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A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering

by Akihiro Oi September 2005

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Title: DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING SYSTEM Author: Date Submitted: Akihiro Oi 26th September, 2005

Dr. Taufik Committee Chair

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Dr. Ahmad Nafisi Committee Member

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Dr. William Ahlgren Committee Member

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It employs SIMULINK to model a DC pump motor. The investigation includes discussion of various MPPT algorithms and control methods. This allows a lower cost system. The thesis decides on the output sensing direct control method because it requires fewer sensors. Then. The system employs the maximum power point tracker (MPPT). It provides theoretical studies of photovoltaics and modeling techniques using equivalent electric circuits. iv . MATLAB simulations perform comparative tests of two popular MPPT algorithms using actual irradiance data.ABSTRACT DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING SYSTEM Akihiro Oi This thesis deals with the design and simulation of a simple but efficient photovoltaic water pumping system. and the model is transferred into MATLAB. PSpice simulations verify the DC-DC converter design. MATLAB simulations verify the system and functionality of MPPT. Each subsystem is modeled in order to simulate the whole system in MATLAB. Simulations also make comparisons with the system without MPPT in terms of total energy produced and total volume of water pumped per day. The results validate that MPPT can significantly increase the efficiency and the performance of PV water pumping system compared to the system without MPPT.

Dr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to first acknowledge my advisor. Nafisi and Dr. Ahlgren. I would also like to express my sincere appreciation to my other thesis committees. John Carlin. especially Jenny Ho for her constant encouragement and support during two years of my graduate work. Taufik. Also. for review of this thesis in detail and their important feedback. and my friends . Sajiv Nair. I would like to thank my colleague and friend. who has a career experience in designing photovoltaic systems. James Sorenson. Alan Yeung. to my parents. His power electronics courses and his dedication to his students gave me the best experience during the program. Dr. A number of ideas generated from our numerous discussions and his feedback are incorporated in this thesis. James Silva.many thanks for much support the whole way through. all other denizens of “EE Grad Lab” and the lab technicians for their support and willingness to help me out during various stages of my project. Michael Chong. my sister. for his support and advice throughout my graduate program. thanks to my other good colleagues. John Cadwell. Finally. Yat Tam. Akihiro Oi September 2005 v .

.............................. 12 2..................................................................4 Background and Scope of This Thesis..................................................... viii List of Figures ................. 61 3.......4 MPPT Simulations with Resistive Load .........................27 3...................................... 17 2................................................................................ 47 3.................. 15 3.........2..........................................................................................................4 Photovoltaic Module........................3 MPPT Controller ........................................ 1 1..... 40 3.................................................................2 I-V Characteristics of DC Motors...................1 Introduction................... 66 vi . 62 4........1 Introduction..........ix Chapter 1 Introduction .................... 31 2..................................1 Water Pumping Systems and Photovoltaic Power..........2 Cúk Converter Design............................................ 34 3.............. 28 3.................................................................... 4 Chapter 2 Photovoltaic Modules .................3... 5 1.........................1 Introduction...................................................55 4..........................................................................................................................................2 Direct Control ......................3.........1 Topologies ...................................................5......... 18 2................................................................................................................. 7 Chapter 3 Maximum Power Point Tracker............................................... 55 4..........................................6............................................ 10 2......................................5.....................................................................................................................................1 Perturb & Observe Algorithm.....3 Choice of MPPT Sampling Rate.................. 3 1...............................10 2.............................................3 Modeling a PV Cell ................................................ 38 3.................. 55 4..............................................................................3.....................2.................................3................................................. 47 3.................................................... 31 3.........3..........5 Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms........2 Incremental Conductance Algorithm.........3 Output Sensing Direct Control ..........1 1.................................................. 6 1................................................................................... 10 2.....................2 PSpice Simulations .................................2 Energy Storage Alternatives ............ 32 3......................................................................4 Water Pump .........................................2 Photovoltaic Cell................ 52 4..............................................................3 Basic Operation of Cúk Converter.......................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents List of Tables ........................5 Modeling a PV Module by MATLAB................................................................................. 50 Chapter 4 Design and Simulations .........................................................1 The Simplest Model....................... 8 1...3...........................3 DC-DC Converter ............ 44 3................................................................... 5 1.........................................................................................6 Control of MPPT......2 Maximum Power Point Tracker............................................................................................................... 27 3..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2...................1 PV Module... 25 2.................. 48 3.............6 The I-V Curve and Maximum Power Point...............................................................................................................................6.3...................................................................................................3 The Proposed System......2 Cúk and SEPIC Converters ................... 56 4........3.........................................................................................7 Limitations of MPPT ...................... 37 3......................... 59 4.........3......................................................................................6..............1 Component Selection................1 PI Control..........................3 Comparisons of P&O and incCond Algorithm....................................................................................................................................................4 Mechanism of Load Matching ......2 The More Accurate Model.............................. 12 1.........................................

..1 MATLAB Function for Modeling BP SX 150S PV Module........................................................81 Appendix A.........2...........................................................................1.....5 MPPT Simulations with DC Pump Motor Load...............................................1........................................2 MATLAB Script to Draw PV I-V Curves ........................................ 102 B..............3 Concluding Remarks...........................3 MATLAB Function to Find the MPP ............2 Direct Control Method with incCond Algorithm......... 93 A....................................................1 Summary ................................................... 102 B..........................................1 Direct Control Method with P&O Algorithm................................. 103 vii ..1 TMS320F2812 DSP.................................................1......2 Difficulties and Future Research ......102 B.............................................1.................................. 90 A......1............................................................3 Example ...................................... 71 4.................................................................. 79 5...................................................84 A..................................... 78 5................5.............................................................. 75 4.......................... 70 Chapter 5 Conclusion....................................... 84 A.....................................6 MATLAB Script for MPPT with Output Sensing Direct Control Method...... 80 4....1 Modeling of DC Water Pump...............................................7 MATLAB Script for MPPT Simulations with DC Pump Motor Load....................................1.......................................................... 86 A............................1............................... Direct-coupled System..............................................6 System with MPPT vs............................... 85 A............ 100 Appendix B ...........................1 DSP Control .........................................................................1 MATLAB Functions and Scripts .....................................4 MATLAB Script: P&O Algorithm .............................................. 73 Bibliography ..........2 SIMULNK and TI DSP............. 101 A..8 MATLAB Script for MPPT Simulations with Direct-coupled DC Water Pump ....... 88 A................................... 86 A...............................................2 MPPT Simulations with Resistive Load .................................................5 MATLAB Script: incCond Algorithm.....78 5.......... 102 B.................. 84 A.........................................................................4...........................................5......................................... 100 A............................................................1.1.....................2.................2 MATLAB Simulation Results .....................1..........................................1..................... 97 A...............................................................................

............ Windmill [13].......... 53 Table 4-1: Design specification of the Cúk Converter ..... 18 Table 3-1: Load matching with the resistive load (6 ) under the varying irradiance................. vs........ 55 Table 4-2: Cúk converter design: comparisons of simulations and calculated results .......................... 77 viii ........... 53 Table 3-2: Load matching with the resistive load (12 ) under the varying irradiance.........................................................List of Tables Table 1-1: PV powered.......... 65 Table 4-4: Energy production and efficiency of PV module with and without MPPT .. Diesel powered.... 60 Table 4-3: Comparison of the P&O and incCond algorithms on a cloudy day ...................................................................... 75 Table 4-5: Total volume of water pumped for 12 hours.. 3 Table 2-1: Electrical characteristics data of PV module taken from the datasheet [1]..............

...................... 29 Figure 3-4: PV I-V curves with varying irradiance and a DC motor I-V curve ............................. voltage for BP SX 150S PV module (1KW/m2...............35% at 250ms....................................................... 30 Figure 3-5: PV I-V curves with iso-power lines (dotted) and a DC motor I-V curve .................... 25oC)................................. 17 Figure 2-8: Picture of BP SX 150S PV module [1] ........ 63 Figure 4-6: Traces of MPP tracking on a sunny day (25oC).............................. 22 Figure 2-12: I-V curves of BP SX 150S PV module at various temperatures................................................................. 59 Figure 4-2: PSpice plots of input/output current (above) and voltage (below) .. 31 Figure 3-6: Circuit diagram of the basic Cúk converter ............... 13 Figure 2-5: I-V plot of ideal PV cell under two different levels of irradiance (25oC)................................. 41 Figure 3-14: Flowchart of the P&O algorithm ............................... 25 Figure 2-14: I-V and P-V relationships of BP SX 150S PV module.............. 39 Figure 3-12: I-V curves for varying irradiance and a trace of MPPs (50oC)...................................................................................... 19 Figure 2-10: Effect of diode ideally factors by MATLAB simulation (1KW/m2.... its duty cycle (1KW/m2....................List of Figures Figure 1-1: Block diagram of the proposed PV water pumping system. 61 Figure 4-4: Searching the MPP (1KW/m2....... 15 Figure 2-6: More accurate equivalent circuit of PV cell......................................... 41 Figure 3-15: Erratic behavior of the P&O algorithm under rapidly increasing irradiance................................. 21 Figure 2-11: Effect of series resistances by MATLAB simulation (1KW/m2......... 25oC) ..... 52 Figure 4-1: Schematic of the Cúk converter with PMDC motor load ........................................................................... 48 Figure 3-19: Relationship of the input impedance of Cúk converter and its duty cycle ........... 25oC) ........ 16 Figure 2-7: PV cells are connected in series to make up a PV module ................................................................... 28 Figure 3-3: Electrical model of permanent magnet DC motor ....................................................................................................... 24 Figure 2-13: Simulated I-V curve of BP SX 150S PV module (1KW/m2... 34 Figure 3-7: Circuit diagram of the basic SEPIC converter ..................... Spain [2]. 64 Figure 4-7: Trace of MPP tracking on a cloudy day (25oC) ......... 62 Figure 4-5: Irradiance data for a sunny and a cloudy day of April in Barcelona.............. 46 Figure 3-17: Block diagram of MPPT with the PI compensator .............. 34 Figure 3-8: Basic Cúk converter when the switch is ON.... 51 Figure 3-21: Flowchart of P&O algorithm for the output sensing direct control method ......... 65 ix ............................................ 48 Figure 3-18: Block diagram of MPPT with the direct control.......... 12 Figure 2-4: Diagrams showing a short-circuit and an open-circuit condition [16]. 25oC) .............. 60 Figure 4-3: Transient response when duty cycle is increased 0................................ 5 Figure 2-1: Illustration of the p-n junction of PV cell [16]......... 43 Figure 3-16: Flowchart of the incCond algorithm .... 35 Figure 3-9: Basic Cúk converter when the switch is OFF ..................... 11 Figure 2-2: Illustrated side view of solar cell and the conducting current [16]......................... 49 Figure 3-20: Output power of Cúk converter vs.................................. 38 Figure 3-11: I-V curves for varying irradiance and a trace of MPPs (25oC)..................................................... 27 Figure 3-2: I-V curves of BP SX 150S PV module and various resistive loads....................... 40 Figure 3-13: Plot of power vs. 11 Figure 2-3: PV cell with a load and its simple equivalent circuit [16] ............................................................. 18 Figure 2-9: Equivalent circuit used in the MATLAB simulations ........................................................... 35 Figure 3-10: The impedance seen by PV is Rin that is adjustable by duty cycle (D)......................................... 26 Figure 3-1: PV module is directly connected to a (variable) resistive load............................... 25oC).................................. 25oC).........

............................ 25oC)............ 76 Figure A-1: MPPT Simulations with the direct control method (P&O algorithm) .......................... 72 Figure 4-14: SIMULINK plot of Rload ( )............................. 74 Figure 4-16: SIMULINK plot of DC motor I-V curve ............................................................. 103 Figure B-2: Plots of the input voltage and the PWM output shown as duty cycle ................... 75 Figure 4-17: Flow rates of PV water pumps for a 12-hour period............. 68 Figure 4-9: MPPT simulations with the resistive load (100 to 1000W/m2.......... 25oC)........... 100 Figure A-2: MPPT Simulations with the direct control method (incCond algorithm) .............................................Figure 4-8: MPPT simulation flowchart ............................................. 71 Figure 4-12: SIMULINK model of permanent magnet DC pump motor.............................. 103 x ............... 101 Figure B-1: A simple example of generating PWM from the voltage input ......................................................... 69 Figure 4-10: Output protection & regulation (100 to 1000W/m2........... 70 Figure 4-11: Kyocera SD 12-30 water pump performance chart [13]................................... 73 Figure 4-15: MPPT simulations with the DC pump motor load (20 to 1000W/m2....... 25oC) .......................... 72 Figure 4-13: SIMULINK DC machine block parameters......................

it presents MATLAB simulations of the system and makes comparisons with a system without MPPT. according to UN World Water Development Report in 2003. However. In this thesis.1 Water Pumping Systems and Photovoltaic Power A water pumping system needs a source of power to operate. It also investigates in detail the maximum power point tracker (MPPT). Installation of a new transmission line and a transformer to the location is often prohibitively expensive.Chapter 1 Introduction Water resources are essential for satisfying human needs. it has been estimated that two billion people are affected by water shortages in over forty countries.1 billion do not have sufficient drinking water [26]. There is a great and urgent need to supply environmentally sound technology for the provision of drinking water. in many rural areas. protecting health. and ensuring food production. 1. Remote water pumping systems are a key component in meeting this need. and 1. At last. It will also be the first stage of the purification and desalination plants to produce potable water. In general. a simple but efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented. It provides theoretical studies of photovoltaics (PV) and its modeling techniques. However. as well as for social and economic development and for sustainable development [25]. energy and the restoration of ecosystems. AC powered system is economic and takes minimum maintenance when AC power is available from the nearby power grid. Windmills have been installed 1 . water sources are spread over many miles of land and power lines are scarce. a power electronic device that significantly increases the system efficiency.

If the water source is 1/3 mile (app. a very attractive proposition. and furthermore diesel fuel is often expensive and not readily available in rural areas of many developing countries. 0. therefore. Table 1-1 shows the comparisons of different stand-alone type water pumping systems. however they are quickly phasing out from the scene despite success of large-scale grid-tied wind turbines. solar water heating. CO2 emissions can be greatly reduced through the application of renewable energy technologies. 2 . The use of renewable energy for water pumping systems is.traditionally in such areas. such as: they require frequent site visits for refueling and maintenance. many stand-alone type water pumping systems use internal combustion engines. however. Good examples include large-scale grid-connected wind turbines.53Km) or more from the power line. they have some major disadvantages. PV systems are highly reliable and are often chosen because they offer the lowest life-cycle cost. and off-grid stand-alone PV systems [24]. which are already cost competitive with fossil fuels in many situations. in particular the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. However. where grid electricity is not available and where internal-combustion engines are expensive to operate [24]. The consumption of fossil fuels also has an environmental impact. PV is a favorable economic choice [13]. especially for applications requiring less than 10KW. inoperative now due to lack of proper maintenance and age. Windmills are a long-established method of using renewable energy. These systems are portable and easy to install. Today. many of them are.

dirt problems Fuel often expensive and supply intermittent High maintenance Seasonal disadvantages Difficult find parts thus costly repair Installation is labor intensive and needs special tools Table 1-1: PV powered. Diesel powered. In addition to energy storage.System Type PV Powered System Diesel (or Gas) Powered System Advantages Low maintenance Unattended operation Reliable long life No fuel and no fumes Easy to install Low recurrent costs System is modular and closely matched to need Moderate capital costs Easy to install Can be portable Extensive experience available No fuel and no fumes Potentially long-lasting Works well in windy sites Disadvantages Relatively high initial cost Low output in cloudy weather Windmill Needs maintenance and replacement Site visits necessary Noise. as well as the inherent 3 . the lead-acid battery continues to be the workhorse of many PV systems because it is relatively inexpensive and widely available. Windmill [13] 1.2 Energy Storage Alternatives Needless to say. photovoltaics are able to produce electricity only when the sunlight is available. vs. the battery also has ability to provide surges of current that are much higher than the instantaneous current available from the array. therefore stand-alone systems obviously need some sort of backup energy storage which makes them available through the night or bad weather conditions. fume. Among many possible storage technologies.

