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Wind Energy

Wind Energy

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Published by: Patricia Lim on Oct 20, 2012
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Introduction to Energy Wind Energy

Asst. Prof. Jörg SCHLÜTER

Picture: Vestas

About me: Asst Prof. Jörg SCHLÜTER
(pronounce: York SHLOOTER)   School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering   Aerospace Division   Teaching and researching in Aerodynamics   Master’s from TU Berlin, Germany   PhD from ENSEEIHT (N7), Toulouse, France   Worked for 5 years at Center for Turbulence Research at Stanford University, USA   At NTU since 2005   In charge of the Aerodynamics Group at the Aerospace Division

Outline
         

Wind Power Basics Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Basic Aerodynamics Components of Wind Turbines Wind Turbine Siting
Wind Energy Explained, 2nd ed. Manwell, McGowan, Rogers Wiley, 2010 Wind Energy Basics, 2nd ed. Paul Gipe Chelsea Green Publishing, 2009 Wind Power Basics Dan Chiras New Society Publishers, 2010

Wind Power History
   

Wind Power around for many years Used for mechanical work: grinding, pumping etc.

Wind Energy
   

Wind turbines to produce electricity Fast growing market

Source: Chiras, 2010

Size and Power of Wind Turbines
 

Current sizes and power of wind turbines

Source: Gipe, 2009

Size and Power of Wind Turbines
 

Wind Turbine Size Classes

Source: Gipe, 2009

Size and Power of Wind Turbines

Source: Manwell, 2010

Types of Wind Turbines
   

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT)

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)
 

Drag-based and lift-based VAWT

Source: Manwell, 2010

VAWT at NTU
 

Cygnuspower VAWT

VAWT Development at NTU
Design and analysis of a VAWT Simulation:

Wind Tunnel Experiment:

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT)
 

All HAWT are lift-based

Source: Manwell, 2010

Power Curve of a Wind Turbine

Source: Manwell, 2010
 

 

Cut-in wind speed: Wind speed at which the blades start spinning (dependent on aerodynamic design, generator and mechanical design) Cut-out wind speed: Maximum wind speed that the wind turbine can sustain.

Aerodynamic of a Turbine Blade
Aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine   Wind turbine blade consists of a series of airfoils.

Airfoil Terminology

source: Anderson, Intro. To Flight

Lift and Angle of Attack
 

Lift and drag coefficient
L

L CL = 1 2 ρV∞ ⋅ c 2 D CD = 1 2 ρV∞ ⋅ c 2

€ €
D

Lift-to-Drag Ratio:
L CL e= = D CD


ρ: density
source: Anderson, Intro. To Flight

Lift at an Airfoil
2/3 of lift on upper surface

Source:http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu

1/3 of lift on lower surface

Lift Curve
CL
max CL

0o

~15o

angle of attack α

Lift Curve
 

Lift and drag of an airfoil

Source: Manwell, 2010

Aerodynamic Design of a Blade
How to design an turbine blade:   Choose airfoil shapes along the turbine blade such that each has the best lift-to-drag ratio   Different speeds of tip and hub require different shapes and different angles of attack (twist) along the blade

Aerodynamic Design of a Blade
 

Example

Source: Manwell, 2010

Tapering of a Wind Turbine Blade
 

To account for the slower movement of the blade close to the hub, a larger chord length can be chosen  tapering

Source: Manwell, 2010

Source: Manwell, 2010

Source: English Wikipedia

Power Coefficient
 

Power coefficient a measure on how much power a wind turbine can extract from the wind.

P Rotor Power CP = 1 = 3 ρU A Power in the wind 2
ρ: density; U: wind speed; A: area swept over by the blades

Aerodynamic Efficiency of a Wind Turbine
 

The aerodynamic efficiency of a wind turbine is limited by the Betz-Limit

Source: Manwell, 2010

Wake Rotation
Spinning blades introduce rotational movement to the flow  Loss of energy
 

Wind Turbine Nacelle
 

Nacelle of HAWT contains gear box, generator, yaw drive and pitch control.

Gear Box
 

Required to translate low turbine rpm to higher rpm suitable for efficient generator operation

Source: Nordex

Gear Box Failure
 

Gear box introduces transmission inefficiency and potential failure

Source: SPON

Direct Drive
 

Direct drive generators eliminate gear box

Source: MTorres

Yaw Drive
 

Yaw drive moves actively the wind turbine into the wind

Source: Manwell, 2010

Tower
 

Tower needs to withstand large loads
Source: Danish Wind Association Source: Nordex Source: Krohn, DWIA

Buckling:
Source: Greenward Technology

Tubular Steel Towers

Lattice Towers

Guyed Pole Towers

Source: Krohn, DWIA

Wind Turbine Installation
Challenges of Wind Turbine Installation   Shipping of large blades   Installation of blades during wind

Source: Vestas

Wind Turbine Siting
   

Where to install a wind turbine? Location! Location! Location!

       

Global positioning Local positioning Height and effects of obstacles Wind farms

Global Positioning

Source: Chiras, 2010

Coastal Breezes

Source: Chiras, 2010

Mountainous Terrain

Source: Chiras, 2010

Ridge Effects

Source: Manwell, 2010

Mountainous Terrain

Source: Manwell, 2010

Mountainous Terrain

Source: Chiras, 2010

Wind Rose
   

Analysis of a possible wind turbine location Install data acquisition equipment and measure for extended period of time wind speed and direction.

Source: Manwell, 2010

Installation Height
 

Atmospheric Boundary Layer
viscous forces slow down the flow at the surface

velocity vectors

“no slip” condition!

Installation Height
   

Atmospheric Boundary Layer Increase of wind speed with height:

Source: Gipe, 2009

Installation Height
   

Atmospheric Boundary Layer Increase of wind power with height:

Source: Gipe, 2009

Obstacles in the Flow

Source: Chiras, 2010

Obstacles in the Flow

Source: Chiras, 2010

Obstacles in the Flow

Source: Gipe, 2009

Obstacles in the Flow

Source: Manwell, 2010

Offshore
Use of wind turbines offshore Advantages:   Higher wind speeds   Lots of space Disadvantages:   Higher installation and maintenance cost (~ x3)   Far away from power grid   Not much long-term experience
Source: REPower

Offshore
   

Installation Note: Taller structures, higher loads compared to oil rigs

Source: NREL

Wind Farms
   

For efficiency purposes wind turbines can be clustered Facilitates connection to the grid (esp. offshore)

Source: Manwell, 2010

Wind Farms
 

Wake of upstream turbines disturbs downstream ones,

Wind Farms
 

Reduced power compared to free-standing wind turbines

Source: Manwell, 2010

Wind Power with Kites?
   

Can kites be used for wind generation? Kite-Gen concept:

 

Thanks

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