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The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 3. Coping With Stress 7. Time Effectiveness Bibliography 1 13 39 55 59 71 99 139 147 197 . Value Other People’s Time 5.Contents 1. Personal Sense Of Time 4. Theory of Leadership And Followers 8. Principles Of Time Management 2. Committed Time And How To Use It 6. Imagery In Decision Making 9.
Now for having gifted with full 24 hours a day. then time management is very important in your life. You can also keep the list of such time management techniques as a guide to take control of the situations that keep unfolding in your life regularly and take effective decisions. Time is common for all living things in this world and all are equally made to have 24 full hours a day and no one could have even a single minute more. When it comes to various techniques of time management then there are many such techniques that can be made use by you for having an effective control over the flow of events in your daily life. Today the whole world is moving fast and in today’s fast paced life style. Further.1 Principles Of Time Management Time management is one of the important factors that can make one’s life full and well lived. how well we manage our time can be understood only when we analyze or make an effort to study our life patterns. if you want to make out most from your personal as well as official life. time will never wait for anyone. But. it all matters how you are going to use the time at your disposal .
Imagine having the time to get your work done. In many cases. Each new day brings an automatic deposit of 24 hours into our “time . workloads have become swollen by increasingly leaner and meaner companies. is simply a smoke screen concealing inefficiencies and poor work habits. and spending the rest of your day with family or friends. There are fewer positions on company organizational charts. The one universal distribution of equity is time: Everybody on the planet has ownership of 24 hours per day. unforgiving passage of time. yesterday was tomorrow.or 70-hour week.2 Time Management in a more efficient and meaningful manner. No one is immune to the relentless. Nothing is easier than being busy. Consider this: two days from now. Salespeople now have to spend more time in the office distracted from selling by fulfilling administrative obligations. You must appreciate that companies today pay for results. It shows no favoritism. working long hours. Confused? Read it again. and few things are more difficult than being efficient and effective. leaving the office at a reasonable hour. day in and day out. and the average workload of those who remain has been growing. read on. It requires discipline. It’s possible. It marches onward at a rate of 60 minutes every hour. Warning: dates on the calendar are closer than they appear. Or how about this: two days ago. a 60. Companies no longer reward busyness. not the number of hours you work. One important key could be that you should be more effective in handling things or in other words you should be able to complete the job within the allocated time frame so as to gain more time that can be used more effectively for your other activities. We all receive the same allotment. Time is a unique. There are many ways and means to manage time and through such methods you can play a very effective role in your daily life and be successful in your business life and your social life as well. In today’s competitive environment. you’ll see. tomorrow will be yesterday. unrenewable resource.
Like any other investment. The challenge we face is how and where to invest our time equity. unforgiving consequences. Throughout the five principles of time management that follow I share various techniques and suggestions to help streamline your activities. These decisions determine success.Principles Of Time Management 3 account. Anyone who expects to achieve sales success should expect to make a serious commitment to working hard and efficiently. MAXIMIZE YOUR ROT Spending your time wisely starts with paying attention to how you spend it.” We often hear people refer to personal activities in terms of time equity: “How did you spend your weekend?” or “During our trip we spent a lot of time doing .. Use it or lose it. Evaluate your current use of time by breaking down a typical day into hourly increments. The best starting point to a better ROT is to conduct your own time-efficiency study. . Although each day brings a new deposit. each day the entire amount must be withdrawn. We often take it for granted and succumb to its harsh. career path.” Time equity is the essence of a full and complete life. with no balance carried over to tomorrow.” I refer to it as time equity. maximizing their ROT. time produces returns if invested wisely and treated with respect.. and family status. Sales professionals constantly explore investment opportunities for their time. We have to take responsibility for ourselves and consciously appreciate the positive impact time management can have on our lives. Only when you decide to take control of your time will you have the power to stop squandering it. Time cannot think for you. productivity. but it can certainly work for you. The truth is that where we are in life is a direct reflection of how well we have managed our time portfolio—how and where we “spent our time.
even the time you sleep.4 Time Management Be objective. You may need to track a full week or two to get a clear picture of your time usage. Include everything throughout your entire day. They are the administrative aspects of your job such as call reports. The cure comes in the form of personal organization. Obligations are the dutiful responsibilities of your job. Maximize your ROT by doing what you do best. obligations. not activities. the time-wasters will become clear. The next step is to review your time log and classify the activities as time-wasters. quarterly forecasts. They contribute indirectly to your goals. companies today pay for results. they create a false sense of productivity but actually produce few or no results. the process of incorporating structure into your day. selling. Remember. Despite the challenges of limited time coupled with increased responsibilities. moving you closer to your goals. As you become better organized you can streamline your activities. Obligations cannot be overlooked but be cognizant of the negative impact they have on daily productivity. you can be productive by evaluating your current usage of your 24 hours and maximizing ROT. They no longer pay for attendance. Priorities are the activities that contribute significantly to your ROT. and various other required duties. usually performed throughout the day. . You may be in a position to delegate some of your administrative duties to support people (internal customers) within your office. They are directly responsible for your results. expense reports. minimizing the time spent fulfilling obligations. They are necessary yet unimportant activities. allowing you to rethink your activities. activities that distract you and contribute nothing toward your goals. Eliminate them. As you evaluate your current use of time. Usually. they expect results. The danger is that time-wasters are activities performed out of habit. Time-wasters are just that. or priorities.
if you don’t have a good watch. compromising your ROT. KNOW WHAT TIME IT IS If you are like most salespeople. I’m not talking about telling time. The first step is to take control of your entire day by knowing what time it is.Principles Of Time Management 5 Make the shift from a long day filled with unproductive busyness to a shorter day focusing on priorities. As a sales entrepreneur. This statistic supports the observation that we spend a lot of time on time-wasters and obligations. What’s talking about is: It’s not enough that you’re doing a particular job right. By the way. According to the 80/20 rule. A sobering thought. Most of us don’t. Most of us habitually spend our days reacting instead of being proactive. we get 80% of our results from 20% of the things we do. Take control of the activities that prey on your efficiency. It takes a strong commitment to change long-established habits. To get ahead in today’s fast-paced world. Imagine . you have too much to do and not enough time to get it all done. get one. Once you complete your time-efficiency study. you’ve got to be aware of what time it is. you learned that years ago. you’ve got to be sure that you’re doing the right activity at the right time. We waste a lot of time in the adult daycare center reacting to the demands of C accounts or even performing C activities. unaware of the costly consequence. Common sense tells us that we should spend the majority of our time working on high-priority A and B accounts. Manage Your Time Time management is a personal process. The best and simplest time management tool is on your wrist. challenge yourself to be more proactive by prioritizing your tasks. you will be shocked to see the time wasted reacting to other people’s demands and requests. Up to 75% of our day is reactive.
frustration. Shocking! This statistic serves as additional proof of the inordinate amount of time consumed by time-wasters and obligations. the time spent talking face-to-face with existing customers or potential customers. Take a stop watch and clock total face-time in one entire week. and letters. Wouldn’t that be great? Research suggests that effective time management strategies can free up a minimum of two hours per day. but to get organized so that you can convert wasted time into productive time. time management studies show that we spend up to 70 minutes a day just looking for stuff. it’s only two to four hours. with a clean. I know it’s here somewhere. Take some time to determine how much time you actually spend with customers. increase talk-time. “Just a minute. and stress to a productive day filled with accomplishments? Change.6 Time Management the impact on our time efficiency if we increased the 20% to 30%! What takes us from a time-starved day of routine. If you’re an inside salesperson. Your goal isn’t to have a nice neat desk. orderly desk.” . reports. you’ll improve your time working on priorities that will make you money. Clutter can be a huge time-waster. I recognize that with leaner companies salespeople are often saddled with more of the administrative aspects of the job. How many times have you said.” We misplace files. How many times a day should you ask yourself if you are making the best use of your time? If you answered “several. and our desks look like the movie Twister was filmed in our office. On average. However. Unfortunately they become high-priced administrators. The underlying objective of effective time management is to utilize all available resources to increase face-time. One definition of time management is doing fewer things in less time. Your quality of work will also improve. memos. For example. not to mention the embarrassment of lost or unanswered requests.
