normally f i t t e d between the p i p e a n d the a i r valves.

LAREE ORIFICE AIR VENT VALVE

n
SMALL ORIFICE FIlTINQ

Fig.

10.6

Double a i r v a l v e

Double a i r

valves

should

be

installed

at

peaks

in

the

pipeline,

b o t h w i t h respect to the h o r i z o n t a l a n d the maximum h y d r a u l i c g r a d ient. points grade They along line. should a
It

also

be

installed

at

the

ends

and

intermediate

l e n g t h of should be

p i p e l i n e which borne in

is parallel that air

to the h y d r a u l i c may be dragged

mind

a l o n g i n the d i r e c t i o n of flow in sections falling slowly in

i n the p i p e l i n e so may even accumulate relation to the hydraulic gradient.

Double a i r

v a l v e s should be f i t t e d every

4

to 1 km along descending

sections, especially a t p o i n t s where the p i p e d i p s steeply.

A i r release v a l v e s should a l s o be i n s t a l l e d on a l l

long ascending

190
lengths of due to the pipeline where of air is likely to be released from solution especially at p o i n t s of

lowering

the

pressure,

again

decrease discharge

in g r a d i e n t .
side of

Other places a i r v a l v e s a r e r e q u i r e d a r e on the and at high points on large valves and

pumps

upstream of o r i f i c e p l a t e s a n d r e d u c i n g tapers.

THRUST BLOCKS

!See also Morrison,

1969)

Unbalanced act ions:

thrust

results

at

a

bend

in

a

pipeline

due

to

two

(1)

The dynamic force
in

thrust

due to the change i n d i r e c t i o n of flow.
is

The in

any

direction

proportional

to

the

change

momentum in that d i r e c t i o n a n d is: Fxl where flow
=

oqAVx

(10.1)
force,

F

is

the

p

is

the

fluid

mass density,

q

i s the i n the

and A Vx
x.

the reduction of T h i s force the is,

the component of velocity

direction compared pipe.

under normal conditions, to the internal

negligible in the

with

force

due

pressure

(2)

The t h r u s t

i n the d i r e c t i o n of each

leg of the bend due to the

pressure i n the p i p e i s : Fx2
=

PA i s the i n t e r n a l pressure,

(10.2)
A i s the cross sectional area

where p of

p i p e flow a n d The

0 i s the a n g l e of d e v i a t i o n o f the p i p e ( F i g .
outward thrust is the vector sum of the and is (10.3)

10.7).

resultant

forces i n both d i r e c t i o n s of the p i p e a x i s , Fr
=

2pA s i n 0 / 2

The unbalanced t h r u s t may be counteracted b y l o n g i t u d i n a l tension in an all-welded pipeline, or by a concrete thrust block bearing

against size of addition and

the foundation m a t e r i a l . the to block

I n the case of a j o i n t e d p i p e l i n e the In

may be c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g s o i l mechanics theory. resistance on the the bottom there is
of

frictional

the

thrust

block

the circumference of the outer face of

pipeline,

a

lateral

resistance

against

the p i p e a n d block.

The maximum r e s i s t i n g

191
pressure a soi mass w i l l o f f e r i s termed the passive resistance and

i s (Capper and Cassie, f =

1969)
1

P

1 + sin@ + ~ s 1h - s i n @

+

sin<

2cJ 1 - s i n @

where f

@

is

i s the r e s i s t i n g pressure a t depth h, y s i s the s o i l d e n s i t y , P the effective i n t e r n a l a n g l e of f r i c t i o n of the soil a n d c i s i t s If the thrust block extends from the surface to a depth H

cohesion.

below the surface,

a n d i t s l e n g t h i s L, the total r e s i s t i n g t h r u s t i s

HZ
P
=

Ys2

1

This thrust

maximum

block

i s a b l e to move i n t o the soil soil pressure is termed

ponding minimum pressure,

maximum pressure which

y i e l d away from the s o i l mass. This i s

Ifa
=

sin4 -

ysh 1

+ s i n @ "1

which

i s considerably

developed i f the force on which i t i s a c t i n g i s free to move away from the soi I e x e r t i n g the pressure.

Fig.

10.7

T h r u s t a t a bend

+

'

-

sin6

sin6

+

kHLJ

1 + sin$ 1 - sin
will only be developed

(10.5)
if the

possible

resistance

mass s l i g h t l y . the passive

The corresThe

pressure.

which may be

may occur on the t h r u s t block developed if the thrust block

i s the a c t i v e were free to

$-sinm +
sin4

(10.6)

less than the passive pressure and w i l l o n l y be

192

Fig.

10.6

Thrust block

I n p r a c t i c e the pressure which may be r e l i e d upon i s s l i g h t l y than the p a s s i v e pressure, as f u l l safety The movement of of at the p i p e i s

less

usually

not permissible. the

A factor

of

least 2 should be used w i t h the top of from H/20 a

passive resistance formula. block to activate full

i n w a r d movement of pressure
1972),

thrust soft
of

passive

varies

for

c l a y s to H/200 f o r dense sand, the excavation. These movements

(CP

where H

i s the depth and the

are

seldom

permissible, T h e "at varies

"at of

rest"

coefficients a r e p r o b a b l y more r e a l i s t i c .
soil

rest" r a t i o

horizontal

stress

to

vertical

soil

stress

from

0.4 for

loose sands used of

to 0.7

for very

p l a sti c clays.

An impact factor should be

in a l l o w i n g

for

water hammer pressures. T y p i c a l values of a n g l e
$ a n d cohesion
c

internal

friction

for

v a r i o u s soils a r e

indicated

i n Table 10.1.

193
TABLE 10.1 Type of soil Strength of Soils - t y p i c a l values

Angle of f r i c t i o n

4

Cohesion N/rnmz 0

Gravel Sand Silt Dense c l a y Soft s a t u r a t e d c l a y

35 O 30 28 O 5"

0
0.007 0.035 0.15

0

Exarnp I e Calculate pressures a t the size of a thrust block to r e s i s t the u n b a l a n c e d

a 45O b e n d N/rnrnz.

i n a 1 000 rnrn d i a m e t e r p i p e o p e r a t i n g a t

a p r e s s u r e o f 2.0

L e n g t h of 1 p i p e l e n g t h = 10 r n , N/mmz. L a t e r a l f o r c e F = 2 x 2.0

depth =
3 x -If

1 m,

@ = 30°,

C = 0.005

4

s i n 2 2 i 0 = 1.20 MN. T r y a t h r u s t b l o c k 3 x 3 ~ 3rn: Weight of t h r u s t b l o c k 3 x 3 ~ 3 ~ 2 200x9.8/10 Weight of 10 rn l e n g t h of p i p e Weight of w a t e r 3
=
=

600kN 40kN 80kN 130kN 850kN 250kN

i n p i p e 0.785x1zx10x9.8x1

OOO/lO'

= =

Weight o f s o i l a b o v e p i p e l x l x 7 x l 8O0x9.8/1O3 Total weight F r i c t iona I resistance 0 . 3 ~ 8 5 0 L a t e r a l r e s i s t a n c e o f soi I a g a i n s t b l o c k :

= =

1 ~-+ s i n $
1
-

-

sin$

1 + 0.5 1 - 0.5

=

32 ~ 1 ' ~ F = 18 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ 3O3 +32/ ~ 5 ~ v3 3 3 L a t e r a l resistance of soil a g a i n s t p r o j e c t i o n of p i p e : (18 000x1 . 5 x 3 / 1 0 3 x 2 x 5 j 3 ) Total l a t e r a l resistance
=

=

889kN

1x6.5

=

640kN

= 1770kN

F a c t o r o f s a f e t y 1.77/1.20

1.48

A t h r u s t b l o c k s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d so t h a t t h e l i n e o f a c t i o n o f the
resultant the may pipe. best
of

the

resisting

forces

coincides w i t h

the

l i n e of

t h r u s t of This

This w i l l

prevent

overturning or or by taking

u n b a l a n c e d stresses. moments a b o u t

be done g r a p h i c a l l y

the centre

of the p i p e .

194
Thrust horizontal not be blocks are of needed the not only at changes in vertical or

alignment able to

pipeline,

b u t also a t f i t t i n g s which may forces, such as flexible i n s t a l led

transmit

longitudinal

coupl ings.

V i k i n g Johnson o r s i m i l a r coupl i n g s a r e frequently a valve the i n a v a l v e chamber, The opposite

on one side of and removal of

to f a c i l i t a t e i n s t a l l a t i o n
of the valve chamber

valve.

wall

would thus h a v e to be designed as a t h r u s t block.

-li;

Fig

10.9

Segment geometry bend.

s t a n d a r d med i urn-rad i us 900 f a b r i ca t ed

FORCES INDUCED BY SUPPORTS

The There

i n t e r a c t i o n of are many The

a p i p e and and

i t s supports tertiary

i s a complex subject. and in displacements supported There is

secondary are

forces

involved. above a

effects on the

general ly or by other
or

greatest isolated contract

pipes

ground, of

plinths pipe
to

supports.

tendency

expand effects of

longitudinally

and

circumferent i a l l y tial temperatures,

under

the

temperature change, due

differen-

secondary

strains

to the Poisson r a t i o effect,

195
and pipe partial or total f i x i t y of supports which and impose
iio

forces on the support is

vertically,

longitudinally

laterally.

completely r i g i d a n d the more f l e x i b l e the support reaction i t imposes on the pipe.

the

less force or

The stresses on the p i p e may be loosely c l a s s i f i e d as follows: Primary; circumferential due to due to internal pressure across diameter; across the cross section.

longitudinal Secondary; across strains supports. Tertiary;

internal

pressure

bending a t elbows, Temperature angle to

branches, effects.

changes i n section a n d Poisson Due ratio to counterof

supports. at right

primary

strain.

reaction

l a t e r a l deflection due to l o n g i t u d i n a l expansion. the secondary and tertiary stresses are often not

Al though

accounted f o r i n p i p e design,

they can be very s i g n i f i c a n t .

Longitudinal Stress
If the end of a p i p e i s b l a n k e d o f f a n d u n h e l d the l o n g i t u d i n a l is

stress i n the p i p e w a l l

i .e.
The and

4
if

the circumferential ratio ends effects are

stress. tries
to

Poisson the and t

reduce wall

the

length stress E

by

vLpd/2tE Ee
=

held

the

tensile

becomes is the is

Wpd/2t

corresponding the wall

force

is e

Vp-irdz/2 where the strain and

elastic

modulus,

thickness,

w

Poisson's

r a t i o (about 0.3

for s t e e l ) .

Temperature stresses A pipe w i l l
expand or contract by aAT where a i s the coefficient

of expansion a n d LT the temperature change i n time.

A
where

pipe the

restrained coefficient

longitudinally of expansion

will for

undergo

a

stress 12 x

aEAT

steel,

a

, is
the

10

-6

per

"C a n d for p l a s t i c ,
If there is a

50 x
temperature gradient across pipe wall a

Circumferential

stress i s created equal to +_ aEAT/2(1-v).

196
Forces at Bends The force due to water
is

pressure along each a x i s at force acting outwards

a p i p e bend sin (8/2)

PA.

The

net

resultant

i s 2pA

where with a

8

is

the bend angle. block it

I f the r e s u l t a n t force a longitudinal

i s not countered in the pipes

thrust

creates

force

equal to 2pA s i n 2 ( 8 / 2 ) .

Lateral Movement A
straight a pipe of length big x fixed under at both ends due will to buckle temper-

outwards a t u r e etc., dy since dy2

relatively

amount

expansion

b y an amount (10.8)

+ (x/2)*

=

(x/2 + d ~ / 2 ) ~

dy = e.9. x = dy = I f the between to that

loom, 400 x
pipe

-6 d x = xaAT = 100 x 12 x 10
0.02/2
is

x 20 = 0.02m

= lm.

restrained twist prevent

laterally or

it

could a

try

to force

buckle equal

supports required

or to

supports the

exert

lateral

buckling.

For example, dy,

the deflec-

t i o n of

a simple supported

( l a t e r a l l y ) p i p e beam,

under a force

F is
dy =
=

48
1
=

FL3/EI
f o r above example.

: .

F

1 x 210 x

lo9

2
8 is

1 13x.01/(1003x-~

48

= 40

kN referred to as snaking and can cause

The l a t e r a l deflection

pipes to fa1 I o f f the side of supports,

or bend the supports. an elbow will bend outwards

A

pipe

fixed

at

both

ends

with

under expansion by an amount: dy = d x / ( y / a where dx is
+ y/b)

the

net

expansion

in

length

of

pipe

with

length

( a + b ) = c due to temperature, pressure etc.

197
Forces on Supports
The equal pipe. Free to Slide: The longitudinal force of a freely sliding or This i s pW, highly where forces and on the to support the blocks or p i l l a r s or by the hangers w i l l supports on

be
the

opposite

forces

exerted

h e l d p i p e equals
IJ

the f r i c t i o n force on and

the block.

is

the pipe

f r i c t i o n coefficient on the block.

W
is

i s the normal force also a lateral

( w e i g h t ) of to resist

the

There

force

snaking Fixed force pipe

.
Block: can The be resulting force is the smaller of

to

i ) maximum

which and

imposed on block (ii) sliding

b y p i p e e.g. block,

f r i c ion between
or

block,

or

resistance of or

( i i i ) resisttotal longiratio

ance of tudinal

support a t force in

the other end, pipe due to

( i v ) maximum net change,

temperature

Poisson

effect a n d bends. There i s thus a d i s t i n c t i o n between the f r e e to s l i d e case a n d the fixed case in that

( i ) or

(ii) will

apply

to a

"free

to s l i d e "

pipe

a n d case

( i i i ) a n d ( i v ) w i l l g e n e r a l l y a p p l y to a p i p e r i g i d l y f i x e d

to the support. Thus obviously the force as i f one end of be no force a p i p e i s free (see F i g . at that end,

10.9) then there w i l l
support

a n d beyond the f i r s t

i s computed as above,

a n d beyond the second support also lengths case ( i ) or
of

above etc.

F o r the f i r s t

few

( i i ) may these is

apply less.

a n d then case ( i i i ) or For case

( i v ) w i l l take over the other end"

as one
may

( i v ) the "force a t

i n fact

be that due

to other support blocks.

Unba Ianced Forces
Generally balance out. it can be expected i n one that forces
in

welded

pipework

That

i s forces

direction

a t one end a r e equal

a n d opposite to those at however bends there may be

the other end. moments.

Along the length of the p i p e

bending

For

instance a t

elbows

or

there a r e net forces of

l i q u i d on the p i p e w a l l

inside a c t i n g

to t r y to s t r a i g h t e n the bend.

198
During unbalanced instance hammer direction. length transient forces flow which closure at one the conditions could of of a a pull there the may pipe pocket may may force travel there however off in be large For water in one pipe

supports. a pipe pipe

following pressure

vapour line

end

the

Although

pressure

wave

along are

the

and

eventually forces which

re-balance can

forces,

momentary

unbalanced bends.

cause s i g n i f i c a n t

movement s t a r t i n g at

4

Support resistance length x + dx

l a t e r a l movement dy Fig.

10.10

L a t e r a l movement due to temperature expansion

total force F1 + F2 + F3

5" E L T

Temperature Movement

loose c o u p l i n g

I

f r i c t i o n on supports

Fig.

10.11

L o n g i t u d i n a l forces i n p i p e w a l l created b y f r i c t i o n on supports

FLOW MEASUREMENT

Venturi Meters
The with Venturi

(Fig. meter head

10.12)
offers loss. throat an It accurate is used method of mainly flow measurement

minimum

for

large-diameter

pipelines.

