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-Hello! Sarah speaking. -Hello Sarah! It's me, Bob. I'm going to see my mother tomorrow. What did he say? Sarah DIRECT Bob said, 'I'm going to see my mother tomorrow.'
Bob said (that) he was going to see his mother the next day.
Bob said that... Bob said to me that... Bob told me that... PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES Bob said, 'I'm going to see my mother.' => Bob said (that) he was going to see his mother.
'You have bought yourself a lovely dress.' => He told her (that) she had bought herself a lovely dress.
TIME, LOCATION 'I'm going to see my mother tomorrow.' Mark: 'I went to London last week.' => Sue: 'I must leave now!' => => Bob said (that) he was going to see his mother the next day.
He added (that) he had gone to London the week before.
She told me (that) she had to leave then. Peter said (that) he didn't like that house.
Peter: 'I don't like this house.' =>
Peter: 'I can't live here.' => Peter told us (that) he couldn't live there.
DIRECT now tonight yesterday tomorrow last (year, month...) next (month, week...) => => => => => => then
that night the day before / the previous day the next day / the following day the last / previous (year, month...) the next / following (month, week...)
that that these those there there
these => those => here =>
TENSES Bob said, 'I'm going to see my mother.' mother. => Bob said (that) he was going to see his
DIRECT future present simple present continuous present perfect present perf. cont. past simple past continuous 'I will always love you.' .'He is ill.' 'I'm leaving today.'
=> => conditional => past simple
INDIRECT He said he would always love me. She said he was ill.
=> past continuous He said he was leaving that day. He said she had bought a dress. He said he had been working all day. He said he had gone to London. He said his friends had been playing chess.
'You have bought a dress.' => past perfect 'I've been working all day.' => past perf. cont. 'I went to London.' 'My friends were playing chess.' => past perfect => past perfect cont.
MODALS can may => could => might 'She can cook delicious meals.' 'It may not rain this night.' 'I must leave now.' He said she could cook delicious meals. He said it might not rain that night. She said she had to leave then.
must => had to
Add the correct pronouns/possessive adjectives direct speech Sarah: 'I'm going to the cinema with my boyfriend Sarah said that with The neighbours: 'Can you lend us a ladder?' They asked us if lend Tom: ' with Jim and Jill:' at parents went to Scotland.' are looking in the mirror.' They replied that they were looking at themselves in the mirror.' a ladder. boyfriend. could indirect speech was going to the cinema
Tom told me that his parents had gone with him to Scotland.'
Add the correct adverbs, tenses, demonstrative adjectives direct speech Our friends: 'We have never been here before.' been Bill: 'I had a frightening dream tonight.' dream Lara: 'I went to the swimming pool .' work . Lara said that she had gone to the swimming pool the day before. John told me that he would have finished that work by the next day. before. Bill said that he had had a frightening indirect speech Our friends told us that they had never
John: 'I'll have finished by .'
Statements If we want to say what other people said, thought or felt, we can use the direct and indirect speech (reported speech). The direct speech: "I like it," he said. "Irene is late," he thought. "I will pass the exam," she hoped. The reported speech: He said he liked it. He thought that Irene was late. She hoped she would pass the exam. The reported speech is typically introduced by verbs such as say, tell, admit, complain, explain, remind, reply, think, hope, offer, refuse etc. in the past tense. He said (that) he didn't want it. She explained that she had been at the seaside. If these verbs are in the past tense, we change the following: a) verb tenses and verb forms, b) pronouns, c) the adverbs of time and place. A) Verb tenses We change the tenses in the following way: 1. Present - past "I never understand you," she told me. - She told me she never understood me. "We are doing exercises," he explained. - He explained that they were doing exercises. 2. Present perfect - past perfect "I have broken the window," he admitted. - He admitted that he had broken the window. "I have been waiting since the morning," he complained. - He complained that he had been waiting since the morning. 3. Past - past perfect "She went to Rome," I thought. - I thought that she had gone to Rome. "He was thinking of buying a new car," she said. - She said he had been thinking of buying a new car. 4. Will - conditional Will changes into the conditional. "I will come on Sunday," he reminded me. - He reminded me that he would come on Sunday. Notes I shall, we shall usually become would. "I shall appreciate it," he said. - He said he would appreciate it. I should, we should usually changes into would. "We should be really glad," she told us. - She told us they would be really glad. May becomes might. "I may write to him," she promised. - She promised that she might write to him. The verb forms remain the same the following cases. 1. If the reporting verb is in the present tense. Bill: "I am enjoying my holiday." - Bill says he is enjoying his holiday. Sandy: "I will never go to work." - Sandy says she will never go to work.