Many of us are our own worst enemies. but you certainly need to minimize it. prime time is during the late afternoon and early evening. Not everyone has the same peak time. Some authors suggest doing them first thing in the morning when you’re feeling fresh.Principles Of Time Management 7 you’re right. Morning people can accomplish more simply by getting up an hour earlier each day. Pay attention to your moods and high-energy time of day to determine when you’re most productive. Once you have identified your peak time. you should determine the time of day that you are most efficient and productive. Imagine doing your worst job at your worst time of day. They won’t go away so you might as well get them done when you’re feeling energized. Some of us are morning people and others are afternoon or evening people. Only you can answer that question honestly. Don’t compromise your ROT by blindly filling your day with busyness. Don’t . Sometimes working in the office on a project or on a presentation could very well be the best use of your time. and night owls can carve out time for administrative activities in the evenings. Another suggestion in the interest of maximizing your ROT is to learn how to say no. You’ll never have enough time to finish your own tasks if you’re always taking on more than time permits. anytime after 2 PM. Restructure your day to eliminate the time-wasters and minimize the time spent fulfilling obligations. As part of your time-efficiency study. Two “worst’s” don’t make a right! In my case. Use janitorial time to fulfil your obligations. You can ever eliminate time spent in the adult daycare center. This approach works well if you’re a morning person but could be disastrous if you’re an afternoon person. do your worst jobs then. Know your peak time. the time of day you are at high energy. I prefer to schedule important meetings or presentations later in the day.
It’s great to want to help others. a daily to-do list section. “A carpenter is only as good as his tools. Your customers expect no less of you. 365 individual day-pages. including weekends. mapping your week and. you have an obligation to invest in the best.” The solution begins with a personal planner—a time management system that offers the convenience of portability while organizing your activities. “Would you like me to do this now or would you prefer I spend the time selling?” Your manager may decide to delegate the task elsewhere.8 Time Management be afraid to politely refuse a request or task if your plate is already full. USE THE RIGHT TOOLS A professional (sales entrepreneurs included) is anyone paid to perform a task or a job at an acceptable level of proficiency while utilizing the tools of the trade to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. You may have heard it before. Poor time management skills result in overspending your time. most importantly. Imagine opening a checking account at your local bank then not using a checkbook to track the account activity. it helps you stay in balance throughout your week. A planner used effectively not only buys you time. Some planners come with a rigid set of instructions. This includes saying no to your sales manager. simply ask your manager. so pick a planner that offers simplicity and the flexibility to meet your personal preferences. and an appointments section. When given a task. As a sales entrepreneur. A good planner includes twelve months at-a-glance. running out of day before you get everything done. planning your day. Imagine your doctor or dentist using anything but the best instruments. It’s as though they’re exempt from the requirement to be a professional. Surely you would find yourself out of balance at the end of the .
NOT REACTIVE Up to 75% of our day is spent reacting to the needs and requests of other people such as customers. are content to be regulated and manipulated rather than committing to SMART goals and living life guided by their agenda. not someone else’s. managers. your goals. Employers and managers sometimes do more to demotivate rather than to motivate. possibly overspending your available funds. Successful sales entrepreneurs refuse to be swayed by the whims of others and are quietly effective at managing their own agendas. No wonder we feel the frustration of. BE PROACTIVE.” We often succumb to the demands and requests of others because we think it is socially inappropriate to say no. and friends. internal customers. We become victimized by others who may have a strong interest in controlling our activities or behaviour—such as a spouse or a manager. Part of this discipline comes in the form of qualifying the severity of a problem prior to reacting to it.Principles Of Time Management 9 month. No one ever accomplished a personal goal by being subservient to others. Unfortunately many people. Without the appropriate tool to track your time-related activities. overdrawn on your time account. family. so little time. We are constantly bombarded with demands on our limited time. Demotivation can take the form of intimidation or high-performance expectations constrained by rigid management policies and limited resources to perform the job. For example. No wonder so many people want to take this job and shove it. leaving us unable to accomplish our own goals and objectives. you quickly find yourself out of balance. including salespeople. . A proactive strategy means developing the discipline to stay focused on your agenda. “So much to do. and your objectives.
Be sure to take notes of your discussion for future reference. your customer will appreciate your schedule and agree to meet with you the next day. Acknowledge the problem. Suggest another time. 2. not hard. the customer may be insistent that you respond immediately. follow these two steps: 1. In the majority of cases. drop what you are doing. possibly saving you hours of unnecessary running around. and race over to console your customer. Interruptions and problems are a natural component of everybody’s day . The next time you get an irate customer (or internal customer) demanding to see you right away.10 Time Management next time a customer informs you of a problem or a concern. Another good tactic is to start building flexibility into your day. Your business and time are just as important and legitimate as that of your customer. however. resist the temptation to immediately jump into react mode. Work smart. but by following these steps you will save yourself valuable time. Tell the customer that your day is full with appointments and commitments and ask if first thing tomorrow morning would be okay to get together. in which case you must act accordingly. A 10-minute phone call to determine the facts and the seriousness of the problem may be a valuable investment. the customer will begin to feel better about it and may become somewhat flexible as to how and when you resolve the concern. A sympathetic attitude to a real or imaginary product or service failure cannot be overemphasized. Too often we assume that we must respond immediately. Allow the customer to vent by explaining the situation and then clarify your understanding of it by paraphrasing. By acknowledging the concern and showing empathy.” Allow time between appointments or activities to deal with interruptions that are sure to occur. You are equals. Sometimes. It may not be necessary. By this mean schedule your day to allow for “poop happens.
LEARN TO SAY A NO One of the golden rules in time management is learning to say “No”. and plan accordingly. we are also supposed to know that a major portion of our time is wasted on unnecessary things and the wastage of time could easily be avoided by a simple “No” said in an unoffending way. you will surely have to make rigorous cuts. Plan what you can reasonably expect to get accomplished that day and allow time to deal with inevitable interruptions. Further. Still many people. one of the aspects of a SMART goal is “attainable.” Make your daily activities attainable. it is also stressed that you should never say “Yes” when you want to say “No”. deal with unfinished tasks.Principles Of Time Management 11 so doesn’t ignore the fact that they happen. The remaining 40% is reserved to deal with unforeseen yet inevitable interruptions. if you pack too much into a day. don’t plan more than 60% of your day. Once again. despite of being aware of their inability to say a No. don’t plan for more than six hours. You let the 60/40 rule be your guide. There are ways and means to say a No in an unoffending manner and the more you learn and start saying No to things. It also helps prevent the list-layover syndrome where we put unfinished to-do items onto tomorrow’s schedule. never take efforts to learn this simple yet effective technique in a successful time management. Though many people would dislike saying a No to others. Don’t try to pack too much into one day by scheduling consecutive appointments and meetings. the more you will have time at your disposal and lesser the feeling of guilt. and wrestle with unnecessary stress. At end you will have more time to relax and hence from right now learn to say No to things that you doesn’t need to concern . Remember. If your workday is ten hours.
If you do not have the habit of setting targets. then from now onwards make it a point to set your targets and you are free to set targets for the day or a week or even half yearly targets. find out a way out to handle things differently for the given situation. In the process. You should be able to develop the required strategies efficiently to complete the set target. From now onwards start the exercise of finding out how you waste your precious time. Think hard and never mind taking time on this exercise as time spent on this exercise is a very valuable one and is capable of giving you many related benefits. Now for having identified few valid causes. You should never settle with setting targets alone. . The moment you start setting your priorities and manage time efficiently you will start standing out from all your fellow non-performers. you may be able to identify many things or factors that have actually robbed your precious time from you and there may be reasons binding both your personal and official life. again well within another target of set time frame. And you may come with more efficient and effective steps for doing things differently with the same beneficial results or even more.12 Time Management about. Learn to manage your time lest get left out in the crowd and get managed by others.
a manager may engage in hiring. . A leader develops relationships with his/her employees by building communication. For example. On the other hand.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 13 2 The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept To manage or to lead? Is the question all managers must ask themselves. But what does it really mean to be a manager or a leader? Is being a leader significantly different than being a manager. and by eliciting loyalty. and is it possible to manage and to lead at the same time? A manager basically directs resources to complete predetermined goals or projects. A manager is considered a failure if he/she is not able to complete the project or goals with efficiency or when the cost becomes too high. evoking images of success. a leader within a company develops individuals in order to complete predetermined goals and projects. training. and scheduling employees in order to accomplish work in the most efficient and cost effective manner possible.