The v e n t u r i

has a converging

section and g r a d u a l l y

d i v e r g i n g section to minimize head losses. Flow measurement is based on the Bernoulli equation which is

r e a r r a n g e d as

199
v22

29

V --291 2

-

h , - h 2

=

h

(10.9)

Solving f o r discharge
Q = CdA2

, = /

(10.10)

(10.11 )

where d for and flow

i s the diameter and C separation at

V

i s a velocity

coefficient which allows

the throat in the

a n d includes a f a c t o r f o r upstream pipe.

downstream
in

conditions

A

venturi

meter

should

be

calibrated pipe

place

a n d should have a s t r a i g h t very smal I t h r o a t / p i p e

l e n g t h of a t

least 5

diameters f o r

diameter r a t i o s ,

increasing

to 10 o r even 20 p i p e diameters f o r or double bends, is required

l a r g e r throats,

o r from branches

(BS 1042). F u l l bore branches, p a r t l y
impart s w i r l i n g motion may meter. The head need up loss in a before a

closed valves a n d f i t t i n g s which to 100 p i p e lengths downstream

v e n t u r i meter i s o n l y approximately O.1V

‘/2g. 2

Fig.

10.12

Venturi meter

Nozz 1 es
A contracted form of v e n t u r i
a short meter i s the nozzle meter, which has

bellmouth rounded i n l e t a n d a b r u p t expansion beyond i t . The equation is similar to that for the venturi meter but the

discharge

v e l o c i t y head recovery beyond i s very small.

O r if ices
An o r i f i c e consisting of a thin plate with a central ori f i c e i s a

200
popular method of measuring contraction flow in large which pipes. may There be as is low an as

appreciable 0.61.

orifice

coefficient

The discharge formula i s s i m i l a r to Equ.

-

10.10 where

The

velocity it

head

recovery

is

low

but

the

orifice

has

the

a d v a n t a g e that straight pipe.

i s short

a n d can be i n s t a l l e d i n a short l e n g t h of straight p i p e r e q u i r e d on each side of The o r i f i c e should

The

lengths of

the o r i f i c e a r e s i m i l a r to those f o r

v e n t u r i meters.

be c a l i b r a t e d i n place f o r accurate results.

Fig.

10.13

O r i f i c e meter

Bend Meters

A g r e a t e r pressure i s exerted on the outside of a bend i n a p i p e
than can on be the used inside, due to c e n t r i f u g a l force. The pressure difference
in

to measure the flow.

The meter should be c a l i b r a t e d

place, b u t the discharge coefficient f o r E q u .

10.10 i s approximately
(10.13)

Cd

=

r/2d

where r i s the r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e of the centreline. Mechanical Meters Flow to water consumers is invariably measured by mechanical

meters which

i n t e g r a t e the flow over
a

a p e r i o d of time.

A common type
Other

has a r o t a t i n g t i l t e d disc w i t h types have r o t a t i n g wheels,

s p i n d l e which rotates a d i a l .

lobes o r propellers.

201
There
is

also

a

type

of

meter

which

reacts

to

the

drag

on

a

deflected vane

immersed

i n the flow.

The meter records f o r p a r t l y f u l l

conduits as well. The rotometer consists of increasing flow it
in

a

calibrated

vertical

glass float

tube

which

has a taper

diameter the

upwards. The

A

is suspended
itself
so

in
that

the

upward

through

tube.

float

positions

the d r a g on

( w h i c h depends on the flow

p a s t i t a n d the tube

diameter) e q u a l s the submerged weight. The object may be e l t h e r a sphere o r to make i t r o t a t e a n d centre i t s e l f a tapered shape w i t h vanes

i n the tube.

Electromagnetic

Induction

By

creating and

a

magnetic the

field

around

a

pipe

of

non-conducting an electrohas the

material motive

ionizing is

I i q u i d by
and no can be

i n s e r t i n g electrodes, measured. head by the and The a

force

induced there can does
is

method
of

advantage including nique

that

l o s s of

variety

liquids tech-

sewage also an

be not

measured obstruct

this flow

means. and

A

similar

which of

i s based on sonic developed. velocity The is

velocity

impressed

shock

wave, and

i s also downstream

being

difference measured.

between

upstream

sonic

Mass and Vol ume Measurement
The or most accurate To methods measure flow of the measurement mass or of flow of are fluid by mass volumetrically.
a

weight

flowing The

over

certain flow

time be

the

i s diverted from the

i n t o a weighing volume filled in

tank. a

volume t ime.

may

measured

certain

TELEMETRY

Automatic systems. ling

data

transmission

a n d control

i s often used on p i p e l i n e d a t a handautomatic

Telemetry is

systems a r e tending expensive and

to replace manual less reliable than

which

more

methods. Data

Cables may be l a i d simultaneously w i t h the p i p e l i n e . which may be required of include water levels in reservoirs,
or

pressures,

flows,

opening

valves,

temperature,

qua1 i t y

pro-

202
perties mation of is the read fluid, by a pump speed or power consumption. linked by a The infor-

standard

instrument

mechanical

device to a local d i a l or c h a r t , or to a coder a n d transmitter. S i g n a l s may uous are analogue usually be sent waves out in from a t r a n s m i t t e r a series to of i n the form of continAnalogue but messages also less

or

digits.

less accurate digital.

(up

2 percent
may

accuracy)

expensive uously With pulses
of
or

than be

The

transmitter at are cores regular

repeat messages contintermed scanning. electric level

interrogated systems data

intervals, to

digital by

converted or

binary Every

code

relays,

magnetic

contacts.

possible

the

measurand numbers. as bits.

i s represented by Signals are

a d e f i n i t e combination of in series via and in

binary groups lines

coded known or

transmitted may One be

The

signals cables.

transmitted of

telephone is

private bit,

multiplex plus a

pair

conductors of u n i t s of

needed for may be

each sent

common

feed.

A

number

data

in r o t a t i o n v i a the same conductors.

Alternatively over short

hydraulic by

or

pneumatic Radio

signals

may

be

conveyed economic

distances

pipe.

transmission

becomes

f o r systems w i th long transmi ssion distances. The linked from transmission to a decoder to a system
or

will

send

the

messages

to

a be

receiver decoded the

digital and or

comparater. vice by versa. of

S i g n a l s can The decoder

analogue to

digital data on the
(a

feeds

information play the

bank dials,

means or

a servo motor can disor sound alarms at on

readings
of

charts

lights
is

extreme a
or

values

measurand.

Data picture)

frequently the

displayed with

mimic dials

diagram at the

diagramatic

of

system

tights

p o s i t i o n of

the u n i t being observed. rooms. be fed
to

These diagrams

a r e mounted i n c e n t r a l control The stored may for be information on p a p e r or directly may also

a

data or
to

storage The

system

and

magnetic or or at a

tapes, later

discs stage the for

cards. a

information to be used can those

be fed

computer

decision-making programmed which would

manipulat i n g a system,
in

data.

L a r g e computers

to optimize would result

instance b y selecting pumping cost,
or

pumps which to

minimum The

turbines signals hammer

match
or

power demand. operate

computer could machinery
or

send water

close

valves

hydraulic

r e l i e f mechanisms.

203
Mini of digital computers systems. are They now are the most popular cheaper form than of control analogue computers. computat ions for

telemetered but be

sI ight ly
than

computers They can

considerably programmed but cannot to be

cheaper perform used

larger

digital or

certain for be

tasks other

automatically which or they

easily can

computations

are

not

programmed.

They

increased

in c a p a c i t y

l i n k e d to l a r g e r computers as t h e need a r i s e s .

REFERENCES Boucher, P . L . , 1948. Choosing v a l v e s , K i Imarnock. B r i t i s h V a l v e M a n u f a c t u r e r s Assn. 1964. V a l v e s f o r the C o n t r o l of Fluids. BS 1042, Flow measurement, BSI, London. C a p p e r , P.L. a n d Cassie, W.F., 1969. The M e c h a n i c s o f E n g i n e e r i n g Soils, 5 t h E d . , Spon, London. CP 1972. L a t e r a l S u p p o r t i n S u r f a c e E x c a v a t i o n s , S.A. Instn. C i v i l Engs. L e s c o v i c h , J.E., 1972. L o c a t i n g a n d s i z i n g a i r r e l e a s e v a l v e s . J. Am. Water Works Assn., 64 ( 7 ) . M o r r i s o n , E.B., 1969. Nomograph f o r the d e s i g n of t h r u s t b l o c k s , C i v i l Engg., Am. SOC. C i v i l Eng. P a u l , L . , 1954. Selection of v a l v e s f o r w a t e r s e r v i c e s . J. Am. Water Works Assn., 46 ( 1 1 ) 1057. P a r m a k i a n , J., 1950. A i r i n l e t v a l v e s f o r steel p i p e l i n e s . T r a n s . Am. SOC. C i v i l Engs., 115 ( 4 3 8 ) . Sweeten, A.E., 1943. A i r i n l e t v a l v e d e s i g n f o r p i p e l i n e s . E n g g . News Record, 122 ( 3 7 ) .

L I S T OF SYMBOLS A
C

-

cross sectional a r e a soi I cohesion con t r a c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t d i sc h a r g e coef f i c i en t velocity coefficient

cC

‘d
cV

-

d
e

i n t e r n a l diameter strain e l a s t i c modulus stress force gravitational acceleration

E
f F 9 h o r H

-

d e p t h below s u r f a c e

f l u i d pressure flow r a t e r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e wal I thickness

temperature velocity normal force length direct ions

I a t e r a I d i s p I acement
temperat u r e c o e f f i c i e n t soil density f r i c t i o n coefficient Poisson's r a t i o s o i l mass d e n s i t y a n g l e of i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n of s o i l

205
CHAPTER 1 1

LAYING AND PROTECTION

SELECTING A ROUTE

The bearing is

selection of on the from

a suitable route for cost and

a p i p e l i n e has an costs. and

important route plans, terrain, and

capital aerial and

operating

A

pipeline

selected

photos, any

topographical data

cadastral on the

on-site

inspections and local

other In

available a route,

obstacles

services. be is

selecting Care

the

costs

prcticability the ground

have

to

considered. below the

should be taken grade as peak If and line.

to ensure (Low-flow as the

profile should

hydraulic as low the well

conditions hydraulic above the

be

considered for

rates, were

gradient grade pumps also

i s flattest line

flows). input

there

a peak heads,

between

discharge

obviously Peaks result level grade costs. Once surveyor. regular tions. in for may

would have to be designed to pump over be p o i n t s of p o s s i b l e water column On the other as near

t h i s peak. which

separation

i n water

hammer overpressures. r o u t e should to

h a n d the general to the h y d r a u l i c pipe

of

the

pipeline as

be kept

lines

possible

minimize pressures a n d consequently

a

preliminary Pegs are put at to

route in

is

selected, the

it

is

pegged at

out

by

a

along

centre-line

10

to

100 m
deflec-

intervals and pegs,

changes

i n g r a d e a n d at

horizontal

Offset

2

5 m from the centre l i n e pegs a r e also put
The the l e v e l s of drawing at each pegs office, peg. a r e observed a n d the with Holes ground may levels,

use d u r i n g
is

laying. in

profile bed

then and

plotted depth

levels

indicated

be augered

along

the r o u t e to tests may

identify

m a t e r i a l s which w i l l have to be excavated. samples to decide whether trench

Strength

be done on s o i l

s h o r i n g w i l l be necessary. Underground at and this stage and or at overhead least services should to be accurately them. on located (Drains or

before

excavation
to

avoid

underground

cables

may

have

be

supported

bridges,

a heading c o u l d be hand-excavated

under them).

206
L A Y I NG AND TRENCH I NG

The

type of

p i p e to be used for although other will the

any

job

will

l a r g e l y be a matter life The the of the pipe of the

of

economics, and

facilities affect on the

for the type

laying, decision. of pipe,

materials delivered rigidity, pipes be be are

factors depend

lengths weight,

pipes size of

transport

vehicles to 4

and

method of

jointing.

Concrete

often s u p p l i e d

in 2
m

m lengths,
thin be

w h i l e steel

pipes may

over

10 or
in

even

20

long,

and

walled

p l a s t i c p i p e s may carefully should to be avoid stored be low-

supplied to

rolls. or

Pipes pipe

should or

handled They

damage and ered For may

coatings on

distortion.
or

transported i n t o the small be

padded c r a d l e s

sandbags.

Pipes may

trench by thick

b e l t s l i n g s from mechanical booms or t r i p o d s . w a l l e d welded pipes, the trench, width
of

diameter at

j o i n t i n g and

wrapping 'snaked'

done

the The

side of working the

a n d the p i p e then

i n t o the lines

trench.

required for excavation hand,

construction of pipeand laying. be wide If the

varies

with

method is done On

excavation for small

and

laying

by

3 m may

enough

diameter laying

pipes. and

the

other

hand for

large

mains where

excavation, ally, of

possibly to

even s i t e coating m may be

i s done mechanicReserve widths

working

widths

up

50

required.

20 to 30 m a r e common,

a n d allow

f o r one or two a d d i t i o n a l pipe-

l i n e s at a l a t e r stage. Once the the trench with i s excavated, centre line sight rails pipe may be set up across The

trench

the

of

the

marked

thereon.

frames a r e set a d e f i n i t e height

above the bed a n d the pipe l e v e l l e d
1970).

w i t h the assistance of these (BSCP, Pipes
m m

are

normally damage in by the

laid

with

a

minimum loads. frost

cover

of

0.9

m

to

1.2
of 1

to is

avoid

superimposed

A

minimum

cover

necessary be reduced a concrete

U.K.

to

prevent

penetration.

The depth i n which trench with pipes laying is

may case

i n rocky o r cover to may
m

steep be

ground to minimize costs The pipe
m

necessary. than the

width

of

normally widening

0.5
and

m

0.8

more

diameter, used
for

local over and

deepening which

for are

joints. difficult

(0.8
to

is

300

m m

diameter

straddle

while

jointing).

207
The hesive shoring sides of or wet
the

open and

trench for deep

will

h a v e to be supported for safety

i n uncoThe

soils

trenches,

reasons.

should be designed to r e s i s t the a c t i v e the sides of should one be the trench may well

l a t e r a l s o i l pressure. to a safe to a v o i d

Alternatively angle. slips. Spoil At

be b a t t e r e d back

kept

away from the excavation away is advisable. ground

least

trench a

depth

D r a i n s may be

r e q u i r e d i n the bottom of dry to be while working, enable open the

trench

i n wet

to keep the trench

to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y to

of embankment s l i p s a n d D r a i n p i p e s should with frequent drains

backfill and

be compacted p r o p e r l y . bedded water. in In a stone wet

jointed to

filter ground

cross-drains

lead

away

very

cutoff

beside the trench may be necessary. Pipes bedding reduce shaped sandy gravel may is be bedded to
on

the

flat

trench

bottom, of

but

a

proper to

preferable to the may

minimize pipes. of

deflections b e d of In

f l e x i b l e pipes o r trench may a be

damage to fit

rigid

The the

the

pre-

profile

pipe.

rocky

ground

bed of

material or

be b u i l t up a n d trimmed to shape. stone up to

Beds of sand, up to the

crushed the

20

mm

in as

size, they

brought

haunches of settlement

pipe,

a r e often
to

used,

do not e x h i b i t much
and haunches o r

and

a r e easy

compact.

Concrete

beds

surrounds a r e sometimes used f o r Bedding should be continuous

low-pressure r i g i d p i p e s a n d sewers. joints but haunches should stop Fig.

under

short of j o i n t s to f a c i l i t a t e r e p l a c i n g damaged pipes. typical types of bedding. (Refer to Chapter 7 to

11.1

shows factors

bedding

associated w i t h d i f f e r e n t types of b e d d i n g )

(CPA, 1967; ACPA,

1970).

The best method of b a c k f i l l i n g a n d compaction depends on the type of soil. Soil properties limit may be described in terms of the p l a s t i c l i m i t index

(PI),
with

liquid low

(LL) and plasticity
may often soils, be

( P I = LL-PL).
compacted is

For soils merely by i.e.

PI'S fill For

satisfactorily

inundation. stampers o r of the

high

LL

dynamic

compaction

required

vibrators.

B a c k f i l l densities may be Density. For large pipes

specified i n terms it is practice to

Proctor

Standard

compact

the bed w i t h a w i d t h of at 100

least h a l f the p i p e diameter under The soil f i l l around the p i p e l a y e r s to 90 or 95% Proctor I t may

the p i p e to 95 to should density be up

%
in

Proctor density. 100 to 150 mm

compacted

to haunch level or to 3 / 4 of the depth of the pipe.