As a matter of fact. From all those reasons. the system is very simple and consists of a single PV module. therefore it could be built in the lab in the future. they have a number of disadvantages. As shown in Figure 1-1. Typical battery efficiency is around 85% but could go below 75% in hot climate [24]. and it is more expensive and not widely available. which is different from one used for automobiles. For water pumping systems.3 The Proposed System The experimental water pumping system proposed in this thesis is a stand-alone type without backup batteries. 4 . appropriately sized water reservoirs can meet the requirement of energy storage during the downtime of PV generation. The additional cost of reservoir is considerably lower than that incurred by the battery equipped system. Batteries also require regular maintenance and will degrade very rapidly if the electrolyte is not topped up and the charge is not maintained. but this reduces to typically two to six years in hot climate since high ambient temperature dramatically increases the rate of internal corrosion [24]. a maximum power point tracker (MPPT). The type of lead-acid battery suitable for PV systems is a deep-cycle battery [15].and automatic property controlling the output voltage of the array so that loads receive voltages within their own range of acceptability [16]. The system including the subsystems will be simulated to verify the functionalities. experienced PV system designers avoid batteries whenever possible. and a DC water pump. They reduce the efficiency of the overall system due to power loss during charge and discharge. only about five percent of solar pumping systems employ a battery bank [13]. While batteries may seem like a good idea. The size of the system is intended to be small. Battery lifetime in PV systems is typically three to eight years. 1.

It should not be confused with sun trackers. MPPT is a power electronic device interconnecting a PV power source and a load. has three BP SX 150S multi-crystalline PV modules. The size of system selected for the proposed system is 150W. 1. a number of PV modules are combined as an array to meet different energy demands. For example. room 104. mechanical devices that rotate and/or tilt PV modules in the direction of sun. A detailed discussion about PV and modeling of PV appears in Chapter 2. which is commonly used in small water pumping systems for cattle grazing in rural areas of the United States.1 PV Module There are different sizes of PV module commercially available (typically sized from 60W to 170W). therefore the proposed system requires only one of them. Usually. The power electronics lab located in the building 20.2 Maximum Power Point Tracker The maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is now prevalent in grid-tied PV power systems and is becoming more popular in stand-alone systems.3. Each module provides a maximum power of 150W [13].3. a typical small-scale desalination plant requires a few thousand watts of power [24].PV Module [1] DC Water Pump [13] Figure 1-1: Block diagram of the proposed PV water pumping system 1. 5 .

3. than to design an analog circuit to do the same [23]. A detailed discussion on MPPT appears in Chapter 3. but the gain is less than 10% in winter. the system could also employ a sun tracker. modification of the design 6 . 1. Washington. Sun tracking enables the system to meet energy demand with smaller PV modules.maximizes the power output from a PV module or array with varying operating conditions. In winter. a switch-mode inverter sometimes fills the role of MPPT. Otherwise. the use of digital controllers is rapidly increasing because they offer several advantages over analog controllers. it can gain only 20% more energy. It collects 30% more energy in summer. digital controllers are programmable thus capable of implementing advanced algorithm with relative ease. In a climate with more water vapor in the atmosphere such as Seattle. there is also a higher chance of failure. For the same reason. in this simple system. but it increases the cost and complexity of system. However. New Mexico. Therefore. the effect of sun tracker is smaller because a larger fraction of solar irradiation is diffuse. and therefore maximizes the system efficiency. First. it is combined with a DC-DC converter that performs the MPPT function. The two-axis tracker is only a few percent better than the single-axis version. the single-axis sun tracker can collect about 40% more energy than a seasonally optimized fixed-axis collector in summer in a dry climate such as Albuquerque. Since it is made of moving parts. According to the data in reference [15]. In addition to MPPT. It is far easier to code the equation. For grid-tied systems. however. MPPT is made up with a switch-mode DCDC converter and a controller.3 MPPT Controller Analog controllers have traditionally performed control of MPPT. x = y × z. the sun tracker is not implemented.

which is usually expensive. Centrifugal pumps have relatively high efficiency [19] and are capable of pumping a high volume of water [13]. the cost and complexity of these systems will be significantly higher.3. They are immune to time and temperature drifts because they work in discrete. They allow reduction of parts count since they can handle various tasks in a single chip. Water pumps are driven by various types of motors. This thesis. A typical size of system with this type pump is at least 500W or larger. thus they can control multiple devices with a single controller. needs an inverter to convert DC output power from PV to AC power. chooses a method of digital control for MPPT. and it is also less efficient than DC 7 . However. Positive displacement types are used in low-volume pumps [13] and cost-effective. they offer long-term stability.4 Water Pump Two types of pumps are commonly used for PV water pumping applications: positive displacement and centrifugal [19]. There is a growing trend among the pump manufacturers to use them with brushless DC motors (BDCM) for higher efficiency and low maintenance [19]. AC induction motors are cheaper and widely available worldwide. Appendix B provides introduction of Texas Instruments DSP and SIMULINK as an implementation tool. outside the linear operation. They are also insensitive to component tolerances since they implement algorithm in software. 1. therefore.is much easier with digital controllers. and the algorithm is readily transferable to its implementation. Chapter 3 provides discussions of various control methods. Many of them are also equipped with multiple A/D converters and PWM generators. however. As a result. where gains and parameters are consistent and reproducible [23]. The design and simulations of MPPT in Chapter 4 are done on the premise that it is going to be built with a microcontroller or a DSP. The system.

and a few others dealt with a sun tracker. 1.) [13]. pictured in Figure 1-1. There are only a small number of studies related to PV systems in the past. California State Universities (CSUs) are no exception. Japan. and its power requirement is as little as 35W [13]. There have been only two master’s theses written about PV systems in the CSU system.0L/min (4. and Australia. It operates with a low voltage (12~30V DC).4 Background and Scope of This Thesis The impetus for this research is to investigate the use of power electronics in renewable energy. In general. A simple model of this water pump is used for simulations in Chapter 4. there is a growing interest in PV. The water pump chosen here for its size and cost is the Kyocera SD 12-30 submersible solar pump. San Luis Obispo. Flow rates up to 17. particularly photovoltaics (PV). Among them. In the United Sates. Numerous studies have been done in PV systems. It is a diaphragm-type positive displacement pump equipped with a brushed permanent magnet DC motor and designed for use in standalone water delivery systems. Brushed types are less expensive and more common although brushes need to be replaced periodically (typically every two years) [19].0m (100ft. built a simple PV battery charger. Two senior projects. and unfortunately. The first attempt to study 8 .000L [13]. specifically for water delivery in remote locations.motor-pump systems [19]. also here.5GPM) and heads up to 30. there were a few senior projects which built PV facilities here in California Polytechnic State University. a significant number of them in Europe. DC motors are preferred because they are highly efficient and can be directly coupled with a PV module or array.700L and 5. The rated maximum power consumption is 150W. The typical daily output is between 2. but research and development in PV systems is far behind from the aforementioned countries. There is also an aforementioned brushless type.

however. Pomona. A major assumption made in simulations is the use of an ideal DC-DC converter. it provided a rudimentary computer simulation of MPPT with a resistive load. In order to understand and design MPPT. should provide sufficient results for verification of MPPT functionality. Another was done here by Day [5]. and it centered round a power system for a miniature satellite. This thesis is limited to providing theoretical studies and simulations of PV water pumping system with MPPT. but the functionality of MPPT was not tested. There is no textbook that provides comprehensive and detailed explanations about MPPT. that is left as future work. it is necessary to have a good understanding of the behaviors of PV. The thesis facilitates it using MATLAB models of PV cell and module. Then. and it is a relatively new and unknown area. the functionality of MPPT for water pumping systems is verified and validated. however. It included MPPT in the system. it will not cover a discussion about actual implementation of DSP or microcontrollers. The theoretical study was insufficient. Finally. The study was. beyond a discussion on component selection for the DC-DC converter. The system will not be built in this thesis. and it lacked simulations and experiments to ensure the functionality of MPPT. Each subsystem in the PV water pumping system is modeled for MATLAB simulations. Therefore. MPPT is one of many applications of power electronics. as opposed to a more realistic model that includes losses. this thesis investigates it in detail and provides better explanations for students who are interested in this research area.MPPT was made by Dang [4] of California Polytechnic State University. The thesis built a small PV module simulator and a buck converter without a controller. The model. nor other hardware implementation. far from comprehensive. Thus. 9 .

with his student. and adopted in space applications.2 Photovoltaic Cell Photons of light with energy higher than the band-gap energy of PV material can make electrons in the material break free from atoms that hold them and create hole-electron pairs. This chapter discusses the fundamentals of PV cells and modeling of a PV cell using an equivalent electrical circuit.1 Introduction The history of PV dates back to 1839 when a French physicist. discovered the first photovoltaic effect when he illuminated a metal electrode in an electrolytic solution [16]. discovered a photovoltaic material. will soon fall back into holes causing charge carriers to disappear. however. Thirty-seven years later British physicist. the production of PV cells is following an exponential growth curve since technological advancement of late ‘80s that has started to rapidly improve efficiency and reduce cost. and made solid cells with 1~2% efficiency which were soon widely adopted in the exposure meters of camera [16].Chapter 2 Photovoltaic Modules 2. William Adams. The models are implemented using MATLAB to study PV characteristics and simulate a real PV module. If a nearby electric field is provided. Richard Day. with efficiency of 6% [3]. These electrons. Edmund Becquerel. selenium. Today. 2. as shown in Figure 2-1. those in the conduction band can be continuously swept away from holes toward a metallic contact where 10 . In 1954 the first generation of semiconductor silicon-based PV cells was born.

through the load. The electric field within the semiconductor itself at the junction between two regions of crystals of different type. the electrons flow out of the n-side into the connecting wire. and back to the p-side where they recombine with holes [16]. Note that conventional current flows in the opposite direction from electrons.they will emerge as an electric current. Figure 2-1: Illustration of the p-n junction of PV cell [16] Showing hole-electron pairs created by photons The PV cell has electrical contacts on its top and bottom to capture the electrons. called a p-n junction [16]. as shown in Figure 2-2. Figure 2-2: Illustrated side view of solar cell and the conducting current [16] 11 . When the PV cell delivers power to the load.

As shown in Figure 2-4 (b). 2. The method used here is implemented in MATLAB programs for simulations.1 The Simplest Model The simplest model of a PV cell is shown as an equivalent circuit below that consists of an ideal current source in parallel with an ideal diode. the photon generated current is shunted internally by the intrinsic p-n junction diode. Iph = Isc. 12 . The same modeling technique is also applicable for modeling a PV module. The PV module or cell manufacturers usually provide the values of these parameters in their datasheets.2. Shorting together the terminals of the cell. This gives the open circuit voltage (Voc). as shown in Figure 2-4 (a). and its output is constant under constant temperature and constant incident radiation of light. The current source represents the current generated by photons (often denoted as Iph or IL).3 Modeling a PV Cell The use of equivalent electric circuits makes it possible to model characteristics of a PV cell. the photon generated current will follow out of the cell as a short-circuit current (Isc). Figure 2-3: PV cell with a load and its simple equivalent circuit [16] There are two key parameters frequently used to characterize a PV cell.3. when there is no connection to the PV cell (open-circuit). Thus.

k is the Boltzmann’s constant (1.1) where: Isc is the short-circuit current that is equal to the photon generated current.602×10-19 C). (2.3) 13 .2) gives the current-voltage relationship of the PV cell.381×10-23 J/K).1) by the equation (2.Figure 2-4: Diagrams showing a short-circuit and an open-circuit condition [16] The output current (I) from the PV cell is found by applying the Kirchoff’s current law (KCL) on the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2-3. The diode current Id is given by the Shockley’s diode equation: I d = I o (e qVd / kT − 1) where: Io is the reverse saturation current of diode (A). I = I sc − I d (2. T is the junction temperature in Kelvin (K). q is the electron charge (1. (2.2) Replacing Id of the equation (2. I = I sc − I o (e qV / kT − 1) where: V is the voltage across the PV cell. and Id is the current shunted through the intrinsic diode. Vd is the voltage across the diode (V). and I is the output current from the cell.

which is equal to Isc. 0 = I sc − I o (e qVoc / kT − 1) (2.7) Figure 2-5 shows that current and voltage relationship (often called as an I-V curve) of an ideal PV cell simulated by MATLAB using the simplest equivalent circuit model. and it can only produce a power with any combinations of current and voltage on the I-V curve. The discussion of MATLAB simulations will appear in Section 2. then the photon generated current at any other irradiance. let I = 0 (no output current) and solve for Io.3). 14 .5. if the value. The PV cell output is both limited by the cell current and the cell voltage. is given by: I sc |G = G I sc |Go Go (2. under the standard test condition. Thus.6) I sc = I o (e qVoc / kT − 1) Io = sc qVoc / kT I (e − 1) To a very good approximation. is known from the datasheet. G (W/m2).4) (2. Isc.5) (2.The reverse saturation current of diode (Io) is constant under the constant temperature and found by setting the open-circuit condition as shown in Figure 2-4 (b). Using the equation (2. It also shows that the cell current is proportional to the irradiance. is directly proportional to the irradiance. to PV cell [15]. Go=1000W/m2 at the air mass (AM) = 1. the intensity of illumination.5. the photon generated current.

2 0. This can be 15 .5 0 0 0. the metal grid. It is a loss associated with a small leakage of current through a resistive path in parallel with the intrinsic device [2].5 4.7 Half Sun (500W/m2) Full Sun (1000W/m2) Figure 2-5: I-V plot of ideal PV cell under two different levels of irradiance (25oC) 2. and current collecting bus [2].1 0.4 Cell Voltage (V) 0. there is a series of resistance in a current path through the semiconductor material.5 4 3.5 1 0.3 0. contacts. and the value of resistance is multiplied by the number of cells.5 2 1. a) Series Resistance In a practical PV cell.6 0.2 The More Accurate Model There are a few things that have not been taken into account in the simple model and that will affect the performance of a PV cell in practice.5 Cell Current (A) 3 2. These resistive losses are lumped together as a series resister (Rs).5 0. Its effect becomes very conspicuous in a PV module that consists of many series-connected cells.3. b) Parallel Resistance This is also called shunt resistance.

and it will only become noticeable when a number of PV modules are connected in parallel for a larger system.8) in the following form.9) where: n is known as the “ideality factor” (“n” is sometimes denoted as “A”) and takes the value between one and two [7]. c) Recombination Recombination in the depletion region of PV cells provides non-ohmic current paths in parallel with the intrinsic PV cell [2] [7]. the current-voltage relationship of PV cell is written as: I = I sc − I o1 e q V + I ⋅ Rs kT −1 − I o2 e q V + I ⋅ Rs 2 kT −1 − V + I ⋅ Rs Rp (2.represented by a parallel resister (Rp). 16 .8) It is possible to combine the first diode (D1) and the second diode (D2) and rewrite the equation (2. this can be represented by the second diode (D2) in the equivalent circuit. Its effect is much less conspicuous in a PV module compared to the series resistance. Rs + Isc D1 n=1 D2 n=2 Rp V Load Figure 2-6: More accurate equivalent circuit of PV cell Summarizing these effects. As shown in Figure 2-6. I = I sc − I o e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT −1 − V + I ⋅ Rs Rp (2.

5 Current (A) 3 2.6V for each cell Figure 2-7: PV cells are connected in series to make up a PV module 17 . but the voltage output is the sum of each cell voltage. for example. Most of commercially available PV modules with crystalline-Si cells have either 36 or 72 series-connected cells. it is called as a module.6V for crystallinesilicon (Si) cells. about 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Voltage (V) 30 35 40 45 3 cells 9 cells 36 cells 72 cells 0. thus a number of PV cells are connected in series to archive a desired output voltage. the advent of high efficiency DC-DC converters has alleviated the need for modules with specific voltages.5 2 1. and similarly a 72-cell module is appropriate for a 24V battery.2. the current output is the same as the single cell. 5 4.5 1 0.5 4 3. A 36-cell module provides a voltage suitable for charging a 12V battery. Furthermore. as shown in Figure 2-7. When the PV cells are wired together in series. This is because most of PV systems used to have backup batteries. When series-connected cells are placed in a frame.4 Photovoltaic Module A single PV cell produces an output voltage less than 1V. however today many PV systems do not use batteries. grid-tied systems.