2. When we report something that is still true. Dan: "Asia is the largest continent." - Dan said Asia is the largest continent. Emma: "People in Africa are starving." - Emma said people in Africa are starving. 3. When a sentence is made and reported at the same time and the fact is still true. Michael: "I am thirsty." - Michael said he is thirsty. 4. With modal verbs would, might, could, should, ought to, used to. George: "I would try it." - George said he would try it. Mimi: "I might come." - Mimi said she might come. Steve: "I could fail." - Steve said he could fail. Linda: "He should/ought to stay in bed." - Linda said he should/ought to stay in bed. Mel: "I used to have a car." - Mel said he used to have a car. 5. After wish, would rather, had better, it is time. Margo: "I wish they were in Greece." - Margo said she wished they were in Greece. Matt: "I would rather fly." - Matt said he would rather fly. Betty: "They had better go." - Betty said they had better go. Paul: "It is time I got up." - Paul said it was time he got up. 6. In if-clauses. Martha: "If I tidied my room, my dad would be happy." - Martha said that if she tidied her room, her dad would be happy. 7. In time-clauses. Joe: "When I was staying in Madrid I met my best friend." - He said that when he was staying in Madrid he met his best friend. 8. We do not change the past tense in spoken English if it is clear from the situation when the action happened. "She did it on Sunday," I said. - I said she did it on Sunday. We must change it, however, in the following sentence, otherwise it will not be clear whether we are talking about the present or past feelings. "I hated her," he said. - He said he had hated her. 9. We do not usually change the modal verbs must and needn't. But must can become had to or wouldhave to and needn't can become didn't have to or wouldn't have to if we want to express an obligation. Would/wouldn't have to are used to talk about future obligations. "I must wash up." - He said he must wash up/he had to wash up. "I needn't be at school today." - He said he needn't be/didn't have to be at school that day. "We must do it in June." - He said they would have to do it in June. If the modal verb must does not express obligation, we do not change it. "We must relax for a while." (suggestion) - He said they must relax for a while. "You must be tired after such a trip." (certainty) - He said we must be tired after such a trip.
Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense, although it is sometimes not necessary. Example: Peter: "I clean the black shoes." Peter told me that ____________________________ Answer: Peter told me that he cleaned the black shoes. 1) John: "Mandy is at home." John said that 2) Max: "Frank often reads a book." Max told me that 3) Susan: "I'm watching TV." Susan said to me that 4) Simon: "David was ill." Simon said that 5) Peggy: "The girls helped in the house." Peggy told me that 6) Richard: "I am going to ride a skateboard." . . . . .
Richard said to me that . 7) Stephen and Claire: "We have cleaned the windows." Stephen and Claire told me that 8) Charles: "I didn't have time to do my homework." Charles remarked that 9) Mrs Jones: "My mother will be 50 years old." Mrs Jones told me that 10) Jean: "The boss must sign the letter." Jean said that . . . .
Example: Peter: "I cleaned the black shoes yesterday." Peter told me that _________________________________ Answer: Peter told me that he had cleaned the black shoes the day before. 1) Emily: "Our teacher will go to Leipzig tomorrow." Emily said that .
2) Helen: "I was writing a letter yesterday." Helen told me that 3) Robert: "My father flew to Dallas last year." Robert told me that 4) Lisa: "Tim went to the stadium an hour ago." . Lisa said that 5) Patricia: "My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend." Patricia said that 6) Michael: "I am going to read a book this week." . . . . . . . .
Michael said to me that 7) Jason and Victoria: "We will do our best in the exams tomorrow." Jason and Victoria told me that 8) Andrew: "We didn't eat fish two days ago." Andrew remarked that 9) Alice: "I spent all my pocket money on Monday." Alice complained that 10) David: "John had already gone at six." David said that
Example: Peter: "Did John clean the black shoes?" Peter asked me _________________________________ Answer: Peter asked me if John had cleaned the black shoes. 1) Christopher: "Do you want to dance?" Christopher asked me 2) Betty: "When did you come?" Betty wanted to know 3) Mark: "Has John arrived?" Mark asked me 4) Ronald: "Where does Maria park her car?" Ronald asked me 5) Elisabeth: "Did you watch the latest film?" Elisabeth asked me 6) Mandy: "Can I help you?" . . . . .
