SBP 2012

PHYSICS
PERFECT SCORE MODULE

NAME :................................................................... CLASS/SCHOOL:.................................................

SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH 2012

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PHYSICS PERFECT SCORE 2012 PANELS

NOR SAIDAH BT CHE HASSAN (Ketua Penggubal) Kolej Tunku Kurshiah JENNYTA BT NOORBI SMS Tuanku Munawir JAMILAH YUSOF Sekolah Seri Puteri HASLINA BT ISMAIL SMS Hulu Selangor KAMARIAH BT MOHD ARSYAD The Malay College of Kuala Kangsar JAMALUDIN BIN ABD GHANI SBPI Batu Rakit HJH NOR SHIDAH HJ MANSOR SMS Tengku Mahmud SURIYATI YUSOFF SMS Muzaffar Shah TAN LEE FAH SMS Miri ZULAIFAH ZINUDDIN Sekolah Tuanku Abdul Rahman

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TABLE OF CONTENT
SECTION
Section I

CONSTRUCT/CONTENT
Physics Concept / Rules / Principles /Laws

Page
4

Section II

Examples of Common Mistakes And Misconceptions

14

Section III

Construct: Understanding

19

Section IV

Construct Decision Making

26

Section V

C Construct onceptualisation

40

Section VI

Construct (Qualitative)

53

Section VII

Problem Solving (Quantitative)

58

Section VIII A

Paper 3 Section A

63

Section VIII B

Paper 3 Section B

71

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-PHYSICS CONCEPT AND DEFINITION Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics What is.. 1 Base Quantities Definition Base quantities are quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other base quantities Derived quantities are quantities that are obtained by combining base quantities by multiplication, derivition or both operations Scalar quantities are quantities that have only magnitude Vector quantities are quantities that have both magnitude and direction The consistency of of a measuring instrument is its ability register the same reading when a measurement is made repeatedly Accuracy is the degree of how close a measurement is to the actual vaue Sensitivity of an instrument is its ability to detect a small change in the quantity to be measured

2. Derived Quantities

3. Scalar Quantities

4. Vector Quantities

5. Consistency

6. Accuracy

7. Sensitivity

Chapter 2: Force And Motion What is.. 1. Speed 2. Velocity 3. Acceleration 4. Deceleration 5. Inertia Definition Speed is the rate of change of distance Velocity is the rate of change of displacement Acceleration is the rate of change of change/increase in velocity Deceleration is the rate of decrease in velocity The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line Newton’s First Law of Motion states that every object continues in its state of rest or uniform speed in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force Linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity Principle of Conservation of Momentum states that the total momentum of a system remains unchanged if no external force acts on the system. Force is defined as anything that changes the state of rest or motion of an object moving in a straight line

6. Newton’s First Law of Motion / Law of Inertia 7. Linear momentum 8. Principle of Conservation of Momentum

9. Force

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What is.. 10. Newton’s Second Law

Definition The acceleration of a body ,a, is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, F , and inversely proportional to its mass, m Impulse is defined as the change in momentum Impulsive force is defined as the rate of change of momentum

11. Impulse 12. Impulsive Force 13. Weight / Force of Gravity / Gravitational Force 14. Free-Fall 15. Gravitational Acceleration 16. Gravitational Field 17. Resultant Force / Net Force

Pulled force towards the centre of the earth A free-falling object is an object falling under the force of gravity only The acceleration of objects due to gravity // falling free The gravitational field is the region around the earth in which an object experience a force due to gravitational attraction Resultant force is a single force that represents the combined effect of two or more forces in magnitude and direction When the forces acting on an object is not balanced, there must be a net force/unbalanced/resultant force acting on it Unbalanced forces produce an acceleration to the object The object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when the resulting force acting on the object is zero ( no net force acting upon it)

18. Unbalanced Forces /

19. Forces in Equilibrium / Balanced Forces

When the equilibrium is reached, then the object is in two states, that is (i) remains stationary (if the object is stationary) (ii) moves at a constant velocity ( if the object is moving) / zero acceleration Newton’s third law of motion states that, To every action there is an equal but opposite direction Work is defined as the product of the applied force ,F on the object and its displacement, s in the direction of the applied force Energy is the ability to do work (Work done is equal to the amount of energy transferred The Gravitational potential energy of an object is the energy stored in the object due to its position in a force field Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion Principle of Conservation of Energy states that

20. Newton’s Third Law of Motion

21. Work

22. Energy 23. Gravitational Potential Energy 24. Kinetic Energy 25. Principle of Conservation of Energy

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What is.. 26. Power 27. Efficiency

Definition Power is the amount of work done per second Efficiency of a device is the percentage of the energy input that is transferred into useful energy Elasticity is the property of a substance which enables it to return to original shape after an applied external force is removed Elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to restored to its original length when the force is removed Hooke’s Law states that the extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded A spring constant of a spring is the force that is required to produce one unit of extension of the spring (measure of the stiffness of the spring) Elastic Potential Energy is the energy stored in a spring when it is extended or compressed

28. Elasticity

29. Elastic Limit

30. Hooke’s Law

31. Spring Constant / Force Constant

32. Elastic Potential Energy

Chapter 3: Force and Pressure What is.. 1. Pressure Definition Pressure is defined as the force acting normally on a unit of surface area The Atmospheric pressure is caused by the the weight of the air on the Earth’s surface Gas pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the gas molecules as they collide with the walls of their container Pascal’s principle states that when pressure is applied to an enclosed fluid, the pressure will be transmitted equally throughout the whole enclosed fluid Bouyant Force is an upward force resulting from an object being wholly or partially immersed in a fluid Archimedes’ Principle states that, “ When an object is immersed in a fluid, the buoyant force on the object is equal in size to the weight of fluid displaced by the object Bernoulli’s principlestatesthat the pressure of a moving liquid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases and vice versa

2. Atmospheric Pressure

3. Gas Pressure

4. Pascal’s Principle

5. Bouyant Force

6. Archimedes’ Principle

7. Bernoulli’s Principle

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Chapter 4: Heat What is.. 1. Temperature 2. Heat Definition Temperature is the degree of hotness of an object / Amount of kinetic energy in an object Heat is the energy tranferred from hot to cold object Two objects are said to be in thermal equilibrium when; i) The rates of heat tansfer between the objects are equal (net flow of heat between the two objects is zero) ii) The objects have the same temperature Thermometric Property is the physical property of a substance which is sensitive and varies linearly with changes in temperature of the material Ice point is the temperature of pure melting ice Steam point is the temperature of steam from water that is boiling under standard atmospheric pressure Heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be supplied to increase its temperature by 1 oC Specific Heat Capacity of a substance is the amount of heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature by 1 oC for a mass of 1 kg of the substance Latent heat is the heat absorbed or heat released at a constant temperature during a change of phase Specific Latent Heat of a substance is the amount of heat required to change the phase of 1 kg of the substance at a constant temperature Spesific Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat required to change the phase of 1 kg of the substance from solid to liquid phase at a constant temperature Spesific Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat required to change the phase of 1 kg of the substance from liquid to gaseous phase at a constant temperature Boyle’s Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant Charles’ Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant Pressure Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to its absolutev temperature when the volume is kept constant

3. Thermal Equilibrium

4. Thermometric Property 5. Ice Point (Lower fixed pont) 6. Steam Point (Upper fixed point) 7. Heat Capacity

8. Specific Heat Capacity

9. Latent Heat

10. Specific Latent Heat

11. Spesific Latent Heat of Fusion

12. Spesific Latent Heat of Vaporisation

13. Boyle’s Law

14. Charles’ Law

15. Pressure Law

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Chapter 5: Light What is.. 1. Law of Reflection Definition

i. ii. AO :Incident ray ON :Normal OB :Reflected ray i :Angle of incidence r :Angle of reflection Reflection by a concave mirror

The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all lie in the same plane The anle of incidence i, is equal to the angle of reflection, r

Parallel rays that strike the surface of a concave mirror will be reflected and converge at the focal point, F outside the mirror

Centre of curvature, C of a curved mirror is the centre of the sphere of the mirror

Radius of curvature. R is the distance between the the centre of curvature, C and the pole of the mirror

Focal point is the point where parallel rays that strike the surface of a concave mirror will be reflected and converge at the focal point 2. Refraction of light Refraction of light is a light phenomenon which occurs when light passes through two materials of different optical densities, will change direction at the boundary between them. Refractive Index, n of the medium is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed if light in the medium The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal all lie in the same plane ii. The value of sin i is a constant (Snell’s Law) sin r Critical angle is the angle of incidence in an optically more dense medium which results in angle of refraction of 90 o in an optically less dense. The Internal Reflection of light is the phenomenon when the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle and the light not refracted anymore but internally reflected The conditions for the occurrence of total internal reflection. (1) The light ray must be travel from an optically denser medium to less dense medium. (2) The angle of incidence must be greater than the critical angle. 8 i.