5 ± 0.Also.5V 4.015 %/ oC -160 ± 20 mV/ oC -0. pictured in Figure 2-8.75A 0.35A 43. 2. Table 2-1 shows its electrical specification.065 ± 0. The parameters are the all same.5V 4. is chosen for a MATLAB simulation model. but only a voltage parameter (such as the open-circuit voltage) is different and must be divided by the number of cells. It uses the same PV cell model.05 %/ oC 47 ± 2oC Table 2-1: Electrical characteristics data of PV module taken from the datasheet [1] The strategy of modeling a PV module is no different from modeling a PV cell. multiple modules can be wired together in series or parallel to deliver the voltage and current level needed. Figure 2-8: Picture of BP SX 150S PV module [1] Electrical Characteristics Maximum Power (Pmax) Voltage at Pmax (Vmp) Current at Pmax (Imp) Open-circuit voltage (Voc) Short-circuit current (Isc) Temperature coefficient of Isc Temperature coefficient of Voc Temperature coefficient of power NOCT 150W 34.5 Modeling a PV Module by MATLAB BP Solar BP SX 150S PV module. The group of modules is called an array. The module is made of 72 multi-crystalline silicon solar cells in series and provides 150W of nominal maximum power [1]. 18 .

It uses a single diode with the diode ideality factor (n) set to achieve the best I-V curve match. and provides fairly accurate results. To make a better model. Rs + Isc D V Load Figure 2-9: Equivalent circuit used in the MATLAB simulations Since it does not include the effect of parallel resistance (Rp). V is the cell voltage = {module voltage} ÷ {# of cells in series}. thus the model does not include it. it also includes temperature effects on the short-circuit current (Isc) and the reverse saturation current of diode (Io).9) gives the equation [27] that describes the current-voltage relationship of the PV cell. I = I sc − I o e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT −1 (2. The model consists of a current source (Isc). uses the electric model with moderate complexity. Australia. a diode (D). T is the cell temperature in Kelvin (K). 19 . letting Rp = in the equation (2. and a series resistance (Rs).10) where: I is the cell current (the same as the module current).The study done by Walker [27] of University of Queensland. and it is shown below. shown in Figure 2-9. The effect of parallel resistance (Rp) is very small in a single module.

First. The short-circuit current (Isc) is proportional to the intensity of irradiance.12) where: Go is the nominal value of irradiance. It takes a value between one and two.6) with the diode ideality factor added: Io = sc qVoc / nkT I (e − 1) (2. used until the more accurate value is estimated later by curve fitting [27]. which is normally 1KW/m2. however. 20 . usually 298K (25oC).14) The diode ideality factor (n) is unknown and must be estimated. Tref is the reference temperature of PV cell in Kelvin (K).11) where: Isc at Tref is given in the datasheet (measured under irradiance of 1000W/m2).13) The reverse saturation current (Io) is temperature dependant and the Io at a given temperature (T) is calculated by the following equation [27]. thus Isc at a given irradiance (G) is: I sc |G = G I sc |Go Go (2. The reverse saturation current of diode (Io) at the reference temperature (Tref) is given by the equation (2. calculate the short-circuit current (Isc) at a given cell temperature (T): I sc |T = I sc |Tref ⋅ 1 + a(T − Tref ) [ ] (2. the value of n=1 (for the ideal diode) is. a is the temperature coefficient of Isc in percent change per degree temperature also given in the datasheet. Figure 2-10 shows the effect of the varying ideality factor. T ⋅ Tref 3 n − q⋅ E g 1 1 − n⋅k T Tref I o |T = I o |Tref ⋅e (2.

15) q dV + Rs ⋅ dI dI = 0 − I o ⋅ q ⋅e nkT (2.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 n=2 n=1 Figure 2-10: Effect of diode ideally factors by MATLAB simulation (1KW/m2. 25oC) The series resistance (Rs) of the PV module has a large impact on the slope of the I-V curve near the open-circuit voltage (Voc).5 Module Current (A) 3 2.5 1 0.5 4. I = I sc − I o e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT −1 V + I ⋅ Rs nkT (2. hence the value of Rs is calculated by evaluating the slope dV of the I-V curve at the Voc [27]. The equation for Rs is dI derived by differentiating the equation (2.10) and then rearranging it in terms of Rs.5 2 1.16) Rs = − dI − dV nkT q Io ⋅ e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT (2. as shown in Figure 2-11.5 4 3.17) 21 .

The calculation using the slope measurement of the I-V curve published on the BP SX 150 datasheet gives a value of the series resistance per cell. Voc is the open-circuit voltage of cell (found by dividing Voc in the datasheet by the number of cells in series).17) at the open circuit voltage that is V=Voc (also let I=0).5 2 1. evaluate the equation (2. complex because the solution of current is recursive by inclusion of a series resistance in the 22 . Rs = 5. It is. however. 25oC) Finally.1m .18) where: dV dI is the slope of the I-V curve at the Voc (use the I-V curve in the datasheet then Voc divide it by the number of cells in series). Rs = − dV dI − Voc nkT q Io ⋅ e qVoc nkT (2. it is possible to solve the equation of I-V characteristics (2.Then.5 Module Current (A) 3 2.5 4 3.10).5 1 0. 5 4.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 Rs=0 Rs=5 mOhm Rs=10 mOhm Rs=15 mOhm Figure 2-11: Effect of series resistances by MATLAB simulation (1KW/m2.

21) q ⋅ Rs e nkT q V + I n ⋅ Rs nkT The MATLAB function written in this thesis performs the calculation five times iteratively to ensure convergence of the results. f ( x ) = 0 .19) gives a following recursive equation.model. After some trials with various diode ideality factors. Data points superimposed on the plots are taken from the I-V curves published on the manufacturer’s datasheet [1]. and x n +1 is a next value. The testing result has shown that the value of In usually converges within three iterations and never more than four interactions. and the output current (I) is computed iteratively. the Newton’s method is chosen for rapid convergence of the answer [27]. Figure 2-12 shows the plots of I-V characteristics at various module temperatures simulated with the MATLAB model for BP SX 150S PV module. the MATLAB model chooses the value 23 . Please refer to Appendix A. x n is a present value.19) where: f ′(x ) is the derivative of the function. The Newton’s method is described as: x n +1 = x n − f (xn ) f ′( x n ) (2.20) Plugging this into the equation (2.1 for this MATLAB function.1.10) gives the following function: f ( I ) = I sc − I − I o e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT −1 = 0 (2. I sc − I n − I o e I n +1 = I n − −1− Io q V + I n ⋅ Rs nkT −1 (2. Although it may be possible to find the answer by simple iterations. Rewriting the equation (2.

The figure shows good correspondence between the data points and the simulated I-V curves.of n = 1.62 that attains the best match with the I-V curve on the datasheet. 25oC) 24 . 750C 250C 0 50 C O 0C Figure 2-12: I-V curves of BP SX 150S PV module at various temperatures Simulated with the MATLAB model (1KW/m2.

It reveals that the amount of power produced by the PV module varies greatly 25 .35A Maximum Power Point (MPP) P2 = 108. called a maximum power point (MPP).2. and its area equal to the output power which is a product of voltage and current.5 4 3.5 Module Current (A) 3 2.5 2 1. as shown in Figure 2-14. There is a unique point near the knee of the I-V curve. at which the module operates with the maximum efficiency and produces the maximum output power. called an operating point.0W Impp = 4. 5 4. A PV module can produce the power at a point.6 The I-V Curve and Maximum Power Point Figure 2-13 shows the I-V curve of the BP SX 150S PV module simulated with the MATLAB model. voltage plot is overlaid on the I-V plot of the PV module.2W Vmpp = 34. It is possible to visualize the location of the by fitting the largest possible rectangle inside of the I-V curve.9W P1 = 150. The coordinates of the operating point are the operating voltage and current. anywhere on the I-V curve.5 1 0.5V 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Voc = 43.5V Figure 2-13: Simulated I-V curve of BP SX 150S PV module (1KW/m2.5 0 0 Isc = 4.75A P3 = 94. 25oC) The power vs.

8 7 6 Isc Module Current (A) 5 4 3 2 1 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 45 160 Pmax 140 120 Module Output Power (W) Impp MPP Vmpp 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 Voc 40 Figure 2-14: I-V and P-V relationships of BP SX 150S PV module Simulated with the MATLAB model (1KW/m2. The next chapter will discuss how to do it.depending on its operating condition. 25oC) 26 . It is important to operate the system at the MPP of PV module in order to exploit the maximum power from the module.

this operating point is seldom at the PV module’s MPP. It also discusses the details of some MPPT algorithms and control methods. MPPTs can extract more than 97% of the PV power when properly optimized [9]. and limitations of MPPT. thus it is not producing the maximum power. a resistive load has a straight line with a slope of 1/Rload as shown in Figure 3-2. This mismatching between a PV module and a load requires further over-sizing of the PV array and thus increases the overall system cost.Chapter 3 Maximum Power Point Tracker 3. In other words. the PV module’s operating point will be at the intersection of its I–V curve and the load line which is the I-V relationship of load. the impedance of load dictates the operating condition of the PV module. and the use of DC-DC converters as a means of MPPT. This chapter discusses the I-V characteristics of PV modules and loads. A PV array is usually oversized to compensate for a low power yield during winter months. a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) can be used to maintain the PV module’s operating point at the MPP. For example in Figure 3-1. + PV V I R Figure 3-1: PV module is directly connected to a (variable) resistive load 27 . To mitigate this problem. matching between the two. In general.1 Introduction When a PV module is directly coupled to a load. A study shows that a direct-coupled system utilizes a mere 31% of the PV capacity [11].

5 2 1. Figure 3-3 shows an electrical model of a PMDC motor.5 4.5 1 0.5 Module Current (A) 3 2. (3. or a counterelectromotive force. When the motor is turning. described as an electric potential (E) proportional to the angular speed ( ) of the rotor. a permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motor is preferred in PV systems because it can provide higher starting torque. From the equivalent circuit.1) 28 . the DC voltage equation for the armature circuit is: V = I ⋅ Ra + K ⋅ ω where: Ra is the armature resistance.5 0 0 5 10 Slope=1/R R=16 Ohms R=4 Ohms * R=7. 25oC) 3.5 4 3. Among different types of DC motors.93 Ohms * MPP * Increasing R 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 3-2: I-V curves of BP SX 150S PV module and various resistive loads Simulated with the MATLAB model (1KW/m2.2 I-V Characteristics of DC Motors Many PV water pumping systems employ DC motors (instead of AC motors) because they could be directly coupled with PV arrays and make a very simple system. it produces a back emf.

there is no effect of back emf. This means that the system cannot utilize a fair amount of morning insolation just because there is insufficient starting torque. as shown in Figure 3-4. therefore the current rises slowly with increasing voltage.The back emf is E=K· rad/sec. Once it starts to run. As mentioned already a simple type of PV water pumping systems uses a direct coupled PV-motor setup. Applying the voltage to start the motor. and is the angular speed of rotor in Ra + PV I V - E=Kw Figure 3-3: Electrical model of permanent magnet DC motor Figure 3-4 shows an example of current-voltage relationship (I-V curve) of a DC motor. the current rises rapidly with increasing voltage until the current is sufficient to create enough starting torque to break the motor loose from static friction [16]. This configuration has a severe disadvantage in efficiency because of a mismatched operating point. where: K is the constant. the water pumping system would not start operating until irradiance reaches at 400W/m2. it requires as little as 200W/m2 of irradiance to maintain the minimum operation. when the motor is operated under the locked condition for 29 . For this example. Once it starts to run. At start-up ( =0). Also. therefore the starting current builds up linearly with a steep slope of 1/Ra on the I-V plot as shown in Figure 3-4. the back emf takes effect and drops the current.

As shown in Figure 3-5. it may result in shortening of the life of the motor due to input electrical energy converted to heat rather than to mechanical output [15]. tracing of the iso-power (constant power) line from the MPP reveals that the LCB could start the pump motor with as little as 50W/m2 of irradiance (assuming the LCB can convert the power without loss). 1000W/m2 DC Motor I-V Curve Slope = 1/Ra 800W/m2 Current 600W/m2 400W/m2 200W/m2 Voltage Figure 3-4: PV I-V curves with varying irradiance and a DC motor I-V curve There is a MPPT specifically called a linear current booster (LCB) that is designed to overcome the above mentioned problem in water pumping systems. 30 . The LCB shifts this relationship around and converts into high-current and low-voltage power which satisfies the pump motor characteristics. the power produced at the MPP is relatively low-current and high-voltage which is opposite of those required by the pump motor. The MPPT maintains the input voltage and current of LCB at the MPP of PV module. For the example in Figure 3-5.a long time.

DC Motor I-V Curve

1000W/m2 MPP 800W/m2 Iso-power line

600W/m2 Current

400W/m2

200W/m2 50W/m2 Voltage

Figure 3-5: PV I-V curves with iso-power lines (dotted) and a DC motor I-V curve

3.3 DC-DC Converter

The heart of MPPT hardware is a switch-mode DC-DC converter. It is widely used in DC power supplies and DC motor drives for the purpose of converting unregulated DC input into a controlled DC output at a desired voltage level [17]. MPPT uses the same converter for a different purpose: regulating the input voltage at the PV MPP and providing loadmatching for the maximum power transfer.

3.3.1 Topologies

There are a number of different topologies for DC-DC converters. categorized into isolated or non-isolated topologies. The isolated topologies use a small-sized high-frequency electrical isolation transformer which provides the benefits of DC isolation between input and output, and step They are

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up or down of output voltage by changing the transformer turns ratio. They are very often used in switch-mode DC power supplies [18]. Popular topologies for a majority of the applications are flyback, half-bridge, and full-bridge [22]. In PV applications, the grid-tied systems often use these types of topologies when electrical isolation is preferred for safety reasons. Non-isolated topologies do not have isolation transformers. They are almost always used in DC motor drives [17]. These topologies are further categorized into three types: step down (buck), step up (boost), and step up & down (buck-boost). The buck topology is used for voltage step-down. In PV applications, the buck type converter is usually used for charging batteries and in LCB for water pumping systems. The boost topology is used for stepping up the voltage. The grid-tied systems use a boost type converter to step up the output voltage to the utility level before the inverter stage. Then, there are topologies able to step up and down the voltage such as: buck-boost, Cúk, and SEPIC (stands for Single Ended Primary Inductor Converter). For PV system with batteries, the MPP of commercial PV module is set above the charging voltage of batteries for most combinations of irradiance and temperature. A buck converter can operate at the MPP under most conditions, but it cannot do so when the MPP goes below the battery charging voltage under a low-irradiance and high-temperature condition. Thus, the additional boost capability can slightly increase the overall efficiency [27].

**3.3.2 Cúk and SEPIC Converters
**

For water pumping systems, the output voltage needs to be stepped down to provide a higher starting current for a pump motor. The buck converter is the simplest topology and easiest to understand and design, however it exhibits the most severe destructive failure mode

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of all configurations [22]. Another disadvantage is that the input current is discontinuous because of the switch located at the input, thus good input filter design is essential. Other topologies capable of voltage step-down are Cúk and SEPIC. Even though their voltage step-up function is optional for LCB application, they have several advantages over the buck converter. They provide capacitive isolation which protects against switch failure (unlike the buck topology) [21]. The input current of the Cúk and SEPIC topologies is continuous, and they can draw a ripple free current from a PV array that is important for efficient MPPT. Figure 3-6 shows a circuit diagram of the basic Cúk converter. It is named after its inventor. It can provide the output voltage that is higher or lower than the input voltage. The SEPIC, a derivative of the Cúk converter, is also able to step up and down the voltage. Figure 3-7 shows a circuit diagram of the basic SEPIC converter. The characteristics of two topologies are very similar. They both use a capacitor as the main energy storage. As a result, the input current is continuous. The circuits have low switching losses and high efficiency [18]. The main difference is that the Cúk converter has a polarity of the output voltage reverse to the input voltage. The input and output of SEPIC converter have the same voltage polarity; therefore the SEPIC topology is sometimes preferred to the Cúk topology. SEPIC maybe also preferred for battery charging systems because the diode placed on the output stage works as a blocking diode preventing an adverse current going to PV source from the battery. The same diode, however, gives the disadvantage of high-ripple output current. On the other hand, the Cúk converter can provide a better output current

characteristic due to the inductor on the output stage. Therefore, the thesis decides on the Cúk converter because of the good input and output current characteristics.

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and the capacitor (C1) is being charged. The operation of circuit can be divided into two modes.3.Figure 3-6: Circuit diagram of the basic Cúk converter Figure 3-7: Circuit diagram of the basic SEPIC converter 3.3 Basic Operation of Cúk Converter The basic operation of Cúk converter in continuous conduction mode is explained here. In steady state. The diode (D) is forward biased.2) Assume the capacitor (C1) is large enough and its voltage is ripple free even though it stores and transfer large amount of energy from input to output [17] (this requires a good low ESR capacitor [21]). thus by applying Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL) around outermost loop of the circuit shown in Figure 3-6 [21]. VC 1 = V s + V o (3. 34 . the average inductor voltages are zero. The initial condition is when the input voltage is turned on and switch (SW) is off.