telling successful stories.” The skills to be a leader or a manager are not exclusive in nature.e. Romila undertakes her project with enthusiasm. However. but he also measures success in terms of low employee turnover. Suraj feels proud when one of his employees obtains an advance level position a year or two after being hired. to hire enough new employees to provide the company with a state-of-the-art customer service department. She hires only those employees who can work the assigned hours. will accept the modest pay. some of who do not have any customer service experience. only a handful would remain working six months later. Suraj hires employees that he believes he can develop a working relationship with. calls handled per hour. one of the companies up and coming managers. employee morale.. and employee development. who he feels he can develop a personal connection.14 Time Management MANAGER VERSUS LEADER Manager: A company CEO directs Romila. A large part of Suraj’s training involves team building. and he also measures success in terms of efficient and cost effectiveness. Leader: Suraj obtains the same assignment as Romila. and cost effectiveness. Can a Manager be a Leader and a Leader be a Manager? The answer to the question is “yes. Romila did not anticipate that of the employees she hired. Suraj still assigns his employees their job duties and schedules at the end of training. Romila measures her success in terms of efficiency. and have experience working in customer service. Suraj’s goal is to hire a diverse group of employees. versus just those employees who will worked the assigned hours and take the modest pay. A leader who only . She trains her new employees to perform the job to her expectations and assigns the employees to their new positions. and listening to each employee’s own desires for what constitutes a fulfilling job. i. did she meet her budget.
know. things that employers require their managers to do on timely bases. or start spending 50% of your time getting the paperwork done. . Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills. If you have the desire and willpower. To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork. These do not come naturally.g. start spending 10% of your time each week leading until you can establish 25% of your time in leadership practices. education. hire an assistant to be the manager. in the organisational context. This guide will help you through that process. Management Over the years the philosophical terminology of “management” and “leadership” have. there are certain things you must be. Similarly. training. and generally reflects an awareness of the distinction made by Burns (1978) between “transactional” leadership (characterised by e. they are NOT resting on their laurels. either become a politician. Good leaders are made not born. do. you can become an effective leader. and experience. and scheduling employee vacation time.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 15 displays leadership skills will be ineffective when it comes to checking time cards. a manager who spends all his/her time completing paperwork and reading reports. completing employee reviews. only creates more problems for him or her because they lack a developing relationship with their employees. Debate is fairly common about whether the use of these terms should be restricted. If you are a leader who only likes to lead. and. but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study. been used both as synonyms and with clearly differentiated meanings. If you are a manager who has spent too much time managing and not leading his/her employees.
Group leadership In contrast to individual leadership. charisma. A team of people with diverse skills and from all parts of an organization assembles to lead a project. personal relationships. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish .either by draining the resources of the group as a whole. more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole. some organizations have adopted group leadership. Additionally. In some situations. as each team member has the opportunity to experience the elevated level of empowerment. or downsizing. Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity.16 Time Management emphasis on procedures. determination and synergistic communication skills will bring out the same qualities in their groups. but more commonly uses rotating leadership. In this situation.g. the maintenance of the boss becomes too expensive . or by impeding the creativity within the team. Good leaders use their own inner mentors to energize their team and organizations and lead a team to achieve success. Leaders who demonstrate persistence. reducing costs. it energizes staff and feeds the cycle of success. A team structure can involve sharing power equally on all issues. even unintentionally. tenacity. The team member(s) best able to handle any given phase of the project become(s) the temporary leader(s). DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP Before we get started. contingent reward. creativity). lets define leadership. A common example of group leadership involves cross-functional teams. Others may see the traditional leadership of a boss as costing too much in team performance. management by exception) and “transformational” leadership (characterised by e.
This is called Trait Leadership. we know that we have traits that can influence our actions. However.” This view of leadership. and character. was explored at length in a number of works in the previous century. ethics. History’s greatest philosophical writings from Plato’s Republic to Plutarch’s Lives have explored the question of “What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader?” Underlying this search was the early recognition of the importance of leadership and the assumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics that certain individuals possess. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when moving . This is called Process Leadership. whose works have prompted decades of research. This definition is similar to Northouse’s definition — Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Carlyle identified the talents. while the other attributes give the leader certain characteristics that make him or her unique. in that it was once common to believe that leaders were born rather than made. Most notable are the writings of Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton. such as beliefs.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 17 an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is known as the “trait theory of leadership. In Galton’s (1869) Hereditary Genius. the trait theory. and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. While leadership is learned. skills. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership. In Heroes and Hero Worship (1841). the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or traits. The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has been ongoing for centuries. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. he examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. values.
the overall evidence suggested that persons who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. Rise of Alternative Theories In the late 1940s and early 1950s. and self-confidence just to name a few. as situational approaches posited that individuals can be effective in certain situations. improvements in researchers’ use of the round robin research design methodology allowed researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks. Both of these notable works lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of the leader. . leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait. dominance. persistence. not developed. Using early research techniques. For decades.18 Time Management from first degree to second degree relatives. however. socioeconomic status. Reemergence of Trait Theory New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish the trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. Subsequently. adaptability. but not others. integrity. For example. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades. leaders were born. Galton concluded that leadership was inherited. Stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies. researchers conducted over a hundred studies proposing a number of characteristics that distinguished leaders from nonleaders: intelligence. In other words. this trait-based perspective dominated empirical and theoretical work in leadership. In reviewing the extant literature. a series of qualitative reviews of these studies prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership.
values. social skills. to the neglect of cognitive abilities. Equipped with new methods. and bound to. Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes 3. Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as Big Five personality traits. its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. leadership researchers revealed the following: Individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks Significant relationships exist between leadership and such individual traits as: o intelligence o Adjustment o extraversion o conscientiousness o openness to experience o general self-efficacy While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity. motives. during the 1980s statistical advances allowed researchers to conduct meta-analyses. Do not distinguish between those leader attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by. Zaccaro (2007) noted that trait theories still: 1. expertise. in which they could quantitatively analyze and summarize the findings from a wide array of studies. Specifically. situational influences 4. and problem-solving skills 2.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 19 Additionally. Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership . This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive and parsimonious picture of previous leadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past.
several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual differences . evaluating the behaviour of ‘successful’ leaders. but a set of traits is crucial. Ronald Lipitt. the leader attribute pattern approach is based on theorists’ arguments that the influence of individual characteristics on outcomes is best understood by considering the person as an integrated totality rather than a summation of individual variables. and Ralph White developed in 1939 the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. Not so much as a pattern of motives. self-confidence and a high self-esteem is useful. the leader attribute pattern approach argues that integrated constellations or combinations of individual differences may explain substantial variance in both leader emergence and leader effectiveness beyond that explained by single attributes. Behavioral and Style Theories In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach. the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision making. To lead. perhaps even essential. In contrast to the traditional approach. Kurt Lewin. David McClelland. and the management of the group tasks (project management) . determining a behaviour taxonomy and identifying broad leadership styles.the leader attribute pattern approach. In other words. for example. Leadership takes a strong personality with a well developed positive ego. or by additive combinations of multiple attributes. praise and criticism.20 Time Management Attribute Pattern Approach Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above. In each. theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate.
fact minded and given by a group member without necessarily having participated extensively in the actual work. and dictate each step taken. increasing the likelihood of that behaviour in the future. B. demand strict compliance to his orders. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behaviour. Authoritarian climates were characterized by leaders who make decisions alone. The following is an example of how positive reinforcement can be used in a business setting. This employee does . The results seemed to confirm that the democratic climate was preferred. Democratic climates were characterized by collective decision processes. Skinner is the father of Behaviour Modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. and very infrequently gives praise.F. Laissez faire climates gave freedom to the group for policy determination without any participation from the leader. Members are given choices and collectively decide the division of labour. (2) democratic and (3) laissez-faire. The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in 1964 and suggests five different leadership styles. does not participate in the division of labour. The leader remains uninvolved in work decisions unless asked. assisted by the leader. future steps were uncertain to a large degree. The leader is not necessarily hostile but is aloof from participation in work and commonly offers personal praise and criticism for the work done. Praise and criticism in such an environment are objective.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 21 according to three styles: (1) authoritarian. Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee. Before accomplishing tasks. based on the leaders’ concern for people and their concern for goal achievement. perspectives are gained from group discussion and technical advice from a leader.
