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“…humic substances might influence planktonic food chains in lakes in 2 ways: (i) by altering the physical and chemical environment and thus modifying autotrophic primary production and the dependent food web and (ii) by acting as a direct carbon and/or energy source to the food web” (Steinberg et al. 2006. Dissolved humic substances – ecological driving forces from the individual to the ecosystem level? Freshwater Biology 51: 1189-1210.) “DOC influences lake plankton metabolism through physical, chemical, and biological processes: humic DOC affects the underwater light climate by reducing the depth of the trophogenic layer and competes with phytoplankton for light. DOC has also been shown to scavenge limiting nutrients, including Fe and other micronutrients, from the water. These physical and chemical processes may depress primary production. At the same time, DOC can also serve as a carbon source for bacteria and indirectly for other heterotrophic components of the plankton, so DOC should contribute to plankton community respiration. Jones reviewed these processes and hypothesized that planktonic P:R ratios should generally increase with trophy in lakes and that, at comparable nutrient or chlorophyll concentrations, colored lakes should have lower P:R ratios than clear-water lakes.” (del Giorgio, P.A., R.H. Peters. 1994. Patterns in planktonic P:R ratios in lakes: Influence of lake trophy and dissolved organic carbon. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39: 772-787.) “Phytoplankton productivity in lakes, estuaries and oceans plays an essential role in element cycling and food supply to heterotrophs.” (Oduor, S.O., and M. Schagerl. 2007. Phytoplankton primary productivity characteristics in response to photosynthetically active radiation in three Kenyan Rift Valley saline- alkaline lakes. Journal Of Plankton Research 29: 1041-1050.) “Primary production by phytoplankton, the base of the food web in aquatic systems, regulates energy availability to higher trophic levels as well as carbon and oxygen fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere.” (Forget, M.-H. et al. 2007. Extraction of photosynthesis-irradiance parameters from phytoplankton production data: demonstration in various aquatic systems. Journal Of Plankton Research 29: 249-262.) Note: I copied from the papers so please write this info. in your own words if you are using it.
I have a few other papers, but I haven't read them yet, as they sort of repeat what those are saying. I also copied the papers, so change the wording! · Carignan, R., D. Planas and C. Vis. 2000. Planktonic production and respiration in oligotrophic Shield lakes. Limnology Oceanography 45(1): 189-199. o Balance between production and resipiration lies at the basis of our understanding of carbon flow and food web structure in marine and freshwater ecosystems ▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪ Photosynthesis exceeds total planktonic respiration: are net autotrophic, they are net sinks for CO2 and net producers of O2 and organic matter ▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪ Conversely, P < R, net heterotrophic, net sources of CO2 and net consumers of organic carbon
▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪ Several studies have suggested that respiration systematically exceeds photosynthesis in the epilimnion of oligotrophic lakes, estuaries, and oceans (Sorokin 1971; Findlay et al. 1992; del Giorgio and Peters 1993, 1994; Coveney and Wetzel 1995; del Giorgio et al. 1997; Duarte and Agusti 1998). ▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪ Ideally, gross photosynthesis and community respiration should be compared by measuring the uptake or release of products or substrates common to both reactions (O2, CO2). ▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪ Here, we use high-precision metabolic rate measurements in the epilimion of 12 Canadian Shield lakes to test the heterotrophy hypothesis. We show that in such lakes, gross photosynthesis nearly always exceeds planktonic respiration. ▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪▪ The detection limits for NP and R were 0.7 and 0.5 mgC m23 h21, respectively. Gross photosynthesis during the incubation (GP) was calculated as NP 1 R, assuming equal dark and light algal respiration; the validity of this assumption is not critical to our conclusions since algal respiration is small (5–15%) compared to GP and community respiration (Bidwell 1977; Stone and Ganf 1981). Volumetric (VR) and areal (AR) 24-h community respiration rates were calculated assuming that respiration rates measured on water collected in the morning (R), were representative of the entire day · Carignan, R., A. Blais and C. Vis. 1998. Measurement of primary production and community respiration in oligotrophic lakes using the Winkler method. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 1078-1084.