208
be necessary to s t r u t f l e x i b l e p i p e i n s i d e to prevent d i s t o r t i o n d u r i n g t h i s operation. The

fill

around

the

top

half

of

the pipe,

up

to 300

m m above the crown should be compacted to 85 to 90% Proctor density. For b a c k f i I1 under roads, ed to the top while l a y e r s may have to be compactfor in runways open

90-95%

Proctor is

density,

110% may
and

be

re-

quired.

85%

normally

sufficient

country

densities

as low as 80% a r e obtained i f control

i s b a d ( R e i t r , 1950). fill around the p i p e should the trench

To a v o i d damage to p i p e o r coatings,
not h a v e stones to in it. Surplus for spoil

may be spread over
or

width of

compensate and

settlement

carted land

away.

Reinstatement and fencing

topsoi I

vegetation,

p r o v i s i o n of

drainage,

o f f of w o r k i n g areas should be considered (see also Sowers,

1956).

THRUST BORES

To traffic soil be

avoid on a

excessively r o a d over lengths. jack or a

deep pipe, hole up

excavations,

or

to

avoid

disrupting the

the p i p e may i s dug in one at each

be j a c k e d through end of the

for

short

A

length to against of a the

jacked. block Small

A

i s set

hole w i t h

i t s back

thrust jack.

timber

a n d the p i p e set than

up on r a i l s i n front may have a

pipes

(less

600

rnrn

diameter)

sharp

head or tain the the pipe.

shoe

f i t t e d to the f r o n t the p i p e , the

to ease the j a c k i n g as

load a n d maindeviate with or

d i r e c t i o n of

the s l i g h t e s t obstacle w i l l

Occasionally to

outside Pushing

of

the should the

pipe

is

lubricated stop for

bentonite the is pipe dug is

reduce f r i c t i o n . stick. auger With or

never soil

long the

may by

larger hand

pipes

ahead of the

pipe The pipe

out then

and

removed

through

pipe.

pipe

pushed i n f u r t h e r , the pipes in to

the j a c k the bore a

r e t r a c t e d a n d another and the a process shoe

inserted The

behind force

repeated. be up

jacking

required if an

push

pipe a

with

may

to 1 200 tons,

but

auger

i s used,

100 ton j a c k

may suffice.

PIPE BRIDGES

Pipes f r e q u e n t l y rigid jointed pipes

h a v e to span r i v e r s o r may have sufficient

gorges.

For short spans, to support them-

strength

209

Class A bedding
Dt 200 v m mln
Reinforced A,: RamforcedA,
PI","

I 0%
:

M= 4

8
4

0 4%M. 3

M.28
0 IZ5H 150 mm l l i "

0 25 d I O O m m mm
Plain or Reinforced

bncr.1e 1 5 0 m k m i
Compocted Gronulor t4 Y

CONCRETE ARCH

Class B bedding
M=
19

Dens@
Compacted Bochf~l1

Class C bedding
M : I ~
Lightly tO"'p0ct. Bocuftll

01251'

CiKANULAK FOUNDATION GRANULAR I W U N U A I I ~

Class D bedding

NOTE For rock or other incompresrible malert316,the trench should be ovaexcovoled 0 minimum of 150mm and

refi1l.d

wrlb gronulor mat.rm

M-bedding

factor

Fig.

11.1

Types of beddings

selves

plus the

the pipe

fluid.

For

larger

spans,

it

may

be or

necessary

to

support from an

on trusses or concrete bridges,
traffic bridge.

h a n g the is to be

pipe con-

existing

If

a

truss

bridge

210
structed for the bottom, of Two the bridge cables hangers the or is pipe, the p i p e could act as the tension member at

the compression one with the

member a t

the top. from may

A n a t t r a c t i v e form
suspension cables. and the

pipe

supported as to they

a r e p r e f e r a b l e to one, attached at an helps angle

be spaced a p a r t p l a n e through

the v e r t i c a l

pipe. and act

T h i s arrangement reduces as an two
or

to support The lateral pipe

the p i p e against could also would be be

wind forces designed necessary to

wind arch,

vibrations. but again be

support to act In pipe

-

either ing,

p i p e s could stays

designed be

together all

w i t h cross bracexcept if sup-

cable on an

could

erected. the

cases be

ported

independent steel. along

bridge,

should

r i g i d jointed;

preferably of

welded joint

T h i s means there w i l l the p i p e to prevent

h a v e to be some form thermal stresses devel-

expansion

oping.

UNDERWATER P I PEL I NES

The
it

laying often is

of

pipes

underwater In

is

very to

expensive,

nevertheless undersea beds

is

inescapable.

addition Gas and

river lines

crossings, from

laying or

becoming

common.

oil

undersea

off-shore and

t a n k e r b e r t h s a r e frequent. which pipes. discharge The

There

a r e also many sludge into

industthe sea will bed

ries

towns

effluent

or

through depend

undersea on

method used for as currents,

underwater height,

laying type of

conditions

such

wave

a n d length of (1)

under-water

pipe: In calm water the p i p e may up
to

Floating on shore,

a n d Sinking: floated thus. out Care

be j o i n t e d
r n

and
is

sunk. needed be

Lengths in

500

have and to

been

laid on

sinking

the

pipe line

winches assist.

barges

should

positioned

along

the

(2)

Bottom be

Towing:

Lengths land bed

of

pipe

up

to

a up a

few
to

kilometres
1

may and

assembled along at is

on
the sea.

i n strings,
of

each by

km
of

long, a the

towed

the are air

sea

winch

barge shore. tied pipe

anchored The to pipe the

Strings up by

jointed in on the the

together pipe sea or

on by

bouyed to

buoys If the

pipe,

reduce f r i c t i o n

bed.

211
i s f i l l e d with crete would line. coating be air to i t may get the to h a v e to be weighted down correct side buoyancy. and Too may by a cona pipe of

light bend

susceptible

currents to or

out

The stresses by

i n the p i p e due currents unit length

the

tension may

and bending be and critical. currents

caused The is

underwater drag per

waves to

lateral

due

waves

Cow

(u + v ) ~ D/2g

(11.1)
(about 0 . 9 ) , wave
w

where C weight current pipe),

D of

i s the d r a g coefficient the water, (or u is the

i s the s p e c i f i c and v is to the the

velocity

velocity

their

components

perpendicular

D

is

the

outside diameter of

the p i p e a n d g

is gravi-

t a t i o n a l acceleration.

(3)

Lay

Barge: on (or a

Pipes

may

be

taken

to

sea

in

a

pipe

barge, down

jointed an arm

special stringer)

lay-barge into

a n d lowered continuously The barges

place.

proceed f o r w a r d

as l a y i n g proceeds.

(4)

Underwater pipe has to

Jointing: be

Underwater

jointing

is

difficult

as

each

accurately

aligned.

A

diver w i l l

be r e q u i r e d ,

which l i m i t s the method to shallow

depths (Reynolds,

1970)

.
to

It

i s usually

necessary

to b u r y

the p i p e to a v o i d damage due

currents. the

Dredging i s d i f f i c u l t as sediment may f a l l before the pipe is laid. The trench

or be washed into has to be

trench

normally

over-excavated. bed fluidizer

A novel way of
(Schwartz,

l a y i n g the p i p e i n soft beds i s w i t h a High-pressure jets of water fluidize

1971).

the bed under the pipes a n d the p i p e s i n k s into the bed. passes of over
a

A number of

the f l u i d i z e r

a r e r e q u i r e d so that deep
a

the p i p e s i n k s g r a d u a l l y

long length.

Too

trench may cause bending stresses i n

the p i p e at the head of the trench. Most joints underwater be pipes are steel and with welded and joints. Pipes and is

should

well

cwted

lined

cathodic

protection

d e s i r a b l e under the sea.

212
JOINTS AND FLANGES

The of

type the

of

joint

to

use on

a

pipeline on site,

will cost,

depand

on

the

type of

pipe,

facilities and

available

watertightness following

joint,

strength

flexibility

requirements.

The

types

of j o i n t s a r e used ( E E U A ,

1968)
ends

:-

(I)

Butt-welded: bevelled joint right walls is

The

of

the back,

steel

pipe a

are

trued root.

and The

approximately clamped with

30'

leaving in

2
and

mm

and/or one or a

tacked more weld

places Large

then with

welded thick it is

around may to

runs. pass

pipes

also make

require good

inside, in

although pipes less

difficult

the

internal

lining

than

600 mm bore. (2)
Sleeve to form welded: a of One end of a steel pipe edge may fillet the be flared to out the be

socket the

and

the pipe.

leading If

welded

barrel welded and

other too.

possible

joint

should

inside

(see F i g . lining, if

11.2).

The e x t e r n a l should be

p i p e coating made good

the

internal

possible,

at the weld a f t e r a l l s l a g has been wire-brushed Two welding essential methods and to of welding arc are available:

off. gas is

Oxy-acetylene welding

metallic achieve

welding.

Top-class and

high

weld

strength should

avoid the

cavities. welding. to the but

A

thorough

testing testing to

programme should be

accompany where

Destructive factory and

confined on tests short may

possible of

sample

welds

lengths be

pipe

occasional including a

field the

destructive are cut

necessary.

Strips

weld

from

the p i p e w a l l is ground

a n d bent over and etched field to

predetermined air

radius. or

The slag

weld

reveal

pockets

inclusions. X-ray,

Normally

tests

w i I I be non-destructive:
or

e i t h e r by X-rays

Gamma-ray, for

magnetic

ultra-sonic and useful the is

methods. but

are

preferred equipment corners. inserted

hi gh definiportable

tion and

contrast for

Gamma-ray

i s more With in the the

otherwise

inaccessible may the be

large-bore p i p e and

pipes,

X-ray

equipment around smaller

a
a

film

wrapped wall.

p i p e to receive double,

image from expo-

single

For

pipes,

overlapping

213

o m i t t e d for small

bore pipes

Fig.

11.2

Sleeve-welded

joint

Fig.

11.3

Push-in

type j o i n t

sures

are

made

from

outside,

thereby

exaggerating

defects

i n the near w a i l . Welding that
for

of

high

tensile steels.

steels

require

better of the

craftmanship pipe ends,

low-tensile

Pre-heating

and post-heating

f o r stress r e l i e f a r e n o r m a l l y desirable. and screwed ends and sockets are only

(3)

Screwed:

Threaded

used on small steel pipes.

(4)

Spigot quently

and

socket:

Concrete, end

cast

iron

and

p l a s t i c pipes freend plain. The

have one has a

socketed sealing the

and

the other

male end socket is

rubber over

gasket (see

f i t t e d over Fig.

i t a n d the Various

forced

ring.

11.3).

shaped r u b b e r r i n g s a r e used. is to caulk

Another way of sealing the j o i n t cement mortar, lead or

i t w i t h bitumen compound,

resin. to

Joints f i t t e d w i t h r u b b e r r i n g s a r e often c a u l k e d as well the into can ring the in place, improve s e a l i n g and socket one or and joints two prevent with dirt

hold

getting rings

joint.

Spigot

rubber of

normally

accommodate

degrees

def I ect ion.

(5)

Clamp-on jointing a rubber

joints: plain seal

Various

proprietry They pipe

joints normally

are

available

for

ended between

pipes. each one

involve a

clamping sleeve. referred joints take

barrel type of

and joint

cover (also

Fig. to as

11.4
a

illustrates Viking

such or

Johnson

Dresser and

coupling). be pipes

These to

accommodate several

movement of

easily,

may

designed
or

degrees If the the

deflection is

between resist pipe

longitudinal may take be the

movement. fixed to

joint of

to

tension, by

tiebolts to

barrel

each

brackets

tension. in the

The b r a c k e t s cause local walls
of

bending a n d tension stresses

the

pipe

a n d may cause damage unless carefour of the or even
is

fully

designed. The the

Normally diameter brackets to the

two

tie to

bolts take are

are the as The legs

sufficient. tension close as

bolts
so

selected the

and

designed barrel
to

that

bolts

possible are

minimize e c c e n t r i c i t y . in The plan length
with

brackets welded the ing

normal l y to the

"U" pipe

shaped axis.

the

parallel

of

the

legs of

bracket stresses all for

should be such that are acceptable. stresses rings, tie-bolt In on

longitudinal fact the it pipe

shear

a n d bend-

i s impossible to e l i m barrel may with be brackets

inate and for

bending this

reason the

like

flanges, to

preferable wai I. The

transferring coupling

load iron

the

pipe

Victaulic

used f o r

cast

pipes,

uses l i p s on the

ends of the pipes to t r a n s f e r tension to the coupling.

215

Fig.

11.4

Slip-on

type coupling.

(6)

Flanged: ends,

Steel

and

cast

iron

pipes

are

often likely

flanged

at

the

especially Faces or

if

p i p e s or are

fittings are and gasket according

to be removed with

frequently.
rnrn

machined insertion

bolted

together

3

rubber to

other

between. to the

Flanges diameter

are and

drilled

standard

patterns

working pressure. Ful I used for face gaskets, with holes for bolts cast a n d the iron bore, soft are

high-pressure Joint inside rings

joints an of

and

or

metal less thick

flanges. than steel raised Flanges are to the

with

outside

diameter

slightly

diameter

the b o l t holes a r e used f o r pipes. for to of Some use flanges with joint the

flanges face used

and inside with

low-pressure the joint bolt

have

a

circle

rings. bolts

rings

tend

dish

when

tightened the pipe

though. The to the the

The

method

attaching

the

flanges

varies. but of of

simplest method i s to s l i p leave pipe. pipe approximately

the f l a n g e extending carried flange of the

over

the

pipe end

10
is

mm

beyond around around inside

the the the edges

A
and

fillet at

weld the

then of the one for

front pipe of

back

barrel. the for

Alternatively may be

both

or

flange high

bevelled work is to

welding. a lip

A

method

preferred

pressure

have

216
on the flange projecting over the end of the pipe
so

that

the bore at the j o i n t Jointing the standard and thrust

w i l l be f l u s h a f t e r welding.
are and fairly must thick, as indicated welded by

flanges practice,

codes of

be securely

to the

p i p e or cast i n t e g r a l l y . Two other types of f l a n g e s a r e common:(1)

Puddle of is as

flanges

are

used

on

pipes The and

which object they

are of

cast these not

in

walls

water to

retaining

structures.

flanges

prevent as pipe

leakage flanges stress,

of

water are

are to

necessarily longi-

thick

which although

designed flange

transfer be

tudinal

the

should

securely

attached to the p i p e w a l l .

(2)

Blank ends.

flanges Their at at at p is is

are,

as

the

name be

implies, calculated

i n s t a l l e d at to resist disc

blank

thickness

should

bending rigidity stress

moments clamped occurs where and t

the edges and centre. the
the

For a c i r c u l a r radial is equal

edges perimeter fluid

the

maximum and d If

bending to 3

bolts,

pdZ/16t2

the

pressure, thickness. stress

i s the p i t c h c i r c l e diameter the edges were not at the rigidly and

the the

flange maximum

clamped

would

occur

centre

would be 50% i n excess of t h i s amount.

COAT I NGS

Buried the p i p e during

steel

pipes

are

subject

to

corrosion

and

damage

unless

i s coated.

Coatings should laying of the

i d e a l l y be r e s i s t a n t to s c r a t c h i n g pipe, and to moisture, chemical and They

transport attack,

and

biological should to
to

electric to

currents prevent yet

temperature during

variations.

be

h a r d enough in the wall

damage

h a n d l i n g a n d due to the adhere well of

stones the

trench, and

sufficiently enough
to

adhesive withstand

pipe

flexible

flexing

the p i p e w a l l ( P P l , 1975; Cates, 1953). The followed outer most by a common coating The coating for pipes with is is a thin adhesive possibly by
is

coat an wire then

reinforced pipe or

fibres

and

then

wrapping.

surface

initially

cleaned

brushing, applied

sandblasting by spray,

acid pickling, or dipping

a n d the prime coat pipe in a bath.

brush

the

Bitumen

217
or coal the t a r enamel pipe may i s the p r e f e r r e d prime coating. be spirally This wrapped with After the p r i m a r y felt
or

coat woven

impregnated followed by

glass

fibre

matting.

i s sometimes

paper

or

asbestos f e l t whitewashed

impregnated w i t h bitumen or coal to assist

tar.