In this example. . 3M. behaviour) to work on time more frequently after being praised for showing up to work on time. Herbert Spencer (1884) said that the times produce the person and not the other way around.” Some theorists started to synthesize the trait and situational approaches. The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day the employee actually shows up to work on time. The use of positive reinforcement is a successful and growing technique used by leaders to motivate and attain desired behaviors from subordinates. This theory assumes that different situations call for different characteristics. According to the theory. many reinforcement techniques such as the use of praise are inexpensive. praise (i. Building upon the research of Lewin et al. As a result.22 Time Management not show up to work on time every day.. stimulus) is a positive reinforcer for this employee because the employee arrives (i. Michigan Bell. no single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists. B. Empirical research covering the last 20 years suggests that reinforcement theory has a 17 percent increase in performance.F. Goodrich. Organizations such as FritoLay. Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as Carlyle suggested. “what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions. the employee comes to work on time more often because the employee likes to be praised.e. providing higher performance for lower costs.e. Additionally. according to this group of theories. Situational and Contingency Theories Situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership. and Emery Air Freight have all used reinforcement to increase productivity.
The authoritarian leadership style. whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favourability. finally. in collaboration with . and the Hersey-Blanchard situational theory.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 23 academics began to normatize the descriptive models of leadership climates. Four contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in the recent years: Fiedler contingency model. Thus. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorableness (later called “situational control”). Victor Vroom. When there is a good leader-member relation. and high leader position power. The theory defined two types of leader: those who tend to accomplish the task by developing good-relationships with the group (relationship-oriented). Both taskoriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. the situation is considered a “favorable situation”. The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader’s effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. the laissez faire leadership style is appreciated by the degree of freedom it provides. Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extremely favourable or unfavourable situations. a highly structured task. theorists defined the style of leadership as contingent to the situation. and those who have as their prime concern carrying out the task itself (task-oriented). for example. is approved in periods of crisis but fails to win the “hearts and minds” of their followers in the day-to-day management. According to Fiedler. the path-goal theory. defining three leadership styles and identifying which situations each style works better in. Vroom-Yetton decision model. which is sometimes classified as contingency theory. there is no ideal leader. he can be perceived as a failure in protracted or thorny organizational problems. the democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require consensus building. but as the leader does not “take charge”.
defining which approach was more suitable to which situation. the model posits that the leadership-style must match the appropriate level of followership- . the path-goal model states that the four leadership behaviors are fluid. as it depends on the circumstances. This model was later referred as situational contingency theory. participative. The situational leadership model proposed by Hersey and Blanchard suggests four leadership-styles and four levels of follower-development. The path-goal theory of leadership was developed by Robert House (1971) and was based on the expectancy theory of Victor Vroom. The path-goal model can be classified both as a contingency theory.24 Time Management Phillip Yetton (1973) and later with Arthur Jago (1988). The theory identifies four leader behaviors. For effectiveness. the essence of the theory is “the meta proposition that leaders. engage in behaviors that complement subordinates’ environments and abilities in a manner that compensates for deficiencies and is instrumental to subordinate satisfaction and individual and work unit performance. that are contingent to the environment factors and follower characteristics. but also as a transactional leadership theory. According to House. to be effective. and that leaders can adopt any of the four depending on what the situation demands. taxonomy that was used in a normative decision model where leadership styles were connected to situational variables. In contrast to the Fiedler contingency model. directive. as the theory emphasizes the reciprocity behaviour between the leader and the followers. This approach was novel because it supported the idea that the same manager could rely on different group decision making approaches depending on the attributes of each situation. and supportive. developed a taxonomy for describing leadership situations. achievementoriented.
Initiating structure involves the actions of the leader focused specifically on task accomplishment. thus. While functional leadership theory has most often been applied to team leadership. This could include role clarification. In summarizing literature on functional leadership observed five broad functions a leader performs when promoting organisation’s effectiveness. These functions include: (1) environmental monitoring. (2) organizing subordinate activities. This theory argues that the leader’s main job is to see that whatever is necessary to group needs is taken care of. Fleishman (1953) observed that subordinates perceived their supervisors’ behaviour in terms of two broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating structure. leadership behaviour becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader. (4) motivating others. Consideration includes behaviour involved in fostering effective relationships.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 25 development. but of the characteristics of followers as well. it has also been effectively applied to broader organizational leadership as well. In initial work identifying leader behaviour. . In this model. (3) teaching and coaching subordinates. and holding subordinates accountable to those standards. Functional Theory Functional leadership theory is a particularly useful theory for addressing specific leader behaviors expected to contribute to organizational or unit effectiveness. a leader can be said to have done their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion. setting performance standards. Examples of such behaviour would include showing concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner towards others. A variety of leadership behaviors are expected to facilitate these functions. and (5) intervening actively in the group’s work.
Also. such as needs. Situation All situations are different. not yourself or your superiors. To be successful you have to convince your followers. For instance. which is one of the: Four Factors of Leadership There are four major factors in leadership: Leader You must have an honest understanding of who you are. You must come to know your employees’ be. and do attributes. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader. Followers Different people require different styles of leadership. Much of it is nonverbal. emotions. then they will be uninspired.26 Time Management Skills. what you know. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. and what you can do. know. when you “set the example.” that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. knowledge. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. Communication You lead through two-way communication. For example. not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. that you are worthy of being followed. a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. note that it is the followers. and motivation. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style . and attributes make the Leader. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature.
Thus you get Assigned Leadership by your position and you display Emergent Leadership by influencing people to do great things. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors. you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behaviour. Various forces will affect these four factors. These theories are: Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. then the results may prove ineffective. and how your organization is organized. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization (called Assigned Leadership). etc. this power does not make you a leader. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of time. This is why a number of leadership scholars think the Process Theory of Leadership is a more accurate than the Trait Theory of Leadership.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 27 needed for each situation. too harsh or too weak. Boss or Leader Although your position as a manager. . they have little consistency across situations. the skill of your followers. rather than simply bossing people around. supervisor. For example. Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader’s action than his or her traits. lead. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals (called Emergent Leadership). but if the confrontation is too late or too early. the informal leaders within your organization. Bass’ Theory of Leadership Bass’ theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. it simply makes you the boss. This is the Trait Theory.
and not just depend on one or two. the Symbolic approach may be better. Leadership Models Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. any style can be effective or ineffective. Relying on only one of these approaches would be inadequate.28 Time Management A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion. That is. For example. during a major organization change. The ideal is not to lock yourself in to a type of behaviour discussed in the model. This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. Four Framework Approach In the Four Framework Approach. This is the Transformational or Process Leadership Theory. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. Political. Human Resource. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware of the limitations of just favoring one approach. This is the Great Events Theory. . It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based. thus we should strive to be conscious of all four approaches. or Symbolic. a Structural leadership style may be more effective than a Symbolic leadership style. Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural. during a period when strong growth is needed. but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behaviour to be taken. depending upon the situation. People can learn leadership skills. · People can choose to become leaders.
the leader is a prophet. Symbolic Framework In an effective leadership situation. and empowerment while in an ineffective leadership situation. the leader is a fanatic or fool. support. While in an ineffective leadership situation.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 29 Structural Framework In an effective leadership situation. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief. the leader is a pushover. Political Framework In an effective leadership situation. increase participation. the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. share information. whose leadership style is manipulation. these leaders use . strategy. implementation. Structural Leaders focus on structure. use persuasion first. whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions. they empower. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get. whose leadership style is inspiration. environment. the leader is an advocate. the leader is a hustler. whose leadership style is coalition and building. and adaptation. experimentation. While in an ineffective leadership situation. and move decision making down into the organization. the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. they build linkages to other stakeholders. they are visible and accessible. advocating. whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. they assess the distribution of power and interests. the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support. then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. While in an ineffective leadership situation. Human Resource Framework In an effective leadership situation.