3. Refractive Index

4. Law of Refraction and Snell’s Law

5. Critical Angle

6. Total Internal Reflection

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Chapter 6: Waves What is.. 1. Waves Definition Waves are carriers of energy. They transfer energy from one location to another Longitudinal Wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel to the direction of the propagation of the wave Transverse Wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave In waves, lines joining all the points of the same phase Wavelength of a wave is the distance between two adjacent points of the same phase on a wave Amplitude is the maximum displacement from its equilibrium position Frequency of a wave is the number of waves produced by a source in one second The speed of the wave is the measurement of how fast a crest is moving from its fixed point The period of a wave is the time taken for an oscillation to complete one cycle Forced Oscillation is the external force supplies energy to the system Natural Frequency is the frequency of a system which oscillate freely without the action of an external force Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force Diffraction of waves is the spreading of waves around corners and edges as waves pass through an opening or around an obstacle along their paths Coherent Waves are waves that have same frequency and wavelength and in phase Monochromatic Light is light with one colour/wavelength Principle of Superposition states that when two waves interfered, the resulting displacement of the medium at any point is the algebraic sum of the displacements of the individual waves Constructive interference occurs when a crest meets acrest and when a trough meets a trough 9

2. Longitudinal Wave

3. Transverse Wave

4. Wavefront 5. Wavelength

6. Amplitude

7. Frequency

8. Wave speed

9. Period

10. Forced Oscillation

11. Natural Frequency

12. Resonance

13. Diffraction

14. Coherent Waves

15. Monochromatic Light 16. Principle of Superposition of Waves 17. Constructive interference

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What is.. 18. Destructive interference 19. Antinodal lines

Definition Destructive interference occurs when crests suoerposed with troughs Antinodal lines are lines joining places of constructive interference Nodal lines are line joining the places of destructive interference

20. Nodal lines

Chapter 7: Electricity What is.. 1. Electric Field Definition Electric field is a region around a charged object which any other charged body experience a force Potential Difference, V between two points in a circuit is defined as the amount of work done when a coulomb of charge passes from one point to the other point Ohm’s Law states that the current that passes through an ohmic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied accross it if the temperature and other physical conditions are constant Resistance, R of a conductor is the ratio of the potential difference, V to the current, I Electromotive Force (e.m.f) is defined as the work done by the source to move a coulomb of charge around a complete circuit The internal resistance ,r is the resistance within a cell due to its electrolyte and electrodes or source of electricity.

2. Potential Difference

3. Ohm’s Law

4. Resistance 5. Electromotive Force (e.m.f) 6. Internal Resistance

Chapter 8: Electromagnetism What is.. 1. Ferromagnetic materials Definition Ferromagnetic materials are the materials attracted to the magnet. The examples of the ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel and cobalt An electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced by an electric current. An electromagnet acts as a temporary magnet A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic material experiences a force as the result of the present of a magnet or a electromagnet

2. Electromagnet

3. Magnetic field

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What is..

Definition

4. The right -hand grip rule.

If a solenoid carrying a current is gripped with the right hand and with the thumb pointing along the solenoid so that the fingers curling round the solenoid in the direction of the current and the thumb then points towards the north pole. Fleming’s Left-hand Rule.

5. Fleming’s Left-hand Rule.

Fleming’s Left-hand Rule states” If the thumb, first finger (forefinger)and second finger of the left hand are held at right angles to each other, then if the first finger (forefinger)represents the direction of the magnetic field and the second represents the direction of the current, then the thumb will represents the direction of the motion” Catapult field are the combinations field between 6. Catapult Field (Resultant field) (a) the magnetic field produced by the current and magnetic field of the permanent magnet occurred. Or (b) the magnetic field produced by two current –carrying conductors are placed close to each other Electromagnetic induction is the production of induced current or induced e.m.f. without using the power supplies but using the relative motion between a conductor or a magnet Faraday’s law state that “ The magnitude of the induced current or induced e.m.f. is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage with the solenoid or the rate at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic flux.” Lenz’s law state that” The direction of an induced current always flows in such as a direction so to oppose the change which is causing it.”

7. Electromagnetic induction

8. Faraday’s law

9. Lenz’s law

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What is..

Definition To determine the direction of the induced current in the dynamo – Fleming’s Right-hand rule

10. Fleming’s Right-hand rule Fleming’s Right-hand Rule states” If the thumb, first finger (forefinger)and second finger of the right hand are held at right angles to each other, then if the first finger (forefinger)represents the direction of the magnetic field and the thumb represents the direction of the motion of the conductor , then the second finger will represents the direction of the induced current ”

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Chapter 9: Electronics What is.. Definition The emission of electrons from the surface of a heated metal or heated metal cathode. The thermionic emission is a bit like electrons being evaporated off from the hot wire Cathode ray is a narrow beam of a fast electrons moving in a vacuum Semiconductors are materials which conduct electricity better than insulator, but no so well as ordinary conductors Doping is a process of adding a small amount of impurities into the pure crystal of semiconductor (intrinsic semiconductor) A rectifier converts alternating current(a.c.) into direct current(d.c). The process of converting a.c. to d.c. is called rectification A transistor is a semiconductor device capable of amplification in addition to rectification. An electronic circuit with a single output and one or more inputs

1. Thermionic Emission

2. Cathode Ray 3. Semiconductor Materials 4. Doping

5. Rectifier

6. Transistor 7. Logic Gate

Chapter 10: Radioactivity What is.. 1. Radioisotope Definition Radioisotopes are unstable isotopes which decay and give out radioactive emissions Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus into a more stable nucleus accompanied by the emission of energetic particles (radioactive rays) or photons Helium nucleus or
4 2

2. Radioactivity 3. - particles : 4. - particles : 5. -rays 6. The half-life

He
0 1

Fast moving electrons or Electromagnetic waves

e

The half-life of a radioactive material is the time taken for the activity of radioactive fall to half its original activity Nuclear fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei, which subsequently emit either two or three neutrons and release of large amounts of energy Nuclear fusion is the combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus with the release of large amount of energy.

7. Nuclear fission

8. Nuclear fusion

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SECTION II - COMMON MISTAKES AND MISCONCEPTIONS
A. Common Mistakes 1. Problem Solving (Quantitative) –the answer given: i. FRACTION FORM ii. without UNIT 2. Careless mistakes: Example: Convert minute into hour - 30 minutes = 30 x 60 = 1800 hours 3. Conceptual question: i. Giving the reason: E.g. : The horizontal distance of the water spurting out in Diagram (b) is greater because..... ii. Giving the value when comparing two situations: E.g. The boiling points of water is 100oC whereas the boiling point of methylated spirit is 80oC

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Understanding Question - Not systematic in explanation Explanation without diagram / symbol / formula / graph. Use the reason given in the question Light topic; Draw the ray diagram without “arrow” Cannot distinguish between Physical Quantity, Physics Instrument and Physics Unit Examples: Physical Quantity Stop watch voltmeter thermometer Bourdon gauge Ammeter Physical quantity measured Physics Unit and symbol

9.