The p i p e i s then

in detecting damage a n d to s h i e l d the c o a t i n g
may be a p p l i e d in the in the f i e l d a f t e r welding left of

from the sun. the bare pipe for

The coating or in and the

joints,

factory, in

which case the ends a r e field. The total thickness

jointing

coated

coating should be at

least 5 mm. include an asbestos f i b r e bitumen mastic 3 paints, PVC or polythene tapes resins or plastics,

Other types of coatings to 6 mm t h i c k , (either cement be self coal tar

pitch,

epoxy

adhesive o r and zinc

bedded on an adhesive), applied with by galvanizing. based

mortar

Exposed p i p e s may

primed

and

painted

bitumen

aluminium

or

enamel

(AWWA,

1962). mortar of 12 coatings offer additional resistance to buck1 i n g

Cement in are the case usually

l a r g e bore t h i n to 20 mm may

walled pipes. 3/4

Cement mortar coatings (AWWA, pin 1954, 1962). by

($
be

to

inch) thick for flaws,

Finished means of metal a

coatings Holiday or

checked An

holes etc. in

detector.

electrical is run the

conductor

the form of An is

brushes

rolling is

springs

along

the p i p e coating. a current

electrical

potential

applied

across

coating and

observed when f l a w s in the c o a t i n g a r e de ected.

LININGS

Steel friction

pipes a r e losses. in

l i n e d to r e s i s t steel In is the

interna may

corrosion and minimize the be oxidized by corrosive systems to in

Unlined the fluid.

pipe

substances particular, corrosion.

case of

solids-conveying off leading
be

the

oxide of

rapidly

scraped

further by

Corrosion

water-conveying by adding

pipes lime.

may

inhibited

m a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h pH e.g.

Lime on the other h a n d

could cause carbonate s c a l i n g . The tar most popular (2 to 3 linings
mm

are

bitumen Bitumen,

(3

to 5 m m t h i c k ) o r coal is a by-product
of

enamel

thick).

which

petroleum, Before

i s t h e cheaper of the two. applying the lining the pipe wall is cleaned by sand-

218
b l a s t i n g or spray, other or methods and the lining

i s then a p p l i e d by

brush,

dipping

s p i n n i n g to o b t a i n smooth f i n i s h . bitumen, by

a smooth surface. Coal tar
it

Spun enamel i s also more and pipe. to

in particular resistant to

provides a moisture subject

enamel is

than to

although impact

more b r i t t l e of the

consequently Plasticised

damage

and

flexing been

coal

tar

enamels

have,

however,

now

developed

overcome the problems of b r i t t l e n e s s . Epoxy careful to the in each paints are is also used successful l y to ensure of for

I inings,

although adhere with

appl ication other. The

necessary

successive the lining

coats

recommended but
it

thickness

varies

type o f

paint, layers.

i s n o r m a l l y of tar they epoxy taint

the o r d e r of 0 . 3 m m applied should be avoided for

2

to

4

Coal
as

linings the

portable

water

pipes

water.

Lead

based p r i m e r s

should also be avoided as they Cement mortar is also to used for lining, large

a r e toxic. by spinning lining the p i p e , is usually

applied centrifugally bore pipes. thick. The Mortar

applied

6

12 mm

( 1 / 4 to
to pipes

3
in

inch)

l i n i n g s have been a p p l i e d

successfully cleaned b y gally by a

the f i e l d . or

The o l d surface i s f i r s t thoroughly and then coated c e n t r i f u along the line (Cole,

wire-brushing machine

sand b l a s t i n g , propelled

drawn or

slowly

1956).
On made pipes good over at about

600

mm

bore, or

most by

factory

linings

may

be

field

joints

manually

mechanical

applicators.

CATHOD I C PROTECT I ON

Despite of steel

the

use often

of

protective

coatings, flaws,

corrosion pin-holes

of
or

the at

walls

pipes

occurs

through

exposed

fittings.

Corrosion

i s due p r i m a r i ly

to two causes;

g a l v a n i c corrosion

and stray current electrolysis (Uhlig,

1948).

Ga I vanic Corrosion
When lyte, two dissimi l a r may flow materials are connected to to the through an electrocurrent from one m a t e r i a l from
or

the other.
the

The r e s u l t i n g through the

electric

current

flows

the

anode leave

cathode

electrolyte.

Particles

ions,

anode

causing

corrosion.

T h e cathode i s not attacked.

219
Such contact material osion action may take place (for when two dissimilar fittings form of metals are in

in

conductive

soil

instance

of

a

different

to the p i p e ) . Another more frequent
w i t h pipes i n corrosive soils. in soi I w i t h or in v a r y i n g characteristics, water
w i th

gal v ani c corris particularly oxygen con-

occurs

The effect

marked

differential content action

c e n t r a t ions sulphur. which which to add

high

chemical biochemical

,

especial l y in the s o i l

Corrosion type of been to

i s alSo caused by galvanic

is a has lime

a c t i o n r e s u l t i n g from b a c t e r i a . A method to counteract soil corrosion was

used the

successfully backfill.

trench

Stress concentration

in the steel

in an e l e c t r o l y t e may also

lead to corrosion.

The amount of corrosion

due to the l a s t named two influences i s u s u a l l y small. Potential corrosive areas may tests or be detected by s o i l resistance tests,
in the pipe.

pipe - soil potential If the s o i l

measurement of the c u r r e n t or

i s a t a l l suspect, resistivity

as a s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e f o r major should be conducted. Soi I r e s i s t taken the

pipelines, a ivity in-situ

soi I

survey

i s measured using a

i n ohm - centimetres. bridge drop. any circuit or by

Readings a r e n o r m a l l y measuring are be a current

and

associated

volt but

Standard major

probes

available done by

for an

these exper-

measurements,

surveys

should

ienced corrosion engineer (Schneider,

1952). resistivity of

A

highly

conductive

soil

may

have a

500 ohm cm,

a n d a poorly conductive s o i l , The potential in by difference

more than 10 000 ohm cm. between a buried pipe and the soil is is

important measured electrode frequently tial If the of the

evaluating connecting contact
as

corrosive voltmeter the soil.

conditions. between the

The pipe

potential and

a

a special cell is

in

with

A

copper

sulphate conditions.

half

used

the electrode under normal to 0.7 higher likely

The poten-

a p i p e i s 0.5 pipe is at a

v o l t s below that of the s u r r o u n d i n g s o i l . voltage to flow than 0.85 volts below that of

soil,

currents are

from p i p e to s o i l ,

thereby

cor-

r o d i n g the pipe. To by a prevent conductor 11.5). t h i s corrosion, to the pipe a in sacrificial the anode of may be connected corrosion

vicinity

possible

(Fig.

The s a c r i f i c i a l anode i s b u r i e d i n a conductive s u r r o u n d , below the water table and currents will tend to leave

preferably

220
from to the anode If instead the of the is pipe, thereby limiting the from corrosion the steel need the are Maghigh

the to

anode. cause In to

anode

sufficiently no external may

dissimilar electrical be

pipe be

galvanic fact, a the

action

potential in

applied.

resistor current.

sometimes

installed

connection magnesium, nesium has

I imi t
and

Common or alloys

sacrificial of these iron,

anodes metals. has of a

zinc the

aluminium, potential (ampere anodic

greatest equivalent

difference hours

from

electro-chemical and ions is fairly may

per

k i logram

material) hydrogen actively polarkg. life

resistant the

to

polarization. the

( A l a y e r of thereby is

replace the metal

ions

leaving further

anodes, This

insulating ization). Magnesium

against anodes

attack. to

termed

Magnesium anodes

give

200

1

200 ampere hours per
for about a

are

normally

designed

10

year

b u t zinc anodes often l a s t 20 or 30 years.
BOI

Junction

Wilh

R o a l ~ t o ri f Required

Fig.

11.5

S a c r i f i c i a l anode i n s t a l l a t i o n f o r cathodic protection

T h e spacing
requirements volts The below spacing to the of

a n d size of bring soil the

anodes pipe to

will a

be determined by the c u r r e n t safe potential length (at of
in

least the

0.85

potential

along

the

entire

pipe). con-

sacrificial poorly

anodes w i l l coated pipe

vary
to

from 3 m m
in

poorly

ductive

soil

and

30

highly

conductive of estthe the

soil

provided the

the p i p e required of a

i s well

coated.
is

The most r e l i a b l e way drain source current and

imating pipe by

current ground

to

actually d.c.

from

means

bed

and

measure

r e s u l t i n g p i p e to s o i l p o t e n t i a l a l o n g the pipe.

221
As a rule
of

thumb,

the

current

required

to

protect

a

pipe

a g a i n s t corrosion where and
pipe

i s i = 10/r
in

per square metre of b a r e d p i p e surface,
r

i

is

the of as

current safety low as

amps,

i s the s o i l

resistance The area

i n ohm cm of exposed r i s i n g to

a

factor be

of

3

is per

incorporated. cent for a

may

0.5

good

coating,

20 p e r cent f o r a poor coating.
Once the (less soils a total than with the required size ohm draw-off may cm) be large current per In km of pipe is known, soils in

anode

calculated. anodes

highly may about to

conductive be used

500

(20 k g )
than used

but

lower

conductivities anodes

(greater be

1

000 ohm cm)
an adequate

number

of

smaller

should

ensure

c u r r e n t output.

If
use a

an

electricity

supply

is

available, of

it

i s usually (Fig. be 11.6)

cheaper instead

to of

an

impressed

current

type

protection

sacrificial

anode.

A

transformer-rectifier

may

i n s t a l led to pro-

v i d e the necessary With corrosive. frequently ductive impressed Scrap used. and

dc c u r r e n t . current iron, Steel for or i n s t a l l a t ions, graphite will the anode need not buried in coke in be selffill, are con-

rods

anodes this

quickly

corrode cast

highly

soils

reason

high s i l i c o n

i r o n anodes a r e

preferred. The omics. in the type of protection current as to use w i l l i n s t a l Iations depend on the are long-term the fewer the econ-

Impressed long are run,

frequently low and In

cheapest instalcase may than of be a

maintainance than for

costs

are

lations

required

sacrificial a a

anodes. high length

impressed applied, sacrificial away may from have

current which anode the to in in

installations turn could.

relatively longer

voltage of fa1 I s a The pipe off high

protects The voltage to

pipe-soil though, a

potential

rapidly voltage

applied be

consequently long length. point

applied

protect vicinity

pipe-to-soil not, of
in

potential general soi I ) .

the

immediate volts

of

the

should

exceed Larger

3

(the pipe may at

potential

b e i n g below

that

the

voltages may be

damage to 100

coatings. spacing

Impressed depending

current on the

installations qua1 i t y ferable of to

1

km

the p i p e coating. sacrificial anodes

Impressed c u r r e n t if the soil

installations are preis higher than

resistivity

about 3 000 to 5 000 ohm cm.

222
Considerable only "hot economic
or

savings

are

often to

achieved

by

protecting and if

spots",

points can be

subject

aggressive this should

attack, be

occasional

shutdowns

tolerated

considered.

Stray Current E l e c t r o l y s i s
The currents most severe a form pipe. of corrosion is often other caused users of by dc stray dc

leaving

Railways but if

and

current

r e t u r n c u r r e n t s through as a steer p i p e nearby, instead of corroded The

rails,

there

i s another conductor such

a p r o p o r t i o n of the c u r r e n t may flow through the r a i l . at a rate Where the c u r r e n t of leaves the p i p e , per year per

the conductor
steel

will of

be

9

kg

(20

Ibs)
by

ampere

current.
or

current pipe/soi 1

may

be detected

actual

current

measurements recordings

from be

potent iat a day,

measurements.
as

Continuous may fluc-

should

taken

over

the

currents

t u a t e w i t h time.
B o r e d or S u b m r r g e d Hod8 Cothodic Rolotlv8 t o E l w . t r o l y t 8

Structure

Iron or grophite 1

Fig.

11.6

Impressed c u r r e n t corrosion protection.

The by to may would

corrosion the

associated pipe of at the along

with the

stray

currents the

may

be

prevented leaves it,

connecting the

point

where with a in

current

destination the to low

current, some on

conductor. which

The
a the

current current voltage bed and

leave have

pipe be to

length, the pipe

case

impressed prevent

to

maintain
A

sufficiently

current

escaping.

ground

transformer r e c t i f i e r may be r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s protection.

223
When the a pipe i s cathodically joints are protected, c a r e should be taken by have welding to be a that cable

mechanical them if

electrically Branch

bonded, may

across

necessary.

pipes

insulated

from the main p i p e to control

the currents.

THERMAL I NSULAT I ON

Fluid

in

the

pipeline

may

often

be

heated

or

cooled

by

the

surroundings. climates or from are the

Ice formation sometimes interior of the a an

i n a r c t i c climates a n d h e a t i n g i n t r o p i c a l serious exposed wall wall, problem. pipe and by and in Heat a is transferred ways: to by

number of and a

conduction layer face

through

pipe pipe

wrapping

boundary

of
of

fluid the

inside and

the by

r a d i a t i o n from the e x t e r n a l wind currents in the air

pipe

convection

s u r r o u n d i n g the pipe.

TABLE 1 1 . 1

Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t i e s

Therma I c o n d u c t i v i t y Mater ia I

k cal
m sec

B t u in

C"
14

sq f t hr F o

Water

0.000

4

Air
Steel B i tum i n ized Wrapping Concrete Slag wool

0.000 005 0.014

0.15
420

0.000
0.0002

01

0.3
6

0.000 01

0. 3

EEUA, The is

1968. heat

loss
to

by the

conduction temperature

through

an

homogeneous the

pipe

wall

proportional

gradient

across

wall

a n d the

heat t r a n s f e r r e d per u n i t area of p i p e w a l l per u n i t time i s
-Q - -

AT

T

k

A0

(11.2)

224
where is the

Q

is

the of

amount pipe

of

heat

conducted

in

kilocalories or time, wal I

Btu, is

A
the

area

surface, across

T
the

is

the t

duration is in the

A0

temperature k is the

difference

wal I ,

thickness for

and

thermal

conductivity,

tabulated

Table

11.1

various

materials. An heat equation transfer has was developed by the wall to Riddick of a et at

(1950) for

the total The

through

pipe

conveying

water.

equation

been modified

agree

with

relationships

i n d i c a t e d by

EEUA (1964) a n d i s converted to metric u n i t s here:
Rate of heat loss of water kcal/kg/sec

(0. - ' o ) / 250D I _ _ _ _ t, + t o + 1 +

1
(11.3)

and since temperature k c a I/kg/sec

the in

specific degrees

heat

of

water

is

unity, sec

the

r a t e of the heat

drop
loss

in in

Centigrade

per

equals

,

where

temperature of water C " ambient temperature outside C " diameter m thickness of p i p e m c o n d u c t i v i t y of p i p e w a l l thickness of coating m c o n d u c t i v i t y of c o a t i n g kcal/m sec C o heat loss through boundary 0.34(1 layer = kcal/m sec C o

+

0.020i)v0'8/D0'2 m/s

kcal/m2 sec C"

water velocity

100

kcal/m2 sec C o e m i s s i v i t y factor
=

0.9 f o r b l a c k a s p h a l t a n d concrete
0.7 for cast i r o n a n d steel
0.4

for aluminium p a i n t 34f1

heat loss by convection = 0.000 kcal/m2 sec C"

v

=

w i n d velocity

km/hr

+

heat loss by r a d i a t i o n = 0.054 E('O

273 1 3

+ 0.78V

( -

'i

-90 0.25

D

1

225
The h e a t generation by fluid friction is usually negligible

although i t theoretically

i n c r e a s e s the t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e f l u i d .

Example

An
thick water

uncoated steel at an

300

mm

diameter to a

pipeline 10 km/hr 10°C.

1

000 m

long

with

5 mm
of

walls, initial

exposed

wind,

conveys

100 C / s

t e m p e r a t u r e of

The a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i s 30°C.

Determine t h e e n d t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e w a t e r .