Mandy wanted to know 7) Andrew: "Will Mandy have lunch with Sue?" Andrew asked me 8) Justin: "What are you doing?" .
Justin asked me . 9) Frank: "How much pocket money does Lisa get?" Frank wanted to know 10) Anne: "Must I do the shopping?" Anne asked . .
Example: Peter: "Did John clean the black shoes yesterday?" Peter asked me _________________________________________ Answer: Peter asked me if John had cleaned the black shoes the day before. 1) Mandy: "Are the boys reading the book?" Yesterday Mandy asked me 2) Jason: "Who gave you the laptop?" Yesterday Jason wanted to know 3) Robert: "Is Tim leaving on Friday?" Yesterday Robert asked me 4) Daniel: "Will it rain tomorrow?" Yesterday Daniel asked me 5) Jennifer: "Where do you play football today?" Yesterday Jennifer wanted to know 6) Nancy: "Why didn't Nick go to New York last summer?" Yesterday Nancy wanted to know 7) Barbara: "Must I do my homework this afternoon?" Yesterday Barbara asked me 8) Linda: "Did Max fly to London two weeks ago?" Yesterday Linda wanted to know 9) Grandmother: "Where are my glasses?" Yesterday Grandmother asked me 10) A man: "When does the train to Liverpool leave?" Yesterday a man asked me . . . . . . . . . .
Answer 1) John:"Mandy is at home." John said that Mandy was at home. 2) Max:"Frank often reads a book." Max told me that Frank often read a book. 3) Susan:"I'm watching TV." Susan said to me that she was watching TV. 4) Simon:"David was ill." Simon said that David had been ill. 5) Peggy:"The girls helped in the house." Peggy told me that the girls had helped in the house. 6) Richard:"I am going to ride a skateboard." Richard said to me that he was going to ride a skateboard. 7) Stephen and Claire:"We have cleaned the windows." Stephen and Claire told me that they had cleaned the windows. 8) Charles:"I didn't have time to do my homework." Charles remarked that he hadn't had time to do his homework. 9) Mrs Jones:"My mother will be 50 years old." Mrs Jones told me that her mother would be 50 years old. 10) Jean:"The boss must sign the letter." Jean said that the boss had to sign the letter. 1) Emily:"Our teacher will go to Leipzig tomorrow." Emily said that their teacher would go to Leipzig the next day. 2) Helen:"I was writing a letter yesterday." Helen told me that she had been writing a letter the day before. 3) Robert:"My father flew to Dallas last year." Robert told me that his father had flown to Dallas the year before. 4) Lisa:"Tim went to the stadium an hour ago." Lisa said that Tim had gone to the stadium an hour before. 5) Patricia:"My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend." Patricia said that her mother would celebrate her birthday the following weekend. 6) Michael:"I am going to read a book this week." Michael said to me that he was going to read a book that week. 7) Jason and Victoria:"We will do our best in the exams tomorrow." Jason and Victoria told me that they would do their best in the exams the next day. 8) Andrew:"We didn't eat fish two days ago." Andrew remarked that they hadn't eaten fish two days before. 9) Alice:"I spent all my pocket money on Monday." Alice complained that she had spent all her pocket money on Monday. 10) David:"John had already gone at six." David said that John had already gone at six.
1) Christopher:"Do you want to dance?" Christopher asked me if I wanted to dance. 2) Betty:"When did you come?" Betty wanted to know when I had come. 3) Mark:"Has John arrived?" Mark asked me if John had arrived. 4) Ronald:"Where does Maria park her car?" Ronald asked me where Maria parked her car. 5) Elisabeth:"Did you watch the latest film?" Elisabeth asked me if I had watched the latest film. 6) Mandy:"Can I help you?" Mandy wanted to know if she could help me. 7) Andrew:"Will Mandy have lunch with Sue?" Andrew asked me if Mandy would have lunch with Sue. 8) Justin:"What are you doing?" Justin asked me what I was doing. 9) Frank:"How much pocket money does Lisa get?" Frank wanted to know how much pocket money Lisa got. 10) Anne:"Must I do the shopping?" Anne asked if she had to do the shopping. 1) Mandy:"Are the boys reading the book?" Yesterday Mandy asked me if the boys were reading the book. 2) Jason:"Who gave you the laptop?" Yesterday Jason wanted to know who had given me the laptop. 3) Robert:"Is Tim leaving on Friday?" Yesterday Robert asked me if Tim was leaving on Friday. 4) Daniel:"Will it rain tomorrow?" Yesterday Daniel asked me if it would rain today. 5) Jennifer:"Where do you play football today?" Yesterday Jennifer wanted to know where I played football. 6) Nancy:"Why didn't Nick go to New York last summer?" Yesterday Nancy wanted to know why Nick hadn't gone to New York the summer before. 7) Barbara:"Must I do my homework this afternoon?" Yesterday Barbara asked me if she had to do her homework that afternoon. 8) Linda:"Did Max fly to London two weeks ago?" Yesterday Linda wanted to know if Max had flown to London two weeks before. 9) Grandmother:"Where are my glasses?" Yesterday Grandmother asked me where her glasses were. 10) A man:"When does the train to Liverpool leave?" Yesterday a man asked me when the train to Liverpool left.