Wrong Physics Term / Definition / Concept (Base on SBP Physics Trial Exams)

Examples: Terms [The type of energy when the object is at P] a Potential energy ................................ Potential Energy Common Mistake Correct Answer

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Terms

Common Mistake Force acting on surface area

Correct Answer

b

Pressure

Force/area A product of depth, density and gravitational acceleration

.................................. force acting on ...................... of surface area

c

Pascal’s principle

In a close container, force is In a close container...................... transmitted equally ......................................................... Heat absorbed to change by 1oC Heat absorbed to change .................... of liquid to gas without ............................................ .........................................................

d

Latent heat of vaporization

e

Temperature

Transfer from hot body to cold body

[Physics phenomena in a prism] f Reflection ....................................................

g

Critical angle

Critical angle is when the refracted angle is 90o Critical angle is the incident angle when the reflected angle is 90o

Critical angle is the ................ .............. in ............................r medium which produces when the ................................. angle in ................................ medium is ......................... The image that .............................. ........................................................

h

Virtual image

The image that formed behind the lens

i

Monochromatic light

A colour of one light

The light that ................................. .........................................................

j

Amplitude

Maximum point of the highest displacement

………………………….. ....................................... of any particle/oscillating system from its …………………………………...

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Terms

Common Mistake

Correct Answer

k

Period

One complete oscillation

The …………………………. for any particle to make ……… ………………….oscillation

l

Specification: 240 V, 1000 W

1000 W of energy is supplied when the power supplied is 240 V.

................................................... .................................................. when connected to a ............. .......................... of ..................... .......................... A .............................. which can produce ....................................... when .............................................. ......................................................... ................................ electron

j

electromagnet

When the current flow through magnet Is a combination of electric and magnetic field Negative charge

k

Beta particles

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B.

Misconceptians Examples: Num 1 Misconceptions Oil is used in hydraulic jack because it has higher boiling point Snell’s law state that: 2 The sine of incident angle The sine of refracted angle Correction

=

Refractive index

Container A

Container B water

3 The force exerted at X > the force exerted at Y because smaller surface area (P = F /A)

To increase the efficiency of ac/dc GENERATOR: Use more number of turns to produce stronger magnetic field

The ship can float in sea water because the buoyant force is bigger than the weight of the ship

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C. Paper 3

1.

Data Tabulation Title ContentExample: Common Mistake Electric Current 0.1 0.12 0.14 Voltage 0.5 1 1.5 Correct Answer no unit not consistent

2.

Graph: Label Scale Plotting (x @ Line Size )x-axis & y-axis : no unit Not uniform, odd too small or too big not smooth, not balance small [< (8 cm x 8 cm)]

3.

Gradient of the graph Triangle Final answer small [ < (8 cm x 8 cm)] no unit, Written in fraction

4.

Calculation Final answer

-

no unit written in fraction

5.

Procedure Repeat the experiment three times Should state: What:……………………………………………………………………………………………..…….. How : ……………………………………………………………………………………………..…….

6.

Precaution “Avoid parallax error” Should state: What: ………………………………………………………………………………… How : …………………………………………………………………………………

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SECTION III– UNDERSTANDING - (Paper 2 Section B and C )
Question 1 [ Introduction to Physics ] Explain the meaning of consistency and accuracy of a measuring instrument by using suitable examples [ 4 marks ] Question 2 [Forces and Motion] Using the principle of conservation of momentum, explain the working principle of the rocket. [4 marks] Question 3 [Forces and Motion Spring is widely used in suspension system of vehicles such as car and motorcycle. This is because of the elasticity of the spring. Diagram below shows how a spring is used in suspension system of a car.

(i) What is meant by elasticity? (ii) Explain how the forces between the molecules caused the elasticity when the spring is compressed and stretched. [4 marks] Question 4 [Forces and Motion] Diagram 4 shows a hovercraft starts from rest and accelerates until it achieves constant velocity after a few seconds.

Diagram 4 (i) (ii) Sketch a velocity-time graph to show the motion of hovercraft. Explain why the hovercraft moves with constant velocity in terms of the force acting on it [4 marks] Question 5 [Forces and Pressure] Explain why the atmospheric pressure at higher altitude is lower compared to places at lower altitude. [4 marks]

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Question 6 [Forces and Pressure] Diagram shows a suction pump being used to lift a mirror that measured 1.5 m X 0.5 m X 0.01m . The density of the mirror is 2.5 X 10 3 kg m-3 . The pump obeys atmospheric pressure principle to let the suction pump stick onto surface of mirror.

Diagram 6 Explain how the suction pump can lift the mirror with the aid of atmospheric pressure. [4 marks] Question 7 [Forces and Pressure]

Diagram (i) State Archimedes’ principle. . (ii) Explain why a weather balloon that is rising up in the air will stop at certain altitude [4 marks] [1 mark]

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Question 8 [Forces and Pressure] (a) Diagram shows a hydrometer.

Diagram A hydrometer is used to measure density of liquid. Explain how a hydrometer functions. [4 marks] Question 9 [Heat] (i) What is the meaning of thermal equilibrium? [1mark] (ii) Explain, in terms of thermal equilibrium, how a thermometer which is placed into the boiling water reads at the temperature of 100 ˚C. [4marks] Question 10 [Heat] Using kinetic theory of gaseous, explain how the pressure increase when the temperature increase. [4 marks] Question 11 [Heat] Diagram shows the phenomenon of sea breeze.

Diagram Using the concept of specific heat capacity, explain how the phenomenon of sea breeze occurs. [4 marks]

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Question 12 [Light] Diagram shows the “superior mirage “ which occurs over cold water surface and snow.

Warm air

Image of ship

Cool air

ship

Using physics concepts, explain why the observer can only see the image of the ship. [4 marks] Question 13 [Light] Explain why a piece of paper burns when placed under a convex lens aimed towards hot sun rays. [4 marks] Question 14 [Waves] Sonar technique can be used to determine the distance between two positions. Ultrasonic wave is used in this technique. (i) What is sonar? [ 1 mark ] (ii) Explain why using ultrasonic wave is better than just ordinary sound waves. [ 2 marks ] (iii) A marine researcher wants to use ultrasonic sound to determine the depth of the ocean bed. Explain how he can do so. [ 4 marks ] Question 15 [Waves] Explain why strong double-glazed glass is used as walls of the observation tower in an airport. [4 marks]

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Question 17 [Electricity] Explain the advantages of parallel circuit in a house wiring system [4 marks] Question 18 [Electricity] Explain why the bulb connected to two dry cells lights up brighter than one bulb connected to one dry cell. [4 marks] Question 19 [Electromagnetism] Explain what happens to magnet P and magnet Q when the switch is on.

[4 marks]

Question 20 [Electromagnetism] Diagram shows a simple direct current electric motor.

Using the concept of the magnetic effect of an electric current, explain with the aid of diagrams how forces are produced on a wire in the coil, as shown in the diagram above. Question 21 [Electromagnetism] Diagram shows a circuit breaker. Explain how the circuit breaker works. [ 4marks]

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Question 22 [Electromagnetism] (i) What is meant by ideal transformer? [ 1 mark ] (ii) Explain the working principle of a transformer. [ 4 marks ]

Question 23 [Electromagnetism] Diagram shows the model of an electricity transmission system.

Transmission wire at 24 V a.c

Power stationn

Industry at 8 V a.c

House at 6 V a.c
Most of the electric energy that we are using come from hydroelectric and thermal power station. This power station is connected to each other using cable to transmit electric energy to industries, office, school and house. This system called National grid network. State the form of energy transfer at hydroelectric power station. Explain the importance of National grid network system in electricity transmission to consumers.

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Question 24 [Electronic] Diagram shows a Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope.

Explain how the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope can be used to measure the potential difference of a dry cell. [ 4marks ] Question 25 [Radioactivity] Radioisotope Strontium-90 is used to measure the thickness of paper in a paper industry .Explain how Strontium-90 is used to measure the thickness piece of paper? [4 marks] Question 26 [Radioactivity] Radioisotopes can be used as tracers to detect leaks from pipes underground. Diagram 12.1 shows a leak that occurred in an underground water pipe.

(a)

What is meant by radioisotopes?

[ 1 mark ] (b) With the aid of diagram, explain how radioisotopes can be used to detect the location of the leakage as shown in Diagram. [ 3 marks ] Question 27 [Radioactivity] The following equation shows a fission reaction of Uranium-235.