There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Heavily task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules. “Concern for task or results” is plotted along the horizontal axis. They both have a range of 0 to 9. weak on tasks Impoverished — weak on tasks. when . that is. to score at least between a 5.30 Time Management symbols to capture attention. strong on people skills The goal is to be at least in the Middle of the Road but preferably a Team Leader — that is. Authoritarian Leader People who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic).9. we come up with four types of leaders: Authoritarian — strong on tasks. Managerial Grid The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid.5 to 9. “Concern for people” is plotted using the vertical axis 2. people who score on the far end of the scales. These two dimensions can be drawn as a graph or grid: Most people fall somewhere near the middle of the two axes — Middle of the Road. they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences. they discover and communicate a vision. also known as the Leadership Grid (1985) uses two axes: 1. they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate. But. by going to the extremes. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behaviour has the attraction of simplicity. weak on people skills Country Club — strong on people skills. weak on people skills Team Leader — strong on tasks.
so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams. they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. do not entirely dismiss the other three.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 31 something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible. Certain situations might call for one of the other three to be used at times. they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. Country Club Leader This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. by playing the Impoverished Leader. Conversely. For example. Be an Authoritarian . Team Leader This type of person leads by positive example and endeavors to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential. they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone’s creativity). while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. However. The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axes at most times would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people — the Team Leader. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance. Impoverished Leader A leader who uses a “delegate and disappear” management style. you allow your team to gain self-reliance. both as team members and as people.
When a person is deciding if she respects you as a leader. your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization’s objectives and their well-being. tasks. To gain respect. they must be ethical. not follow them. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. and human nature) what they do (such as implementing. BE KNOW DO The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. She uses this observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. you will know at what points along the axes you need to be in order to achieve the desired result. she does not think about your attributes. motivating. Respected leaders concentrate on: what they are [be] (such as beliefs and character) what they know (such as job.32 Time Management Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. and providing direction). By carefully studying the situation and the forces affecting it. To gain respect. What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. A . They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers. she observes what you do so that she can know who you really are. they must be ethical. In your employees’ eyes. rather. Total Leadership What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction.
ties in closely with this key concept. Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee’s own division is doing — relative to strategic business objectives. So in a nutshell — you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where the organization needs to go. “Principles of Leadership”. and do. Note that later expand on these and provide tools for implementing them: 1. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. 2. attributes. a global management consultancy. Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives. Helping employees understand the company’s overall business strategy. Know yourself and seek self-improvement . The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership According to a study by the Hay Group. They found that: Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction. The next section. know. PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP To help you be. This can be . follow these eleven principles of leadership. Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence: 1. and do.In order to know yourself. know. 3.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 33 sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. you have to understand your be.
5. Keep your workers informed . Use the full capabilities of your organization . 10.As a leader. formal classes. decision making. and move on to the next challenge. We must become the change we want to see ..Communication is the key to this responsibility. take corrective action. etc. And when things go wrong. They must not only hear what they are expected to do. Ensure that tasks are understood. Train as a team .they are just a group of people doing their jobs. you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees’ tasks. accomplished through self-study. but also see. but also seniors and other key people. 11. Analyze the situation. you will be able to employ .34 Time Management 2. Make sound and timely decisions . supervised. Be technically proficient . and planning tools.Use good problem solving. 3. 7.Although many so called leaders call their organization. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. 6.Know how to communicate with not only them. 4. 9..By developing a team spirit.Be a good role model for your employees. 8. Set the example . and interacting with others. reflection. they are not really teams. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions . and accomplished . they always do sooner or later — do not blame others. section. department.Mahatma Gandhi Know your people and look out for their well-being Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. a team.Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights.
The goals and performance standards they establish. Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum. customers. 2. then those around you will grow to respect you. quality. plans. 3. which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. and surrounding community.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 35 your organization. Goals. . investors. Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees. Attributes of Leadership If you are a leader who can be trusted. These goals. values. and rites that take place. To be such a leader. and reliability. there is a Leadership Framework to guide you: Environment Every organization has a particular work environment. department. The values they establish for the organization. rewards. to its fullest capabilities. The business and people concepts they establish. Values. This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders. vendors. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted. section. productivity. meetings and presentations. such as strategies. and Concepts Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of actions: 1. Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business. market leadership. and concepts make up the organization’s “personality” or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This personality defines the roles. etc. relationships.
It is a combination of the founders. Relationships are determined by a role’s tasks. and we tend to seek out those we like. In human behaviour. Many tasks and behaviors that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationships. and the “way we do things.” These rites impact individual behaviour on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and direct the appropriate behaviour for each circumstance. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that may or may not be spelled out. past leadership. and size. either by that role-holder or a prior role-holder. and friendship is a powerful reward. how often. history. current leadership. and towards what end. . rituals. most are carried out in relationship with others. That is. and a sense of accomplishment or challenge. its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with. Culture and Climate There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization: culture and climate. Roles have a powerful effect on behaviour for several reasons. new task and behaviors are expected of the present role-holder because a strong relationship was developed in the past. normally the greater the interaction. Each organization has its own distinctive culture. People tend to do what they are rewarded for. This in turn leads to more frequent interaction. the greater the liking. Also. there is prestige attached to a role. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with. crises. This results in rites: the routines. While some tasks are performed alone.36 Time Management Roles ad Relationships Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behaviour of any job incumbent. events. to include money being paid for the performance of the role.
These activities influence both individual and team motivation and satisfaction. and customs.The Leader-Manager-Professional Concept 37 The climate is the feel of the organization. Climate represents the beliefs about the “feel of the organization” by its members. complex phenomenon. or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. rules. the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organization’s members. attributes. rewards. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right. On the other hand. and actions. and punishments in the organization? How competent are the leaders? Are leaders free to make decisions? What will happen if I make a mistake? Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader. such as: How well does the leader clarify the priorities and goals of the organization? What is expected of us? What is the system of recognition.” . skills. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the organization. based on the values. traditions. This individual perception of the “feel of the organization” comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization. as well as the priorities of the leader. While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems. The mature values that create “tradition” or the “way we do things here. culture is a long-term. The behaviour (character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the climate. climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership. Compare this to “ethical climate” — the “feel of the organization” about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behaviour.
The collective vision and common folklore that define the institution are a reflection of culture. But. . Individual leaders.38 Time Management Things are done differently in every organization. everything you do as a leader will affect the climate of the organization. Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the actions and thought processes of the leader. cannot easily create or change culture because culture is a part of the organization.
friend. volunteer) 6. Shriner. musician. collector. shy person with a disability. funny person. In fact most people have a number of important ways of thinking about themselves that are significant enough to be considered multiple senses of self. athlete. Familial relationships (e.. Social relationships (e. Abilities/disabilities (e. colleague) 3. Avocations (e.. Yankee fan) 7. physician.. These sense-ofself associations can be based on any combination of the following: 1.g. plumber) 2. Quasi-occupations (e. husband/wife.g.g. Occupations (e. and associations that we consider most important about ourselves.g. brother/sister. attributes. “patient”) . helper.g. artist. Affiliations (e. son/daughter..g..Personal Sense Of Time 39 3 Personal Sense Of Time Everybody has a sense of self or sense of personal identity. volunteer) 5. mother/father) 4. behaviors.. helper. smart person.g. Our sense of self includes those roles. teacher..