− I C1 = I L 2 (3. and Rload. The capacitor (C1) discharge its energy to the load through the loop formed with SW. C2. and L2. The energy stored in the inductor (L2) is transfer to the load through the loop formed by D. the following relationship is established [21]. the following relationship is established [21].3) Mode 2: When SW turns OFF. Thus. so assume that their currents are ripple free. Rload. the circuit becomes one shown in Figure 3-8. Figure 3-9: Basic Cúk converter when the switch is OFF The capacitor (C1) is getting charged by the input (Vs) through the inductor (L1).Mode 1: When SW turns ON. the circuit becomes one shown in Figure 3-9. Figure 3-8: Basic Cúk converter when the switch is ON The voltage of the capacitor (C1) makes the diode (D) reverse-biased and turned off. C2. The inductors are large enough. Thus. I C 1 = I L1 (3.4) 35 .

Pin = Pout V s ⋅ I L1 = V o ⋅ I L 2 (3. the average power supplied by the source must be the same as the average power absorbed by the load [21]. the following voltage transfer function is derived [21].9) (3. (3.5 the output is smaller than the input. and T is the switching period. If 0.5 the output is the same as the input.6) (3. Thus.7) and (3. If D = 0. the average capacitor current is zero.For periodic operation. from the equation (3.4) [21]: [I C 1 SW ON ]⋅ DT + [I C 1 SW OFF ]⋅ (1 − D )T = 0 (3.8) (3.11) 36 . Assuming that this is an ideal converter.10).3) and (3. Vo D = Vs 1 − D Its relationship to the duty cycle (D) is: If 0 < D < 0.5) (3.7) − I L 2 ⋅ DT + I L1 ⋅ (1 − D )T = 0 I L1 D = I L2 1 − D where: D is the duty cycle (0 < D < 1).10) I L1 Vo = I L 2 Vs Combining the equation (3.5 < D < 1 the output is larger than the input.

Is V I = L1 = o I o I L 2 Vs From the equation (3.11): Vs = 1− D ⋅ Vo D (3. the maximum power transfer from PV to the load will occur. (3.13) where: VMPP and IMPP are the voltage and current at the MPP respectively. The goal of the MPPT is to match the impedance of load to the optimal impedance of PV. independent and rarely matches in practice. Rload = Vo Io (3. The following is an example of load matching using an ideal (loss-less) Cúk converter. These two are.16) 37 .15) Is = D ⋅ Io 1− D (3. when PV is directly coupled with a load. the operating point of PV is dictated by the load (or impedance to be specific). The impedance of load is described as below.12) where: Vo is the output voltage. When the value of Rload matches with that of Ropt. The optimal load for PV is described as: Ropt = V MPP I MPP (3.14) and (3. and Io is the output current.4 Mechanism of Load Matching As described in Section 3. however.1. From the equation (3.3.15).14) From the equation (3.10).

Figure 3-11 shows a set of PV I–V curves under increasing irradiance at the constant temperature (25oC). the module voltage is adjusted to 76% 38 . There are observable voltage shifts where the MPP occurs. One method measures an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of PV module every 30 seconds by disconnecting it from rest of the circuit for a short moment. + PV Figure 3-10: The impedance seen by PV is Rin that is adjustable by duty cycle (D) Rin DC-DC Conv Rload 3. and Figure 3-12 shows the I–V curves at the same irradiance values but with a higher temperature (50oC). Therefore. the impedance of the load can be anything as long as the duty cycle is adjusted accordingly. For example. which is the heart of MPPT controller. the input impedance of the converter is: V s (1 − D ) 2 Vo (1 − D ) 2 Rin = = ⋅ = ⋅ Rload Is Io D2 D2 (3.14) and (3. Then.From the equation (3. the impedance seem by PV is the input impedance of the converter (Rin). There are a number of methods that have been proposed. By changing the duty cycle (D).17) As shown in Figure 3-10. after re-connection.5 Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms The location of the MPP in the I–V plane is not known beforehand and always changes dynamically depending on irradiance and temperature.16). the value of Rin can be matched with that of Ropt. Therefore. the MPP needs to be located by tracking algorithm.

a pyranometer that measures irradiance is quite expensive. The implementation of this open-loop control method is very simple and low-cost although the MPPT efficiencies are relatively low (between 73~91%) [9].5 2 1. the Perturb & Observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance (incCond) methods are studied here. Among different algorithms. thus it is the customary choice for MPPT. Search algorithm using a closed-loop control can achieve higher efficiencies. Furthermore.5 4 3.5 1 0. however in practice it does not work well because it does not take physical variations and aging of module and other effects such as shading into account. 5 4.5 Module Current (A) 3 2. Model calculations can also predict the location of MPP.5 0 0 5 1000W/m2 Maximum Power Point 750W/m2 500W/m2 250W/m2 50W/m2 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 3-11: I-V curves for varying irradiance and a trace of MPPs (25oC) 39 .of measured Voc which corresponds to the voltage at the MPP [6] (note: the percentage depends on the type of cell used).

Figure 3-13 shows a PV module’s output power curve as a function of voltage (P-V curve). Thus.5. P.1 Perturb & Observe Algorithm The perturb & observe (P&O) algorithm. is observed. If the P is negative. In this algorithm the operating voltage of the PV module is perturbed by a small increment.5 4. is very popular and the most commonly used in practice because of its simplicity in algorithm and the ease of implementation. then it is supposed that it has moved the operating point closer to the MPP.5 2 1. assuming the PV module is operating at a point which is away from the MPP. The most basic form of the P&O algorithm operates as follows.5 1 0. further voltage perturbations in the same direction should move the operating point toward the MPP. also known as the “hill climbing” method. If the P is positive.5 4 3. at the constant irradiance and the constant module temperature. and the resulting change of power.5 Module Current (A) 3 2. the 40 .5 0 0 5 1000W/m2 Maximum Power Point 750W/m2 500W/m2 250W/m2 50W/m2 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 3-12: I-V curves for varying irradiance and a trace of MPPs (50oC) 3.

and the direction of perturbation should be reversed to move back toward the MPP.operating point has moved away from the MPP. 25oC) Figure 3-14: Flowchart of the P&O algorithm 41 . Figure 3-14 shows the flowchart of this algorithm. 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 A MPP * * B 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 3-13: Plot of power vs. voltage for BP SX 150S PV module (1KW/m2.

First. it oscillates the operating point around the MPP after each cycle and slightly reduces PV efficiency under the constant irradiance condition [9]. If the irradiance is still rapidly increasing. F and G. The cause of this problem can be explained using Figure 3-15 with a set of P-V curves with varying irradiance. the irradiance increases rapidly to 500W/m2. the MPPT is fooled as if there is a MPP on the left side. continuing to perturb to the left. E. then the operating point will actually moves from the point A toward the point E (instead of B). Second. This happens because the MPPT can not tell that the positive P is the result of increasing irradiation and simply assumes that it is the result of moving the operating point to closer to the MPP. Assume that the operating point is initially at the point A and is oscillating around the MPP at the irradiance of 250W/m2. In this case the positive P is measured when the operating voltage has been moving toward the left. it cannot determine when it has actually reached the MPP. the operating point continues to deviate from the actual MPP until the solar radiation change slows or settles down. From points A. and MPP tracking is most difficult because of the frequent movement of the MPP.There are some limitations that reduce its MPPT efficiency. If this operating point is perturbing from right to left around the MPP. Then. it has been shown that it can exhibit erratic behavior in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions as a result of moving clouds [11]. This situation can occur on partly cloudy days. 42 . again the MPPT will see the positive P and will assume it is moving towards the MPP. Instead. The power measurement results in a positive P.

The problem of oscillations around the MPP can be solved by the simplest way of making a bypass loop which skips the perturbation when the P is very small which occurs near the MPP. It works well under the constant irradiation but makes the MPPT slower to respond to changing atmospheric conditions.Module Output Power (W) Module Voltage (V) Figure 3-15: Erratic behavior of the P&O algorithm under rapidly increasing irradiance The advent of digital controller made implementation of algorithm easy. as a result many variations of the P&O algorithm were proposed to claim improvements. this works well under the constant irradiation but ∆V worsens the erratic behavior under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions on partly cloudy 43 ¦¡ ¡ © § ¡ ©¨ §¨ ¡ §¥ ¦¥ ¡ ¤¢ £¢ ¡ ¦¤¢ §£¢ ¦¥¤¢ 1000W/m2 D 750W/m2 G F * C §£¢ ¦ ¦ § ¦¥ * E 500W/m2 * A B 250W/m2 . Another way is the addition of a “waiting” function that causes a momentary cessation of perturbations if the direction of the perturbation is reversed several times in a row. Again. for example: V ref . The tradeoffs are a steady state error and a high risk of not detecting a small power change. using the slope of PV power as a variable. A more complex one uses a variable step size of perturbation. new = Vref + C ⋅ ∆P [4] [12]. indicating that the MPP has been reached [9].

Comparing these two measurements.18) (3. The slope is the derivative of the PV module’s power with respect to its voltage and has the following relationships with the MPP. Muta. Japan. The basic idea is that the slope of P-V curve becomes zero at the MPP.2 Incremental Conductance Algorithm In 1993 Hussein. dP d (V ⋅ I ) dV dI dI = =I +V = I +V dV dV dV dV dV (3.20) The above equations are written in terms of voltage and current as follows. the algorithm can determine whether the irradiance is changing and decide how to perturb the operating point.19) (3.5. It is also possible to find a relative location of the operating point to the MPP by looking at the slopes. proposed the incremental conductance (incCond) algorithm intending to solve the problem of the P&O algorithm under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions [11]. A modification involving taking a PV power measurement twice at the same voltage solves the problem of not detecting the changing irradiance [9]. Hoshino.days because the power change due to irradiance makes the step size too big. and Osakada of Saga University.21) 44 . The tradeoff is that the increased number of sampling slows response times and increases the complexity of algorithm. as shown in Figure 3-13. dP = 0 at MPP dV dP > 0 at the left of MPP dV dP < 0 at the right of MPP dV (3. 3.

25) If the operating point is at the right side of the MPP.22) dI I =− dV V (3.23).25). dI and dV. the equation (3. the equation (3. it is assumed that the operating point is at the left side of the MPP thus must be moved to the right by increasing the module voltage. and (3.24) dI I >− dV V (3. (3. the equation (3. thus must be moved to the left by decreasing 45 .27) Note that the left side of the equations (3. it is assumed that the operating point is at the right side of the MPP. Similarly.23). it calculates the incremental changes.If the operating point is at the MPP.21) becomes: I +V dI >0 dV (3.21) becomes: I +V dI <0 dV (3. using the present values and previous values of voltage and current.26) dI I <− dV V (3.27). and the right side of the equations represents its instantaneous conductance. if the condition satisfies the inequality (3. It starts with measuring the present values of PV module voltage and current. The flowchart shown in Figure 3-16 explains the operation of this algorithm.25). Then.27) represents incremental conductance of the PV module.27). and (3.23) If the operating point is at the left side of the MPP.21) becomes: I +V dI =0 dV (3. The main check is carried out using the relationships in the equations (3. (3. If the condition satisfies the inequality (3.25).

Another important check included in this algorithm is to detect atmospheric conditions. When the operating point reaches at the MPP. it raises the MPP voltage. Then. the condition satisfies the equation (3. it updates the history by storing the voltage and current data that will be used as previous values in the next cycle. Then. Similarly. If the irradiation has increased (condition: dI > 0). it lowers the MPP voltage. At the end of cycle. it takes no action. if the irradiation has decreased (condition: dI < 0). dI I =− dV V dI I >− dV V Figure 3-16: Flowchart of the incCond algorithm 46 .the module voltage. the algorithm will increase the operating voltage to track the MPP.23). the algorithm will decrease the operating voltage. and the algorithm bypasses the voltage adjustment. If the MPPT is still operating at the MPP (condition: dV = 0) and the irradiation has not changed (condition: dI = 0).

for example: dP/dV = ±E. There are several methods often used for MPPT. and then tracking algorithm (P&O. 3. or variations of two) calculates the reference voltage (Vref) where the PV operating voltage should move next. the MPPT algorithm tells a MPPT controller how to move the operating voltage. a small margin of error (E) should be allowed. The task of MPPT algorithm is to set Vref only. Thus. Its task is to minimize error between Vref and the measured voltage by adjusting the duty cycle. The PI controller itself can be implemented with analog components. 47 .6 Control of MPPT As explained in the previous section. the condition dP/dV = 0 (or dI/dV = -I/V) seldom occurs because of the approximation made in the calculation of dI and dV [11]. Then.6. The PI loop operates with a much faster rate and provides fast response and overall system stability [10] [12].1 PI Control As shown in Figure 3-17.In practice. it is a MPPT controller’s task to bring the voltage to a desired level and maintain it. and it is repeated periodically with a slower rate (typically 1~10 samples per second). incCond. Then. 3. there is another control loop that the proportional and integral (PI) controller regulates the input voltage of converter. the MPPT takes measurement of PV voltage and current. but it is often done with DSP-based controller [10] because the DSP can handle other tasks such as MPP tracking thus reducing parts count. The value of E is optimized with exchange between an amount of the steady-sate tracking error and a risk of oscillation of the operating point.

2 Direct Control As shown in Figure 3-18.6. Figure 3-18: Block diagram of MPPT with the direct control 48 . this control method is simpler and uses only one control loop.4. The way how to adjust the duty cycle is totally based on the theory of load matching explained in Section 3.Figure 3-17: Block diagram of MPPT with the PI compensator 3. and it performs the adjustment of duty cycle within the MPP tracking algorithm.

Similarly.5 4 3.5 Module Current (A) 3 2.28) where: D is the duty cycle of the Cúk converter. then the next sampling of PV voltage and current should be taken after the system reaches the periodic steady state to avoid measuring the transient behavior [9]. As shown in Figure 3-19.The impedance seen by PV is the input impedance of converter.5 1 0. thus the PV operating voltage moves to the left. thus the operating voltage moves to the right. increasing D will decrease the input impedance (Rin). or variations of two) makes the decision how to move the operating voltage. The typical sampling rate 49 .4.93 Ohms * MPP * Increasing D 1. incCond.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Increasing Rin Figure 3-19: Relationship of the input impedance of Cúk converter and its duty cycle The time response of the power stage and PV source is relatively slow (10~50msec depending on the type of load) [9]. decreasing D will increase Rin.5 2 Slope=1/R R=16 Ohms R=4 Ohms * R=7. The MPPT algorithm changes the duty cycle. the relationship to the load is: V s (1 − D ) 2 Rin = = ⋅ Rload Is D2 (3. Using the example of the Cúk converter in Section 3. 5 4. The tracking algorithm (P&O.

BP SX 150S PV module is coupled with the ideal (loss-less) Cúk converter with a resistive load (6 ). 3.3 Output Sensing Direct Control This method is a variation of the aforementioned direct control and has the advantage of requiring only two sensors for output voltage and current. The system response is. The sampling rate of PI controller is much faster. In addition with input sensors. slow in general.is 10~100 samples per second. thus it provides robustness against sudden changes of load. The direct control method can operate stably for applications such as battery equipped systems and water pumping systems. The requirement of four sensors often makes difficult to allow for low cost systems. they usually require another set of sensors for the output to detect the over-voltage and over-current condition of load. it is possible to implement with inexpensive microcontrollers [12]. and the output power of converter is plotted in Figure 3-20. This output sensing method measures the power change of PV at the output side of converter and uses the duty cycle as a control variable. In the simulation. 50 .6. The aforementioned two methods use input sensing which enables accurate control of module’s operating point. Since sampling rates are slow. The following MATLAB simulation illustrates the relationship between the output power of converter and its duty cycle. however. The duty cycle of converter is swept from 0 to 1 with 1% step. however.

