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CFM56-3 REGULATION

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

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CFM56 - 3

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

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Speed Governing System Fuel Limiting System Idling System

VBV VSV HPTCCV

N1 Vs P

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

N1 Vs Z

N1 Vs T

Main Tasks

Additional Tasks

Corrections

MEC

PMC

CFM 56 - 3 ENGINE OPERATIONAL CONTROL


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ENGINE OPERATIONAL CONTROL


The CFM56-3 engine control system consists of both:
HYDRO MECHANICAL UNIT ELECTRONIC UNIT
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THE POWER OF FLIGHT

HYDRO MECHANICAL UNIT

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

MEC

Main Engine Control

Automatically schedules:

WF ( Fuel Flow ) N2 VBV ( Variable Bleed Valve ) VSV ( Variable Stator Vane ) HPTCCV ( High Pressure Turbine Clearance Control Valve )
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ELECTRONIC UNIT

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

PMC

Power Management Control


N1

Provide FAN scheduling

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CONTROL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

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CONTROL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


(Contd)
N1 N2 WF TMC PS12 PS3 CBP T12 T2.5 T2 TC1 TC2 TC3
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THE POWER OF FLIGHT

Fan Speed Core Speed Fuel Flow Torque Motor Current Fan Inlet Static Air Pressure Compressor Discharge Pressure Compressor Bleed Pressure Fan Inlet Total Air Temperature HPC Inlet Air Temperature Fan Inlet Temperature Turbine Clearance Control 5Th Stage Turbine Clearance Control 9Th Stage Turbine Clearance Control Timer Signal
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ENGINE STATIONS
25 HP Compressor Inlet 12 Secondary Flow Inlet 3 2 Primary Flow Inlet HP Compressor Discharge

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

49. 5

Stage 2 LPT Inlet

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MEC
OIL/ FUEL HEAT EXCHANGER MEC

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

FUEL PUMP
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MEC OPERATION
MEC is an Hydro mechanical device using fuel pressure to work.
A device monitors fuel pressure at low flow conditions for MEC servo operation.

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

FUEL PUMP LP STAGE

BYPASS VALVE

MEC Fuel Metering System


FUEL SHUT-OFF VALVE PRESSURISING VALVE
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FUEL FUEL PUMP HP STAGE


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METERING VALVE

MEC PURPOSE
The MECs job is divided in 2 tasks:
MAIN TASKS: Speed governing system Fuel limiting system Idling system ADDITIONAL TASKS: Control functions to optimise engine performance VBV VSV HPTCCV
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THE POWER OF FLIGHT

SPEED GOVERNING SYSTEM

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

MEC
SPEED GOVERNING SYSTEM

N2 demand PS12
FMV

Wf

T2

N2 actual

Fuel

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FUEL LIMITING SYSTEM


During transient operation, the speed governing system could change the fuel flow beyond the safe limits.

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

The purpose of the fuel limiting system is to define and impose correct engine fuel flow limits during rapid transients:

ACCELERATIONS DECELERATIONS STARTS

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FUEL LIMITING SYSTEM (Contd)

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

MEC
SPEED GOVERNING SYSTEM

FUEL LIMITING SYSTEM

T2.5 PS3 N2 CBP

N2 demand PS12 +/T2 N2 actual


FMV

Wf

Fuel

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IDLING SYSTEM
HIGH IDLE: Used only when anti-icing is selected or if a flying aircraft has flaps configuration > 15. It is optimised to provide rapid recovery of takeoff thrust if required.

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

LOW IDLE: Ground idle: Flight idle:


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Provide adequate taxi thrust while minimising noise, fuel consumption and braking effort Scheduled to minimise fuel consumption.
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IDLING SYSTEM (Contd)

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

MEC
DESIRED SPEED SETTING
AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATION PLA IDLE Yes / NO

FUEL LIMITING SYSTEM

T2.5 PS3 N2 CBP

N2 demand PS12 +/T2 N2 actual


FMV

Wf

Fuel

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MEC ADDITIONAL TASKS


VBV SYSTEM
VBV system positions 12 valves by hydraulic pressure acting upon a fuel gear motor. The fuel pressure is scheduled by the MEC. VBV feedback cable is positioned to provide the MEC with a current VBV position to compare with the desired position.
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THE POWER OF FLIGHT