Furthermore. “You can’t do anything right”.g. Identities are developed over time and may change from time to time and place to place. are dynamic or in flux. they may feel accepted and liked one moment and alienated the next. Spirituality (e. a child may feel self-confident and accepted at home but not around the neighborhood or in a preschool class. when a child routinely hears. hard working. Identities are generally “housed” as metaphoric. an adolescent might think of himself metaphorically as a “Michael Jordan kind of guy” who works hard and achieves at high levels. . lazy. Emotional stability and acceptance at home and among school staff are important during these times. Buddist) Self-identities. as children interact with their peers or learn to function in school or some other place. then incompetence is likely to be central to his sense of self. Salient attributes (e. children do not always feel good about themselves or their behaviors in every situation. Identities are often imposed or at least encouraged by environmental or cultural forces. For example. Furthermore.. gut-level meanings rather than literal meanings. For example. reliable. especially those of young people. if a child is routinely told. child of God..g. good looking. “You are really smart” the likelihood is increased that intelligence will figure prominently in the child’s sense of identity. For example. Catholic. In contrast. Alternatively the student might think of himself as a tough guy. Children as young as four years old have a sense of self that is based on some salient attributes that the child considers important and is maintained over time. “I am the strongest or fastest boy in my class” or “I am smart.”. a “Take-no-prisoners Hulk Hogan kind of guy”. Children acquire their sense of self and self-esteem slowly as they mature into adolescents. for example. dishonest) 9. I figure things out easily” or “I am good at helping people.40 Time Management 8.
toddlers. For example. protection. Helping others simply goes with being the kind of person they take themselves to be.Personal Sense Of Time 41 Furthermore. talent. and acceptance that infants. rather. but rather comfortable or uncomfortable. Students do not set about to create a sense of self as a good student or good athlete or good friend. Effort and practice go with being a Mia Hamm kind of person. status. Identities that are culturally valued – associated with competence. Students whose identity includes intelligence and academic success will not need a promise of rewards. Identities contribute to intrinsic motivation. interest. and the like – are more likely to be sustained and nurtured as self-defining identities as children mature into adulthood. they study just because “that’s the kind of person I am. sense of self comes to be additionally associated – positively or negatively – with attributes that parents value and model for . an adolescent who considers herself a good athlete – a “Mia Hamm kind of person” – will not need artificial motivators to exercise intensely and practice her sport several hours per week. inspiring or uninspiring. Early in life. Rather they simply find themselves over time thinking and feeling about themselves in certain ways. By the late preschool years and early school years. I’m a conscientious student – and I know I need to study to do well!” Even hard work can be easy and satisfying if it flows from a person’s sense of “who I am. admirable or not admirable. self-conscious process. individuals who tie their identity to religious beliefs and religious role models will not need extrinsic motivation to extend themselves by helping others. Similarly. and preschoolers feel when effectively cared for by adults to whom they feel an attachment.” “Construction of identity” is rarely a deliberate. our sense of self is not judged to be true or false. sense of self is associated with the security. that’s me. success. like money. in order to study hard.
.g. athletic abilities. or physical possessions during the elementary and middle school years. peer values and peer pressure come to play an increasingly influential role in how older children and young adolescents think about themselves. Identities that have been strongly developed prior to these years often protect against the developmental difficulties associated with these years. friends may depart. . physical attractiveness). sports may be ruled out by physical disability. mature students are moving beyond peer pressure. Sense-of-self identification is often associated with physical attributes (e. Academic pursuits may be difficult. athletic accomplishments). With this may come an increasing comfort in being “different” from peers and possibly an increasing need to take risks. physical prowess (e. and physical attractiveness may be affected by scars or other consequences of the injury. or physical ability and attractiveness may find the basis for their sense of self to be gone. Over the school years. group norms. the student who was a helper may now only be a helpee. popularity.g. Students who previously staked their sense of self on academic success. helpfulness. Changes to sense-of-self as a consequence of the brain injury typically take several different forms and may evolve during the early months and years post injury.. SENSE OF SELF IMPORTANT One of the most devastating consequences of acquired brain injury is the challenge it poses to the student’s sense of personal identity. “Cliques” – the “in crowd” versus the “out crowd” – become important components of identity. based on their most deeply held values.42 Time Management their children in the way they live their lives. By late adolescence. and predominately physical associations. and come to think about the sort of person they want to be.
Personal Sense Of Time 43 The duration of time a student struggles with altered sense of identity will depend on the severity of the injury. This unawareness is not a psychological denial (i. with awareness of cognitive and behavioral/emotional limitations typically . sensory.. the age of the student at the time of injury. It is a neurologic condition associated with either bilateral frontal lobe injury or deep right hemisphere injury.e. As time post injury continues and feedback about real changes is provided. In such cases. and cognitive limitations. physical limitations). students gradually become aware of select limitations (e.g. Types of altered self-awareness after TBI and possible stages of adjustment are summarized below: Unawareness: Unawareness of disability is often a direct consequence of the injury. a condition in which the student resists coming to grips with the consequences of the injury) but rather a genuine inability to grasp the consequences of the brain injury itself. no amount of talking about disability or demonstrating real limitations will convince the student that he is disabled. and the structured support available from family and teachers to help the student adjust to realistic changes in their functioning. Neurologically-based unawareness (sometimes referred to as “anosagnosia”) is seen on a continuum in students with severe injuries (i. the student may initially believe that he has no disability – even in the presence of profound physical. Changes in self-identify are more pronounced in those children injured during middle to late adolescence when they have already acquired a preliminary sense of self.. In extreme cases. because the part of the brain that enables us to perceive our strengths and weaknesses is damaged. Children injured early in life often do not present the same challenges to self-identity since they were too young at the time of initial injury to have developed a settled sense of self. comes in degrees). like all neurological conditions.e.
and their implications for everyday functioning. In less extreme cases. Younger children may reveal their depression as excessive irritability.44 Time Management emerging later in the course of recovery. and aggressiveness. because it serves to maintain hope and prevent the student from falling into a deep depression. Some degree of low awareness or denial may be an essential correlate of hope. agitation. This evolution may require several months or even years after the injury. Perplexity: Perplexity is a state of confusion that many students experience about their actual versus assumed abilities and disabilities after TBI. hopelessness. leading to social withdrawal. which is necessary for maximizing functioning after a brain injury. Students who are confused or perplexed are not actively denying their disability. with the student actively resisting acceptance of the reality of persisting disability and all of its consequences. and possible changes in eating and sleeping patterns. and despair. Depression is associated with feelings of sadness. counseling and other awareness interventions may be options. Depression and Learned Helplessness: Depression is an understandable and common consequence of acquired brain injury in both children and adults. fatigue and loss of energy. often organicallybased unawareness gradually gives way to denial and then to a growing acceptance of real disabilities and the need for compensatory interventions. possible loss of interest and motivation. Denial can be combined with unawareness. unable to positively . but may alternate between a more optimistic and a more pessimistic view of their long-term abilities and their future. worthlessness. Depression is importantly connected with sense of self because depressed people typically feel out of control. Denial: Denial of disability is frequently observed. Some degree of denial or reduced awareness is healthy initially after the injury.
combined with an optimistic determination to be as successful as possible with the abilities that remain after the injury. Even in mature adolescents. I cannot help myself. appropriately respectful and reinforcing. it is likely that this state of adjustment and resolve can be achieved only after at least a year or two of emotional struggles. It is at this point that supportive counseling may be most effective in helping the student move from anger to gradual acceptances of changes in functioning. anxiety disorder). In these situations. Defiance: As awareness of real disabilities begins to emerge. At times.g. overly reinforcing. a consultation with an appropriately trained and credentialed professional is indicated. some students with brain injury react angrily and defiantly to the changes in their lives. They may refuse to accept restrictions on their activities and react angrily to any person who attempts to impose restrictions. Whether educators are critical of the student. THE MAIN THEMES IN INTERVENTION AND SUPPORT Altered sense of self is viewed as a typical process in adjustment to brain injury. “I am a patient.Personal Sense Of Time 45 influence important outcomes in their life. I am in the care of others and have no control over my destiny”. Awareness Combined with Resolve/Determination: The ideal long-term goal is to have students with brain injury increase their understanding of and adjustment to the disability. (e. . disorders associated with an altered sense of self can result in the student becoming significantly depressed or anxious. rather than a psychiatric problem or maladjustment. Depression may be associated with a “sick role” – that is. depression.. An important theme in sense-of-self intervention is that it is impossible to avoid contributing to the student’s evolving sense of self.