The algorithm perturbs the duty cycle and measure the output power of converter.160 140 120 Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.5 0. there is a peak of output power when the duty cycle of converter is varied.4 0. This control method employs the P&O algorithm to locate the MPP. there is some uncertainly if the peak of output power is corresponding with the MPP in practice with 51 . but the idea how it works is the same. 25oC) As shown in the figure. In order to accommodate duty cycle as a control variable. the duty cycle is further perturbed in the same direction.7 0.1 0.9 1 Figure 3-20: Output power of Cúk converter vs.8 0. If the power is increased. a PV module or array is supposed to be operating at the MPP. When the output power of converter is reached at the peak.2 0.3 0. its duty cycle (1KW/m2.6 Duty Cycle 0. otherwise the direction will be reversed. the P&O algorithm used here is a slightly modified version from that previously introduced. Figure 3-21 shows the flowchart of algorithm. Even though it works perfectly in the simulation with the ideal converter.

29) 52 . The example of load matching in Section 3. Figure 3-21: Flowchart of P&O algorithm for the output sensing direct control method 3.non-ideal converters. The maximum power transfer occurs when the input impedance of converter matches with the optimal impedance of PV module.7 Limitations of MPPT The main drawback of MPPT is that there is no regulation on output while it is tracking a maximum power point. Also.4 is elaborated here to show how the output voltage and current change with varying irradiation. and it does not work with the incCond algorithm. It cannot regulate both input and output at the same time. Rin = Ropt = V MPP I MPP (3. as described in the equation below. this control method only works with the P&O algorithm and its variations.

Using the equations above.491 0.406 0.8 35.9W Rin 7.80 12.7W 56.18A 1. D= 1+ 1 Rin Rload (3.9 D 0.45A 3.8W 87.87A and 12 at the constant module temperature of 25oC.4V 26. the output voltage of converter is: Vo = D ⋅ Vs 1− D (3.1V PV Module IMPP 4.50A Rload 12 12 12 12 12 Table 3-2: Load matching with the resistive load (12 ) under the varying irradiance 53 .439 0.87A Pmax 150.9 18.465 0.8 35.9 D 0.0V Io 3.70A 2.9V 18.92 9.80 12.5V 34.525 0.9W 26.82A 3.08A 2.6V 32.73A 0.5V 34.290 Io 5.92 9.V 12.11).4V 37.552 0.0V 26.0W 118.1V 18. the output current of converter is: Io = 1− D ⋅ Is D (3.9W 26.48A 2. obtained from the MATLAB simulation model.0W 118. MPPT Vo 30.5.61A 1.61A 1.00A 4.444 0.7W 56.1V 33.16).366 MPPT Vo 42.8V 32.54A 3.15A 2.35A 3.32) PV module data are The calculation results are tabulated in the tables below.73A 0.48A 2.7V 31.7V 22.1V 33.6V 32.9W Rin 7.17) for the Cúk converter is solved for duty cycle (D).35A 3.1V Pmax 150.8W 87.The equation (3.361 0.9 18.30) From the equation (3. two sets of data are collected for the resistive load of 6 PV Module IMPP 4.12A Rload 6 6 6 6 6 Table 3-1: Load matching with the resistive load (6 ) under the varying irradiance Irradiance 1000W/m2 800W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m2 200W/m2 VMPP 34.7V 31.7V Irradiance 1000W/m2 800W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m2 200W/m2 VMPP 34.31) From the equation (3.

the lack of output regulation is not a predicament as long as they are equipped with water reservoirs to meet the demand of water. For water pumping system without batteries. If the application requires a constant voltage. the grid-tied system can always perform the maximum power point tracking because it can inject the power into the grid as much as produced. the MPPT moves the operating point away from the MPP and sends less power. After due consideration of limitations. Another noteworthy fact is that MPPT stops its original task if the load cannot consume all the power delivered. when the load is limited by its maximum voltage or current. it simply pumps more water. On the other hand. when the sun shines more. it’s obvious that there is no regulation of the output voltage and current. The speed of pump motor is proportional to the converter’s output voltage which is relative to irradiation. Of course. it must employ batteries to maintain the voltage constant.From the above results. thus it can utilize the full capacity of PV module and array. It is necessary for PV system engineers to perform economic analysis of different systems and also necessary to seek other methods of efficiency improvement such as the use of a sun tracker. in reality DC-DC converter used in MPPT is not 100% efficient. the next chapter will discuss designs and simulations of MPPT and PV water pumping system. There is also tradeoff between efficiency and the cost. Thus. but the system needs to take efficiency loss by DC-DC converter into account. For the stand-alone system. 54 . The efficiency gain from MPPT is large. It is very important to select an appropriate size of load.

At last.1 D 0. this chapter provides comparisons between the PV water pumping system equipped with MPPT and the directcoupled system without MPPT. PSpice simulations validate the design and choice of the MPPT sampling rate.2 Cúk Converter Design The basic operation of Cúk Converter and derivation of the voltage transfer function is explained in Section 3. After the component selection.3. MATLAB simulations perform comparative tests of the P&O and incCond algorithm. Specification Input Voltage (Vs) Input Current (Is) Output Voltage (Vo) Output Current (Io) Maximum Output Power (Pmax) Switching Frequency (f) Duty Cycle (D) 20-48V 0-5A (< 5% ripple) 12-30V (< 5% ripple) 0-5A (< 5% ripple) 150W 50KHz 0. a Cúk converter is designed based on the specification shown in the table below. It discusses Cúk converter design.3. the design is simulated in PSpice. 4.6 Table 4-1: Design specification of the Cúk Converter 55 . After component selection. Here.Chapter 4 Design and Simulations 4.1 Introduction This chapter provides the design and simulations of MPPT. Simulations also verify the functionality of MPPT with a resistive load and then with the DC pump motor load.

Similarly.hammondmfg.2) Assume that the worst current ripple will occur under the maximum power condition. The following equation gives the change in ∆i L = Vs ⋅ D L⋅ f (4.2.com). ∆i L 2 = 0. ∆i L1 = 0.2): (4.2175 A Thus. Under this condition.05)( 4.0) = 0. 0.0A DC max. Solving this for L gives: L= Vs ⋅ D ∆i L ⋅ f (4.07 DCR) is available from Hammond Mfg. the average current (IL1) of the input inductor (L1) is 4.5mH inductor is selected.05)(5.4) A commercially available 1. from the equation (4.2175 )(50 × 10 3 ) (4.475 mH ∆i L1 ⋅ f (0.05 ⋅ I L1 = (0.1 Component Selection a) Inductor Selection The inductor sizes are decided such that the change in inductor currents is no more than 5% of the average inductor current.465) = = 1. (www.250 A (4. and f is the switching frequency.35A. the value of the output inductor (L2) is calculated as follows.1) where: Vs is the input voltage. For example. 1. and the ripple current is 5% of IL1.3) L1 = Vs ⋅ D (34. inductor current [8].5mH power coke (5.5)(0.5) 56 .05 ⋅ I L 2 = (0. D is the duty cycle.4.35) = 0.

L2 = Vs ⋅ D (34.05 × 64.5)(0.9) C2 = 1− D 8 ⋅ ( ∆v o Vo ) ⋅ L 2 ⋅ f 2 = 1 − 0.42 µF R ⋅ f ⋅ ∆v c1 (6)(50 × 10 3 )(3.5 × 10 −3 )(50 × 10 3 ) 2 (4.7) C1 = Vo ⋅ D (30. The value of the output capacitor (C2) is calculated using the output voltage ripple equation (the same as that of buck converter) [21].25)(50 × 10 3 ) (4.5 = 3.47 F.6) To make parts procurement easier.3567 µF 8(0.225) (4.225V.10) The next available size is 0.5 + 30 = 64.8) The next commercially available size is 22 F. so the maximum ripple voltage is vC1 = 0.465) = = 1. b) Capacitor Selection The design criterion for capacitors is that the ripple voltage across them should be less than 5%.5V.0) 2 R= = = 6Ω Po (150) The value of C1 is calculated with the following equation [8]: 2 (4. ∆v o 1− D = Vo 8 ⋅ L2 ⋅ C 2 ⋅ f Solving the above equation for C2 gives: 2 (4.465) = = 14 . 57 .05)(1. The equivalent load resistance is: Vo (30. from the equation (3.283mH ∆i L 2 ⋅ f (0. An aluminum electrolytic capacitor with low ESR type is required. Vc1 = Vs + Vo= 34.2).0)(0. the output can use the same inductor size as one in the input.465 = 0. The average voltage across the capacitor (C1) is. An aluminum electrolytic capacitor with low ESR type is required.

VRRM=100Vmax) meets the above-mentioned voltage and current ratings. From Figure 3-8. The peak switch current is the same as the diode. The average forward current (IF) of diode is the combination of input and output currents at the SW off. The peak voltage of the switch (SW) [18] is obtained by KVL on the circuit shown in Figure 3-9. IRF530 (ID=14Amax. For example. adding the 30% of safety factor gives the current rating of 12. Schottky diodes are widely available from numerous vendors.2A. Thus.35A. Adding the 30% of safety factor gives the voltage rating of 62.5V. Adding the 30% of safety factor gives the voltage rating of 83. MBR15100 (IF=15Amax. thus VRRM = 64. VSW = Vs − dI L1 dt (4.11) The voltage of SW could go up to 48V by the specification.c) Diode Selection Schottky diode should be selected because it has a low forward voltage and very good reverse recovery time (typically 5 to 10ns) [21]. thus it is ID = IL1+IL2 = 9. the recurrent peak reverse voltage (VRRM) of the diode is the same as the average voltage of capacitor (C1) [18].2A. Adding the 30% of safety factor gives the current rating of 12.4V. For example.9V. There are a wide variety of Power-MOSFETs available from various vendors. 58 . VDS=100Vmax) meets the above-mentioned requirements. d) Switch Selection Power-MOSFETs are widely used for low to medium power applications.

47uF E 28Vdc 0 0 V1 = 0 V2 = 1 TR = 10n TF = 10n TD = 0 PW = {D*T} PER = {T} PARAMETERS: f = 50kHz T = {1/f } D = .4.5Vdc Vpwm + + C1 2 22uF 2 1 L2 1. Figure 4-1 shows the circuit diagram with the PMDC motor model as a load.5. The plots show that both input and output currents take nearly 250msec to reach steady state. thus they are estimated from other references [2] [20].2 PSpice Simulations PSpice simulations validate the Cúk converter designed in Section 4.2 - Sbreak D1 Dbreak C2 . and E is the back emf of the motor. L1 1. 59 .5mH La 1 2 10mH 1 Ra .1. Ra and La are resistance and inductance of armature winding. it takes a long time for current to build up.5mH S1 Vin 34. The converter is running with full load. Since the load has such a large inductance. In the diagram. A more detailed discussion of modeling a DC motor appears in Section 4.2.2. The values of armature resistance and inductance that correspond to the actual DC pump motor are unknown.1.465 Figure 4-1: Schematic of the Cúk converter with PMDC motor load Figure 4-2 shows current and voltage plots of the converter after turning on (t = 0sec). respectively.

The output 60 .0A < 5% 34.5V n/a 30V < 5% Table 4-2: Cúk converter design: comparisons of simulations and calculated results Table 4-2 shows two sets of simulation data for the DC motor load.6% 34.2% 6.0V 2.83A 4. DC Motor 1 Set 2nd Set 4.35A < 5% 5.5V 34.1% 4.18A 5.07A 4.70A 4.0A 2.1V 9% 3.9V 29.84A 4.1% 4. the same simulation is done with an equivalent resistive load (6 ).7% Calculated Results 4.6% 4.20A 5. The transient time is less than 10msec with the resistive load. Other current and voltage data are gathered and tabulated below for comparisons with the resistive load and calculated results. The first set is the result of simulation using the components selected in the previous section.1% st Iin Iout Vin Vout Average % ripple Average % ripple Average % ripple Average % ripple Resistive Load (6 ) 4.4% 34. It is apparent that the motor load has a very slow response.5.5A SEL>> 0A I(L1) 40V I(L2) 30V 20V 10V 0V 0s V(Vin:+) -V(C2:2) Time 50ms 100ms 150ms 200ms 250ms Figure 4-2: PSpice plots of input/output current (above) and voltage (below) For comparisons.5V n/a n/a 28.5V n/a 29.

35% at 250ms 61 . The size of step is typically 0.47 F) is finally selected.5V or less. Therefore. In the same way.0V 240ms V(L1:1) 260ms -V(C2:2) 280ms 300ms Time 320ms 340ms 360ms Figure 4-3: Transient response when duty cycle is increased 0. For the Cúk converter designed. PSpice performs the simulation when the duty cycle is changed.0V SEL>> 27. in the next simulation. and the transient responses of voltage and current are observed. a 1 F capacitor (instead of 0. 4.3 Choice of MPPT Sampling Rate MPPT algorithms adjust PV operating point with a small step. 0. The use of “Sw_tOpen” and “Sw_tClose” in the analog miscellaneous library permits switching of one duty cycle to another duty cycle during the simulation.35% change in duty cycle. It makes the input current ripple slightly worse.5A 4. the size of output capacitor (C2) is increased to the next commercially available size of 1 F.7%. but it makes overall improvement of performance. 5.0A I(L1) 35. Thus.5V corresponds to approximately 0.2.0V I(L2) 32. it is also necessary to adjust the value of back emf (E) because it has to correspond with the change of output voltage.5V 30.voltage ripple for the DC motor load is as large as 9% while one for the equivalent resistive load (6 ) is only 2.0A 4.

First. where they take only several milliseconds for the resistive load. as shown in Figure 4-4. 25oC) The traces of PV operating point are shown in green. they are verified to locate the MPP correctly under the constant irradiance. with a PV pump motor.1 for MATLAB scripts for this section. Please refer to Appendix A. each simulation contains only the PV model and the algorithm in order to isolate any influence from a converter or load. and the MPP is the red asterisk 62 . Therefore.3 Comparisons of P&O and incCond Algorithm The two MPPT algorithms.Figure 4-3 is the result of PSpice simulation. It shows both input and output currents take between 80msec and 90msec to go to steady state. Since the purpose is to make comparisons of two algorithms. discussed in Section 3. 4. 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 start end 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 4-4: Searching the MPP (1KW/m2. the sampling rate is 10Hz at most.5 are implemented in MATLAB simulations and tested for their performance. It is important for MPPT algorithm to take measurements of voltage and current after they reach steady state. P&O and incCond.

The data contain the irradiance measurements taken every two minutes for 12 hours. Simulations use two sets of data. 1 Sunny Day Cloudy Day 0. and the second set of data is for a cloudy day in the same month at the same location. Spain [2] On a sunny day.6 0. Irradiance values between two data points are estimated by the cubic interpolation in MATLAB functions. shown in Figure 4-5.4 0. the algorithms are tested with actual irradiance data provided by [2]. 63 . Spain.2 0 0 2 4 6 Hour (h) 8 10 12 Figure 4-5: Irradiance data for a sunny and a cloudy day of April in Barcelona. both algorithms locate and maintain the PV operating point very close to the MPPs (shown in red asterisks) without much difference in their performance. the first set of data is the measurements of a sunny day in April in Barcelona. As shown in Figure 4-6. the irradiance level changes gradually since there is no influence of cloud.Next. MPP tracking is supposed to be easy.8 Irradiance (KW/m2) 0.

the incCond algorithm is supposed to outperform the P&O algorithm under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions [11]. the deviations of operating points from the MPPs are obvious when compared to the results of a sunny day. however. Figure 4-7 shows the trace of PV operating points for (a) P&O algorithm and (b) incCond algorithm. Some erratic traces are.160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 (a) P&O algorithm 1000W/m 2 160 140 (b) incCond algorithm 1000W/m2 800W/m2 Module Output Power (W) 120 100 80 60 40 800W/m2 600W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m2 400W/m2 200W/m2 20 0 20 0 200W/m2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 4-6: Traces of MPP tracking on a sunny day (25oC) On a cloudy day. 64 . For both algorithms. MPP tracking is supposed to be challenging. also observable in the plot of the incCond algorithm. total electric energy produced during a 12-hour period is calculated and tabulated in Table 4-3. the irradiance level changes rapidly because of passing clouds. In order to make a better comparison. A close inspection of Figure 4-7 reveals that the P&O algorithm has slightly larger deviations overall and some erratic behaviors (such as the large deviation pointed by the red arrow). Between two algorithms.