Nuclear fission produces a chain reaction. Describe how the chain reaction occurs in a nuclear fission of an atom of Uranium- 235. [4 marks]

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SECTION IV – DECISION MAKING (Paper 2 Section A – Question 8; Section C )
Question 1 [Force and Pressure] Table 1 shows the characteristics of four structures of ship P, Q, R, and S. Structure of ships U V W X Strength Of the metal used High Low High Low Ship Base Cross section area Wide Wide Small Small Volume of the air space in the ship High High Low Low

Shape Streamlined Oval Circle Streamlined

Table 1 As a researcher in a ship manufacturing company, you are assigned to study the structure used to make the ship to support heavy cargoes. You are given four choices of the structures P, Q, R and S. The table above shows the structures of the ship. Explain the suitable characteristics of the structure to be used to make the ship. Determine the most suitable structure to be used to make the ship to support heavy cargoes. Give reasons for your choice. [10 marks]

Question 2 [Force and Pressure] At National Water Rocket competition, the winner is supposed to design a water rocket which can be launched to a higher altitude, further distance and take the longest time to land. You are asked to investigate the characteristics of the water rockets in thediagram 11.2 and determine the best rocket to use in the competition. Give reasons for your choice. P

Q

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R

S

T

[10 marks]

Question 3 [Force and Pressure] Diagram 3 shows four racing motorcycles, P, Q, R and S, with different specifications. You are required to determine the most suitable motorcycle to move fast and safe when racing. Study the specifications of all the four motorcycles from the following aspects: Explain the suitability of the aspects. Justify your choice. Racing bike A Type of brake : without ABS Mass : 205.0 kg

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Racing bike B Type of brake : without ABS Mass : 220.0 kg

Racing bike C Type of brake : ABS (Antilock Brake System) Mass : 208.0 kg

Racing bike D Type of brake : ABS (Antilock Brake System) Mass : 242.0 kg

Diagram 3 [10 marks] Question 4 [Force and Pressure] Diagram 4 shows the parts of brake systems car. Brake pads Brake pedal

Brake fluid

Brake disc

Diagram 4

Table 4 shows the specifications of components that can be used in brake systems , P,Q,R, S and T. Based on Table 4;You are required to determine the most suitable brake system and explain the suitability of the aspects in Table 4 28

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Brake system P Q R S T

Specifications of components in a car brake system Specific heat capacity Melting point The material Compression of of brake disc of brake disc use of brake brake fluid 0C J kg-10 C-1 pads ceramics 360 930 Difficult 2400 890 2210 1460 1220 580 1940 2070 Table 4 [10 marks] Difficult Easy Difficult Easy steel ceramics ceramics steel

Question 5 [Force and Pressure] You are asked to investigate the characteristics of each backhoes in table 11 and choose a backhoe that can do heavy works, an example of a backhoe is shown in diagram 11.2. Explain the suitability of the characteristics each backhoes. Determine the most suitable backhoe. Give reason for your choice

Characteristics of Backhoe Type of Backhoe Size of tyre Fluids used in hydraulic system Liquid Mass Base area Centre of gravity Low

M

Large

Large

Large

N

Large

Liquid

Small

Large

Low

P

Large

Gas

Large

Small

High

Q R

Medium Large

Liquid Liquid Table 11

Large Large

Medium Medium

Low High

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[10 marks] Question 6 [Force and Pressure] You are requested to choose a suitable wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. By referring to the information given in Table 11.1, explain the suitability of each characteristic and suggest the most suitable wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. Design Shape of cross section of wing Area of wing/m2 Density of wing material / kg m-3 Difference in speed of air above and below the wing / m s-1

P

40.0

2100

10.0

Q

41.5

2300

0.0

R 42.5 2000 0.0

S

38.2

2050

8.0

Table 11.1 shows the characteristic of four designs of the aircraft wings. [10 marks]

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Question 7 [Force and Pressure] Diagram 11.5 shows a hot air balloon.

Balloon

Basket

Diagram 11.5

Table 11.1 shows four hot air balloon with different specifications. Volume of the balloon (envelope) 560 m3 2800 m3 4 m3 25 m3 Material used for the balloon Nylon Nylon Cotton Cotton Table 11.1 You are required to determine the most suitable hot air balloon which can travel at higher altitude. Explain the suitability of each of the characteristic of the balloon. Choose the most suitable balloon and justify your choice. [10 marks] Question 8 [Force and Pressure] As a researcher you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of four types of liquid that are suitable to be used as a coolant for a car engine. Table 5 shows the characteristics of the liquids. character istics Liquid J K L M 121 128 210 101 Table 5 High Low High Low 5500 4750 1195 3588 High Low Low medium Boiling point / oC Viscosity Specific heat Capacity / J kg-1 C-1 . Ability to react with metals Material used for the basket Aluminium Rattan Aluminium Rattan Temperature of air inside the balloon 500C 990C 500 C 1200 C

Hot air balloon J K L M

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(i) Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the liquid to be used as a coolant for the car engine. (ii) Determine the most suitable liquid to be used and give a reason for your choice. [10 marks] Question 9 [Light] Diagram 6 shows an astronomical telescope consist of objective lens and eye piece. An astronomical telescope is used to view very large objects like moon.

Diagram 6 Table 7 shows the characteristics of four different simple astronomical telescopes. focal length of objective of, f
o

Telescope S T U V

Type of Objective lens Convex Concave Convex Concave

/cm 40 10 10 40

The distance between two lenses / D D <fo+fe D >fo+fe D <fo+fe D >fo+fe

Diameter of the objective lens /cm 5.0 5.0 2.5 2.5

Table 6 Explain the suitability of each characteristicof the telescope and determine the most suitable telescope to be used to observe very far object. Give reason for your choice. [10 marks]

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Question 10 [Electricity]] Table 12.1 shows four heating elements F, G, H and J with different specifications. Three identical eating panels are needed to be fixed on three sides of an electric dryer. Heating element Diameter of wire Type of heating panel Arrangement of heating panels Melting point

F

Thick

Parallel circuit

Low

Straight wire

G

Thin

Parallel circuit

High

Coil wire

H

Thin

Series circuit

High

Straight wire

J

Thick

Parallel circuit

High

coil wire Table 12.1 You are required to determine the most suitable heating element that can produce highest amount of heat faster. Study the specifications of all the four heating elements based on the following aspects: (i) Diameter of the wire. (ii) Type of heating panel (iii) Arrangement of three heating panels. (iv) Melting point of the wire. Explain the suitability of each aspects and then determine the most suitable heating element. Give a reason of your choice. [10 marks] Question 11 [Electromagnetism] Question [Electromagnet] Diagram 12.2 shows four types of moving coil ammeter, R, S, T and U to measure small direct current. You are required to determine the most suitable moving coil ammeter to measure the small direct current effectively. 33

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Moving coil ammeter R

Moving coil ammeter S

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Moving coil ammeter T

Moving coil ammeter U

Diagram 12.2 You are required to determine the most suitable moving coil ammeter to measure small direct current effectively. Study the specification of all the four moving coil ammeters based on the following aspects: (i). The shape of the permanent magnet and core [2 marks] (ii). The material of the core [2 marks] (iii) The stiffness of the hair spring [ 2 marks] (iv) The type of scale of the ammeter [2 marks]
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Explain the suitability of each aspect and then determine the most suitable moving coil ammeter. Give a reason for your choice. [2 marks] Question 12 [Electromagnetism] The transmission of electricity over the National Grid Network uses high voltage cables. You are assigned to study the characteristics of cables which could be used as transmission cable. Table 7 shows the characteristics of four transmission cables.

