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Functional Groups of Organic Compounds

Functional Groups of Organic Compounds

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Published by Mark
Illustrates the functional groups of some general organic compounds.
Illustrates the functional groups of some general organic compounds.

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Published by: Mark on Jan 22, 2009
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03/12/2013

Hydrocarbons (Carbon and Hydrogen Compounds) Compound Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Dienes Arenes CH2=CHCH=CH2 Examples

CH3CH3 CH2=CH2 Acceptable Name Ethane Ethene or ethylene Ethyne or acetylene 1,3-Butadiene Benzene (C6H6 ) Characteristic Reactions Free-radical substitution Electrophilic addition Electrophilic addition Electrophilic addition Electrophilic subsitution

Alkenes Alkynes Dienes Arenes Alkyl halides Alkenyl halides Aryl halides

CH2=CH2

Ethene or ethylene Ethyne or acetylene

Electrophilic addition Electrophilic addition Electrophilic addition Electrophilic subsitution CH2=CHCH2 — 2-Propenyl or allyl Nucleophilic subsitution; elimination Electrophilic addition; elimination Electrophilic & nucleophilic aromatic substituion Dehydration; esterification Electrophilic subsitution . | CH3C=O Ethanoyl or acetyl (CH3)3C — (CH3)3CCH2 —

CH3CHCH2CH3 1,1-Dimethylethyl or tert(CH3)2CHCH2 — butyl 2,2-Dimethylpropyl or neopentyl CH2=CH — | CH2=CCH3

butyl 2-Methylpropyl or isobutyl Ethenyl or vinyl 1-Methylvinyl or isopropenyl Phenyl (C6H5 — )

CH2=CHCH=CH2

1,3-Butadiene Benzene (C6H6 )

CH3CH2Cl CH2=CHCl

Chloroethane or ethyl chloride Chloroethene or vinyl chloride Chlorobenzene Ethanol or ethyl alcohol Phenol

C6H5Cl CH3CH2OH C6H5OH

Functional Group Containing Compounds Compound Alkyl halides Alkenyl halides Aryl halides Alcohols Phenols Epoxides Aldehydes Ketone Carboxylic acids Acyl halides Acid anhydrides CH3CHO CH3COCH3 CH3COOH CH3COCl Examples CH3CH2Cl CH2=CHCl C6H5Cl CH3CH2OH C6H5OH Acceptable Name Chloroethane or ethyl chloride Chloroethene or vinyl chloride Chlorobenzene Ethanol or ethyl alcohol Phenol Ethylene oxide or oxirane Ethanal or acetaldehyde 2-Propanone or acetone Ethanoic (acetic) acid Ethanoyl (acetyl) chloride Ethanoic (acetic) anhydride Characteristic Reactions Nucleophilic subsitution; elimination Electrophilic addition; elimination Electrophilic & nucleophilic aromatic substituion Dehydration; esterification Electrophilic subsitution Nucleophilic ring opening Nucleophilic addition to carbonyl Nucleophilic addition to carbonyl Acid ionization; ester formation Nucleophilic acyl subsitution Nucleophilic acyl subsitution

Phenylmethyl or benzyl (C6H5-CH2 — )

Alcohols Phenols Epoxides Aldehydes Ketone Carboxylic acids Acyl halides Acid anhydrides

Benzenecarbonyl or benzoyl (C6H5-CO — )

Ethylene oxide or oxirane Nucleophilic ring opening CH3CHO CH3COCH3 CH3COOH CH3COCl Ethanal or acetaldehyde 2-Propanone or acetone Ethanoic (acetic) acid Ethanoyl (acetyl) chloride Ethanoic (acetic) anhydride Nucleophilic addition to carbonyl Nucleophilic addition to carbonyl Acid ionization; ester formation Nucleophilic acyl subsitution Nucleophilic acyl subsitution Nucleophilic acyl subsitution Nucleophilic acyl subsitution Nitrogen (base) as nucleophile Nucleophilic addition Reduction of nitro to amine Oxidation to acids or disulfides Alkylation or oxidation

Esters

Ethyl ethanoate (acetate) N-Methylethanamide or N-methylacetamide Ethanamine or ethylamine Ethanenitrile or acetonitrile Nitrobenzene Ethanethiol Diethyl sulfide

Amides Amines Nitriles

CH3CONHCH3 CH3CH2NH2 CH3CN C6H5NO2 CH3CH2SH CH3CH2SCH2CH3

Esters

Ethyl ethanoate (acetate)

Nucleophilic acyl subsitution

Nitro comps. Thiols Sulfides

Amides Amines Nitriles Nitro comps. Thiols Sulfides

CH3CONHCH3 CH3CH2NH2 CH3CN C6H5NO2 CH3CH2SH CH3CH2SCH2CH3

N-Methylethanamide or N- Nucleophilic acyl methylacetamide subsitution Ethanamine or ethylamine Nitrogen (base) as nucleophile

Ethanenitrile or acetonitrile Nucleophilic addition Nitrobenzene Ethanethiol Diethyl sulfide Reduction of nitro to amine Oxidation to acids or disulfides Alkylation or oxidation Some Commonly Encountered Groups Group Name Methyl Propyl or n-propyl Group CH3CH2 — (CH3)2CH — | Name Ethyl 1-Methylethyl or isopropyl 1-Methylpropyl or sec-

Organic Compounds, and the Types of Reactions They Undergo Compound Alkanes Examples CH3CH3 Acceptable Name Ethane Characteristic Reactions Free-radical substitution

CH3 — CH3CH2CH2 —

CH3CH2CH2CH2 — Butyl or n-butyl

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