160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 (a) P&O Algorithm 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 (b) incCond Algorithm 1000W/m 2 1000W/m2 800W/m2 800W/m2 600W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m2 40 20 0 200W/m2 400W/m2 40 20 0 200W/m2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 4-7: Trace of MPP tracking on a cloudy day (25oC) Total Energy (simulation) Total Energy (theoretical max) Efficiency P&O Algorithm 479. Also.64Wh 480. however. further optimization of algorithm and varying a testing method may provide different results. The performance difference between the two algorithms.3% for 65 .69Wh 480.38Wh 99. The irradiance data are only available at two-minute intervals.38Wh 99.86% Table 4-3: Comparison of the P&O and incCond algorithms on a cloudy day Total electric energy produced with the incCond algorithm is narrowly larger than that of the P&O algorithm. The simulation results showed the efficiency of 99. There is a study showing similar results [9]. The MPP tracking efficiency measured by {Total Energy (simulation)} ÷ {Total Energy (theoretical max)} ×100% is still good in the cloudy condition for both algorithms. The data may not be providing a truly rapid changing condition. and that could be a reason why the two results are so close. would not be large. thus they do not record a much higher rate of changes during these intervals.85% incCond Algorithm 479. and again it is narrowly higher with the incCond algorithm.

the MPPT control. chooses the P&O algorithm and the output sensing direct control method because of the advantage that allows of a simple and low cost system. MPPT with a resistive load is implemented in MATLAB simulation and verified.the P&O algorithm and 99.4% for the incCond algorithm. respectively. The simulation results in Section 4. The selection of the P&O algorithm permits the use of the output sensing direct control method which eliminates the input voltage and current sensors. T ) (4. The experimental results showed 96. 4.13) 66 . as discussed in Section 3.4 MPPT Simulations with Resistive Load First. calculates the module current (Ia) for the given module voltage (Va). R= Va Ia (4.3 have shown that there is no great advantage in using the more complex incCond algorithm.3. The operating point of PV module is located by its relationship to the load resistance (R) as explained in Section 3. The MPPT design.12) The function.4. The MATLAB function that models the PV module is the following: I a = bp _ sx150 s (Va . for a partly cloudy day. therefore.0%. bp_sx150s. and the resistive load (6 ). G . and the P&O algorithm provides satisfactory results even in the cloudy condition. The simulated system consists of the BP SX 150S PV model. and module temperature (T in oC).6.5% and 97. the ideal Cúk converter. irradiance (G in KW/m2).

The following equations describe the input/output relationship of voltage and current.13) gives: Va − R ⋅ f (Va ) = 0 (4. Please refer Appendix A.16) where: D is the duty cycle of the Cúk converter. 67 .12) are known variables.15) 1− D ⋅ Is D (4.The irradiance (G) and the module temperature (T) for the function (4. MATLAB uses fzero function to do so.3 provides sufficient modeling of the Cúk converter. the steady state analysis discussed in Section 3. Therefore. Substituting this into the equation (4. Placing Va.3.14) Knowing the value of R enables to solve this equation for the operating voltage (Va). thus it is possible to say that Ia is the function of Va hence Ia = f(Va). back to the equation (4.12) gives the operating current (Ia). Vo = Io = D ⋅ Vs 1− D (4. each sampling of voltage and current is done at a periodic steady state condition of the converter.1 for details. For the direct control method. and they are used in the MATLAB simulation.

+! ! +" / # 0 1 Figure 4-8: MPPT simulation flowchart The simulation is performed under the linearly increasing irradiance varying from 100W/m2 to 1000W/m2 with a moderate rate of 0. Figure 4-9 (c) shows the relationship between the output power of converter and its duty cycle. shown in Figure 4-8. 68 . explains the operation of the simulated system.3W/m2 per sample. Figure 4-9 (a) and (b) show that the trace of operating point is staying close to the MPPs during the simulation. ! ) * ! ! - . Since the load is resistive.1. the current and voltage increase linearly with the slope of 1/Rload on the I-V plane.The following flowchart. Figure 4-9 (d) shows the current and voltage relationship of converter output. The details can be referred in the MATLAB script listed in the Appendix A. " # $% & ' ! # ( #! ) *+ )* .

9 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 35 Figure 4-9: MPPT simulations with the resistive load (100 to 1000W/m2. its voltage or/and current will exceed the limit. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 800W/m2 Module Current(A) 3. During the normal operation.5 800W/m2 600W/m 2 600W/m2 400W/m 2 400W/m 2 200W/m 2 20 0 start 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 1 0. it sets when the output voltage goes beyond 30V or 5A for the output current. Then.4 0. To protect the load from failure. the 10 For the example shown in Figure 4-10. When the load cannot absorb all the power produced by PV. In the simulation. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 5 4.5 0 0 5 10 15 200W/m2 start 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 160 140 120 Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 (c) Output Power vs.5 2 1.5 0. irradiance.6 Duty Cycle 0.1 0. it operates in MPPT mode.5 4 (b) PV Current vs. during the increasing load exceeds the voltage limit of 30V. Duty Cycle end 6 (d) Output Current vs. The output protection maintains 69 .7 0.8 0.2 0.160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 (a) PV Power vs.3 0.5 3 2. 25oC) The control algorithm contains two loops. it regulates the output not to exceed the limit. the control algorithm stops operating in MPPT mode and invokes the output protection. as shown in Figure 4-8: the main loop for MPPT and another loop for output protection. Voltage 5 end Output Current (A) 4 3 Load Line start 1 2 start 0 0.

the voltage around 30V. It also indicates the importance of selecting an appropriate size of load. discussed in Section 3. 4. The results are very similar and are shown in Appendix A. Voltage 5 800W/m 2 600W/m 2 end Output Current (A) 4 end 3 400W/m 2 2 200W/m 2 20 start 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 1 start 0 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 35 Figure 4-10: Output protection & regulation (100 to 1000W/m2.2 for reference.6. DC pump motor is modeled. is also implemented with both P&O and incCond algorithm. Voltage 1000W/m 2 6 (b) Output Current vs. replacing the resistive load. thus it can utilize the full capacity of PV module or array.2. 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 (a) PV Power vs. SIMULINK is chosen for this purpose because it offers a tool called “SimPowerSystems” which facilitates modeling of DC motors with its DC machine tool box. 70 .5 MPPT Simulations with DC Pump Motor Load Next. 25oC) The input sensing type direct control method. Figure 4-10 (a) shows that PV is not operating at the MPP and sending the power less than the maximum after the irradiance reaches at a little over 600W/m2. The model is then put into the MATLAB simulation designed in the previous section.

and it is expressed by the total dynamic head in terms of its equivalent vertical column of water. Figure 4-11: Kyocera SD 12-30 water pump performance chart [13] To model a permanent magnet DC motor. which is governed by the available driving voltage [19]. Since the water pump is a positive displacement type. Figure 4-11 shows the relationship between flow rate of water and total dynamic head for the Kyocera SD 12-30 solar pump to be modeled. thus they are chosen by modification of the default values and estimation from other references [2] [20]. The value is selected to draw the maximum power of 150W at the maximum voltage of 30V.1 Modeling of DC Water Pump The flow rate of water in positive displacement pumps is directly proportional to the speed of the pump motor. for example. The parameters of DC machine. vertical lift and friction converted to vertical lift [13]. It has the normal operating voltage of 12 to 30V and the maximum power of 150W. that correspond to the actual pump motor are unknown.5. shown in Figure 4-13.4. the load torque is also constant. as shown in Figure 4-12. They have constant load torque to the pump motors. the SIMULINK model applies a constant field. 71 .

P Product + v - Va ? More Info Ia vs Va Divide Rload Figure 4-12: SIMULINK model of permanent magnet DC pump motor Figure 4-13: SIMULINK DC machine block parameters The voltage source applies a 0-30V ramp at the rate of 1V per second. w.1 TL Signal 1 s + A+ F+ m Demux dc AF- 0-30V Ramp Voltage Source DC Machine Apply Constant Field Va.Positive Displacement Pump (Constant Torque) 1. the change of load resistance (Rload) is observed. as shown in Figure 4-14. Te. Ia. The plot data are 72 . Then.

73 .transferred to MATLAB. The irradiance is increased linearly from 20W/m2 to 1000W/m2 with the same rate of 0.3W/m2 per sample. Figure 4-15 (a) and (b) show that the trace of operating point staying close to the MPPs throughout the simulation. Figure 4-14: SIMULINK plot of Rload ( ) 4.5. Rload = 9.17) where: Vo is the output voltage of converter.37 ⋅ Vo + 0. shown below. and MATLAB uses it in the simulations.7 × 10 −3 ⋅ Vo2 + 0.2 MATLAB Simulation Results The simulation is carried out in a similar manner as that for the resistive load. This equation characterizes the DC pump motor.5 × 10 −5 ⋅ Vo3 − 8. and the cubic curve fitting tool in MATLAB provides the equation of the curve.2 (4. Figure 4-15 (c) shows the relationship between the output power of converter and its duty cycle.

5 0.3 0.160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 start (a) PV Power vs. the back emf takes effect and drops the current. therefore the current rises slowly with increasing voltage.5 2 1. The only 74 .2 (c) Output Power vs. Figure 4-16 shows the I-V curve produced by the SIMULINK simulation.1 0.5 200W/m2 start 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 0 160 140 120 Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 start 0 0. Duty Cycle end 6 (d) Output Current vs.5 800W/m2 600W/m 2 600W/m2 400W/m 2 400W/m 2 200W/m 2 1 0. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 800W/m2 Module Current(A) 3.8 0. The y-axis is the armature current of DC motor.5 4 (b) PV Current vs.6 Duty Cycle 0.7 0. Once it starts to run. It is similar to the MATLAB version.5 3 2.9 1 4 3 2 1 start 0 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 Figure 4-15: MPPT simulations with the DC pump motor load (20 to 1000W/m2.4 0. 25oC) Figure 4-15 (d) shows the current and voltage relationship of converter output which is equal to the DC motor load. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 5 4. It shows that the output current rises rapidly with increasing voltage until the current is sufficient to create enough torque to start the motor. and the x-axis is time (second) that corresponds to the armature voltage (V). Voltage 5 end Output Current (A) 0. therefore it can be concluded that the simple MATLAB model of DC motor used here is valid.

6 System with MPPT vs.3. introduced in Section 4.060KWh 54.42% Total Energy (simulation) Total Energy (theoretical max) Efficiency Table 4-4: Energy production and efficiency of PV module with and without MPPT 75 . The irradiance data used here are the measurements of a sunny day in April in Barcelona.060KWh 99. The total electric energy produced during a 12-hour period is calculated and tabulated in Table 4-4.discrepancy is that the MATLAB version shows slow transition between halt to motion because the output is limited by the duty cycle which is set to 10% as the minimum. Figure 4-16: SIMULINK plot of DC motor I-V curve 4.75% Without MPPT 0. Spain. Direct-coupled System The PV water pumping system simulated in the previous section is compared with the direct-coupled PV water pumping system without MPPT.057KWh 1.577KWh 1. With MPPT 1.

14 12 Loss-less Converter 90% Efficiency Converter Direct-coupled System 10 Flow Rate (L/min) 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hour 7 8 9 10 11 12 Figure 4-17: Flow rates of PV water pumps for a 12-hour period Simulated with the irradiance data of a sunny day (total dynamic head = 30m) 76 . The minimum power requirement of pump motor is 35W [13]. Another set of simulations provides a comparison of the two systems in terms of flow rates and total volume of water pumped. it pumps water with the flow rate above. the system can increase the overall efficiency by more than 35% compared to the system without MPPT. On the other hand.7cm3/W·min. the flow rates of pump are obtained from the MATLAB simulations and shown in Figure 4-17.The result shows that the PV water pumping system without MPPT has poor efficiency because of mismatching between the PV module and the DC pump motor load. As shown in Figure 4-11. Using the same test condition. The results show that MPPT can significantly boost the performance. Assuming a DC-DC converter has efficiency more than 90%. therefore as long as the output power is higher than 35W. it shows that the system with MPPT can utilize more than 99% of PV capacity. the flow rate of Kyocera SD 12-30 water pump is proportional to the power delivered. the flow rate per watt is approximately 86. When the total dynamic head is 30m.

77 . Similarly. The results are tabulated below. The total volume of water pumped for the 12-hour period is also calculated for both systems.The results show that the direct-coupled PV water pumping system has a severe disadvantage because the pump stays idle for nearly two more hours in the morning while the same system with MPPT is already pumping water. Even if the efficiency of converter is set to 90%. it can still pump 67% more water than the system without MPPT.719m3 Without MPPT Total Volume of Water Pumped for 12 Hours (simulation) 2. With MPPT Loss-less Converter 5. It enables to pump up to 87% more water than the system without MPPT.302m3 90% Efficiency Converter 4. The flow rate of water is also lower throughout the operating period. it goes idle nearly two hours earlier than the system with MPPT in the afternoon.831m3 Table 4-5: Total volume of water pumped for 12 hours Simulated with the irradiance data of a sunny day (total dynamic head = 30m) The results show that MPPT offers significant performance improvement.

The incCond algorithm shows narrowly but better performance in terms of efficiency compared to the P&O algorithm under the cloudy weather condition. This control method offers another benefit of allowing steady-state analysis of the DC-DC converter. and then the model is transferred into MATLAB. Even a small improvement of efficiency could bring large savings if the system is large. as opposed to the more complex state-space averaging method. It performs simulations of the whole system and verifies functionality and benefits of MPPT. The results validate that MPPT can significantly increase the efficiency of energy production from PV and the performance of the PV water pumping system compared to the system without MPPT. However. 78 . It models each component and simulates the system using MATLAB. The result shows that the PV model using the equivalent circuit in moderate complexity provides good matching with the real PV module.Chapter 5 Conclusion 5. Simulations also make comparisons with the system without MPPT in terms of total energy produced and total volume of water pumped a day. In order to develop a simple low-cost system. because it performs sampling of voltage and current at the periodic steady state. Simulations use SimPowerSystems in SIMULINK to model a DC pump motor. Simulations perform comparative tests for the two MPPT algorithms using actual irradiance data in the two different weather conditions. this thesis adopts the direct control method which employs the P&O algorithm but requires only two sensors for output.1 Summary This study presents a simple but efficient photovoltaic water pumping system. it could be difficult to justify the use of incCond algorithm for small low-cost systems since it requires four sensors.

simply increasing the size of system and using a larger motor (5hp or above) could allow for better results in SUMILINK. At the initial phase of simulation design. a method of supplying power to the controller.2 Difficulties and Future Research Correct modeling of the DC-DC converter and DC water pump is an important area of study. The accuracy of model is. however. however. a switching loss in a Power-MOSFET. uncertain because the parameters are only estimates. signal conditioning circuits for A/D converters. The model used for simulations of DC water pump gives results within a reasonable range. Building the whole system in SIMULINK. and a water level sensor that detects when the water reservoir reaches full. 79 . Physical implementation of the system remains for future research. SimPowerSystems provide components to build electric circuits in SIMULINK and allow including such losses. If tests could be run on the real water pump motor or an equivalent sized motor to determine reasonable entries to SIMULINK block parameters. A more realistic model of the DC-DC converter would involve a diode loss. Also. a Cúk converter. though many PV water pumps rarely use such large motors. It may involve implementation of: a DSP or a microcontroller. and various difficulties remain in the current study. and resistive losses in inductors and capacitors. this could lead to more accurate simulation runs. a driving circuit for PowerMOSFET. attempts to build a Cúk converter in SIMULINK faced unsolvable difficulties.5. It may also involve performance analysis on the actual system and comparisons with simulations. could open avenues of study such as stability analysis of system and implementations of more advanced control methods.

5. Together with decreasing PV module costs and increasing efficiency. and creating no pollution or green house gases during the power generation. Energy is so important for everyone. 80 . In contrast. PV has a powerful attraction because it produces electric energy from a free inexhaustible source. Finally. renewable energy resources are ubiquitous around the world. consuming no fossil fuels. taking control of the world’s supply of oil is one of the most important national agenda for United Sates. The world is getting divided into two groups: the countries that have access to oil and natural gas resources and those that do not. using no moving parts. the sun. Especially. PV is getting more pervasive than ever. and in fact. the author wishes that this thesis serves the interests of other students who are interested in power electronics for PV applications and provides encouragement towards more advanced senior project or master’s thesis research.3 Concluding Remarks Issues of energy and global warming are some of the biggest challenges for humanity in the 21st century.