with grades). With this as background. but rather to communicate to the student that she is capable of reasonably high quality work – and then to provide the supports needed to enable performance at that level. supportive.g. interests. which then results in . The following concepts and procedures are germane to helping a student develop a “new” and positive sense of self. 2. acceptance and respect from relevant adults remain strong contributors to a student’s sense of personal identity at all ages. Acceptance and Respect: For very young children. emotional attachment. Acceptance and respect are equally important from family. it is logical that staff and family should combine forces to organize their approach to the student’s evolving sense of self. they have an impact on how that student comes to formulate a new self-image. or unsupportive. positive or negative – contributes in one way or another to that student’s sense of self. school staff. However. Every interaction with students with a disability – successful or unsuccessful. and peers.46 Time Management neutral. and activities of the student and by holding her to reasonably high standards of behaviour and academic performance (with sufficient support available to meet those standards). The key point is not to simply react to the student’s performance (e. among other ways. Success With Meaningful Tasks: For school-age children and adults. Procedures for Contributing to the Construction of a Positive and Productive Sense of Self: 1. a positive sense of self and self-esteem are derived ultimately from meaningful achievements. by expressing genuine interest in the thoughts. and ongoing nurturing are the primary basis for a positive sense of self. Respect is communicated. It is sometimes said that self-esteem is a product of motivational talk or other forms of self-talk therapy. The list can be used as a checklist to ensure that staff and family are doing what they can and should do to help the student with brain injury.. acceptance.
or perhaps a parent. collaborative supported engagement in meaningful project-oriented work at school or at home can create a basis for a sense of accomplishment and associated elevation of sense of self. rather than simply relying on self-talk approaches. and energy. by providing information based on their experience. motivation. therefore. 3. based on those criteria. Parents and educators must therefore be creative in identifying activities and tasks in which the student can experience meaningful success and ideally a sense of contribution. rather than current abilities – and therefore routinely find themselves falling short. The heroic identification provides inspiration.Personal Sense Of Time 47 higher levels of achievement. Association of Positive Role Models and Sense-of-Self Metaphors with Successful Task Completion: Many studies have shown that when people are reminded of some strongly valued or heroic persons prior to beginning a difficult task. This is the psychological reality underlying the common practice of wearing a bracelet inscribed with an inspirational religious slogan or reminder of a religious leader. or participating in school projects for which their injury history gives them unique knowledge and insight. most research suggests that the causal relationship goes in the opposite direction – engagement in meaningful activities and some type of meaningful achievement are the basis for building a positive self-concept and self-esteem. This poses a dilemma for many students with brain injury who evaluate their accomplishments based on pre-injury criteria. That is. The underlying idea is that the person wants to be like a religious leader. In other situations. the student can build a sense of self by helping others understand TBI. . a hero. it is possible to capitalize on their disability and injury history in achieving this goal. However. they throw more effort into the task and achieve at higher levels than if they had not had the positive association before beginning the task. With some students with more severe injuries.
she will try harder and succeed at a higher level. the likelihood is that the net effect will be opposite from that intended by the praise. For example. on the one hand. When a child hears. “You can be just like daddy. For example. you’re such a big boy. where the blank is filled in with some personally meaningful and positive hero or other metaphor. Children as young as toddlers can benefit from such heroic associations. At best. These ideas form the basis for an important way to help students who are confused. That is. a student with anger control problems who admires Clint Eastwood can be reminded. and genuinely respectful and honest appreciation and feedback on the other. “I can be a _____ kind of guy or girl”. the student will associate power – and an attractive sense of self – with reserved. you can go in the potty chair. the empty flattery is a short term distraction.48 Time Management when the person has that positive role model or image in mind. disorganized. you don’t lose control. Worse. 4. a powerful animal identification) that then can be systematically associated with hard work and successful performance. collaboratively with the student. the student may . or otherwise uncertain about their altered sense of self.” Thus there are few cognitive building blocks for generating improved sense of self and elevated performance by creating positive associations of this sort.. “When you’re being a Clint Eastwood kind of guy. young boys being potty trained often find inspiration when told. but knows that the outcomes were not good at all. identify a heroic person or other inspirational image (e. “Great job!” over and over. thoughtful responses rather than out-of-control angry responses. Somebody who knows the student well can.” When this association becomes strong. but rather react in a calm and composed way. Honest Feedback Associated with Sense of Self: Most students are able to distinguish between empty praise.g.
Personal Sense Of Time 49 think. you do fine work. that’s terrific... Not Just Praise: Students tend to develop a mature sense of self when adults express genuine interest in the student’s interests and thoughts. “That was lousy work I did. students can take their turn as teacher’s helper. Parents should look for opportunities to express interest in and work with students on their school projects. and behaviors are taken seriously by people they respect. thoughts. At school.. interest. When you work hard [like your hero]..... teachers and parents should present feedback and praise that are honest and respectful – and therefore more likely to contribute to a positive sense of self. she must think that I am totally incompetent.. they develop a sense that they are real people. Or they may return to school at the same grade level but have a modified curriculum. and Respect. or other contributor role. group leader. 6.. and respect. Genuinely challenging and Meaningful Tasks: Many students with significant brain injury return to school at academic levels lower than they held prior to their injury...” Rather.” 5. I think you’ll agree that this part needs more work. Here is an example: “You really worked hard on this. Feedback Focused on Appreciation... Parents can also invite the student to participate with them in their activities and projects. Family discussion times as well as discussion times at school are ideal times for such expressions of appreciation. I think this part turned out very well because. not just students who follow instructions and produce required work. and provide honest feedback rather than focusing exclusively on praise. If my teacher is telling me that this is great. Children injured at an early age may lose academic ground as they age. resulting in a need for additional services and modified curriculum those present tasks that may appear to the student to be at an immature . Even oppositional students tend to feel respected when asked to play a leadership role. Interest.. When students know that their interests.
Experiences of academic or social failure threaten the child’s already weakened sense of self.50 Time Management level. Defeats are more common for students with disability. Thus even though a student succeeds with these academic tasks. friendship circles. so that time spent with the other students or family members is fun and rewarding. staff must be creative in presenting work that is appropriate for the student’s current level of ability while also appearing to be relevant to her age and sense of self. Parents can help the student by making clear that their love and support remain unchanged. staff can try to organize peer support systems. the student can be given meaningful responsibilities. Opportunities for Meaningful Peer interaction: Students with disability after brain injury may see friends fall by the wayside because the disability blocks meaningful participation in activities valued by the friends. like caring for pets. At home. parents can invite other children to the house. When the crisis has passed. or even school clubs as contexts for ongoing peer social interaction. particularly if their standards of success and failure are based on their pre-injury accomplishments. 8. At home. there may be no inherent sense of satisfaction – no affirmation of self – because the student does not believe that the tasks are at an appropriate level for a person of his age and ability. 7. . making sure that there are enticing games and activities that are within the ability levels of all of the students. Coping with Defeats: Defeats and associated emotional crises are part of growing up for all children. Therefore. This common phenomenon contributes to the student’s downward emotional spiral and threatens an already vulnerable sense of self. At school. that create a sense of meaningful contribution while also adding organization and responsibilities to the daily routine.
people have a systematic tendency to recall that recent events occurred farther back in time (backward telescoping) and distant events occurred more recently (forward telescoping) than is actually the case. or the perception of times which are a significant fraction of a person’s lifetime. William J. When asked to place the time of a past event. . Friedman contrasted two theories for a sense of time: The strength model of time memory. Denying the reality of the child’s perceived problems is of no help and is likely to reduce self-confidence rather than bolstering it. Experiments have shown rats successfully estimating intervals of time. The inference model suggests the time of an event is not simply read off from some aspect of the memory of it. the trace model comes into conflict with a very familiar feature of our experience: that some memories of recent events may fade more quickly than memories of more distant events. where one could judge the age of a memory (and therefore how long ago the event remembered occurred) from the strength of the trace. Unfortunately. The longer ago the event. but is inferred from information about relations between the event in question and other events whose date or time is known. Posits such a thing as a memory trace that persists over time. the weaker the trace. SENSE OF TIME The sense of time can refer either to the perception of relatively short periods of time.Personal Sense Of Time 51 parents and teachers alike can reflect with the student about what contributed to the problem and how problems of that sort might be avoided in the future.