E
V

=
= =

0.7 0.1/0.785 0.34 0.054

x 0.32

= 1.42

m/s

Kf
= Kr

x 1.42°'8/0.30.2
x 0.7

= 0.67

( 30

+

27313

10-3 = 0.001

tl kl

=

0.005 ~0.014

- o.35
= 0.00103°C/sec

=

(30 - 1 0 ) / ( 2 5 0 x 0 . 3 ) 0.35 + 1/0.67 + (0.001

+

0.0029)

T e m p e r a t u r e r i s e o v e r 1 000 m = 1 000 x 0.00103 1.42 The insulation
of

= 0.7"C

industrial on

pipework i t s own.

carrying The cost of

h i g h or

low

temp-

erature fluids

i s a subject

t h e heat t r a n s f e r

s h o u l d be b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t t h e cost of t h e l a g g i n g . Heat erature heat heat the used, transfer of the to or from buried which pipelines
in

depends is

on

the

tempthe of If be

surroundings, The

turn and

influenced

by rate

transfer. transfer

temperature vary the with

gradient and

consequently to

may of

time

are is

difficult

evaluate. 11.3 may

temperature

surroundings

known,

Equ.

o m i t t i n g the term l / ( K

+ Kc).

REFERENCES

American Concrete P i p e Assn., 1970. Concrete P i p e Design M a n u a l , Arlington. AWWA S t a n d a r d C602, 1954. Cement M o r t a r L i n i n g of Water P i p e l i n e s in P l a c e , N.Y.

226
AWWA S t a n d a r d C203, 1962. C o a l T a r Enamel P r o t e c t i v e C o a t i n g s f o r Steel W a t e r P i p e 30 Ins. and O v e r , N.Y. AWWA S t a n d a r d C205, 1962. Cement M o r t a r P r o t e c t i o n L i n i n g and C o a t i n g f o r Steel W a t e r P i p e 30 I n s . and O v e r , N.Y. BSCP 2010, 1970. P a r t 2, D e s i g n and C o n s t r u c t i o n of Steel P i p e l i n e s in Land, B S I , L o n d o n . Cates, W.H., 1953. C o a t i n g f o r s t e e l w a t e r p i p e , J. Am. W a t e r W o r k s Assn. 4 5 ( 2 ) . 1956. D e s i g n o f s t e e l p i p e w i t h cement c o a t i n g and l i n Cole, E.S., ing, J . Am. W a t e r W o r k s Assn., 4 8 ( 2 ) . C o n c r e t e P i p e Assn., 1967. B e d d i n g and J o i n t i n g of F l e x i b l y J o i n t e d C o n c r e t e P i p e s , Techn. B u l . No. 10, T o n b r i d g e . Engineering E q u i p m e n t U s e r ' s Assn., 1964. Thermal I n s u l a t i o n of P i p e s and Vessels, H a n d b o o k No. 12, C o n s t a b l e , L o n d o n . Engineering E q u i p m e n t U s e r s Assn., 1968. P i p e J o i n t i n g Methods, H a n d b o o k No. 23, C o n s t a b l e , L o n d o n . 1975. P i p e l i n e p r o t e c t i o n r e v i e w , P i p e s and P i p e l i n e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 20(4). Reitz, H.M. 1950. S o i l m e c h a n i c s and b a c k f i l l i n g p r a c t i c e , J . Am. W a t e r W o r k s Assn., 4 2 ( 1 2 ) . R e y n o l d s , J.M., 1970. S u b m a r i n e p i p e l i n e s , P i p e s and M a n u a l . 3rd Ed. S c i e n t i f i c S u r v e y s , L o n d o n . and T o m a s s i , A., 1950. F r e e z i n g of Riddick, T.M., L i n d s a y , N.L. w a t e r in e x p o s e d p i p e l i n e s , J. Am. W a t e r W o r k s Assn., 42(11). S c h n e i d e r , W.R., 1952. C o r r o s i o n and c a t h o d i c p r o t e c t i o n o f p i p e l i n e s , J. Am. W a t e r Works Assn., 44(5). Schwartz, H. I., 1971. H y d r a u l i c t r e n c h i n g of s u b m a r i n e p i p e l i n e s , P r o c . Am.Soc. C i v i l E n g r s . 9 7 ( T E 4 ) Sowers, G.F., 1956. T r e n c h e x c a v a t i o n and b a c k f i l l i n g , J. Am. W a t e r W o r k s Assn., 4 8 ( 7 ) . 1948. The C o r r o s i o n H a n d b o o k , W i l e y , N.Y. U h l i g , H.H.,

L I S T OF SYMBOLS

A
AS

-

area a r e a of steel w i d t h of t r e n c h
drag c o e f f i c i e n t

B

d D E f
9

inside diameter outside diameter thermal emissivi ty factor stress gravitational acceleration
backfi I I a b o v e t o p o f p i p e

-

-

H
I

c u r r e n t in amps

227 K
C

heat loss by convection heat loss through water f i l m heat loss b y r a d i a t i o n c o n d u c t i v i t y of p i p e wal I c o n d u c t i v i t y of coating bedding factor pressure amount of heat resistance i n ohms time thickness of p i p e w a l l t h i ckness of c o a t i n g component of wave v e l o c i t y p e r p e n d i c u l a r to p i p e mean water velocity, or component

Kf
Kr

kl
k2

M
P

Q
r

T tl
t2

u
V

of

current

velocity

p e r p e n d i c u l a r to p i p e

v
W

w i n d velocity s p e c i f i c weight of water depth of bedding m a t e r i a l below p i p e temperature i n s i d e p i p e temperature outside p i p e

Y

0.

0
0

228

CHAPTER 12

PUMP I NG I NSTALLAT IONS

INFLUENCE OF
The pumping pump as

PUMPS I N P I P E L I N E

DESIGN
concerned forced The
with

pipeline lines.

engineer That to is, a

i s frequently the

the design of the of pipe the vice to net by a is

fluid
fed

is

through design

opposed with

gravity pumping line

line.

pipe

inter-related Pumes head,
of

the

equipment losses

selected
in

and

versa. static

must hence pipe

overcome

friction

addition

t h e p u m p i n g h e a d a n d p o w e r r e q u l .ement a r e a diameter. The pipe wall thickness is
in

function based on

the

turn

interna I

pressures.

Therefore

friction

head a n d f l u i d velocity

(which

a f f e c t s w a t e r hammer h e a d ) a l s o a f f e c t t h e w a l l The other. engineer The system should therefore cannot design one
v ,

hickness of the pipe. thout considering the

must be designed in a n integrated manner. therefore their Addison pump size
in

Pipeline pumps, (1957), complete also the
is

engineers their
IWt

be

aware

of

the and

various costs.

types of Stepanoff more

I i m i t a t ions,
(1969) and The

characteristics (19551, and the for

example, head

give

information. have pump, to be i.e.

suction

requirements w i l l The d e s i g n o f
and

considered the

pumpstation design. or impeller In fact (1960), shape it

optimum

casing

material,

more the concern of such as

the manufacturer.

i s covered

in books

t h o s e b y K a r a s s i k and C a r t e r Similarly electrical power that is

K o v a t s (1964) and KSB a n d control

(1968).

supply,

motor design

equipment
by

a r e so s p e c i a l i z e d engineers. It

they

should be selected o r designed pipeline engineer’s point of

electrical

from

the

view

that the following

i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented.

TYPES O F PUMPS

P o s i t i v e D i s p l a c e m e n t Types Least some used
in

pipeline

practice are

nowadays, positive

but

still

used

in

industrial

a p p l i c a t ions,

displacement

pumps.

229
The to to reciprocating move enter to on and a pump fro i s one such type. One-way exit

A p i s t o n or

ram

i s forced liquid conduit

i n a cylinder. stroke and

v a l v e s p e r m i t the the receiving

reverse

into

on a f o r w a r d stroke of the piston. The also p i s t o n can positive be replaced by a flexible These diaphragm. There are

rotary

displacement

pumps.

include s pi ral

types

a n d intermeshing gears. Centrifugal Pumps Rotodynamic pumps move pressure like by to it. a This action l i q u i d by may be is be i m p a r t i n g a velocity in the form along vanes of a an and hence axial flow

through rotating

propeller. There

Liquid may pump the

forced guide

tabular the

casing
to

blades.

in

casing

reduce s w i r l . low heads.

T h i s type of high heads

i s most common f o r centrifugal pump

l a r g e flows a n d Here

For an

i s preferred.

r o t a t i o n of The in in

impeller creates an o u t w a r d form is is the most common, accepted type of

( r a d i a l ) c e n t r i f u g a l flow. and as the centrifugal pump

latter

various

forms

universal ly This

practical ly i s capable

standard of hand-

waterworks

engineering.

pump

l i n g flows pumps by by an

up to 20 cumecs. parallel is are

For h i g h flows The head

a n d to p e r m i t f l e x i b i l i t y , which can be generated water, but

in

common. to a

impeller

limited

l i t t l e over

100 metres of

assembling

a number of

impellers

i n series a wide r a n g e of heads

i s possible.

lcllcr

,nes

Fig.

12.1

Sectional e l e v a t i o n of v o l u t e t y p e c e n t r i f u g a l pump (Webber, F l u i d Mechanics f o r C i v i l Engineers, 1971)

230
The
inlet c o n d i t i o n must and the be controlled to a v o i d c a v i t a t i o n or air

entrainment to the

permissible the

maximum suction pressure i s r e i a t e d first pumping stage. In some cases

delivery

pressure of

instead of connecting of

impellers

i n series on a common shaft a number T h i s permits more be driven by a

independent pump u n i t s a r e i n s t a l l e d i n series. particularly if one of the units
is

flexibility

to

v a r i a b l e speed motor.

The

driving

device i n a c e n t r i f u g a l

pump

i s termed

the

impeller.

I t may be a series of

vanes shaped to f l i n g the water from a c e n t r a l the the as outer periphery. nozzle. Here The it is directed of by this and

eye a

or volute of

inlet

towards into be

casing pump

discharge much as

efficiency

type motor

may

90

percent

although

pump

units

together

rarely

h a v e efficiences installations can for

above 80 percent except unusual duties as such as as 30

in

large

sizes. solids

Pumping in

pumping percent.

suspension

have

efficiencies

low

Usually

the

inlet

to

the

impeller

eye

is

on

one

side,

and

the

d r i v i n g shaft s i t u a t i o n s an
to

to the motor on the other side of

the impeller.

i n some

i n l e t may

be on each side pump. This

i n which case i t i s r e f e r r e d a more expensive casing

as

a

double e n t r y

involves

b u t i t r e s u l t s i n a balanced t h r u s t i n the d i r e c t i o n of the shaft.

Fig.

12.2 Section through a s i n g l e e n t r y horizontal pump

spindle centrifugal

231
Pump u n i t s may be mounted w i t h The the horizontal shaft with of a split the s h a f t is vertical the is most or horizontal. from deep be

casing

practical or a

maintenance well is

point

view. a

Where

space spindle

limited,

suction

required,
is

vertical

arrangement

may

preferable.

The motor

then mounted on a p l a t f o r m above the pump.

TERMS

A N D DEF I N I T I ONS

Head
The water. head It in i t s general sense above is a the energy per u n i t weight of
z,

comprises elevation p l u s velocity

certain

datum,

p l u s pres-

sure head p / w

head v2/2g.

Total Head
Total inlet 12.3). head and usually it is refers the to the excess by

of

discharge pumps

head

to

head

head

generated

the

(see F i g .

Fig.

12.3

D e f i n i t i o n of net p o s i t i v e suction head.

232
Net Positive Suction Head
In order to avoid cavitation, air entrainment and a drop-off head. indi-

in pumping efficiency
The net by positive a

a pump needs a c e r t a i n minimum suction head (NPSH) r e q u i r e d as as a function net can of u s u a l l y be r a t e of

suction

cated The It

pump is

manufacturer referred as to

pumping. head. pres-

requirement i s generally

the

positive above

suction vapour

expressed

the

absolute

head

s u r e r e q u i r e d a t the pump inlet. NPSH
= Hp

I t is c a l c u l a t e d as follows:

- Pv/W
f

( 2.1 - H
e
-

= H r + H a - H s - H where H P
= head

PV/W to centre line of inlet, head.

( 2. 2)
and

at

inlet,

relative

equal to absolute pressure head p l u s velocity PV
W

= vapour pressure = u n i t weight of water = suction r e s e r v o i r head above datum = atmospheric

Hr

Ha
H
S

pressure

head

(about

10

m

of

water

at sea l e v e l )
= = =

elevation

of

centreline

of

pump

suction

above

datum

Hf He

f r i c t i o n head loss between r e s e r v o i r a n d pump turbulence head loss between r e s e r v o i r a n d pump is a
or

NPSH requirement drop-off increases side of when in efficiency

subjective increase It in

figure noise

as

there at

i s not

a sharp
It

level

this

value.

with

discharge.

i s p r e f e r a b l e to be on the conservative The NPSH requirement i s of the order

considering

NPSH.

10 percent of
figure

the head of should be

the f i r s t obtained

stage of from
the

the pump b u t a more manufacturer's tests.

re1 i a b l e

NPSH can tests firstly at al I (Grist, at

be assessed

by observing the NPSH

c a v i t a t i o n o r from performance cavitation commences,

1974).

As

i s reduced

flowrates

away from best efficiency At due an to NPSH just less the

flowrate but eventually that associated by with the

flowrates. erosion

than

maximum impeller
in

cavitation

head

generated

s t a r t s t o decrease.

The head r a p i d l y decreases w i t h decrease
in

NPSH.

A
the 3

l i m i t of NPSH. times

3% decrease

head to

i s recommended for avoid cavitation For

estabbe

lishing at least

The the

NPSH r e q u i r e d 3% head drop

should this

NPSH,

though.

reason

some degree of c a v i t a t i o n i s normally acceptable.

233
Specific Speed
The pump's specific speed

Ns

of are

a

pump i s a useful i n d i c a t i o n of the two slightly different definitions of

capabilities.

There

s p e c i f i c speed a n d the more general one i s g i v e n f i r s t : Specific relative speed a i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c velocity velocity of the of the r o t a t i n g element i.e. it is the

to

characteristic

water,

v e l o c i t y of the impeller r e l a t i v e t o that of water. The speed
of

the

periphery

of

the

impeller speed and

is

proportional is

to

ND

where will

N

is be

the

impeller

rotational

D

i t s diameter the water

(units velocity

introduced

later).

From B e r n o u l l i ' s

theorum

i s proportional proportional b is the

to JgH where H i s the total head. Therefore
But the discharge

Ns
vDb

is

t o ND/ JgH.
width of

Q

is

proportional

to

where

impeller.
so

For a n y

g i v e n geometric

p r o p o r t i o n b i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o D,

Qa,&8D2
E l i m i n a t i n g D one a r r i v e s a t
O-

(12.3)

NS

NQf
This

/
is a dimensionless form of Unfortunately express most in specific catalogues and per text books

(12.4)
speed p r o v i d e d the u n i t s omit not

are the

consistent. g term

and

N

revolutions

minute

(rpm)

r a d i a n s p e r second.

One encounters the expression

NS = NQi/H3/4
In
S.1.

(12.5)
units Q is in gallons per minute and H i n feet. In

imperial

u n i t s Q i s i n cumecs The alternative

( c u b i c metres p e r second) a n d H in metres. of

definition pump of against

NS i s the

speed

in

rpm

of

a

geo-

metrically similar (or gal. per one min)

such size that

i t would d e l i v e r one cumec

1

metre at

(or

1

foot)

head.

Then

by

sub-

stitution

arrives

directly

the

latter

dimensionally

dependent

expression for N By of the is reviewing size
of

.
the former definition of

NS,

one head.

obtains In fact

an a

idea high

impeller with

relative a low a

to

pumping and

Ns

associated a low

head

fast low

rotational speed

speeds, to

whereas that of

NS

implies thus

high a

head high

and

relative relative

water

(water

has

radial

component

to

t a n g e n t i a l component).