S. 1. Kostas Kalaitzakis. Fuller. Nicholas C. Efichios. Snyman. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Ropp “Comparative Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications November 2002. Hoshino. & M. page 769-773 Green. May 1954. Vol. Using PSpice John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 6 December 1997. Pomona.Bibliography [1] [2] [3] BP Solar BP SX150 . Jongrong Lin & Chihming Shen “Implementation of a DSPControlled Photovoltaic System with Peak Power Tracking” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics.. and Cubic Pico-Satellite Electronics System Master’s Thesis... K. 44. Osakada “Maximum Photovoltaic Power Tracking: an Algorithm for Rapidly Changing Atmospheric Conditions” IEE Proceedings – Generation. Luis & Santiago Silvestre Modelling Photovoltaic Systems. M. Operating Principles. Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Control System” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. San Luis Obispo. 142 January 1995. 2001 Castañer. Martin A. No. P. E. Volume 25. 1982 Hart. 1996 Hohm. page 676-677 Dang. Thuy Lam A Digitally-controlled Power Tracker Master’s Thesis.. Inc. & M. January 2001. 2004 Enslin. Daniel W. No. & G. 45. & Wernher Swiegers “Integrated Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Converter” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. Murray Hill. L. Issue 5. No. page 59-64 Koutroulis.. Solar Cells. C. Vol. New Jersey “A New Silicon p-n Junction Photocell for Converting Solar Radiation into Electrical Power” Journal of Applied Physics. Pearson. Mario S. H. 2002 Chapin. Chihchiang. Daniël B. 16. page 46-54 [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] 81 . Christopher Alan The Design of an Efficient. D. California Polytechnic State University. Muta. and System Applications Prentice Hall Inc. Wolf. California Polytechnic State University. Introduction to Power Electronics Prentice Hall Inc. Voulgaris “Development of a Microcontroller-Based. Technology. T. page 47-62 Hua. D. Elegant. John H. 1 February 1998.150W Multi-crystalline Photovoltaic Module Datasheet. page 99-107 Hussein.. 1990 Day. Vol. Transmission and Distribution – v. I.

unep. Solar Water Pump Applications Guide 2001 (downloaded from www. Abu-Azab “A Photovoltaic Utilization System with Bang-Bang Self-Adjusting Maximum Energy Tracking Controller” International Journal of Energy Research.. Robbins Power Electronics – Converters.Circuits.mathworks.org/water/wwap/wwdr/. Power Electronics . Volume 22. Abdulla Ismail. El-Khatib & S. 2003 UNEP “Water Policy and Strategy” (viewed on www.com) Messenger.Lecture Note Cal Poly State University. August 2005) (viewed on [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] 82 . Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems John Wiley & Sons Ltd.ti.org/dpdl/water/ .kyocerasolar. page 1091 . Roger & Jerry Ventre Photovoltaic Systems Engineering 2nd Edition CRC Press.com) MathWorks Inc. Marry A.[13] [14] Kyocera Solar Inc. M. Applications. San Luis Obispo. 2001 Sharaf A. 2004 Rashid. 2003 www. 2004 Taufik EE527 Switching Power Supply Design . Reverse-Osmosis Desalination of Seawater Powered by Photovoltaics Without Batteries Doctoral Thesis. Gilbert M. 2003 Masters. San Luis Obispo.unesco.Lecture Note Cal Poly State University. 2003 Rashid. I. A. Editor-in-Chief Power Electronics Handbook Academic Press. August 2005) UNESCO The UN World Water Development Report. R. 2004 Texas Instruments “Converting Analog Controllers to Smart Controllers with TMS320C2000 DSPs” Application Report.com/) Thompson. 2004 Mohan. Muhammad H. Muhammad H. Undeland. June 2004 (downloaded from dspvillage. Embedded Target for the TI TMS320C2000™ DSP Platform For Use with Real-Time Workshop® User’s Guide Version 1 2005 (downloaded from www. Devices. and Design 3rd Edition John Wiley & Sons Ltd. and Applications 3rd Edition Pearson Education. Issue 12 December 1998. Loughborough University.1098 Taufik EE410 Power Electronics I .

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% 1 (ideal diode) < n < 2 Eg = 1.5 /Ns. 1.1.m models the BP SX 150S PV module % calculates module current under given voltage. 1.Appendix A A.62. 84 .G. % Reference temperature (25C) in Kelvin Voc_TrK = 43.42 (GaAs).T) % % Out: Ia = Module operating current (A). irradiance and temperature % Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. vector or scalar % G = Irradiance (1G = 1000 W/m^2).75.5 (CdTe).12eV (Si).65e-3. % Temperature coefficient of Isc (0.381e-23.1 MATLAB Functions and Scripts A. scalar % TaC = Module temperature in deg C. 72 cells) TrK = 298.G. vector or scalar % In: Va = Module operating voltage (V). % 1.TaC) % function bp_sx150s. scalar % % Written by Akihiro Oi 7/01/2005 % Revised 7/18/2005 %///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// % Define constants k = 1.1 MATLAB Function for Modeling BP SX 150S PV Module This MATLAB function (bp_sx150s. % Define b = Eg * q/(n*k). function Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. q = 1.065%/C) % Define variables TaK = 273 + TaC. % Band gap energy.602e-19. 1. % Boltzmann’s constant % Electron charge % Following constants are taken from the datasheet of PV module and % curve fitting of I-V character (Use data for 1000W/m^2) n = 1. % Calculate photon generated current @ given irradiance Iph = G * Isc. % # of series connected cells (BP SX150s.TrK))). % Voc (open circuit voltage per cell) @ temp TrK Isc_TrK = 4.12.m) is to simulate the current-voltage relationship of BP SX 150S PV module and used in simulations throughout of this thesis.75 (amorphous Si) Ns = 72. % Define thermal potential (Vt) at temp TrK Vt_TrK = n * k * TrK / q. % Isc (short circuit current per cell) @ temp TrK a = 0. % Module temperature in Kelvin % Cell voltage % Calculate short-circuit current for TaK Isc = Isc_TrK * (1 + (a * (TaK . % Diode ideality factor (n). Vc = Va / Ns.

% Define constant G = 1.Ir * ( exp((Vc + Ia * Rs) / Vt_Ta) -1) = 0 % Solve for Ia by Newton's method: Ia2 = Ia1 .Ia . G.f(Ia1)/f'(Ia1) Ia=zeros(size(Vc))./ Vt_Ta)).Ir . 48-TaC/8. Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. 75C) % % Akihiro Oi July 18.* exp((Vc + Ia . % Calculate reverse saturation current for given temperature Ir_TrK = Isc_TrK / (exp(Voc_TrK / Vt_TrK) -1).m .* Rs) .. 2005 %/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear.b = Eg * q /(n * k). % Define thermal potential (Vt) at temp Ta Vt_Ta = n * k * TaK / q. Ia) end title('BP SX 150S Photovoltaic Module I-V Curve') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Current (A)') 85 . Ia = Ia ./ (-1 .2 MATLAB Script to Draw PV I-V Curves The following simple MATLAB script is used for Figure 2-12 to draw the I-V characteristics of various module temperatures. % Take dV/dI @ Voc from I-V curve of datasheet Xv = Ir_TrK / Vt_TrK * exp(Voc_TrK / Vt_TrK).* ( exp((Vc + Ia . .* Rs) . 50C.Ia . % plot_iv_temp.1/Xv. Rs = .Script file to draw i-v curves of pv module % with variable temp (0C. TaC).Ir * (exp((Vc + Ia * Rs) / Vt_Ta) -1) % f(Ia) = Iph . % Functions to plot figure hold on for TaC=0:25:75 Va = linspace (0. Other plots showing PV characteristics are done in similar ways using MATLAB./ Vt_Ta) -1))./ Vt_Ta) . % Ia = Iph . The listing of those MATBAB scripts is omitted. 25C. 200). End A. % Calculate series resistance per cell (Rs = 5.. plot(Va.1.dVdI_Voc .0/Ns.(Iph . % Initialize Ia with zeros % Perform 5 iterations for j=1:5.1mOhm) dVdI_Voc = -1.Ir * (Rs . Ir = Ir_TrK * (TaK / TrK)^(3/n) * exp(-b * (1 / TaK -1 / TrK)).

axis([0 50 0 5]) gtext('0C') gtext('25C') gtext('50C') gtext('75C') hold off

**A.1.3 MATLAB Function to Find the MPP
**

This simple MATLAB function is to find the power, voltage, and current at the MPP of BP SX 150S PV module under the given irradiance and module temperature.

function [Pa_max, Imp, Vmp] = find_mpp(G, TaC) % find_mpp: function to find a maximum power point of pv module % [Pa_max, Imp, Vmp] = find_mpp(G, TaC) % in: G (irradiance, KW/m^2), TaC (temp, deg C) % out: Pa_max (maximum power), Imp, Vmp % % Akihiro Oi July 27, 2005 %//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// % Define variables and initialize Va = 12; Pa_max = 0; % Start process while Va < 48-TaC/8 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va,G,TaC); Pa_new = Ia * Va; if Pa_new > Pa_max Pa_max = Pa_new; Imp = Ia; Vmp = Va; end Va = Va + .005; end

**A.1.4 MATLAB Script: P&O Algorithm
**

This MATLAB script is to test the P&O algorithm under the sunny weather condition in Section 4.3. Other testing in this section is done in a similar way, and listing of testing code is omitted.

% poTest2: Script file to test the P&O MPPT Algorithm % Testing with slowly changing irradiance %

86

% Akihiro Oi June 29, 2005 % Revised on August 31, 2005 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% clear; % Define constants % Cell temperature (deg C) TaC = 25; C = 0.5; % Step size for ref voltage change (V) % Define variables with initial conditions G = 0.028; % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) % PV voltage Va = 26.0; Ia = bp_sx150s(Va,G,TaC); % PV current Pa = Va * Ia; % PV output power % New reference voltage Vref_new = Va + C; % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []; Pa_array = []; % Load irradiance data load irrad; x = irrad(:,1)'; y = irrad(:,2)'; xi = 147.4e+3:190.6e+3; yi = interp1(x,y,xi,'cubic'); % % % % % Irradiance data of a sunny day Read time data (second) Read irradiance data Set points for interpolation Do cubic interpolation

% Take 43200 samples (12 hours) for Sample = 1:43.2e+3 % Read irradiance value G = yi(Sample); % Take new measurements Va_new = Vref_new; Ia_new = bp_sx150s(Vref_new,G,TaC); % Calculate new Pa Pa_new = Va_new * Ia_new; deltaPa = Pa_new - Pa; % P&O Algorithm starts here if deltaPa > 0 if Va_new > Va Vref_new = Va_new + C; % Increase Vref else Vref_new = Va_new - C; % Decrease Vref end elseif deltaPa < 0 if Va_new > Va Vref_new = Va_new - C; % Decrease Vref else Vref_new = Va_new + C; %Increase Vref end else Vref_new = Va_new; % No change end % Update history Va = Va_new; Pa = Pa_new; % Store data in arrays for plot

87

Va_array = [Va_array Va]; Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa]; end % Plot result figure plot (Va_array, Pa_array, 'g') % Overlay with P-I curves and MPP Va = linspace (0, 45, 200); hold on for G=.2:.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va, G, TaC); Pa = Ia.*Va; plot(Va, Pa) [Pa_max, Imp, Vmp] = find_mpp(G, TaC); plot(Vmp, Pa_max, 'r*') end title('P&O Algorithm') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) %gtext('1000W/m^2') %gtext('800W/m^2') %gtext('600W/m^2') %gtext('400W/m^2') %gtext('200W/m^2') hold off

**A.1.5 MATLAB Script: incCond Algorithm
**

This MATLAB script is to test the incCond algorithm under the cloudy weather condition in Section 4.3. Other tests in this section are done in a similar way, and the listing of testing code is omitted.

% incCondTest1: Script file to test incCond MPPT Algorithm % Testing with rapidly changing insolation % % Akihiro Oi June 29, 2005 % Revised on August 31, 2005 %/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear; % Define constants TaC = 25; % Cell temperature (deg C) C = 0.5; % Step size for ref voltage change (V) E = 0.002; % Maximum dI/dV error % Define variables with initial conditions G = 0.045; % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) Va = 27.2; % PV voltage Ia = bp_sx150s(Va,G,TaC); % PV current Pa = Va * Ia; % PV output power

88

% No change else if deltaIa/deltaVa > -Ia_new/Va_new + E Vref_new = Va_new + C. % Take new measurements Va_new = Vref_new.'cubic').1)'.xi. Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa]. % Take 43200 samples (12 hours) for Sample = 1:43.G. y = irrad7d(:.Ia. TaC).TaC). xi = 332. % Decrease Vref end end end % Calculate theoretical max [Pa_max. Pa_array = [].y. % Store data in arrays for plot Va_array = [Va_array Va]. % Decrease Vref end else if abs(deltaIa/deltaVa + Ia_new/Va_new) <= E Vref_new = Va_new. % No change elseif deltaIa > 0 Vref_new = Va_new + C. Ia = Ia_new. Pmax_array = [Pmax_array Pa_max]. x = irrad7d(:.2)'.Vref_new = Va + C.C. yi = interp1(x. Pmax_array =[]. Pa = Va_new * Ia_new.C. % incCond Algorithm starts here if deltaVa == 0 if deltaIa == 0 Vref_new = Va_new. % Update history Va = Va_new. Vmp] = find_mpp(G.2e+3 % Read irrad value G = yi(Sample). deltaIa = Ia_new . % Calculate incremental voltage and current deltaVa = Va_new . % Increase Vref else Vref_new = Va_new .Va. % Load irradiance data load irrad7d. Imp. % New reference voltage % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []. % Increase Vref else Vref_new = Va_new . Ia_new = bp_sx150s(Vref_new. end % % % % % Irradiance data of a cloudy day Read time data (second) Read irradiance data Set points for interpolation Do cubic interpolation 89 .8e+3: 376e+3.

(0. G. % Resistive Load (Ohms) deltaD = . Pa_array. The load is a resistive load (6 ) % po_dutyCycle2Test2: % Script file to test output sensing direct control method % P&O MPPT Algorithm is used % % Written by Akihiro Oi: June 23. % Define constants TaC = 25.0035. % Plot result figure plot (Va_array.2:. (0. Vmp] = find_mpp(G.% Total electric energy: theoretical and actual Pth = sum(Pmax_array)/3600. % Duty Cycle.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Va(k-1) Pa_k_1 = 0. 45. 'r*') end title('incCond Method') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) %gtext('1000W/m^2') %gtext('800W/m^2') %gtext('600W/m^2') %gtext('400W/m^2') %gtext('200W/m^2') hold off A. 2005 %////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear. Pact = sum(Pa_array)/3600. O.6 Max) Va_k_1 = 0. D(k-1). 200). % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) D = . % Cell temperature (deg C) Rload = 6.6 MATLAB Script for MPPT with Output Sensing Direct Control Method This MATLAB script is to test the output sensing direct control method with the P&O algorithm in Section 4.1 Min. % PV output power. % PV voltage. TaC). plot(Vmp.22. O. 'g') % Overlay with P-V curves and MPP Va = linspace (0. plot(Va.1.22. % Step size for Duty Cycle change (.35%) % Define variables with initial conditions G = .6 Max) D_k_1 = . Pa) [Pa_max.1. Pa(k-1) 90 . TaC).4. 2005 % Revised: September 8. hold on for G=.1 Min.*Va. Pa_max. D(k+1). % Duty Cycle. Imp. Pa = Ia.

Va_k = fzero (f. Po_k_1 = 0.1) % '2%' margin added if deltaPo >= 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k . Vo(k-1) % Output current of Cúk converter. % Take 3600 samples for Sample = 1:3600 % Read present value of duty cycle D_k = D. Io(k-1) % Output power of Cúk converter.6. % Increase duty cycle end else if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k + deltaD. % Increase duty cycle 91 . % Calculate input impedance of ideal Cúk converter (Rin) Rin = (1-D_k)^2/D_k^2 * Rload.6 D = . % Locate the operating point of PV module and % calculate its voltage.TaC). Pa_k = Va_k * Ia_k. Ia_array = [].deltaD.TaC). % Set maximum duty cycle else % P&O Algorithm starts here if deltaPo > 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k + deltaD. % Decrease duty cycle else D = D_k + deltaD. Io_k = (1-D_k)/D_k * Ia_k.G. and power f = @(x) x . % Output voltage and current protection (30V/5A Max) if (Vo_k > 30. 45]). % Calculate new Po and deltaPo Po_k = Vo_k * Io_k.1 D = . Ia_k = bp_sx150s(Va_k. % Set minimum duty cycle elseif D_k > . % No change elseif D_k < . Vo_array = [].1. D_array = []. Po(k-1) % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []. [0.Rin*bp_sx150s(x. % Increase duty cycle else D_k = D_k . % Measure the outputs for ideal Cúk converter Vo_k = D_k/(1-D_k) * Va_k. % Decrease duty cycle end end elseif (Vo_k > 30) | (Io_k > 5) D = D_k.Po_k_1.deltaD.G. Pa_array = []. current. deltaPo = Po_k . Io_array = []. Po_array = [].Vo_k_1 = 0.6) | (Io_k > 5. Io_k_1 = 0. % Output voltage of Cúk converter.