MEC ADDITIONAL TASKS (Contd)


VBV SYSTEM (Contd)

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

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MEC ADDITIONAL TASKS (Contd)


VBV PURPOSE
As the Compressor is optimised for ratings close to maximum power engine operation has to be protected during deceleration or at low speed: Without VBV installed: At Deceleration or Low speed Booster Outlet Airflow much more than Booster Pressure Ratio LPC stall margin reduced

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

To re-establish a suitable mass flow VBV are installed on the contour of the primary airflow stream between booster and HPC to download booster exit. With VBV installed: At Deceleration or Low speed VBV fully open Booster Pressure Ratio but same Booster Outlet Airflow Plenty of LPC stall margin
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MEC ADDITIONAL TASKS (Contd)


VBV PURPOSE (Contd)
B O O S T E R P R E S S U R E R A T I O

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Acceleration Schedule If VBV not closed Deceleration Schedule If VBV not open Operating Line

TYPICAL LPC FLOW CHART


Efficiency Maxi Efficiency Design Point

5 3 4 2
ISO N1 Line

3
STALL REGION

MCT

2 4

VBV Operation

5
IDLE

LOW EFFICIENCY REGION

VBV OPEN

Low speed or Deceleration

BOOSTER OUTLET AIRFLOW

High speed or acceleration VBV CLOSED


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MEC ADDITIONAL TASKS (Contd)


VSV SYSTEM
VSV system changes the angle of the HP Compressor IGV and N 1,2 and 3 stator stages according to the MEC computation.

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

MEC directs a resulting high pressure fuel flow to the dual VSV actuators. The actuators mechanically position the VSV. A feedback cable provides the VSV position to the MEC. A comparison is performed between schedule requirements and actual VSV position to determine the need to continue actuator control or not.
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MEC ADDITIONAL TASKS (Contd)


VSV SYSTEM (Contd)

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

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MEC ADDITIONAL TASKS (Contd)


VSV SYSTEM (Contd)

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

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MEC ADDITIONAL TASKS (Contd)


VSV PURPOSE
The Compressor is optimised for ratings close to maximum power. Engine operation has to be protected during deceleration or at low speed. VSV system position HPC Stator Vanes to the appropriate angle of incidence.
VSV (3)

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

- VSV optimise HPC efficiency.


- VSV improve stall margin for transient engine operations.
Etc ROTOR STAGE IGV (Inlet Guide Vane) 25 RXCF 04/02/2006

IGV ROTOR VSV 1

MEC ADDITIONAL TASKS (Contd)


VSV PURPOSE (Contd)
C O M P R E S S O R P R E S S U R E R A T I O

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

Acceleration Schedule If VSV not open

TYPICAL HPC FLOW CHART


2 1
STALL REGION

Efficiency

Maxi Efficiency Design Point MCT ISO N1 Line

Deceleration Schedule

4
VSV Operation

Operating Line

4
IDLE

LOW EFFICIENCY REGION

VSV CLOSED

Low speed or Deceleration

COMPRESSOR OUTLET AIRFLOW

High speed or acceleration VSV OPEN


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CLEARANCE CONTROL
Operating tip clearance in the core engine are of primary importance. They determine: Steady state efficiencies: Fuel consumption Transient engine performance: Peak gas temperature Compressor stall margin

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

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CLEARANCE CONTROL (Contd)

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

Clearance Control in the CFM56 engine is accomplished by a combination of 3 mechanical designs: Passive control: Using materials in the compressor aft case with low coefficient of thermal expansion. Forced cooling: Using Low Pressure Booster discharge cooling air for compressor and turbine. Automatic control: HPTCC VALVE and HPTCC TIMER are used to control the tip clearance between HPT blades and stationary tip shrouds.
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HPTCCV ACTUATION
Automatic Control is using Bleed Air from 5Th and 9Th stages of
HPC to either cool or heat the HPT shroud.
N2 > 95 % YES / NO
AIR FROM 5Th STAGE