Cable

Resistivity /Ωm-1

Density / kg m-3

Rate of oxidation Low Low High Medium

Rate of thermal expansion High Low Medium High

P Q R S

3.0 x l0-7 1.8 x l0-8 7.5 x l0-7 7.0 x l0-8

5 x l05 2 x l03 8 x l02 4 x l03

Table 7 Based on the table 7; (i) (ii) Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the cables to be used as transmission cable. Determine the most suitable transmission cable to be used and give reasons for your choice. [10 marks]

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Question 13 [Electronic/electromagnetism] You are asked to investigate the design and the characteristics of four alternating current generators shown in Table 8. Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the alternating current generators and determine the alternating current generator which can supply a large direct current to an electrical component X shown in Diagram 8.

x

Diagram 8 Density of the coil / kg m–3 9200 Frequency of rotation Rectification circuit

Generator

G

High

H

11600

Medium

I

8960

High

J

10500

Medium

[10 marks]

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Question 14 [Electronic] As a research engineer in a factory, you are asked to investigate the characteristics of several substances in order to produce p-type or n-type to produce semiconductor diode. Table 9 shows the characteristics of five semiconductors P, Q, R, S and T Electron Valens of intrinsic semiconductor 5 4 3 5 4 Table 9 Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the semiconductor P, Q, R, S and T to be used in the production of a semiconductor diode. Give reasons for your choice Which type of intrinsic semiconductor below is the most suitable to be used. Give your reason for your answer. Type of intrinsic semiconductor Silicon Germanium [ 10 marks] Size of the doping atom compared with the size of the atom relative to intrinsic semiconductor atom Big Small Small Almost the same Almost the same

Semiconductor

Electron Valens of doping substance 2 5 4 2 3

P Q R S T

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Question 15 [Radioactivity] As a researcher, you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of radioactive substances with to be used for the treatment of cancer. Table 10 shows radioactive rays directed towards the cancer cells in a patient’s brain. Radioactive J K L M Type of radiation Beta Gamma Gamma Beta Half-life 6 hours 1620 years 5 years 15 days Table 10 (i) Based on Table 10, explain the suitable properties of the radioactive substances for use to kill cancer cells in patients brains. (ii) Determine which radioactive substance is the most suitable for the treatment of cancer cells in a patient and give your reasons. [10 marks] State of matter Liquid Solid Solid Liquid Ionizing power High Low Low High

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SECTION V– CONCEPTUALIZATION (Paper 2 Section A – Question 5/6; Section B )
Question 1 [Force and Pressure] Diagram 1(a) and Diagram 1(b) show two solid spheres A and B with different density placed in the water.

Diagram 1(a)

Diagram 1 (b)

Based on Diagram 1(a) and Diagram 1(b), (i) compare the density of sphere A and sphere B. (ii) compare the weight of sphere A and sphere B (iii) compare the weight of water displaced by sphere A and sphere B (iv) relate the weight of sphere and the weight of water displaced (v) relate the weight of water displaced and upthrust [ 1 mark ] Question 2 [Force and Pressure]

[ 1 mark ] [ 1 mark ] [ 1 mark ] [ 1 mark ]

A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river, although the boat carries the same load. The density of sea water and river water is 1025 kg m-3 and 1000 kg m-3 respectively. In the sea In the river

DIAGRAM 2(a)

DIAGRAM 2(b)

Diagram 2(a) and Diagram 2(b) illustrate the situation of the boat in the sea and in the river. (a) What is meant by density? (b) Based on Diagram 2(a) and Diagram 2(b) (i) Compare the level of the boat in the sea water and in the river water. (ii) Compare the volume of water displaced by the boat in the sea and in the river. (iii) Compare the density of sea water and river w (c) (i) Relate the volume of water displaced to the density of water. (ii) Deduce relationship between weight of the boat and the weight of the water displaced. (d) Name the physics principle that explains the situation above.

[1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark]

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Question 3 [Heat] Diagram 3(a) shows a balloon filled with air attached to a test tube before and after the test tube is heated. Diagram 3(b) shows a pingpong ball before and after it is poured with boiled water.

(i) Diagram 3(a)

(ii)

(i) Diagram 3(b)

(ii)

Observe Diagram 3(a) and Diagram 3(b).State two similarities about the air inside the balloon and ping pong ball. [2 marks] (ii) Compare the mass of air in Diagram 3(a)(i) with Diagram 3(a)(ii); and Diagram 3(b)(i) with Diagram 3(b)(ii). [1 mark] (b) (i) Based on your observation in Diagram 3(a) and Diagram 3(b), state the relationship between the physical quantities in (a) (i). [1 mark] (ii) Name physics law involved in (b)(i). [1 mark] (iii) Using observation in Diagram 3(a) and Diagram 3(b), explain the physics law stated in b(ii) using kinetic theory of matter. [3 marks]

(a) (i)

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Question 4 [Wave] Diagram 4.1 shows the pattern of the water wave after passing through a gap. The experiment was repeated with different wavelength of waterpassing through the same gap. The wave pattern is as shown in Diagram 4.2.

Diagram 4.1

Diagram 4.2

(a) (b)

What is wavelength? Based on Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2, compare (i) the wavelength before passing through the gap (ii) the wavelength before and after passing through the gap

[1 mark ]

(c)

[2 marks] Compare the wave pattern in Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2 after the wave passed through the gap. [1 mark] Based on your answers in ( b) and (c), state the relationship between the wavelength and the wave pattern after passing through the gap. [1 mark] Name the wave phenomenon which occurs in Diagrams 4.1 and 4.2. [1 mark]

(d) (e)

Question 5 [Electromagnetism] Diagram 5.1 shows a bar magnet with northpole at point P and Diagram 5.2 shows a bar magnet with south pole at point Q which are moved towards the solenoid to produce current.

DIAGRAM 5.1

DIAGRAM 5.2

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a) b) Observe the diagrams and state two differences between them. [2 marks]

What is the polarity of the solenoid at point P and Q when the magnet is moved towards the solenoid? P : …………………………… Q : ………………………… [2 marks] What is the relationship between the number of turns and the magnitude of induced current? [1mark] Name the law involved in (c). [1mark]

c) d)

e) f)

Suggest another method to increase the deflection of the pointer. State an instrument that uses the application of induced current.

[1mark] [1mark]

Question 6 [Force and Motion] Diagrams 6.1 and 6.2 show a load is being lift up.

Ground Diagram 6.1 (a) (b)

Ground Diagram 6.2 [1mark]

What is gravitational potential energy? Based on Diagrams 6.1 and 6.2 , compare the position of the loadafter being lifted up, the gravitational potential energy and the work done. State the relationship between the position of the load and the work done in lifting the load. The gravitational potential energy and the work done

[5marks]

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Question 7 [Force and Motion] Diagram 7shows a 50 sen coin and a leaf falling in a vacuum container. The coin is heavier than the leaf.

Diagram 7 Using the diagram shown and the information given about the weight of the two objects, compare the mass of the coin and the leaf, the time taken to fall, the falling position of the coin and the leaf,the gravitational acceleration of the coins and the leaf. Deduce the relationship between the mass and the gravitational acceleration of falling object. [5 marks] Question 8 [Force and Pressure] Diagram 8(a), Diagram 8(b) and Diagram 8(c) show a rock being hung on a spring balance in the air, immersed in water and cooking oil respectively. The reading of the spring balance for each situation is as shown in Diagram 8.

Diagram 8 Using Diagram 8(a), Diagram 8(b) and Diagram 8(c), compare the spring balance reading, the weight lost of the rock and the density of the water and the cooking oil. Relate the weight lost and the density to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks]

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Question 9 [Force and Pressure] Diagram 9(a) shows a hot air balloon carry up the loads at a certain height in the morning and Diagram 9(b) shows the same hot air balloon carry up the loads at a certain height in the afternoon. The hot air balloon used helium gas at the same temperature in both situations.

Diagram 9 Using Diagrams 9(a) and 9(b), compare the density of the air, the load that can be carried up by the hot air balloon and the height of the hot air balloon from the ground. Relate the buoyant force with the density of the air to make a deduction regarding the relationship between the density of the air and the weight of the load carried by the hot air balloon. [5 marks] Question 10 [Force and Pressure] Diagram10.1, Diagram10.2and Diagram10.3 show a fisherman pulling the fishing net out of the river. In Diagram10.1, the fisherman finds it easy to pull up the fishing net while most of the fish is in the water. However as more and more of the net is out of the water it gets harder to pull up the net as shown in Diagrams10.2 and 10.3.