· Carignan, R., D. Planas and C. Vis. 2000. Planktonic production and respiration in oligotrophic Shield lakes. Limnology Oceanography 45(1): 189-199.= o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /> o Area is underlain by a granitic or anorthosic bedrock covered by 1-5 m of glacial tills o Soils are mostly Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol (Canadian classification) o Catchments are forested (>95%) primarly with sugar maple (Acer saccharum, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) beech (Fagus grandifolia, and poplar (Populus tremuloïdes o Annual precipitations: 1,100 mm per year, 30% falling as snow o = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />Lake Cromwell has relatively high DOC and TP concentrations owing to its large drainage ratio and to the presence of extensive wetlands in its watersheds. o Lakes Cromwell has well-developed (;25% of lake area) macrophyte beds dominated by Nymphea odorata, Nymphoides cordata, Potamogeton sp., and Utricularia vulgaris
LA (km2) Lake area 0.19
45859 9N, 74801 9W
458599 N, 748009 W
CA (km2) catch ment area 0.88
Zm (m) mean depth 0.51
Hydra ulic reside nce time 1.91
Total p (mg per m3) 3.8
Light attenu ation coeffic ient 0.65
o · Carignan, R., A. Blais and C. Vis. 1998. Measurement of primary production and community respiration in oligotrophic lakes using the Winkler method. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 1078-1084. o Altitude 340 m o 70 km north of Montreal o The two lakes exhibit contrasting limnological conditions encountered in unperturbed Shield lakes. Croche Lake is a small (20 ha) headwater seepage lake with a mean depth of 4.8 m, a drainage ratio of 5.1, and a water residence time of 2.3 years. Macrophytes are virtually absent in the lake. Its water chemistry is typical of oligotrophic Shield lakes, with an average total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and dissolved organic carbon of 4 mg?L–1, 1.1 mg?L– 1, and 3.5 mg?L–1, respectively. In contrast, Cromwell Lake (11 ha) has a mean depth of 2.6 m, a large drainage ratio (91), and a much shorter residence time (0.07 years). The lake receives water from two larger lakes (Croche and Pilon) and from several extensive marshes and beaver dams. As a result, Cromwell Lake has higher concentrations of total phosphorus (10 mg?L–1), chlorophyll a (3.8 mg?L–1), and dissolved organic carbon (5.2 mg?L–1); it also has a welldeveloped littoral macrophyte belt dominated by Utricularia vulgaris and Nymphoides cordata. · S o The 21 Laurentian lakes are located in the southeastern part of the Precambrian Shield, 80 km north of Montreal (468N, 748W). The bedrock in this region is mainly gneiss and granite, and it is covered by morainic soils and boreal forests.
A few of the key points from the data... Gross photosynthesis and Humic Content light levels decrease with depth in both lakes; Cromwell - decrease was strongly exponential (R2=0.9767), Croche - decrease was more linear (R2=0.901) gross photosynthesis also decreases with depth in both lakes, probably because of lowered light levels (significant data) gross photosynthesis is lower in the humic lake (Cromwell) probably because the humic content attenuates light (not significant data) gross photosynthesis did not decline any faster in the humic lake than the clear lake (not significant data) - (based on Carignan article) Cromwell appears to have a shallower trophogenic/euphotic zone, probably due to the presence of humic matter Zooplankton and Gross Photosynthesis on average, respiration was higher – and gross photosynthesis was lower – when zooplankton were present i.e. non-fractioned bottles (not significant) the effect of zooplankton seems to be the same in both lakes (significant)
How the results relate to the literature:
A study “ showed that primary productivity was inversely related to total “dissolved” organic carbon and…The results suggest that humic matter depressed primary productivity…” (Jackson, T.A., and R. E. Hecky. 1980. Depression of Primary Productivity by Humic Matter in Lake and Reservoir Waters of the Boreal Forest Zone. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37: 2300-2317.) Arst et al. 2008 Although light attenuation coefficients varied widely between lakes, the difference between primary production was not significant. Observed a decrease in primary production with depth, but most started low, had a peak and then decreased to zero. At low irradiance, maximum was seen at surface and then decreased. The peak primary production is a short distance below surface of water. Carignan et al. 2000 Gross photosynthesis was most at surface, had peak at lower irradiance and decreased with depth to 0. Also observed significant decrease in production with depth. The peak in gross photosynthesis is a short distance below surface of water, with the exception when irradience was low, there was a peak at the surface of the water.
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