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

MEC

HPTCC TIMER

HPTCC VALVE

HPT SHROUD

AIRCRAFT ON THE GROUND YES / NO

AIR FROM 9Th STAGE

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HPTCCV ACTUATION (Contd)


During flight:

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

- Air selection is determined by fuel pressure signals sent from the MEC to the TIMER. - The TIMER sends fuel pressure signals without change to actuate the HPTCC VALVE. - The selected bleed air is ducted to a manifold surrounding the HPT SHROUD.
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HPTCCV ACTUATION (Contd)


During takeoff:

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

- The TIMER overrides the normal MEC operation of the valve. - It is sequencing a transient air schedule over a specified time period to maintain a more nearly constant HPT blade tip clearance during the period of HPT Rotor/Stator thermal stabilisation. - This maintain Turbine efficiency and decreases transient EGT overshoot. - A lockout valve permits the TIMER to actuate only once per engine cycle. ( i.e. from start to shut down)
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HPTCCV ACTUATION (Contd)

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

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HPTCCV ACTUATION (Contd)


The TIMER SEQUENCE:

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

- Starting Reference Point is when the engine reach 95 % N2. - Then: 0 to 8 s 8 to 152 s 152 to 182 s No air 5Th stage air 5Th + 9Th stage air

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HPTCCV ACTUATION (Contd)


NO TIMER TIMER

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

STATOR

ROTOR CLEARANCE with TIMER

No Air

5Th stage Air

5+9Th stage Air

0s CLEARANCE without TIMER

8s

152 s

182 s

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PMC
INPUT POWER COCKPIT SW: PMC On / Off

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

PS12

INPUT SIGNALS: N1, T12, PLA OUTPUT SIGNALS: FOR MEC TORQUE MOTOR

MONITOR CONNECTION
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PMC PURPOSE
In a high bypass engine, total thrust is more accurately controlled
by controlling N1 speed.

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

FAN is 80% of the POWER !

This is accomplished by varying N2 speed to reach the accurate N1 speed.


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PMC OPERATION
The main goal of the PMC is to make pilots job more comfortable. PMC is performing automatically 3 corrections:

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

N1 Vs ALTITUDE N1 Vs PRESSURE N1 Vs TEMPERATURE


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PMC OPERATION (Contd)


N1 Vs ALTITUDE As the altitude is increasing, if you want to keep a steady thrust %, you need to increase N1.
PMC ON PMC increase N1 PLA remain unchanged. STEADY THRUST % PMC OFF The PILOT must increase N1 PLA change.

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

N1

Z
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PMC OPERATION (Contd)


N1 Vs PRESSURE

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

As the pressure is decreasing, if you want to keep a steady thrust %,


you need to increase N1.
STEADY THRUST % PMC ON PMC increase N1 PLA remain unchanged.

N1

PMC OFF The PILOT must increase N1 PLA change.

P
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PMC OPERATION (Contd)


N1 Vs TEMPERATURE
N1
MAX THRUST At

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

takeoff, to get the max thrust (flat rated thrust) as temperature increases, N1 and EGT must also increase. But mechanical limitations impose a limit which is a temperature called: Corner Point or Flat Rated Temperature.

T EGT
CORNER POINT TEMPERATURE

Beyond it:
PMC ON PMC is limiting N1 and EGT

T
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PMC OFF The PILOT must limit N1 and EGT


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PMC OPERATION (Contd)


PMC efficiency start at 50% N1 and is fully efficient at or above 70% N1. PMC trims MEC to maintain the commanded thrust

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

Schedule N1 is compared to actual N1.The error signal generates from the PMC an Output Current (TMC) to a torque motor mounted on the MEC. The torque motor changes Fuel Flow (Wf). N2 and N1 change.
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PMC OPERATION (Contd)


N1 / Z CORRECTION N1 / P CORRECTION N1 / T CORRECTION

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

SCHEDULE N1 ACTUAL N1

PMC

TORQUE MOTOR ENGINE


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PMC on / off PLA


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MEC

THE POWER OF FLIGHT

TH E E ND
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION !

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