TA Kahraman Yumak
ELK412 - Distribution of Electrical Energy Lab. Notes v1.0
Overcurrent and Ground Fault Protection
Announcement: You are not supposed to prepare a pre-report. But there will be an oral examination, so you are strongly advised to study this note regarding to the pre-study questions below. After the lab, you will need to deliver a post-report which contains what you have done in the lab, data, related graphs and answers of the questions.
Pre-Study Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Why do we use relays in the power systems? What are the ANSI/IEEE codes of overcurrent relays? What type of relay is overcurrent relay? What is pick-up current? How can it be selected regarding to fault current and load current? How many types of overcurrent relays are there? What are the differences between the types of overcurrent relays? What is the purpose of using time delay in the overcurrent relays? What are the types of inverse time overcurrent relay? What is meant by time dial setting? How the directionality of current flow can be found in a power system? Which types of overcurrent relays can be used for ground fault protection? What are the meanings of DMT and IDMT?
1. Objective To study the principles of overcurrent and ground fault protection. 2. Theory [1, 2] Relays are used to detect abnormal conditions in the power systems. After detection of a fault, relays close circuit breakers and disconnect faulty circuits from the general supply system in order to minimize the damage. There is a list of ANSI/IEEE codes of different types of protection relays as follows [3, 4]:
ANSI /IEEE Standard Device Numbers
2 - Time Delay Starting or Closing Relay 21 - Distance Relay 25 - Synchronizing or Synchronism-Check Device 27 - Undervoltage Relay 30 - Annunciator Relay 32 - Directional Power Relay 37 - Undercurrent or Underpower Relay 38 - Bearing Protective Device 40 –Field (over/under excitation) Relay 46 – Rev. phase or Phase-Bal. Current Relay 47 - Phase-Seq. or Phase-Bal. Voltage Relay 49 - Machine or Transformer Thermal Relay 50 - Instantaneous Overcurrent 51 - AC Time Overcurrent Relay 59 - Overvoltage Relay 60 - Voltage or Current Balance Relay 63 - Pressure Switch 64 - Ground Detector Relay B – Bus F - Field G – Ground or generator N – Neutral T – Transformer 67 - AC Directional Overcurrent Relay 68 - Blocking or “out of step” Relay 69 - Permissive Control Device 74 - Alarm Relay 76 - DC Overcurrent Relay 78 - Phase-Angle Measuring Relay 79 - AC-Reclosing Relay 81 - Frequency Relay 85 – Pliot Comm., Carrier or Pilot-Wire Relay 86 - Lockout Relay 87 - Differential Protective Relay 94 - Tripping or Trip-Free Relay
(b) Fault current magnitude as a function of fault location. a radial transmission line can be used.1.0
2. or motors.
There are four types of overcurrent relays. transformers. For a fault within the zone of protection.1. Notes v1. generators. This type is applied to the outgoing feeders.
Figure 3.TA Kahraman Yumak
ELK412 .1. Overcurrent protection of transmission lines. inverse time and directional overcurrent relays.
should be selected as:
Ifault Iload max. Characteristic of instantaneous overcurrent relays
. If the minimum fault current possible within the zone of protection is greater than the maximum possible load current. Connection diagram of instantaneous overcurrent relays
Figure 2. As an example. transmission lines. location
Figure 1. 2. instantaneous. i. the fault current is smallest at the end of the line and greatest at the relay end. Overcurrent relays can be used to protect practically any power system elements. trip no fault in zone. it would be possible to define the operating principle as follows:
| | | | fault zone.e. definite time.Distribution of Electrical Energy Lab. Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays Its operation criterion is only current magnitude (without time delay). Overcurrent Protection Overcurrent protection is practical application of magnitude relays since it picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds some value (setting value). do not trip.
where is the current in the relay and
is the pickup setting of the relay. (a) Radial system protection.
2. Modern relays may contain more than one stage of protection each stage includes each own current and time setting. current must exceed the setting value and the fault must be continuous at least a time equal to time setting of the relay. two conditions must be satisfied for operation (tripping). Main protection to outgoing feeders and bus couplers with adjustable time delay setting.TA Kahraman Yumak
ELK412 . very inverse and extremely inverse types.1.2. Characteristic of definite time overcurrent relays
Definite time overcurrent relay is the most applied type of over current. So.
inverse very inverse extremely inverse
Figure 6. Back up protection of distance relay of transmission line with time delay. It is used as: 1. 3.Distribution of Electrical Energy Lab. Connection diagram of definite time overcurrent relay with internal timer
2. Back up protection to differential relay of power transformer with time delay. Inverse Time Overcurrent Relays In this type of relays. Notes v1.3. high current will operate overcurrent relay faster than lower ones.