Diagram 10.1

Diagram 10.2

Diagram 10.3

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Using Diagrams10.1, 10.2 and 10.3, compare the mass of the fishand the volume of the fishing net immersed in the water. Relate the weight of water displaced with the amount of force required to lift the net and the buoyant force, and deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks]

Question 11 [Light] Diagram 11(a) and Diagram 11(b) show two rectangular glass blocks with different optical density and refractive index. Ray of light is directed toward the glass blocks with the same angle of incidence 30°.

Density = 2600 kgm-3 Diagram 11(a)

Density = 2670 kgm-3 Diagram 11(b)

Based on Diagram 11(a) and Diagram 11(b), compare the density, the refractive index and the angle of refraction of the glass blocks. Relate - the angle of refraction, r and the density of the glass blocks. - relate the angle of refraction, r and the refractive index of the glass blocks [5 marks] Question 12 [Light] Diagram 12.1 and Diagram 12.2 show the parallel rays of light directed towards the convex lenses J and K. Both the lenses produce real images. F is the focal point for each lens.

DIAGRAM 12.1

DIAGRAM 12.2

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With reference to Diagram 12.1 and Diagram 12.2, compare the thickness of the lenses, the effects it has on the refracted rays, and the focal length of the lens.Relate the thickness of the lens with the effect on the refracted ray, to deduce a relationship between the thickness of the lens and the focal length. [5 marks] Question 13 [Wave] Diagram 13.1 (a) and Diagram 13.2(a) show the apparatus set-up for a Young’s double-slit experiment, to determine the wavelength of a monochromatic light. Diagram 13.1(b) and Diagram 13.2(b) show the fringes formed on the screen for each situation.

Using the diagrams given, compare the distance between the double-slit and the screen, the distance between two successive bright fringes, the number of fringes and the width of fringes. Deduce the relationship between the distance between the double-slit and the screen, and the distance between two successive bright fringes. [5 marks] Question 14 [Waves] Diagram 14(a) and 14(b) show vibration of different thickness of guitar string.

Diagram 14(a)

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Diagram 14(b) When microphone is used to detect the sound waves of each guitar string, the traces displayed on the oscilloscopes as shown in the diagrams. (i) Using Diagram 14(a) and 14(b), compare the number of oscillations, amplitude of wave and diameter of Guitar string. (ii) State the relationship between the frequency of sound wave and -diameter of the string -pitch of the sound [5 marks] Question 15 [Electricity] Diagram 15.1 and 15.2 show two identical resistors with resistance R connected to the ammeter, voltmeter, switch and batteries in different ways.

DIAGRAM 15.1

DIAGRAM 15.2 DIAGRAM 11.2

When the switch is on, the ammeter and the voltmeter show a reading. Based on Diagram 15.1 and Diagram 15.2, compare the type of circuit connection, the reading of ammeter, the reading of voltmeter and the effective resistance of the circuit. Relate the current flows in a circuit with the effective resistance to make a deduction regarding the relationship between type of a circuit connection and the effective resistance. [6 marks]

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Question 16 [Electromagnetism] Diagram 16(a) and Diagram 16(b) show the relative motion between the magnet and solenoid. The ends of the coils are connected to a zero centre galvanometer.

Diagram 16(a)

Diagram 16(b)

Using Diagram 16(a) and Diagram 16(b), (i) compare the direction of the movement of the magnet (ii) compare the deflection of the galvanometer pointer (iii) Relate the movement of the magnet, the polarity at the top of the coil and the force acting on the magnet to explain a relevant physics law. [5 marks] Question 17 [Electronics] Diagram 17.1 and Diagram 17.2 show a bulb is connected to a diode and a dry cell.

Diagram 17.1

Diagram 17.2

Observe Diagram 17.1 and Diagram 17.2. Compare the condition of the two bulbs, the connection of the diode. Relate the diode connection with the condition of the bulbs, and the current flow through the diode

Deduce a relevant physics concept. [ 4 marks]

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Question 18 [Radioactivity] Table 18.1 shows a reaction equation and the total mass of atom before and after nuclear fission. Nuclear Fission Before Reaction Chemical Equation Total mass of atom 240.06082 a.m.u TABLE 18.1 239.85830 a.m.u After Reaction

Table 18.2 shows reaction equation and the total mass of atom before and after nuclear fusion. Nuclear Fusion Before reaction Chemical Equation Total mass of atom 5.03013 a.m.u TABLE 18.2 5.01043 a.m.u After reaction

Using the information in Table 18.1 and 18.2 only, compare the process of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion,total mass of atombefore and after the reaction, and then relate the relationship between mass and energy released. [ 5 marks ] Question 19 [Radioactivity] Diagram 19(a) and Diagram 19(b) show the activities of two radioactive sources P and Q.

DIAGRAM 19(a)

DIAGRAM 19(b)

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Based on Diagram 19(a) and Diagram 19(b), (i) State common characteristic of - the shape of the graph - the time taken for the activities of radioactive sources P and Q to become half of its initial value. [2 marks] (ii) determine the time taken for the activity of radioactive sources P and Q to become half of its initial value. [2 marks] Name the physical quantity for the activity of a radioactive source tobecome half of its initial value. [1 mark]

(iii)

SECTION VI – PROBLEM SOLVING [QUALITATIVE] (Paper 2 Section A: Question 7; Section B Question 9/10 )
Question 1 [ Introduction In Physics] You are required to give some suggestions to design an efficient alcohol thermometer to be used in physics research expedition at North Pole. Using your knowledge about heat and properties of materials, explain how to build a thermometer which can function effectively based on the following aspects: (i) Strength of thermometer (ii) Sensitivity of thermometer (iii) Design of the thermometer so that the scale can easily be read (iv) Freezing point of the liquid (v) Thickness of the glass bulb’s wall [10 marks] Question 2 [ Forces and Motion] Diagram below shows a rocket.

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You are required to give some suggestions to design a rocket which can travel in the outer space with higher acceleration. Using the knowledge on forces and motion and the properties of materials, explain the suggestions based on the following aspects: (i) the shape of the rocket (ii) the material used to build the rocket (iii) additional supply needed that enable the rocket to move in outer space (iv) the structure of the rocket to accelerate. (v) size of the combustion chamber [10 marks] Question 3 [ Forces and Motion] Diagram below shows an athlete throwing a javelin

Using appropriate physics concepts, explain the use of suitable equipment and techniques to improve his performance. Your answer should include following aspects: (i) Characteristics of material used for javelin (ii) Shape of javelin (iii) Motion of the athlete (iv) How the javelin should be thrown [10 marks] Question 4 [ Forces and Motion] Diagram 9.3 shows a badminton player in a competition. .

Shuttle/ Bulutangkis Racquet / Raket

Diagram 9.3 / Rajah 9.3
You are required to give some suggestions to design the shuttle and racquet used in the competition. Using your knowledge of motion, forces and properties of material, state and explain the suggestions based on the following aspects: (i) Shape of the shuttle. (ii) Characteristic of the material used for shuttle.

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(iii) Material used for the base of the shuttle. (iv) Material used for the string of the racquet. (v) Tension of the string of the racquet. [10 marks] Question 5 [ Forces and Pressure] The manager of a carnival near your home seeks your advice on handling a hot air balloon. The balloon should be able to rise to about the height of a five-storey building, carry up to three people and can be brought down to the same spot after a certain time.

Explain your suggestion taking into account: (i) Size of the envelope (ii) Characteristic of the materials used for the envelope (iii) Equipment required to rise up the balloon. (iv) Characteristics of the material used for the basket, (v) the best times in a day to launch the balloon [10 marks]

Question 6 [ Heat] Diagram below shows food being fried in a wok of cooking oil

Suggest and explain how the food to be fried can be cooked in a short time based on the following aspects of material of the wok and the cooking oil. a. Material of the wok

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(i) Specific heat capacity (ii) Thermal conductivity (iii) Melting point b. Cooking oil (i) Specific heat capacity (ii) Boiling point [10 marks] Question 7 [ Heat] A family is having a picnic at Port Dickson beach. A container is used to stor the packet drinks as shown in diagram below.