Vo_array = [Vo_array Vo_k]. Pa = Ia. Pa) [Pa_max. 'g') % Overlay with P-V curves and MPP Va = linspace (0. D_k_1 = D_k. Po_array = [Po_array Po_k]. TaC).2:. 'r*') end title('(a) PV Power vs. % Store data in arrays for plots Va_array = [Va_array Va_k]. % No change end end % Update history Va_k_1 = Va_k. Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) hold off figure(2) 92 .0003. Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa_k].deltaD. % Decrease duty cycle end elseif deltaPo < 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k . % Increase duty cycle end else D = D_k. Ia_k_1 = Ia_k.*Va. TaC).2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. end % Goto next sample end % Functions to plot figure(1) plot (Va_array. Ia_array = [Ia_array Ia_k]. plot(Va. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Po_k_1 = Po_k. Pa_k_1 = Pa_k. Io_k_1 = Io_k.deltaD. % Increase insolation until G=1 if (Sample > 20) & (G < 1) G = G + . Vo_k_1 = Vo_k. Imp. D_array = [D_array D_k]. G. Pa_max. Pa_array. hold on for G=. Io_array = [Io_array Io_k]. % Decrease duty cycle else D = D_k + deltaD. plot(Vmp. 200).else D = D_k . 45.

35.7 MATLAB Script for MPPT Simulations with DC Pump Motor Load This MATLAB script is to test MPPT functionality with the DC pump motor as a load introduced in Section 4. TaC). 'g. Imp. Ia_array.2:. 2005 %////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear. It also calculates total energy output and total volume of water pump for a 12-hour period. Voltage') xlabel('Output Voltage (V)') ylabel('Output Current (A)') axis([0 35 0 6]) hold off A.5. 'r*') end title('(b) PV Current vs. % po_dutyCycleTest4: % Output sensing direct control method with the P&O algorithm % (With variable load mimics DC pump motor) % Irradiance data on a sunny day % % Written by Akihiro Oi: September 6.') hold on Vo = linspace (0. 'g') % Overlay with I-V curves and MPP hold on for G=. plot(Va. 2005 % Revised: September 9. Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Current(A)') axis([0 50 0 5]) hold off figure(3) plot (D_array. plot (Vo. It uses the output sensing direct control method with the P&O algorithm. G. Po_array.1. Io) title('(d) Output Current vs. Ia) [Pa_max. 93 . Io = Vo .2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. 200). Imp. Duty Cycle') xlabel('Duty Cycle') ylabel('Output Power (W)') axis([0 1 0 160]) figure(4) plot (Vo_array.plot (Va_array. 'b') title('(c) Output Power vs. plot(Vmp./ Rload. TaC). Io_array.

1 Min.6 Max) % PV voltage. Pa_k = Va_k * Ia_k.4e+3:190. O.TaC). xi = 147.% Define constants % Cell temperature (deg C) TaC = 25.TaC). % % % % % Irradiance data of a sunny day Read time data (second) Read irradiance data Set points for interpolation Do cubic interpolation % Take 43200 samples (12 hours) for Sample = 1:43. yi = interp1(x. (0. % Read present value of duty cycle D_k = D.'cubic'). Va_k = fzero (f. deltaD = . Va(k-1) Va_k_1 = 0.2)'. Ia_k = bp_sx150s(Va_k. % Initial load (armature resistance of DC motor) (Ohms) % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) G = 0.10. y = irrad(:. % Output power of Cúk converter. % Duty Cycle. % Locate the operating point of PV module and % calculate its voltage.Rin*bp_sx150s(x. % Step size for Duty Cycle change (. D(k-1). % Output voltage and current protection (30V/5A Max) 94 . % Duty Cycle. % PV output power. %Pmax_array =[].G. Pa_k_1 = 0.1)'. current.y. deltaPo = Po_k . Io_array = []. % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []. % Calculate new Po and deltaPo Po_k = Vo_k * Io_k.028.Po_k_1.10.xi. and power f = @(x) x . D(k+1). % Calculate input impedance of ideal Cúk converter (Rin) Rin = (1-D_k)^2/D_k^2 * Rload. % Load irradiance data load irrad. Rload_array = [].2e+3 % Read irradiance value G = yi(Sample).1 Min. Ia_array = []. Po_array = []. % Measure the outputs for ideal Cúk converter Vo_k = D_k/(1-D_k) * Va_k. Po(k-1) % Volume of water pumped per sample Volume = 0. Io(k-1) Po_k_1 = 0. Io_k_1 = 0. Pa_array = []. [0.6e+3. D_array = [].35%) % Define variables with initial conditions Rload = . O. % Output current of Cúk converter. Vo(k-1) Vo_k_1 = 0. Pa(k-1) % Output voltage of Cúk converter. 45]). Io_k = (1-D_k)/D_k * Ia_k.G. (0. Volume_array =[].2.6 Max) D_k_1 = .0035. Vo_array = []. x = irrad(:. D = .

Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa_k].1.1) % '2%' margin added if deltaPo >= 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k . 95 . Ia_array = [Ia_array Ia_k]. Pa_k_1 = Pa_k. % Increase duty cycle else D_k = D_k . % Increase duty cycle else D = D_k .deltaD. % No change elseif D_k < . % Set minimum duty cycle elseif D_k > .1 D = . % Decrease duty cycle end elseif deltaPo < 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k .9*Po_k). % Increase duty cycle end else D = D_k. % Calculate theoretical max %[Pa_max. Vo_array = [Vo_array Vo_k]. % Decrease duty cycle end end elseif (Vo_k > 30) | (Io_k > 5) D = D_k. D_k_1 = D_k. Io_k_1 = Io_k.6.deltaD. Imp. Ia_k_1 = Ia_k. % Calculate volume water pumped (90% efficiency converter) if (. TaC). Vo_k_1 = Vo_k. % Decrease duty cycle else D = D_k + deltaD. Po_k_1 = Po_k. end % Store data in arrays for plots Va_array = [Va_array Va_k].9*Po_k) > 35 Volume = 13/(60*150)*(.deltaD. % Set maximum duty cycle else % P&O Algorithm starts here if deltaPo > 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k + deltaD. % Decrease duty cycle else D = D_k + deltaD. % Volume of water pumped (L/sec) else Volume =0. % Increase duty cycle end else if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k + deltaD. Io_array = [Io_array Io_k]. % No change end end % Update history Va_k_1 = Va_k.deltaD.6 D = . Vmp] = find_mpp(G.6) | (Io_k > 5.if (Vo_k > 30.

TaC). G. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Ia_array.5e-005*Vo_k^3 . 'r*') end title('(a) PV Power vs. 'b') 96 . hold on for G=. 'r*') end title('(b) PV Current vs. 200). plot(Va. % Variable load that mimics DC motor if (Sample > 160) Rload = 9. Ia) [Pa_max. D_array = [D_array D_k]. Imp. plot(Va. plot(Vmp.37*Vo_k + 0. Po_array.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Imp.*Va.0087*Vo_k^2 + 0. Volume_array = [Volume_array Volume].2:. plot(Vmp. 'g') % Overlay with I-V curves and MPP hold on for G=. G. end % Goto next sample end % Total electric energy (Wh): theoretical and actual %Pth = sum(Pmax_array)/3600. Pa) [Pa_max.0. Imp. % Functions to plot figure(1) plot (Va_array. 45. %Pmax_array = [Pmax_array Pa_max]. Pa = Ia. Vmp] = find_mpp(G.Po_array = [Po_array Po_k]. Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) hold off figure(2) plot (Va_array. TaC). Pact = sum(Po_array)/3600. TaC).2:. 'g') % Overlay with P-V curves and MPP Va = linspace (0.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va.2. Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Current(A)') axis([0 50 0 5]) hold off figure(3) plot (D_array. % Volume of water pumped (L/day) TotalVolume = sum(Volume_array). Rload_array = [Rload_array Rload]. TaC). Pa_array. Pa_max.

title('(c) Output Power vs. Ia_array = []. VolumeMin) xlabel('Hour') ylabel('Flow Rate (L/min)') axis([0 12 0 14]) A.1.028./3600.8 MATLAB Script for MPPT Simulations with Direct-coupled DC Water Pump This MATLAB script is to make comparative tests with PV water pumping system which employs direct-coupling between PV and the pump motor in Section 4.*60. Vo_array = []. 2005 % Revised: September 9. 'g. % Define constants TaC = 25. % Initial load (armature resistance of DC motor)(Ohms) G = 0. Rload_array = []. 2005 %////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear. Volume_array =[].2e+3. Duty Cycle') xlabel('Duty Cycle') ylabel('Output Power (W)') axis([0 1 0 160]) figure(4) plot (Vo_array. % Cell temperature (deg C) % Define variables with initial conditions Rload = . 97 . % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []. Voltage') xlabel('Output Voltage (V)') ylabel('Output Current (A)') axis([0 30 0 6]) figure(5) hold on VolumeMin = Volume_array.6.') title('(d) Output Current vs. Io_array = []. Hour=sample. Pa_array = []. % directCoupledSystem: % DC pump motor is direct-coupled with PV module % (Variable load mimics DC pump motor) % * Testing on a sunny day % % Written by Akihiro Oi: September 6. Pmax_array =[]. sample = 1:43.2. plot(Hour. Io_array. The script also calculates total energy output and total volume of water pump for a 12-hour period. Po_array = [].

% Measure the outputs Vo_k = Va_k.% Load irradiance data load irrad.1)'.0087*Vo_k^2 + 0. Po_k = Pa_k. and power f = @(x) x . Io_k = Ia_k. TaC). x = irrad(:. end % Goto next sample end % Total electric energy (Wh): theoretical and actual Pth = sum(Pmax_array)/3600. Ia_k = bp_sx150s(Va_k. % Variable load that mimics DC motor if (Sample > 160) Rload = 9. Pmax_array = [Pmax_array Pa_max].Rload*bp_sx150s(x.G. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. % Volume of water pumped (L/sec) else Volume = 0. % Functions to plot 98 .2. Imp. Pact = sum(Po_array)/3600. % Calculate theoretical max [Pa_max. % Calculate volume water pumped if Po_k >= 35 Volume = 13/(60*150)*Po_k. % % % % % Irradiance data of a sunny day Read time data (second) Read irradiance data Set points for interpolation Do cubic interpolation % Take 43200 samples (12 hours) for Sample = 1:43. end % Store data in arrays for plots Va_array = [Va_array Va_k]. current. % Locate the operating point of PV module and % calculate its voltage. yi = interp1(x.TaC).y. xi = 147.'cubic'). Vo_array = [Vo_array Vo_k]. Pa_k = Va_k * Ia_k. Va_k = fzero (f.37*Vo_k + 0. Volume_array = [Volume_array Volume].TaC). Ia_array = [Ia_array Ia_k]. % Volume of water pumped (L/day) TotalVolume = sum(Volume_array).2e+3 % Read irradiance value G = yi(Sample).G.0.4e+3:190.6e+3. Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa_k]. [0. Po_array = [Po_array Po_k]. Io_array = [Io_array Io_k].2)'. Rload_array = [Rload_array Rload].xi. y = irrad(:.5e-005*Vo_k^3 . 45]).

Voltage') xlabel('Output Voltage (V)') ylabel('Output Current (A)') axis([0 35 0 6]) figure(4) hold on VolumeMin = Volume_array. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. 200).*Va. Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Current(A)') axis([0 50 0 5]) hold off figure(3) plot (Vo_array. Pa_max. 'g') % Overlay with P-V curves and MPP Va = linspace (0.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Pa) [Pa_max.') title('(c) Output Current vs. sample = 1:43. hold on for G=. Ia_array. Hour=sample. 'g') % Overlay with I-V curves and MPP hold on for G=.figure(1) plot (Va_array. Imp. Pa = Ia. 'r*') end title('(a)Direct-coupled System') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) hold off figure(2) plot (Va_array. G. TaC). Vmp] = find_mpp(G. TaC). plot(Vmp. 45. Pa_array. G.2e+3. TaC). 'r*') end title('(b) PV Current vs. plot(Va. Imp. 'g.2:. Io_array.*60. plot(Vmp.2:. VolumeMin) xlabel('Hour') ylabel('Flow Rate (L/min)') axis([0 12 0 14]) 99 . plot(Hour. TaC).2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Ia) [Pa_max. plot(Va. Imp./3600.

8 0.4. A. discussed in Section 3.1 Direct Control Method with P&O Algorithm 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 200W/m 2 20 0 start 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 1 0.2 MPPT Simulations with Resistive Load The direct control method (input sensing type).5 0.5 2 1.5 4 3. The results are very similar to one in Section 4. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 800W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m 2 400W/m2 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 (c) Module Power vs.5 (b) PV Current vs.9 1 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 35 Figure A-1: MPPT Simulations with the direct control method (P&O algorithm) 100 . Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 5 4.2. Voltage 5 end Output Current (A) 4 3 Load Line start 1 2 start 0 0 0.A.5 3 2. is implemented with both P&O algorithm and incCond algorithm.6 Duty Cycle 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.6. Duty Cycle end 6 (d) Output Current vs.2 0.2.5 0 0 5 10 15 200W/m2 start 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 600W/m 2 800W/m2 Module Current(A) (a) PV Power vs.1 0.

5 3 2.2 0.8 0.5 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 200W/m2 start 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 600W/m 2 800W/m2 Module Current(A) (a) PV Power vs.2 Direct Control Method with incCond Algorithm 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 200W/m 2 20 0 start 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 1 0.9 1 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 35 Figure A-2: MPPT Simulations with the direct control method (incCond algorithm) 101 .6 Duty Cycle 0. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 5 4.4 0. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 400W/m 2 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 (c) Module Power vs.3 0.A. Voltage 5 end Output Current (A) 4 3 Load Line start 1 2 start 0 0 0.5 2 1.1 0.5 4 3.5 400W/m2 600W/m2 800W/m2 (b) PV Current vs.2.7 0. Duty Cycle end 6 (d) Output Current vs.

B.2 SIMULNK and TI DSP It takes a long process to learn implementation of DSP.1 DSP Control The power electronics lab located in the building 20.1 TMS320F2812 DSP TI (dspvillage. MathWorks offers a tool called “Embedded Target for the TI TMS320C2000 DSP Platform” which facilitates implementation of DSP by integrating SIMULINK and MATLAB with TI eZdsp DSP development kit [14]. It has 16 channels of high resolution12-bit A/D converters. B.ti. has a DSP Starter Kit (DSK) for Texas Instruments (TI) TMS320F2812 DSP. The tool allows designing a control system in SIMULINK and generates C code for TI DSP from a SIMULIK model [14]. This appendix provides introduction of this DSP and the SIMULNK tool for implementation of DSP.1. Please refer to [14] for more details. MATLAB Version 7 (Release 14) includes this tool. TMS320F2812 is one of DSPs in the TMS320C28x fixed-point DSP family designed for control applications. and it is very challenging in the beginning. It has the 32-bit digital controller core and offers 150MIPS of performance which enables implementation of more complex algorithms and DC motor drives including control of brushless motors.Appendix B B. room 104. thus it enables to control multiple devices with a single DSP.1. 102 .com) provides a wide range of DSPs for different applications.

and the gain is included in the sub-block. a control law comes in the place of gain block. and F2812 eZdsp. C28x ADC C28x ADC 12. In practice.39V) and the PWM output shown as duty cycle (10%). Another set of block diagram located below is to emulate this system.3 Example The following SIMULINK block diagram presents a simple example of implementing control system in SIMULINK using the Blockset for TI DSP. The analog voltage (0. Figure B-2 shows the input voltage (0. It could be SIMULINK blocks or an embedded MATLAB function. The PWM generator is also emulated.39V) is input to the A/D converter.1. As shown in Figure B-1. C28x PWM. the system consists of the following blocks: C28x ADC.B.39 Analog Voltage Pulse Width Control PWM Emulation Subsystem Duty Cycle (%) Info Figure B-1: A simple example of generating PWM from the voltage input Figure B-2: Plots of the input voltage and the PWM output shown as duty cycle 103 . Gain1 W1 C28x PWM C28x PWM F2812 eZdsp 0. a gain.

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