234
Fig.
N is

12.4

indicates

the

r e l a t i o n s h i p between
(w
= 271

head per

stage

and

s p e c i f i c speed f o r a number of pumps selected from r e a l applications. i n r p m a n d w i n radians/sec
7

N/60).
Lo

Lo

0

\
50

t@

W2 v u l t i - s t a g e 74-

Ln

0,

L

$20
E I

-

\-- n \ 7
I

\
T e d flow

5

1
12.4
the

\ '
20 50

<

I

I
I

Ns
500
specific

100
head

200
and

1000'
speed for pumps

Fig.

Relationship

between

IMPELLER DYNAMICS

The shape of the radiai flow

the

impeller blades which
in

i n a c e n t r i f u g a l pump influences the pump c e r t a i n charvelocities inside the

pattern basic

t u r n gives of

acteristics. pump duty. Referring is u,

A

understanding

relative

i s therefore useful

in selecting a type of

pump f o r a p a r t i c u l a r

to

Fig. of

12.5
the

the

circumferential relative to

speed the

of

the is

impeller
w

velocity

water i s v.

impeller

and

the absolute water velocity

Torque T o n the water i s force x r a d i u s But force = change in momentum

235
T h e r e f o r e i m p a r t e d T = c h a n g e i n moment of momentum
= A(mvr) =

(12.6) cos a dm - l r l v l 2 cos a dm 1 (12.7)

1 r2v2

Fig.

12.5

V e l o c i t y v e c t o r s a t i m p e l l e r of c e n t r i f u g a l pump.

where

dm

is

an

element

of

mass

discharge

per

unit

time,

and

the

integral

i s o v e r a l l the vanes. where
i s t h e r o t a t i o n a l speed

Power P = T w

(12.8) (12.9)

.'.

P = A (mvr) w
u 2 /ulvl

Now r w = u1 a n d r w = 1 2 P = 1 u 2 v 2 c o s a dm 2 A l s o P = pgHQ where Q

12.10)
cosa drn

.'.

1

12.1 1 ) 12.12) 12.13) 12.14)

i s the d i s c h a r g e r a t e
=

.'.
.*.

P =

gHJdm s i n c e p Q

Jdm

The term u,vl Now v

Head H = ( u v c o s a - UIVl cosal)/g 2 2 coscll i s n o r m a l l y r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . cosa2 = u 2
-

t 2 cot

B2
2

(12.15)

where t 2 i s t h e r a d i a l component of v

.*. H

(u,

- t 2 cot B 2 ) / g

(12.16) (12.17)

a n d Q = nDbt

...

H

2 A - BQ cot and The

B2
are constants, g
is

(12.18) gravity and
p is

where

A

0

water

mass

density.

blade angle

B2

therefore affects
in Fig.

t h e shape of 12.6.

the pump

H-Q c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u r v e ,

as i l l u s t r a t e d

236

1

Q
12.6
Effect of b l a d e a n g l e on pump c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

Fig.

PUMP CHARACTER I ST I C CURVES

The
usually pumping and

head-discharge produced system. of by This

characteristic the

of

pumps and

i s one
to

of

the a

curves viable

manufacturer is

used

design size as

relationship of

useful in

for

pipe

selection will be

selection

combinations

pumps

parallel

discussed l a t e r .

-BH

Fig.

12.7

Pump c h a r a c t e r i s t i c curves.

237
Break and Fig. could pump horse power (BHP) or shaft power required by the pump (see

efficiency The be duty

E a r e often
H-Q

i n d i c a t e d on the same d i a g r a m with

12.7).
also

c u r v e may a l t e r any pump by

the d r i v e speed a n d different impeller

changed

on

fitting

diameters. tant head

The BHP a n d E curves would also change then.
is

The r e s u l is

proportional

to

NZ a n d D2, whereas the discharge
i s most e a s i l y

p r o p o r t i o n a l to N a n d D. The ally. graph. required level and a required duty of a pump determined g r a p h i c -

The

pipeline Fig.

c h a r a c t e r i s i t c s a r e p l o t t e d on a head - discharge

Thus for a

12.8

illustrates assuming pipe,

the (a)

head a a

(static

plus

friction) water level pipe. The from

different new,

a's,

h i g h suction sump low suction to the an sump older line.

and

smooth

and factor be

(b)

more pessimistic f r i c t i o n somewhere of between could

applicable for

A

line

selected can

duty

effect

para1 lel i n g

t w o or

more pumps

also

be observed

such a g r a p h .

I
0flurves/

2 in parallel

llow sump and old pipe

/
\\
0

pipeline

a
high sump level and new pipe

Fig.

12.8

P i p e l i n e a n d pump c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .

238
Pumps however, pipeline line pump to a to
in

series

are pump

more station

difficult (Fig.

to

control. is

Frequently, along a

booster

12.9)

required

increase c a p a c i t y within a

or

to

enable the f i r s t pressure. other, is In

section of

pipethe in

operate are

lower

design the

such cases for the pumps

curves the

added one at

above any

whereas i.e.

parallel,

discharge

head

added,

abscissa

i s m u l t i p l i e d by the number of pumps i n operation. Booster r e s e r v o i r or case one a pumps sump may on operate the in-line, side is of or with a break pressure

suction volume grade

the

booster. in case be

I n the of a

latter
at to

certain The

balancing hydraulic In the

required

trip down a

station.

l i n e must water

also

drawn due to

reservoir

level.

former

case

hammer

power

f a i l u r e i s more d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t a n d allow f o r .

Fig.

12.9

Location of booster pump station.

239
MOTORS

The wheel speed

driving

power

of

a

pump

could an by

be

a

steam motor.

turbine,

water

or
of

most the The

commonly pump pump is speed

nowadays, controlled

electric the

The r o t a t i o n a l of alternating the

frequency

current.

i s approximately

N = 60Hz

divided by

number of per or

p a i r s of Hz

poles, is

where N i s the pump speed in r e v o l u t i o n s frequency
in cycles

minute and Hertz. There

the e l e c t r i c a l

per

second

i s a correction can

to be made f o r s l i p between the r o t o r ( f o r smaller motors). for driving pumps:

and

starter. Three

Slip of

be up t o 2 o r 5 percent motors a r e commonly used

types

AC

a)

s q u i r r e l cage induction motors (asynchronous) i n d u c t i o n motors (asynchronous)

b ) wound r o t o r ( s l i p - r i n g )
c)

synchronous i n d u c t i o n motors. Squirrel cage motors are simple They in design, robust, economic a n d than large

require the

minimum two

maintenance. Their

a r e general l y is that

more e f f i c i e n t they require

other

types.

disadvantage if this

starting motor

currents.

However

can be tolerated, offers the most

a s q u i r r e l cage economical starting and not

with

d i rect-on-1 ine

starter If

reliable permitted, starters.

combination it i s usual

possible. to employ

direct-on-I ine or

is

either star-delta

auto-transformer

A l t e r n a t i v e s t a r t e r s compare as follows:-

Type of Starter

S t a r t i n g Current ( p r o p o r t i o n of f u l l load) 4.5
to 7.0

S t a r t i n g Torque ( f u l l load = 1 ) 0.5 to 2.5 to 0.8

Direct - on Star - Delta Auto

1.2 t o 2.0
as r e q u i r e d

0.3

-

transformer

as r e q u i r e d

Slip-ring starters up to
and

induction h a v e the speed with

motors

are

started they

by

means

of

resistance brought are

a d v a n t a g e that relatively low

c a n be smoothly current.

full

starting

They

normal l y used when s q u i r r e l cage motors a r e impermissible. Synchronous the motors a are used on large They installations. may They have

a d v a n t a g e of

high

load

factor.

be e i t h e r

induction

240
motors speed. ance o r current. Variable constant although are used speed motors are Belt more expensive a n d drives
or

or

salient

pole be

motors. by

They

run

at

constant

synchronous resist-

Starting reactor

can

direct-on-I ine, mainly

auto-transformer, on the

starters

depending

permitted s t a r t i n g

less e f f i c i e n t units are

than

speed

motors.

on

smaller

possible motors now

commutator as well. with used

motors, Thyristor

motor

resistances on s l i p - r i n g and v a r i a b l e speeds motors.

starters cost two for

are

being can

used be

savings for

in

small

Pole c h a n g i n g cage motors.

also

selecting

speeds for

squirrel

PUMPSTAT IONS

The
of

cost

of

the

structures While the

to

house pumps details concern and

may

exceed

the

cost

the

machinery.

design to

cannot himself delivery of

be covered with of the

here

the as

pipeline
he

engineer h a v e to with the

will

need the

layout to

will pump

install

suction The

pipework

each will

control operation

valves.

capacity and

the

suction may more
et

sumps water

effect

of

the

system, in is the

there

be

hammer

protection of

incorporated layouts

stat ion. by

A

complete (1974). import-

discussion The ant can

pumpstation of the sump

given inlet

Twort

al

design

and pump of

pipework

has an

b e a r i n g on the capacity effect its operational reduce
of

a pipeline. Air of of

Head losses i n t o the pump drawn the in by vortices or

efficiency. the capacity

turbulence The

could

pipeline entire

considerably. system

awareness

the

requirements

the

pumping

therefore should be the d u t y of the p i p e l i n e engineer.

REFERENCES

H., 1955. C e n t r i f u g a l a n d Other Rotodynamic Pumps, 2nd Addison, Ed., Chapman a n d H a l l , London, pp 530. Grist, E . , 1974. Nett p o s i t i v e suction head requirements f o r avoidance of unacceptable c a v i t a t i o n erosion i n c e n t r i f u g a l pumps, Proc. C a v i t a t i o n conference, Instn. Mech. Engrs. London, p 153-162. I n s t i t u t i o n of Water Engineers, 1969. Manual of B r i t i s h Water Engineering Practice. V o l . I I , Engineering Practice, 4th ed. London, K a r a s s i k , I . J . a n d Carter, R., 1960. C e n t r i f u g a l Pumps, F.W. Dodge, N.Y. pp 488.

241
Kovats, A., 1964. Design a n d Performance of C e n t r i f u g a l a n d A x i a l Flow Pumps a n d Compressors, Pergamon Press, Oxford, p p 468. KSB, Pump Handbook, 1968. K l e i n , Schanzlin 0 Becker, F r a n k e n t h a l , p p 183. Stepanoff, A.J., 1957. C e n t r i f u g a l a n d A x i a l Flow Pumps, Theory, Design a n d Application, 2nd Ed., Wiley, N.Y., p p 462. Twort, A.C., Hoather, R.C. a n d Law, F.M., 1974. Water Supply, Edward Arnold, London, p p 478. 1971. F l u i d Mechanics f o r C i v i l Engineers, Chapman Webber, N.B., a n d H a l l , London, p p 340.

L I S T OF SYMBOLS

A,B BHP

-

constants break horsepower width di arneter efficiency g r a v i t a t ional acceleration head ( s u b s c r i p t a - atmospheric, e - turbulence, f
-

-

b
D E
9

-

H

friction,

p - inlet and s - elevation).

mass per u n i t time pump r o t a t i o n a l speed net p o s i t i v e suction head specific speed pressure power discharge r a t e radius torque r a d i a l component of velocity p e r i p h e r a l velocity velocity unit weight of water
p 9.

(9800 Newtons per c u b i c metre)

u n i t mass of water a n g I es

242

GENERAL REFERENCES AND STANDARDS

B I T I SH STANDARDS R

Steel Pipes BS

534 778 1387 1965Ptl 2633 291 0 3601 3602 3603 3604 3605

Steel Pipes, F i t t i n g s and Specials Steel Pipes a n d Joints Steel tubes and t u b u l a r s f o r screwing But-welding pipe fittings. Carbon steel

Class 1 a r c welding of f e r r i t i c steel pipes Radiographic pipe Steel pipes a n d tubes - carbon steel ex. welded circ. butt joints in steel

- ordinary duties

Steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes Carbon steel
: h i g h duties

Steel pipes a n d tubes f o r pressure purposes Carbon a n d a l l o y steel pipes Low and medium a l l o y steel p i p e s Steel pipes a n d tubes for pressure purposes Austeni t i c stainless steel

Cast

I r o n Pipe

78-1 78-2 143 4 6 1 437
1 130

C C

I spigot a n d socket pipes - p i p e s
I spigot a n d socket pipes - f i t t i n g s I screwed pipes
waste a n d vent pipes

Malleable C
C C

I spigot a n d socket s o i l ,

I spigot a n d socket d r a i n p i p e s a n d f i t t i n g s

C I d r a i n f i t t i n g s - spigot a n d socket
Cast ( s p u n ) i r o n pressure p i p e s Malleable C
C

121 1 1256 2035 4622
Wrought

I screwed pipes

I f l a n g e d pipes a n d f i t t i n g s

Grey i r o n p i p e s and f i t t i n g s

I r o n Pipe Wrought i r o n tubes a n d t u b u l a r s

788

243
1740
Wrought steel p i p e f i t t i n g s

D u c t i l e I r o n Pipe

L772

Ductile iron pipes a n d f i t t i n g s

Asbestos Cement Pipe

BS

L86 582
P 201 O t4

A C pressure p i p e s
A C
soil, waste and ventilating pipes and fittings

Design a n d construction of A

C pressure pipes in l a n d

3656

A C sewer p i p e s a n d f i t t i n g s

Concrete

556 4101 4625

Concrete pipes a n d f i t t i n g s Concrete unreinforced tubes a n d f i t t i n g s Prestressed concrete pipes ( i n c . fittings)

Clay Pipe

65 539 540 1143

Clay d r a i n a n d sewer pipes Clay d r a i n a n d sewer pipes - f i t t i n g s Clay d r a i n a n d sewer pipes Salt glazed ware pipes with chemical l y resistant

properties

1196

Clayware f i e l d d r a i n pipes

P l a s t i c a n d Other Pipe

1972 1973 3284 3505 3506 3796 3867 4346 4514 4660

Polythene p i p e ( t y p e 3 2 ) for c o l d water services Spec. polythene pipe (type

425)

for

general

purposes

Polythene p i p e ( t y p e 50) f o r c o l d water services UPVC pipes ( t y p e 1420) f o r cold water supply UPVC p i p e f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes

Polythene p i p e ( t y p e 5 0 )

D i m s . of p i p e s O.D.
Joints a n d f i t t i n g s for UPVC pressure p i p e UPVC s o i l a n d v e n t i l a t i n g p i p e UPVC underground a n d d r a i n p i p e

244
4728 Resistance t o c o n s t a n t thermopl a s t i c p i p e 2760 CP312 Pitch f i b r e pipes and couplings P l a s t i c pipework i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e of

l n s u l at i o n 1334 4508 CP3009 Thermal insulation

Thermal l y i n s u l a t e d u n d e r g r o u n d p i p i n g systems Thermal l y i n s u l a t e d u n d e r g r o u n d p i p i n g systems

Valves

8s

1010 1212Pt2 1218 & 5163(m) 1415 1952 & 51 54( m) 1953 2060 2591 3464 & 5150(rn) 3948 & 5151 ( m ) 3952 & 5155(m) 3961 & 5152(rn) 4090 & 51 53( rn) 4133 & 5157(rn) 431 2 5156(m) 5158(rn) 51 59(m)

Taps a n d v a l v e s f o r water 8 a l l valves - diaphragm type

S I ui ce v a I ves
V a l v e s f o r domestic p u r p o s e s

Copper a l l o y g a t e v a l v e s Copper a l loy check v a l v e s Copper a l l o y stop v a l v e s G l o s s a r y of v a l v e s

C

I wedge a n d d o u b l e d i s c v a l v e s

C I parallel slide valves

C

I butterfly valves

C I stop and check v a l v e s

C

I check v a l v e s

F l a n g e d steel p a r a 1 l e l s l i d e v a l v e s Stop a n d check v a l v e s Screwdown d i a p h r a g m v a l v e s Plug valves Bal I valves

245
Jointing

10 21 1737 1821 1965 2494 3063 4504

Flanges a n d b o l t i n g f o r pipes etc. Threads Jointing m a t e r i a l s a n d compounds Oxy-acetylene B u t t we I d i ng Rubber j o i n t rings welding of steel p i p e l i n e s

Dimensions of gaskets Flanges a n d b o l t i n g f o r pipes etc.