Use appropriate concepts in physics, explain the modifications required to the above container so as to effectively cool packet drinks in a shorter time and keep the packet drinks remain cold for a longer period. State and explain the suggestion based on the following aspects: (i) Materials added in the container (ii) Specific heat capacity of the container (iii) Colour of the container (iv) Characteristics of the material used for the container. [10 marks] Question 8 [ Heat/Light] Diagram below shows a simple solar tank as a water heater

Using appropriate physics concept, explain the modifications that can be used to make a solar efficient. Your answer should include the following aspects: (i) Type of mirror

more

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(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Radius of curvature Color of the tank wall Specific heat capacity and other suitable aspect Size of the mirror [10 marks] Question 9 [ Light ] Diagram 9.3 shows two cars, R and S , travelling in the opposite directions, passing through a sharp band. A mirror is placed at X .

Diagram 9.3 Using the knowledge on reflection of light, explain your choice of mirror to help the driver to see an approaching car based on the following aspect: (i) the type of mirror (ii) the diameter of the mirror (iii) the characteristics of material used for the mirror (iv) the thickness of the mirror (v) The position of the mirror [10 marks]

Question 10 [ Waves] Diagram 10.3, shows the location of housing area. The residents of housing area at P receive clearer television signal compare to the residents of housing area at Q where it is located behind the hill.

Broadcasting station Housing area Q

Transmitter

Housing area P

Hill

Diagram 10.3

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As a researcher, you are required to give suggestions about the modifications of transmission television signal from broadcasting station so that the residents of housing area at Q are enable to receive better signal. State and explain the modification based on the following aspects: (i) the frequency of the signals (ii) the location of the transmitter (iii) the number of the transmitter (iv) the strength of the signals (v) the distance between two transmitters [10 marks]

Question 11 [ Electricity] Diagram 4 shows the lamps in a domestic lightning circuit are connected in parallel.

Diagram4 The circuit is not complete and not efficient for electrical energy consuming and less safety. Suggest modifications that need to be done to the circuit to improve safety, produce the lamps lights up with normal brightness and to increases the efficiency of electrical energy consuming. State and explain the modification based on the following aspects: (i) switch (ii) connection between bulb C and D (iii) suitable voltage for the bulb (iv) safety aspect (v) suitable device to be connected to bulb B. [10 marks] Question 12 [ Electromagnets] Diagram below shows a cross section of a simple seismometer which is used to detect the earth motion and then convert it into the electrical signals.

Diagram 6

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You are required to give suggestions to design the seismometer which can work efficiently. Using your knowledge, explain the suggestion based on the following aspects; (i) the stiffness of the spring (ii) density of the load (iii) the shape of the magnet (iv) the type of the electrical coil (v) how it is used to detect small motion [10 marks] Question 13 [ Electronics] Diagram 8 shows a control circuit for a simple fire alarm system.

Diagram 8 You are required to give suggestions to design the circuit so that it can switch on the transistor and sound an alarm when either one of the sensors gets hot. State and explain the suggestions based on the following aspects: (i) The type of gate X (ii) Component used to detect heat and it position (iii) The position of the alarm. (iv) The use of extra components in the circuit and its positions to switch on the 240 V, 12 W alarm. [10 marks] Question 14 [ Electronics] Diagram below shows a shadow is formed on fluorescent screen of the Maltase cross tube.

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Maltase cross tube in Diagram 10.3 is not suitable for measuring the frequency of the sound waves. Suggest modifications that can be made to the Maltase cross tube in Diagram 10.3 to transform it into Cathode Ray Oscilloscope that can measure the frequency of the sound waves. In your suggestions, state the components that are used and their functions based on the following aspects: (i) the electron gun (ii) the deflection system [10 marks] Question 15 [ Radioactive]

Diagram 10.3 shows a radioactive source is handled by a scientist. The method shown is not safe. Suggest and explain; (i) The equipment to be used in handling a radioactive source. (ii) Modifications to the storing method to ensure safe keeping of the radioactive source. (iii) Other precautions that need to be taken when handling a radioactive source. [ 10 marks ]

SECTION VII– PROBLEM SOLVING [QUANTITATIVE] (Paper 2 Section C Question 11/12 )
1. (i) A toy car of mass 1.5 kg is moving at a constant velocity of 40 ms-1 collides with a wall and bounce back at a velocity of 35 ms-1. What is the impulse applied on the car?

(ii) If the time of collision between the toy car and the wall takes 0.8 s, what is the impulsive force applied on the toy car? 2. Diagram shows a car is moving with a constant velocity when the engine provides a thrust of 900 N. The car is then accelerates at 2 m s-2. The total mass of the car is 1 000 kg.

900 N

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(i) (ii) 3. What is the frictional force between the tyre& the road? What is the force exerted by the engine when the car accelerates at 2 m s -2 ?

A racing bike of mass 202 kg accelerates from rest to its velocity of18 kmh -1 in 10 s. (i) Calculate the acceleration of the racing bike. (ii) Calculate the force acting on the racing bike. Justin conducted an experiment to prove Hooke’s Law. The observation is plotted as the graph shown below.

4.

(i) (ii)

Calculate the spring constant of spring P and spring Q. Calculate the work done by spring P to extend the spring to 10 cm.

5.

Diagram shows a boat which has a safety limit line, L. The volume of the boat under the line L is 4 m 3. The mass of the boat is 250 kg. (Density of water = 1 000kgm-3 )

L

(i) (ii)

Calculate the volume of water displaced by the boat. What is the mass of the maximum load that can be carried safely by the boat?

6.

An aircraft has a mass of 800 kg and the surface area of its wing is 40 m2. (i) If the air pressure below the wing is greater than the air pressure above the wing by 500 Nm-2 , calculate the force exerted on the wing. (ii) Determine the resultant force exerted on the wing of the aircraft. State the direction of the resultant force. (iii) Calculate the vertical acceleration of the aircraft.

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7. Diagram shows a hydraulic jack with a cross sectional area of the smaller piston is 0.2 m2 and the larger piston is 1.2 m2. (i) If a force of 6N is exerted on the smaller piston, what is the output force acted on the larger piston? (ii) If the smaller piston moves downward by 1.2 cm, what is the distance moved by the larger piston?

8.

The weight of the boat is 15 000 N. The maximum volume of water that can be displaced by the boat is 2.0 m3. (i) Calculate the buoyant force exerted on the boat. [Density of the sea water is 1020 kgm-3] (ii) A heavy box is put on the boat. Calculate the maximum weight of the box so that the boat will not sink.

9.

0.004 m3 of cooking oil was heated by using electric deep fryer of power rating 240V , 2500W. The temperature of the oil rises from 30°C to 160 °C. Assuming all the electrical energy was used to increase the temperature of oil only and no heat loss to the surrounding. Calculate: (i) mass of the cooking oil (ii) the time taken to heat the cooking oil.

.

[Specific heat capacity of oil is 2000J kg–1 °C–1. Density of oil is 800 kg m-3]

10.

An object is placed at a distance of 20 cm from a concave lens of focal length 15 cm. (i) (ii) (iii) Calculate the image distance Calculate the magnification of the image State the characteristics of the image formed.

11.

A student is using a magnifying glass with focal length of 5 cm to observe a small ant at a distance of 2 cm. (i) Calculate the image distance. (ii) Determine the linear magnification of the image of the ant.

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12. Diagram shows three light rays from a point O travelling in a glass block towards points X, Y and Z. The refractive index of the glass block is 1.5.

 X Y Z

30oα

50o

β

O Calculate the angle (i) ϴ (ii) (iii) β

13.

A wooden bar P vibrates on a water surface of a ripple tank at a frequency of 5 Hz. The water wave produced is shown in the diagram below.

(i) (ii) (iii)

The distance between three consecutive crests is 8.0 cm. What is the wavelength, λ, of the water wave? What is the frequency of the water wave? Calculate the speed of the water wave in the ripple tank.

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14. Diagram shows a U-shaped soft iron core is wound with insulated copper wire PQ and RS. An a.c. supply of 240 V is connected at the ends of PQ and a bulb of 12V, 60W is connected at the ends of RS.