1) John is writing a letter. What is John writing? 2) She walks home from school. Who walks home from school? 3) The children are sitting in the garden. Where are the children sitting? 4) Peter runs with his dog on Sundays. When does Peter run with his dog? 5) My rabbit has a cage in the garden. What does your rabbit have in the garden? 6) They go to work by bus. How do they go to work? 7) David likes cats because they are nice. Why does David like cats? 8) Jenny isn't sleeping late today. Who isn't sleeping late today? 9) We are going to the cinema. Where are we going? 10) I'm leaving now. When are you leaving? 1) She never cleans the van. What does she never clean? 2) Kim and Tina are playing ball in the garden. What are Kim and Tina playing in the garden? 3) They are running home. Where are they running? 4) Mr Johnson has been living in Montreal for ten years. Who has been living in Montreal for ten years? 5) Anne likes her new job very much. How does Anne like her new job? 6) The Barnes are planning a trip to Norway. Where are the Barnes planning a trip? 7) The shop will be closed until next month. How long will the shop be closed? 8) Beverly usually gets up at 6.30 am. When does Beverly usually get up? 9) He can't meet Sharon because she is very ill. Why can't he meet Sharon?
10) Every evening Steven listens to his new CDs. Who listens to his new CDs every evening?
1) She is opening a present. ? 2) The boys are hiding under Tom's bed. ? 3) My sister prefers porridge for breakfast. ? 4) On Thursday Jack has German, History and Maths. ? 5) Yesterday Carol and Jane went to the swimming pool. ? 6) The plane is landing at the airport. ? 7) The telephone is ringing . ? 8) Sarah has to stop because of a security check. ? 9) Andrew's new mountain bike costs €1000. ? 10) At sunset Peter is walking along the beach . ?
1) He sometimes reads the newspaper, doesn't he? 2) You are Indian, aren't you? 3) They had a nice weekend, didn't they? 4) Peggy didn't use the pencil, did she? 5) Mary has answered the teacher's question, hasn't she? 6) The boy is from Turkey, isn't he? 7) Sue wasn't listening, was she? 8) Andrew isn't sleeping, is he? 9) Tom and Maria will arrive at Heathrow, won't they? 10) She has a brother, doesn't she? 1) He's been to Texas, hasn't he? 2) Dogs like meat, don't they? 3) There are some apples left, aren't there? 4) I'm late, aren't I? 5) Let's go, shall we? 6) Don't smoke, will you? 7) He does sing in the bathroom, doesn't he? 8) He'll never know, will he? 9) I think, he's from India, isn't he? 10) Lovely day today, isn't it?
Put in the correct question tags. Example: Peter works in the shop, _________ ? Answer: Peter works in the shop, doesn't he?
1) She is collecting stickers, 2) We often watch TV in the afternoon, 3) You have cleaned your bike, 4) John and Max don't like Maths, 5) Peter played handball yesterday, 6) They are going home from school,
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
7) Mary didn't do her homework last Monday, 8) He could have bought a new car, 9) Kevin will come tonight, 10) I'm clever, ?