Miscellaneous

1042 1306 1553 1710 205 1 29’17 3889 39 74 4740

Flow measurement Non-ferrous pipes f o r steam Graphical symbols I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p i p e l i n e s Tube a n d p i p e f i t t i n g s Graphical symbol s Non destructive testing of pipes a n d tubes Pipe supports Control v a l v e c a p a c i t y

SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS

Steel Pipe SABS 62 Steel pipes a n d f i t t i n g s up to 150 mm E l e c t r i c a l welded low carbon steel p i p e s Coated a n d l i n e d m i l d steel p i p e s

71 9 720

Cast

I r o n Pipe

50 9
746
81 5

Malleable C

I pipe f i t t i n g s
water a n d vent pipes f i t t i n g s and j o i n t s

C

I soil,

waste,

Shouldered end pipes,

Asbestos Cement Pipe

546 72 1

C

I

f i t t i n g s f o r A C pressure p i p e s waste and vent p i p e s a n d f i t t i n g s

A C soil,

246
946 286 819

A
A

C
C

pressure pressure

pipe pipes

- constant - constant

internal outside

diameter diameter

type type

A C sewer p i p e s

Concrete Pipe 676 677 975 902

R C pressure p i p e s
Concrete non-pressure pipes Prestressed concrete pipes Structural pipelines design and i n s t a l l a t ion of precast concrete

Glazed Earthenware Pipe 559 Glazed earthenware d r a i n a n d sewer pipes a n d f i t t i n g s

P l a s t i c Pipe SABS 791 92 1 966 967 997 UPVC sewer a n d d r a i n p i p e f i t t i n g s P i t c h impregnated f i b r e pipes UPVC pressure p i p e UPVC s o i l , waste and vent pipes

UPVC pressure p i p e s f o r i r r i g a t i o n I n s t a l l a t i o n of PE a n d UPVC p i p e s Black polyethylene p i p e s

01 12
533

Va I ves 144 191

C I s i n g l e door r e f l u x v a l v e s
Cast steel g a t e v a l v e s

664

C I gate v a l v e s

AMER I CAN WATER WORKS ASSOC I AT I O N

A W W AC20 1
c202 C203

F a b r i c a t i n g e l e c t r i c a l l y welded steel water p i p e M i l l type steel water p i p e Coal-tar pipe enamel protective coatings for steel water

C205

Cement

mortar

protective a n d over

coatings

for

steel

water

p i p e of sizes 30"

247
C206 C207 C208 C300 F i e l d w e l d i n g o f steel water p i p e j o i n t s Steel p i p e f l a n g e s Dimensions f o r steel w a t e r p i p e f i t t i n g s R e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e w a t e r p i p e - Steel c y l i n d e r type C301

-

not prestressed

R e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e w a t e r p i p e - Steel c y l i n d e r t y p e - prestressed

C302

R e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e w a t e r p i p e - Non-cyl i n d e r type - not prestressed

C600 54 T C602

-

I n s t a l l a t i o n of C I watermains Cement m o r t a r l i n i n g o f w a t e r p i p e l i n e s i n p l a c e

( 1 6"

and o v e r )

AMER ICAN PETROLEUM

INSTITUTE

API

Std.5A Std.5AC Std.5AX Std.5L Std.5LA Std.5LP Std. 5LR

Spec. Spec. Spec. Spec. Spec. Spec. Spec.

f o r Casing,

T u b i n g and D r i l l P i p e

f o r G r a d e C - 75 and C95 C a s i n g and T u b i n g f o r H i g h S t r e n g t h C a s i n g and T u b i n g for Line Pipe f o r S c h e d u l e 5 Alum. Alloy Line Pipe

for Thermoplastic L i n e Pipe for Glass Fibre Reinforced Thermosetting Resin

Line Pipe Std.5LS Std.5LX RP5C I RP5L I RP5L2 RP5L3 Bul.5C2 Spec. f o r S p i r a l Weld L i n e P i p e

Spec f o r H i g h Test L i n e P i p e C a r e and Use o f C a s i n g , T u b i n g and D r i l l P i p e

R a i l r o a d t r a n s p o r t of L i n e Pipe I n t e r n a l C o a t i n g of L i n e P i p e f o r Gas T r a n s m i s s i o n Conducting Drop Weight Tear Tests o n L i n e P i p e Performance Pipe Properties of
Casing,

Tubing

and

DrilI

Bul.5T1

Non-destructive

Testing Terminology

248
AMER I CAN SOC I ETY FOR TEST I NG MATER I ALS

Concrete P i p e s ASTMC14 C76 Concrete Sewer, Storm D r a i n a n d C u l v e r t P i p e Reinforced Pipe C118 C361 C412 c443 Concrete P i p e f o r I r r i g a t i o n or Drainage Pressure Pipe Concrete Culvert,
Storm

Drain

and

Sewer

R e i n f o r c e d Concrete Low-Head Concrete Cjrain T i l e Joints for Circular Concrete

Sewer

and

Culvert

Pipe

w i t h Rubber gaskets c444 c497 P e r f o r a t e d Concrete P i p e Determining Physical Properties
of

Concrete

Pipe

or

T i le
C505 Non-reinforced Gasket J o i n t s C506 Reinforced Sewer P i p e C507 Reinforced Concrete El I i p t i c a l Culvert, Storm Drain Concrete Arch Culvert, Storm Drain and Concrete Irrigation Pipe and Rubber

a n d Sewer P i p e C655 Reinforced Sewer P i p e Concrete D-load Culvert, Storm Drain and

Steel P i p e s ASA 836.10 Steel p i p e s

Cast

i r o n Pipes A1 42 A377 A121.1
C C C
I Pipes

I pipes
I pipes

Asbestos Cement P i p e s C296 C500 C428 A C Pressure Pipes A C Pressure Pipes A

C

Pipes

and

Fittings

for

Sewerage

and

Drainage

249
Plastic Pipes

D2241

U n p l a s t i c i s e d PVC p i p e s

USDI BUREAU OF RECLAMATION S t a n d a r d Spec. f o r Reinforced Concrete P r e s s u r e P i p e

250
BOOKS FOR FURTHER READING

Addison, London Albertson,

H.,

1964.

A

treatise on

Applied

Hydraulics,

Chapman H a l l ,

M.L.,

Barton,

J.R.

and

Simons,

D.B.,

1960.

F l u i d Mech-

a n i c s f o r E n g i n e e r s , P r e n t i c e - H a l I, American Pipe, Concrete Pipe

1960. 1970. Design Manual-Concrete

Association,

Arlington. Engs.
and W a t e r

Am.Soc.Civi I

Pol In.

Control

Federation, M a n u a l 37,

1970. N.Y.

Design

and C o n s t r u c t i o n o f S a n i t a r y and Storm Sewers,

Am.Water

Works N.Y. 1963.

Assn.,

1964.

Steel

Pipe

-

Design

and

Installation,

M a n u a l M11, Bell,

H.S.,

(Ed.),

Petroleum

Transportation

Handbook,

McGraw

H i l l , N.Y. Benedict, 531 pp. Bureau Criteria Of f i ce, Clarke, of for Public Roads, 1963. Reinforced Concrete U.S. Pipe Culverts R.P., 1977. F u n d a m e n t a l s of Pipe Flow, Wiley Interscience,

-

Structural DC. 1968.

Design

and

Instal lation,

Govt.

Printing

Was hi n g t o n , N.W.B.,

Buried

Pipelines

-

A

Manual

of

Structural

D e s i g n a n d I n s t a l l a t i o n , M a c L a r e n and Sons, Colorado Proc. State Univ., 1971. Control of

London. Flow
in

Closed

Conduits,

Inst.,

Fort Collins.
and K i n g ,

Crocker, Hill. Davis, raulics, Holmes,

S.

R.C.,

1967.

P i p i n g Handbook, 5 t h Ed.,

McGraw

C.V.

and

Sorensen,

K.E.,

1969.

Handbook

of

Applied

Hyd-

3 r d Ed.,

McGraw H i l l , N.Y. Handbook of Industrial Pipework Engineering,

E.,

1973. N.Y. Engs.,

McGraw H i l l , Instn. 4 t h Ed., Littleton, Martin, Nolte, cations, Rouse, Water

1969.

Manual

of

British

Water

Engg.

Practice,

London. C.T., 1962. 1961. 1978. Industrial Piping, McGraw H i l l , 349 pp Pitman, London. Publi-

W.L.,
C.B.,

H a n d b o o k of Optimum

I n d u s t r i a l Pipework, Size Selection,

Pipe

Trans

Tech

297 p p . H., 1961. Engineering Hydraulics, Wiley, N.Y.

251
Stephenson, Streeter, Hill, D., 1984. 1961. Pipeflow Analysis, (Ed), Handbook E l s e v i e r , 204 pp. of Fluid Dynamics, McGraw

V.L.,

N.Y.
A.C., Hoather,

Twort, 2 n d Ed., Walski,

R.C.

and

Law,

F.M.,

1974.

Water

Supply,

A. A r n o l d ,
T.M., 1984.

London. Analysis 275 pp. Design
of

of

Water

Distribution

Systems.

Van

Nostrand Reinhold, Walton,

N.Y.

J.H.,

1970.

Structural

Vitrified

Clay

Pipes,

Clay

P i p e Development Association, Watters, pipelines. Young, G.Z., 1984.

London. and control of unsteady flow
in

Analysis

2 n d Ed.

Butterworths. Trott,

D.C.

and

J.J.,
230 pp.

1984.

Buried

Rigid

Pipes.

Elsevier

A p p l i e d Science,

London,

252
APPEND I X

SYMBOLS FOR P I P E F I T T I N G S
GENERAL ELBOW SLEEVED

TEE FILLET WELDEOTEE CROSS OVER BELLMOUTH TAPER JOINTS FLANGED ELECTRIULLY INSULATED FLEXIBLE SWIVEL

1
Jo.

BEND JPtKETED FRONT VIEW OF TEE BACK VIEW OF TEE HANGER YMPLE SUPWRT CHANGE IN D I A

--+_3_

A-

1
I
I

D

E L E CT RICALLY BONDED

BMT W E L D
SCREWED SOCKET SPIGOT 0 SOCKET

-4_f_

E X PANS ION

S L E E V E COUPLING

END CAP

D

VALVES __

EUl TERFLY
ISOLATING WEDGE REFLUX ROTARY PLUG GATE NEEDLE GLOBE DIAPHRAGM

RELIEF AIR MISCELLANEOUS HYDRANT FLOW INDICATOR SURFACE BOX DRAIN STRAINER SPRAY

w

VENT

J--

--+
T

t

P L A T E BLIND HANDWHE E L

+

M 0 TOR

0

253

PROPERTIES OF P I P E SHAPES

Ring AREA

-

F(D2-d2kTDt

fa -11

I

MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT DIAMETER =

fi (0'-

d')

=TD"

MOMENT O F INERTIA ABOUT CENTRE g ( D b - d L ) Z s D a t

PROPERT I ES OF WATER

Temperature
C O

Specific Mass
kg/rn3

Kinematic Viscosity
rn2/ s

B u l k Modulus

Vapour Pressure
N/rnmz psi

F"

Ib/cu f t

s q ft/sec

N/rnm2

psi

0 1 0

32

1 000 1 000

62.4 62.4 62.3 62.2

1.79~10-~

1 .93x 1 0-5

2 000 2 070 2 200 2 240

290 000 300 000 318 000 325 000

0.6~10-~ l.2~lO-~

0.09
0.18

50
68 86

20 30

999 997

1 .31XI 0-6 6 1.01x100.81 x10-6

1.41~10-~ 1.09~10-~
0.87~1 0-5

2 . 3 ~ 1 0 ~ ~ 0.34 3 0.62 4.3~10-

PROPERTIES OF P I P E MATERIALS

Coef. exp.per Clay Concrete Asbestos cernen t Cast Iron

of
O C

Density kg/m'

Modulus of elasticity N/mrn2 psi

Y i e l d Stress N/rnrn2 psi

Tensile Strength N/mm2 psi

Poisson's ratio

5x10

6
2 600 2 500 14 000-40 000 24 000 100 000 210 000 2x106-6x106 3.5~10 6 15x10 -70 17 150 210 -10

1ox10-6

000

-2.1

-300

0.2

8 . 5 ~0-6 1
8 . 5 ~ 0-6 1 1 1 .9x10-6

6

2 500 22 000 30 000 225 330 23 000 48 000

7 800 7 850

0.25
0.3

M i l d Steet High Tensile Steel Pitch Fibre Polyethylene

3 1 ~ 1 0 ~

1 1 .9x10-6 40x 1 0-6 1 60x 1 0-6

7 850

210 000

31x10

6

1 650

240 000

1730

250 000

900

138

20 000

3

400

14

2 000

Po I y e t h y l e n e
(high density) PVC UPVC

2oox 1 o-6 50~10-~ 50~10-~ 1 8ox10-6

955 1 300
1 400

240

35 000

22
8

3 200 1 100

32 17 52

4 600 2 500 7 500 4 500

0.38

3 500 150

0.5~10 22 000

6

40 25

+ 6 000
3 600

Po I y p r o p y I ene

91 2

30

256
CONVERSION FACTORS

Length

1 i n c h = 25.4 mm

1 1

ft

=

0.3048 m 644 mrn'

1 m i l e = 1.61 k m
Area
sq i n c h =

1 a c r e = 2.47 ha 1 sq ft
1 ha
Vol ume
= =

0.0929 mz
mz
=

lo4

35.31 c u f t
1 US g a l .
= =

1 m3
=

1 gal.(imperial)

4.54 I i t r e s
=

3.79 I i t r e s 42 US gal. 35 i m p . g a l .

1
=

barrel

159 I i t r e s
=

Speed

1 ft/sec

0.3048 m/s
=

1 m p h = 1.61 k m / h r .
Acceleration Discharge

32.2 f t / s e c 2 35.3 c u s e c

0 9 1 m/s' .8
=

= g

1 mgd (imperial)
=

1.86 cusec

im3/s

13.2 g p m ( i m p e r i a l ) = 1 P / s
Mass

1 I b = 0.454 k g 32.2 I b = 1 s l u g (US) 1 Ib. f o r c e = 4.45 N ( 1 Newton
=

Force

1 k g x 9.81 m / s ' )
=

Pressure

145 p s i = 1 MPa 14.5 p s i = 1 b a r 778 f t 16. = 1 B t u
1 Btu
550 f t
=

1 MN/m2

=

1 N/mmz

Energy

252 c a l o r i e s
1 HP

1 c a l o r i e = 4.18 J o u l e s
Power Ib/sec
=

1 HP = 0.746 kW
Kinematic Viscosity
1 sq ft/sec
=
=

929 s t o k e s

0.0929 m z / s

Absolute o r dynamic viscosity Temperature

1 centipoise = 0 0 1 kg/ms .0
F o = 32

+

1.8C"

257
A b s o l Ute temperature R " (Ranki ne) A b s o l Ute temperature KO (Kelvin)
71

= FO(Fahrenheit1

+ 460

= Co(Centigrade)

+ 273

= 3.14159
=

e

2.71828

258

AUTHOR INDEX

Abrarnov, N. 15 A d d i s o n , H. 228, 241, 250 A l b e r t s o n , M . L . 17, 35, 250 A n d e r s o n , O.A. 125 A v e r y , S.J. 105, 110 B a l l , J.W. 28, 35 B a r n a r d , R.E. 149, 157 B a r t o n , J.R. 17, 35 B e l l , H.S. 250 B e n e d i c t , R.P. 250 B e r n o u l I i , 16 B e r t h o u e x , P.M. 10, 15 B l i s s , R.H. 101, 111 B o u c h e r , P . L . 182 203 B u r a s , N. 49, 57 C a p p e r , P . L . 123, 125, 191, 203 C a s s i e , W.E. 123, 125, 191, 203 C a t e s , W.H. 176, 77, 216, 226 C h a p t o n , H.J. 177 C h e z y , 18 C l a r k e , N.W.B. 113, 125, 250 Cole, E.S. 218, 226 Col e b r o o k , 23 C r o c k e r , S. 173, 177, 250 Cross, H. 38,57 D a n t z i g , G.B. 51, 57 D a r c y , 21 D a v i s , C.V. 250 D e n n y , 9 . F . 101, 110 D i s k i n , M.H. 24, 35 D v i r , Y . 30, 35 Ervine, D.A. 105, 110

J a c o b s o n , S. 155, Johnson, S.P. 95 60 Joukowsky

157

,

K a l i n s k e , A . A . 102, 104, K a l l y , E. 48, 57 K a r r a s s i k , I.J. 228, 240 K e n n e d y , H. 121, 125 K e n n e d y , J.F. 74, 95 K e n n i s o n , H.F. 129, 140 K i n g , C.L. 177 K i n g , R.C. 173, 177 K i n n o , H. 74,95 K n a p p , R. 28, 35 K o v a t s , A . 228, 241
L a i , C . 66, 95 L a m , C.F. 56, 57 L a w , F.M. 240, 250 L e s c o v i c h , J.E. 186, 203 L i t t l e t o n , C.J. 250 L u d w i g , H. 68, 95 L u p t o n , H.R. 64, 95

111

M a n n i n g , 18 M a r k s , L.S. 107, 1 1 1 Marston, A. 114, 125 M a r t i n , W . L . 250 M i l l s , K.G. 32, 43, 57 Moody, 21 M o r l e y , A . 154, 157 M o r r i s o n , E.B. 190, 203 N e l s o n , E.D. 177 N e w m a r k , 122 Newton, 16, 58 N i k u r a d s e , 21 N o l t e , C.B. 250 Osborne, J.M. 7, 15 108,
111,

F o x , J.A.