(i) (ii) (iii)

If the bulb lights up with normal brightness, determine the ratio of the number of turns in the coil PQ to the number of turns in the coil RS. Calculate the output current. If the efficiency of the transformer is 80%, calculate the current in the primary coil.

15.

A potential difference of 3 kV is applied across the cathode and anode of an electron gun. Calculate the maximum velocity of the electron produced. Given the charge of an electron, e = 1.6 x 10-19 C, mass of an electron, m = 9.0 x 10-31 kg.

16.

A cup of milk is contaminated with iodine-131. The half-life of iodine-131 is 8 days. Iodine-131 is no longer a threat once its activity decay to one-eighth of its original activity. After how many days will the milk be safe to drink? (ii) The initial mass of a sample of iodine-131 is 20 mg. How much of iodine-131 will remain after 32 days? (i)

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SECTION VIII A – Paper 3 Section A
1 A student carries out an experiment to study the relationship between the angle of incidence, i, and the angle of refraction, r, when a light ray passes from air to a semicircular glass block. The apparatus set-up for this experiment is shown in Diagram 1.1.

Refracted ray Glass block

r

Incident ray i

Ray box

Diagram 1.1

The ray box is adjusted so that a ray of light enters the semicircular glass block at an angle of incidence, i = 15o.The angle of refraction, r, is measured with a protractor.The experiment is repeated with angles of incidence, i = 30o, 45o, 60o and 75o. The corresponding measurements made by the protractor are shown in Diagrams 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6.

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i = 15o sini = …………

15o
r = ……….

sinr = …………

Diagram 1.2

Diagram 1.3

i = 30o sini = ………… r = ………. sinr = ………… 30o

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i = 45o sini = ………… r = ……….

45o

sinr = …………

Diagram 1.4

i = 60o Diagram 1.5 sini = ………… r = ……….

60o

sinr = …………

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i = 75o sini = ………… r = ………. sinr = …………
(a) Diagram 1.6

75o

For the experiment identify: (i) The manipulated variable [1 mark] (ii) (iii) The responding variable [1 mark] The constant variable [1 mark]

(b)

For this part of the question, write your answers in the spaces provided in the corresponding diagrams. Based on Diagrams 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6: (i) Record the readings, r, of the protractor. [2 marks] (ii) (iii) For each value of i, calculate and record the value of sin i. [1 mark] Calculate sin r for each value of r in 1(b)(i). Record the value of sin r. [2 marks]

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(c) Tabulate your results for all values of i, sin i and sin r in the space below.

[2 marks] (d) On the graph paper provided, plot a graph of sin i against sin r. [5 marks] (e) Based on your graph in 1(d), state the relationship between sin i and sin r. [1 mark]

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Graph of sin i against sin r

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2 A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between displacement, d and time, t of an object. The result of the experiment is shown in the graph of d against t, as in Diagram 3.1. (a) Based on the graph in Diagram 3.1, (i) state the relationship between d and t [1 mark ] (ii) determine the value of d when t = 0.4 s. Show on the graph, how you determine the value of d. d= [2 marks] (b) The acceleration, a, of the object and time, t, are linked mathematically by the equation a= 2m t where m is the gradient of the graph. (i) Calculate the gradient, m, when t = 0.5 s. Show on the graph how you determine m. m= [4 marks] (ii) Calculate the value of a when the time t = 0.5 s. a=

[2 marks] The gradient of the graph, m, represents one physical quantity. (i) Name the physical quantity that represents the value of m [1 mark] (ii) State how the physical quantity in (c) (i) varies with time. [1 mark] (d) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the results of this experiment. [1 mark]

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SECTION VIII B– EXPERIMENT (Paper 3 Section B)
Based on the diagrams in Questions 1- 15, (a) (b) (c ) makeone suitable inference .

stateone appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. describe how you would design an experiment to test your hypothesis In your explanation, state clearly the following : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) The aim of the experiment The variables in the experiment The list of apparatus and materials The arrangement of the apparatus the procedures of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable (vi) the way you would tabulate the data (vii) the way you would analyse the data

No.

Situation Diagram 1(a) and Diagram 1(b) show a woman is taking a ride in two different cars. In Diagram 1(a), when the car just departs, she experiences a pushing force, F from the seat and the car moves from rest to 25 m s-1 in 10 s. In Diagram 1(b), when she is riding a race car with more powerful engine, she experiences a greater force and the car moves to a higher speed from rest in the same period.

Q1

Diagram 1(a)

Diagram 1(b)

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No. Situation

Diagram 2(a) and 2(b) show a car and a motorbike of different masses. It is observed that if the car takes up same power to produce same force as the motorbike, the car has lower acceleration than the motorbike.

Q2

Diagram 2(a)

Diagram 2(b)

Diagram 3(a) shows the position of the driver when a moving car of 80 km h-1 stops suddenly. Diagram 3(b) shows the position of the driver when a moving car of 120 km h-1 stops suddenly.

Q3

Diagram 3 (a)

Diagram 3(b)

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No. Situation

Diagrams 3.1 and Diagram 3.2 show a launching mechanism of a toy gun consist of a spring. It is observed that when the spring is compressed and the gun fired vertically, the gun launch the projectile from rest to a different maximum height.

Q4

Diagram 5 shows a lady and a man walking on a wooden floor. It is observed that the lady that wearing high heel can damage a wooden floor badly but not a man (heavier) that wearing snickers.

Q5

Diagram 5

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No. Situation Diagram 6 (a) and 6(b) show a diver swimming in the sea water. The diver experiences more discomfort to his body and ear in Diagram 6 (b)

Q6

Diagram 6(a)

Diagram 6(b)

Diagram 7(a) shows a device used to transmit thermal energy. The fins absorb energy from the sun and the pipe transmits the energy along its length into 25 oC of cold water in a tank until it reaches 50oC. It is observed that the time taken, t to increase the temperature in Diagram 3.1 is more than that in Diagram 3.2. Energy from the sun Q7 Energy from the sun

1 m3 water tank
glass fin Diagram 7(a) t = 30 minutes copper fin Diagram 7(b) t = 10 minutes

1 m3 water tank

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No. Situation

Diagram 8.1 and 8.2 show two pots of different size filled with boiling water. It is observed that the temperature of the water in Diagram 4.1 drops at a faster rate than in Diagram 4.2.

Q8

Diagram 8.1

Diagram 8.2

Amira is out on a hot summer day and purchase a few balloons. When she gets home, she decides to leave a couple outside in the hot air and bring the rest into her air-conditioned room. She notice that the balloons inside and the balloons outside are slightly different shapes and sizes.

Q9

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No. Situation

Diagram 10 (a) and 10 (b) show a pencil is placed in front of the lens. The image of the pencil is formed when light moving through the convex lens

Diagram10(a)

Q10

Diagram 10(b)

Diagram 11 (a) and11 (b)below show the fringes produced when red and blue monochromatic light sourceswere used.

Q11 Diagram 11(a)

Diagram 11 (b)

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No. Situation

Diagram 12 shows a guitar. It is observed that if one of the guitar strings is plucked with bigger displacement, the sound heard is louder.

Q12

Diagram 12

Diagram 13(a) and 13(b) show 2 identical light bulbs when the light bulbs are connected to a 6 V of power supply. It is observed that the light bulbs light up at different brightness.

Q13

Diagram 13(a)

Diagram 13(b)

Diagram 14(a) shows a girl is ironing her school uniform. After the iron is switched on for a while, there are still wrinkles on the uniform. Diagram 14b) shows that the wrinkles are gone when the temperature control knob as shown in figure 14(c) on the iron is turned.

Q14

Diagram 14(a)

Diagram 14(b)

Diagram 14(c)

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No. Situation Diagram 15 (a) and Diagram 15(b) show two electric bells. It is observed that when the number of dry cell used is changed, , the hammer in Diagram 15(a) strikes the gong faster compared to the hammer in Diagram 15(b).

Q15

END OF MODULE

“Recipe for success: Study while others are sleeping; Work while others are loafing; Prepare while others are playing; and...... Dream while others are wishing...”
 William A.Ward 

We wish all of you “The Very Best of Luck in Your SPM 2012 May God be with you always and give you peace of mind” From: SBP Physics Teachers, September 2012 

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