Fill in who,
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. keys.
why, what, how, how much, how many,how old,when, where, whose.
are you so happy? because I have a birthday party. is is sitting behind you? Rita. do you go to school? by bus. does the first lesson begin? at 8.00 o'clock. is the police-station? in front of the park. is the weather like in Israel? It's hot. do the tickets cost? I don't know. Maybe 15 $. does your mom go to work in the morning? by taxi. does he usually have for lunch? rice and fish. wants to sing this song? Tamara . book is that? It's Maria's. do you have the longest holidays? in summer. can translate this word in English? I can. is your address? Main Street 16. are you crying? because I lost my
1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
works in this school? my aunt. does the boy come from? from Brasil. are her brothers? sixteen . is your test? on Monday does this jacket cost? 200 dollars. is reading a letter now? David. do you go on Friday? to the swimming lesson. water do you want? one glass of water,please. does the museum open on Sundays? at nine o'clock . can we buy milk here? at the supermarket. are you doing now? cooking spaghetti. is your sister going to do today? to do her homework . is your English teacher? Mrs. Berry is your favorite color? orange. is his wedding? in September is the market? next to the biggest post-office.
1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
are your new sandals ? fifty dollars. is there on the shelf ? my old radio. do you work? in the hospital. is your name? Sandra. is your school bag? under the chair. colour is your car? it's white. do you usually bring to school? books and notebooks. knows the answer? I know. are the pupils writing now? a postcard. was at the cinema yesterday? Bob and Rosa. can you help me? next week. were you last week? in Italy . were the children a week ago? on a school trip in Paris
1. I think Nadia is ...... girl among the girls in the class. a. More beutiful b. Smartest c. The most beautiful d. Most beautiful 2. Linda is ........... Santi. a. Prettier than b. More dilligent c. Pretty d. Prettier 3. Linda works ........ Jane. a. More hardly than b. Very hard c. Harder than d. Hard 4. Mrs. Smith speaks ....... tahn Mr.Smith. a. More slowly b. Very slowly c. More slow d. Slowly 5. Renata usually has more free time than Bella ..........
a. Is b. Does c. Do d. Did 6. They had much more money than we .............. a. Do b. Had c. Were d. Did 7. Charles is ...... than Steven. a. A bit taller b. Tall c. A bit tall d. Very tall 8. Lydia is ........... student in our class. a. Smarter b. Seriously c. The most intelligent d. More dilligent 9. That is the ......... place in this town. a. Bad b. Good c. Worst
d. Worse 10. She waited for them ... than he friend. a. More patient b. More patiently c. Patient d. Patiently
1. The town is just as 2. The road was 3. The girl is very
(large) as my native one. (long) than we had expected. (intelligent). (boring)
4. As soon as they understood that the second book was than the first one, they changed their mind. 5. The shop is 6. Ventspils is 7. Tim is 8. The heat is less 9. This song is 10. They are as as 11. The weather today is 12. The story was 13. They were less 14. George bought a 15. The mark is a 16. They are very 17. She is 18. The boy is 19. It is as (far) than the school. (far) town in Latvia I have been to. (intelligent) than Pat. (harmful) than the cold. (beautiful) one in the world! (stubborn) as donkeys!
(bad) than the weather yesterday but not (exciting) one I have ever heard. (tired) than we. (new) car than he could ever imagine.
(bad) as it was four days ago.
(good) than I expected. (upset) with the results. (polite) than me. (fast) runner of all. (pleasant) as a greeting card.
20.The movie was 21. The price will be less 22.The nature is 23.The cake is just as 24.Sometimes friends are 25.Planes are 26.Some cars are 27.The jeans are very trousers. 28.Acandle gives 29.This blanket is 30.The dog is
(interesting) than the book. (aggressive) than the previous time. (important) than making profit. (sweet) as the ice-cream. (devoted) than relatives. (convenient) means of travelling of all. (expensive) than others. (dirty) in fact they are (little) than a lamp. (warm) than that blanket. (angry) than its master. (dirty) than the
1. No other boy is as ……………………. as James. (tall / taller / tallest) 2. Milk is ………………….. than any other food. (nourishing / more nourishing / most nourishing) 3. Radium is one of the ……………………… metals. (valuable / more valuable / most valuable) 4. Few English poets were as ……………………. as Wordsworth. (great / greater / greatest) 5. Shimla is ………………….. than most other hill stations in India. (famous / more famous / most famous) 6. Gold is one of the ……………………. metals. (precious / more precious / most precious) 7. Solomon was …………………… than any other king. (wise / wiser / wisest) 8. Few historians write as ………………….. as Macaulay. (well / better /best) 9. Very few books are as ……………………. as David Copperfield. (popular / more popular / most popular) 10. A train is …………………. than a car. (fast / faster / fastest)
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