109, 110 F e r g u s o n , P.M. 137,

140

110 Glass, W.L. G o o d i e r , J.N. 177 G r i s t , E . 232, 240 H a s s a n , D . R . 165, 177 Hazen-VJ i I I i ams , 18 H o a t h e r , R.C. 240, 250 Holmes, E. 250 Isaacs,
L.T.

P a r m a k i a n , J. 73, 95, 186, 203 P e a r s o n , F.H. 177 P a u l , L. 182, 203 P o i s s o n , 176, 195 P r o c t o r , 150 P r o s s o r , 1vl.J. 101, 111 R e i t z , H.M. 208, 226

43,

57

259
R e y n o l d s , 20 R e y n o l d s , G.M. 211, 226 R i c h , G.R. 78, 95 R i d d i c k , T.M. 224, 226 R o a r k , R.J. 174, 177 R o b e r t s o n , J.M. 104, 111 Rouse, H. 166, 177, 250 S c h a r e r , H. 176, 177 S c h l i c h t i n g , H. 20, 35 S c h n e i d e r , W.R. 219, 226 S c h w a r t z , H . I . 211, 226 S c h w e i g , 2. 48, 57 Sirnons, D.B. 17, 250 Sorenson, K.E. 250 Sowers, G.F. 208, 226 S p a n g l e r , M.G. 113, 125, 146, 152, 157 S t e p a n o f f , A.J. 228, 241 Stephenson, D. 56, 57, 69, 80, 9 5 , 110, 1 1 1 , 151 157, 165, 177, 25 1 S t r e e t e r , V.L. 66, 95, 251 Suss, A. 165, 177 Swanson, H.S. 162, 177 Sweeton, A.E. 186, 203

TSSYJ,

Tirnoshenko, S . P . 134, 140, 158, T r o t t , J.J. 113, 125, 251 T u l l i s , J.P. 35 T w o r t , A.C. 240 Uhlig, H.H. 218, B. 226 51, 57

160,

177

Van d e r Veen,

W a l s k i , T.M. 251 Walton, J.H. 250 Watson, M.D. 24, 35 W a t t e r s , G.Z. 251 Webber, N.B. 229, 241 Weisbach, 21, 109 W h i t e , 23 W h i t e , J.E. 9, 15 W i l k i n s o n , W.J. 177 W i n n , W.P. 33, 35 W i s n e r , P. 102, 111 W o i n o w s k i - K r i e g e r , S. 134, Wood, D.J. 43, 57 W y l i e , E.B. 66, 95 Young, Young, D.C. 113, 125, 251 G.A.J. 101, 110

140,

157

260

SUBJECT INDEX

A b s o r p t i o n 99 A c t i v e s o i l p r e s s u r e 114, 149, 191 A c t u a t o r 92, 185 A d i a b a t i c 86, 107 Aesthetics 2 A i r pocket 89, 100 v a l v e s 106, 189 vessel 87 American Concrete P i p e Assn. 122, 125, 140 Anode, s a c r i f i c i a l 219 A p p u r t e n a n c e s 182 Asbestos cement 180 A x i a l e x p a n s i o n 176, 195 B a c k f i l l 113, 192 B a r g e , 211 Beam 213 B e a r i n g t e s t 128 B e d d i n g 115. 127 B e d d i n g f a c t o r 128, 207 Bend loss 27 meter 200 s t r e s s 173 B e n d i n g 144, 196, 213 B i n a r y n u m b e r 202 B i t u m e n 217 B o n i n g 206 B o u n d a r y l a y e r 22 B r a c i n g 161 B r a n c h 62, 68, 161 B r i d g e 208 B u b b l e 99 Buck1 i n g 152, 168 B u t t e r f l y v a l v e 27, 32, 184 B y p a s s 76, 79, 182 Cant i l e v e r 174 Capacity factor 4 Cash f l o w 1 1 C a s i n g 217 Cast i r o n 180 C a t h o d i c p r o t e c t i o n 218 C a v i t a t i o n 30, 97 C e l e r i t y 60 C e n t r i f u g a l f l o w 200 f o r c e 190 pump 229 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c method 66 pump 70, 73, 229

Chemicals 1 C l R l A 152 Clamp 212 C l a y 255 C o a t i n g , bi tumen 21 6 c o a l t a r 217 epoxy 217 g l a s s f i b r e 217 m o r t a r 23, 217 t a p e 217 Cohesion 191 Col l a p s e 148 C o l l a r 143, 161 Concrete p i p e s 127, 180 p r e s t r e s s e d - 129 180 p r o p e r t i e s 137, 255 Compound p i p e s 37 Compressibi I i t y 16, 60 Computers, a n a l o g u e 202 d i g i t a l 41, 202 Concrete P i p e Ass. 122, 125 C o n d u c t i v i t y 219, 223 Conductor 219 Cone v a l v e 30, 184 Consol i d a t i o n 149 C o n s t r a i n t 52 Container 2 C o n t r a c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t 200 Convect i o n 224 Conversion f a c t o r s 256 Core 129 C o r r o s i o n , g a l v a n i c 218 Cost, p i p e 3 power 4, 12 p u m p i n g 4, 8 C o u n t e r b a l a n c e 186 C o u p l i n g 230 C r a c k 127 Creep 130 Cross section 253 C r o t c h p l a t e 161 C r u s h i n g 137 Current, electric219 impressed21 9 stray220 C y l i n d e r 129 D e f l e c t i o n 146, 150 Design f a c t o r 142 O i ameter 4

261
D i s c h a r g e c o e f f i c i e n t 200 t a n k 79 Discount r a t e 9 D i s s o l v e 99 D r a i n 207 D y n a m i c p r o g r a m m i n g 45 Economics 2 E l a s t i c i t y 64, 255 E l e c t r o d e 220 E I ec tro-chemi c a l e q u i v a l e n t 220 E l e c t r o l y t e 218 E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n 201 El l i p s e 253 Embankment 1 1 6 Ernrnissivity 224 E m p i r i c a l 18 E n e r g y 16 E n t r a n c e l o s s 27 Epoxy 217 E q u i v a l e n t d i a m e t e r 37 Escher Wyss 177 E x c a v a t i o n 206 E x t e r n a l l o a d 115, 146 F a b r i c a t e d b e n d 194 F a c t o r o f s a f e t y 143 F i e l d p r e s s u r e 133 F l a n g e 212 b l a n k 216 p u d d l e 216 F l e x i b l e p i p e 142 F l o a t i n g 210 F i t t i n g s 182 Flow measurement 198 b e n d meter 200 e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c 201 mass 201 m e c h a n i c a l 200 n o z z l e 199 o r i f i c e 199 v e n t u r i 198 volume 202 Flow r e v e r s a l 75, 91 F l y w h e e l 76 F r i c t i o n 18, 68, 74 F r o u d e n u m b e r 104 G a l v a n i c a c t i o n 218 Gasket 215 Gate v a l v e 182 Globe v a l v e 184 G r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s 14, 65 H a u n c h 128, 148 Head, loss 16, 37, 199, 232 v e l o c i t y - 16, 232 w a t e r hammer- 62 H e a d i n g 208 Heat loss 224 History 1 Hole 161 Hol i d a y d e t e c t o r 21 7 H y d r a u l i c g r a d i e n t 18, 68, 238 H y d r a u l i c j u m p 104 I m p a c t f a c t o r 121 I m p e l l e r 229 I n e r t i a 73, 94 I n f l u e n c e c o e f f i c i e n t 122 I n s u l a t ion, t herrna I 224 I n t e r e s t 10 I sotherrnal 86 J o i n t , b u t t - w e l d e d 212 clamp-on 214 f a c t o r 142 f l a n g e d 215 screwed 213 sleeve w e l d e d 212 s p i g o t a n d socket 130, 214 K i n e t i c e n e r g y 72 L a g g i n g 224 L a m i n a r f l o w 20 L a t e r a l s u p p o r t 149 L a y i n g 205 L i n e l o a d 122 L i n e a r p r o g r a m m i n g 52 L i n i n g , b i t u m e n 217 c o a l t a r 217 epoxy 218 m o r t a r 21 8 L i v e l o a d 120 L o a d c o e f f i c i e n t 114 soi I 113 superimposed 120 Longitudinal stress 21 3 Loop 38 Loss c o e f f i c i e n t 27 Losses 26 Mass, c o n s e r v a t i o n of 16 M a t e r i a l s 255 M e c h a n i c a l meter 200

134,

198,

262
Membrane t h e o r y 167 Meter b e n d 200 rnkchan i c a l 200 n o z z l e 199 o r i f i c e 199 r o t 0 200 v a n e 200 v e n t u r i 198 Model 165 M o d u l u s of e l a s t i c i t y 137, 255 M o d u l u s of s u b q r a d e r e a c t i o n 124 Mohr d i a g r a m 136 Momentum 16, 90 Motor 239 Needle v a l v e 91, 184 Network 38 Net p o s i t i v e s u c t i o n h e a d 232 Node 39 Non-l i n e a r p r o g r a m m i n g 56 Normal t h r u s t 190 Nozzle 199 O b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n 56 Ohm 219 Oil 1 Operating factor 4 O p t i m i z a t i o n 8, 45 O r i f i c e 86, 199 P a r t l y f u l l p i p e 100 P a s s i v e s o i l p r e s s u r e 191 Pavement 123 P e r i m e t e r , w e t t e d 102 P i p e , asbestos cement 180, 255 c a s t i r o n 179, 255 c o n c r e t e 180, 255 p l a s t i c 180, 255 p o l y e t h y l e n e 180, 255 PVC 180, 255 p r o p e r t i e s , 255 s a l t g a l v a n i z e d c l a y w a r e 255 steel 179, 255 UPVC 180, 255 Planning 1 P l a s t i c 180 P o i n t l o a d 121 P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o 144, 195, 255 P o l a r i z a t i o n 218 P o l y e t h y l e n e 180, 255 P o t e n t i a l e n e r g y 90 Power 236 Present v a l u e 10 P r e s s u r e , e x t e r n a l 110, 146 i n t e r n a l 142 w a t e r hammer 58 P r e s t r e s s e d c o n c r e t e p i p e 129 P r o c t o r d e n s i t y 150, 207 Profile, pipeline 72, 106, 238 P r o t e c t i o n , c a t h o d i c 218 w a t e r hammer 69 P u d d l e f l a n g e 216 Pump, b o o s t e r 2, 9 c e n t r i f u g a l 75, 229 i n e r t i a 73 power 5 t y p e s 228 P u m p i n g c o s t s 3, 12 R a d i a l s t r e s s 142 R a d i a t i o n 224 R a d i o 202 R a d i u s o f s t i f f n e s s 124 Rail 1 Reducer 169 R e f l u x v a l v e 71, 81, 186 R e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e 1 , 127 R e i n f o r c i n g 127, 143, 162 R e l a x a t i o n o f s t r e s s 131 Release v a l v e 91, 184 R e s e r v o i r 14 R e s i s t i v i t y 219 R e t i c u l a t i o n n e t w o r k 37 R e y n o l d ' s n u m b e r 20 R i b b e d p i p e 154 R i g i d pavement 123 p i p e 113 R i n g g i r d e r 175 l o a d 149 s t i f f e n i n g 154 s t r e s s 142 t e n s i o n 142 Road 1 Roughness 21 Route 205 S a c r i f i c i a l anode 219 S a d d l e 174 S a l t g l a z e d 255 S a n d 192 Scale 6 S c o u r i n g 210 Screwed j o i n t 213 Sea 210

205,

263
Secondary s t r e s s 160 S e c t i o n m o d u l u s 174 S e r v i c e s 205 Settlement 118 Shape 253 S h r i n k a g e 135 S i n k i n g fund 9 S l u i c e v a l v e s 182 Snake 206 Socket j o i n t 130, 214 S o i l l o a d 115, 146 m e c h a n i c s 193, 208 p r o p e r t i e s 113, 192 Span 213 S p e c i f i c mass 254 S p e c i f i c speed 223 S p h e r i c a l v a l v e 185 S p i n d l e 182 S t a n d a r d s 242 S t a r t e r s 239 Steady f l o w 16 Steel, high t e n s i l e 136, 255 p i p e 180 p r e s t r e s s i n g 136 p r o p e r t i e s 255 S t i f f e n i n g r i n g s 154 S t r a y c u r r e n t e l e c t r o l y s i s 219 S t r e n g t h , l a b o r a t o r y 137 Stress, b e n d i n g 196, 213 S t r e s s , c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l 133, 142 Stress, l o n g i t u d i n a l - 134, 198, 213 t e m p e r a t u r e - 21 5 S t r u t t i n g 149, 154 S u l z e r 177 Superimposed l o a d 120 S u p p o r t 128, 148, 194 S u r f a c e l o a d 120 S u r g e 58 - t a n k 77 Symbols 252 Systems a n a l y s i s 44 Te I erne t r y 202 T e m p e r a t u r e 195, 215 T e n s i o n r i n g s 143 T e s t i n g 206 T h e r m a l i n s u l a t i o n 224 T h e r m o p l a s t i c 180 T h i c k n e s s 142, 162, 224 T h r o t t l i n g 28, 184 T h r u s t b l o c k 192 b o r e 208 T i e b o l t 214 T o r q u e 235 T o w i n g 210 T r a f f i c l o a d 121 T r a n s i e n t p r e s s u r e s 60 Transport and Roads Laboratory 152 Transportation, a i r 1 p r o g r a m m i n g 45 rail 1 road 1 waterway 1 T r e n c h 113, 206 T u r b i n e 77 Uncertainty 1 1 U n d e r w a t e r l a y i n g 210 U n i f o r m l o a d 122 Unp I a s t i c i z e d p o l y v i n y Ic h l o r i d e 180, 255 Vacuum 97, 153 V a l v e , a i r r e l e a s e 106, 188 a i r v e n t 186 b u t t e r f l y 183 cone 184 c o n t r o l 29, 184 g l o b e 184 n e e d l e 184 r e f l u x 71, 81, 186 r e l e a s e 91, 184 s p h e r i c a l 185 s l e e v e 185 s l u i c e 182 Vane, g u i d e 165 V a p o r i z a t i o n 90, 97, 153 V e l o c i t y 16, 58, 199 V e n t u r i m e t e r 198 V i c t a u l ic coup1 i n g 194 V i k i n g l o h n s o n c o u p l i n g 194 V i s c o s i t y 23, 255 V o l u t e 229 V o r t e x 89 W a l l t h i c k n e s s 142, 162, 224 Water hammer 60 p r o p e r t i e s 254 s u p p l y 14 Wave 60 Web 162 W e l d i n g 212 'Wetted p e r i m e t e r 148 W r a p p i n g 216 X-ray 217

Research

Y i e l d s t r e s s 152, 255

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