Figure 5. There are standard inverse. Definite Time Overcurrent Relays In this type.
T3 T2 T1 I1 I2 I3 current
Figure 4. operating time is inversely changed with current. Characteristic of inverse time overcurrent relays
1. Connection diagram of directional overcurrent relay
2. Directional Overcurrent Relays When the power system is not radial (source on one side of the line). Ground Fault Protection Ground fault currents are dependent upon system grounding and they produce zero sequence currents whereas there is very little zero-sequence current during normal operation.4.2. and the slowest is 10. One voltage coil is added in the case of directional ground fault relays. The lowest time dial setting (fastest operating time) is generally 1/2.Distribution of Electrical Energy Lab. Notes v1. The directionality of current flow can be identified using voltage as a reference of direction.0
The operating time of an overcurrent relay can be moved up (made slower) by adjusting the ‘time dial setting’. definite time or inverse time ground fault types. Types of ground fault relays are similar to overcurrent relays but with only one coil for current in the case of instantaneous. Three conditions must be satisfied for its operation: current magnitude. an overcurrent relay may not be able to provide adequate protection. time delay and directionality.TA Kahraman Yumak
ELK412 . A typical commercial time overcurrent relay characteristic
2. This type of relay operates in on direction of current flow and blocks in the opposite direction.
Operating time in seconds
10 8 6 4 3 2
1 1/2 10 Multiples of pickup setting (If/Ip) 40
Time dial setting
. A separate relay responding to the zero sequence current is provided for ground fault protection. Thus the pick-up settings of the ground fault relays can be made more sensitive than those of phase fault relays.
Connection diagram of directional ground fault relay
There are different connection types of current circuits: Current coil may be connected to return path (neutral) of a current transformer Current coil may be connected to the secondary side of current transformer which is installed at the star point of power transformer Current coil may be connected to secondary side of ring type current transformer installed at power cables
Figure 9. Order number is as follows: 7SJ8031-1EB90-1FC1 Order number includes many information about the relay. It can be seen in the catalog of the relay. the overcurrent functions (50. In the relay. measuring inputs. The current threshold and delay set time can be set.TA Kahraman Yumak
ELK412 . such as.Distribution of Electrical Energy Lab. Ground fault relay connected at the neutral point of current transformer
Figure 11. Ground fault relay connected to ring type current transformer
Figure 10. Notes v1. Ground fault relay connected star point of power transformer
Figure 12. three definite time over current (DMT) protection elements are available both for the phase and ground elements. language settings and its functions. Inverse time overcurrent protection characteristics (IDMT) can also be selected and activated. 51) of SIPROTEC Compact 7SJ80 Multifunction Protection Relay will be used. Practical Information In this lab. housing.
. binary inputs and outputs.
Distribution of Electrical Energy Lab. Connection Scheme
SIPROTEC Compact 7SJ80
-S2 190V AC (L-L)
LA N P1 +
F5 F6 F7
C9-NO C10-NC C11-COM
C5 C6 51
-S4 24V DC
Figure 13.TA Kahraman Yumak
ELK412 . Connection scheme of the test set-up
. 5. Only study the connection scheme. Notes v1. you will measure several current values and related time delays in the context of overcurrent protection. Procedure You don’t need to set up any connection. In the lab.0
very inverse and extremely inverse overcurrent relays?
. 1988 IEEE Standard C37. 5. and Contact Designations http://www.uidaho. What do you understand by Primary relay? Secondary relay? Auxiliary relay? 2. Acronyms. 2.edu/ee/power/EE525/Lectures/L9/RelayDeviceNumbers.TA Kahraman Yumak
ELK412 . 2005 Arun G.pdf Catalog of SIPROTEC Compact 7SJ80 Multifunction Protection Relay
7. Thorp. What are the equations of inverse.0
1.ee. Practical Introduction to Power System Protection and Control.Distribution of Electrical Energy Lab. 3. 4. Ahmed Safie Eldin.2-2008 : IEEE Standard for Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers. Questions for the Post-Report 1. James S. What is meant by Pick-up current? Drop out current? Dropout ratio? 3. John Wiley & Sons. Notes v1. Phadke. Computer Relaying for Power Systems.