Human perception of duration is subjective and variable. Stimulants can lead both humans and rats to overestimate time intervals while depressants can have the opposite effect. cerebellum and basal ganglia as its components. People who have been hypnotized underestimate the duration of their trance. time may appear to slow or drag as one eagerly anticipates the arrival of a specific event. . the work of psychologists and neuroscientists indicates that human brains do have a system governing the perception of time. while the older group averaged 3 minutes and 40 seconds. The level of activity in the brain of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and adrenaline may be the reason for this. This is a highly distributed system including the cerebral cortex. The sense of time is impaired in some people with neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and attention deficit disorder. For example. One particular component. A school day may seem endless for a student who is waiting for the bell indicating that school is finished for the day. Errors in estimated time intervals might be caused by varying levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. time seemed to pass more quickly for the older group. Psychoactive drugs can also alter the perception of time. is responsible for the circadian (or daily) rhythm.52 Time Management Short-term Although the sense of time is not associated with a specific sensory system. In an experiment comparing a group of subjects aged between 19 and 24 and a group between 60 and 80 asked to estimate when they thought 3 minutes had passed. The traditional proverb describing this effect is “a watched pot never boils” . while other cell clusters appear to be capable of shorter-range (ultradian) timekeeping. the suprachiasmatic nuclei. it was found that the younger group’s estimate was on average 3 minutes and 3 seconds.
— Einstein: Braffo! You haf zee ideah! Man: But if I were to sit on a hot stove for two seconds then it would seem like two hours. The term specious present was first introduced by the psychologist E. A version of the concept was used by Edmund Husserl in his works and discussed further by Francisco Varela based on the writings of Husserl. and developed by William James. R. it’s like this. Heidegger. In other words: the perception of temporal intervals appears to be directly affected. .Personal Sense Of Time 53 Specious Present The specious present is the time duration wherein a state of consciousness is experienced as being in the present. Special Relativity This common experience was used to familiarize the general public to the ideas presented by Einstein’s theory of relativity in a 1930 cartoon by Sidney “George” Strube: Man: Well. The time from a child’s eighth birthday to the ninth seems an eternity. in these cases. whereby time intervals between visual events are perceived as relatively longer or shorter depending on the relative spatial positions of the events. Long-Term It is a known phenomenon that long periods of time appear to pass faster as people grow older. Alterations A form of temporal illusion verifiable by experiment is the kappa effect. and Merleau-Ponty. the time from the sixty-eighth to the sixty-ninth seems to pass in a flash.—supposing I were to sit next to a pretty girl for half an hour it would seem like half a minute. it’s not a momentary instant except ‘speciously’. Clay. The experienced present is an interval. by the perception of spatial intervals.
speed up. and peyote.54 Time Management Psychoactive Substances Altered states of consciousness are sometimes characterized by a different estimation of time. time may appear to slow down. he had “a period of time that didn’t end for me”. . British MP Christopher Mayhew took mescaline hydrochloride in an experiment under the guidance of his friend. stop. Some psychoactive substances – such as entheogens – may also dramatically alter a person’s temporal judgement. When viewed under the influence of such substances as LSD. he described that half a dozen times during the experiment. At higher doses. Dr Humphry Osmond. On the BBC documentary The Beyond Within. go backwards and even seem out of sequence. In 1955. a clock may appear to be a strange reference point and a useless tool for measuring the passage of events as it does not correlate with the user’s experience. psychedelic mushrooms.
especially in civil matters. the adage that “time is money falls far short of the truth. in fact. Time can be crucial. one of the most valuable assets. Perhaps it may be added that disregarding time can also have disastrous consequences. courts do have the power to exercise discretion to grant extension . As said by Lord James Bryce in his book. time limits and compliance with limits are essential if rights are to be protected and remedies effectively pursued. Some Hints On Reading. Strict time lines have to be observed for purposes of commencing legal action. Of course. Rushing a sick person to the hospital to receive the correct medical attention can make the difference between life and death. there are further time frames which must be kept in the filing of documents. Time is worth more than money because by its judicious employment more enjoyment can be secured than money can purchase”.Value Other People’s Time 55 4 Value Other People’s Time Time is a measure of everything in life and it is said that every kind of work ought to be adjusted to it. Failure to do so can be highly prejudicial. Time is. In the legal sphere. Once such proceedings are commenced.
In the area of contracts. whether lawyers. There are also time limits within which an appeal must be filed. wait for a hearing to start or not start at all. litigants or witnesses. making it necessary to preserve evidence for an indefinite period of time. However. such wastage of time on an overall basis will be hopefully minimised right up to the highest level. cannot be done. That apart. If this is not complied with. the right to an appeal may be lost. . This would be a burdensome. The law of limitations provides the time frame within which an action must be filed or the right to do so may be lost. The effect of this would be to agree that the time frame requirements are to be strictly observed. the extent of exercise of judicial discretion in some cases may depend on the prevailing mood on whether to be strict or liberal in giving and allowing such applications at a particular time. non-observance gives the other party an immediate right to termination or discharge from its obligations. Such limits are necessary. without the approval of the court. With the recent changes in the administration of the legal system. When individuals. Yet. many would have experienced instances of waiting for a court case to start or be called. then unless an extension of time is obtained.56 Time Management of time as well as permit other acts which. otherwise the likelihood of litigation may hang over one’s head for the entire life time. despite this high regard for observing time lines that can destroy or negate valuable rights. if not impossible task. many of us do not value the time of our fellow citizens. an advantage may be gained or a disadvantage caused by bringing an action at a much later time. In such instances. it is valuable time lost. TIME IN COURT Looking back at the past. parties often boldly provide for time to be “of the essence”.
and an appointment made for 10am may lead to a much later consultation. the solution to the problem of time wastage may not be found in directives from the top alone.Value Other People’s Time 57 However. Appointments meant to bring people together to deal with a matter often have little meaning in our country. travel with urgency for several kilometres to a court to attend to a matter which has been earlier fixed only to see a notice announcing that the presiding officer is on leave and all cases fixed on that day are adjourned to another day. it is greatly appreciated. when they are going on leave. there seems to be no value attached to keeping appointments. there is sadly no respect for other people’s time. But for those who do not have the benefit of such consideration. Of course. One may. When people do not value their own time. In many areas of activity in our society. there are also judges and presiding officers who take pains to ensure that all parties are duly informed well in advance. . Some hospitals and clinics are a shining example of this. it can be difficult to expect them to value the time of others. There is a need for each individual officer to appreciate and realise that they need to place value on the time of others as they would on their own. however wellmeaning this may be. there is little comfort. When this happens to a large number of people and on a repeated basis. it adds up to a monumental waste of such a valuable asset. This is not to say that those involved in doing their work and who fix the appointments are not working. Meaningless Appointment Such disregard for time is not confined to courts alone. It is just that whilst the person who determined the appointment is seriously working hard. Much time has in the past been wasted in courts when lawyers have to wait for hours to attend to what is perhaps a two-minute matter. for example. When this happens.
week.” . Life is like an artichoke. year. And I do despise making the most of one’s time. Oliver Wendell Holmes has this to say in Holmes Pollock Letters: “I wax impatient sometimes to think how much time it takes to do a little fragment of what one would like to do and dreams of. gives you one little bit which you nibble off – but precious little compared with what you throw away. each day. I enjoy it as keenly as most people. Half of the pleasure of life consists of the opportunities one has neglected.58 Time Management We must endeavour in the year ahead to converse this valuable asset. month. One may perhaps find solace in the fact that it is after all a universal phenomenon that cannot always be avoided.
USING WAITING TIME IN ORGANIZING Okay so they can’t organize their desk or papers. But you have all the time there is for you. Their action list should be captured in something that is portable and carried with them most of the time. at work there is discretionary time — the time which you can choose to spend as you will — and committed time.Committed Time And How To Use It 59 5 Committed Time And How To Use It You may sometimes complain that you lack time. Whether it is electronic or paper is purely a matter of personal preference. but you need not waste the time. Basically. but they can organize their action (or to do) lists and planner. . Time comes in different guises. However. if you are alert you may find portions of it which are actually free time. you are committed to be standing there. Waiting in a bus queue is a good example. Committed time is time that is booked for one reason or another.
if not impossible. so it frees up time later 2. You may want to forget about the exercise bicycle. It usually involves waiting time: both can be put to profitable use — thinking. These activities are considerably more difficult. men devote more time to shaving than any other area of personal care. check progress on projects and identify what steps need taken to progress. or using a portable telephone. identify anything that needs followed up with others.60 Time Management The odd moment here or there is perfect to work on their action lists. Notice however that we do use these committed times for social or business conversations. Travel Time A major candidate for review is the time you spend travelling. Nine out of ten men shave daily. add more detail to existing ones. scraping a layer of skin off his face. They have a super effective action list so they can power through those actions in record time. They are doing work they should be doing another time. Take shaving for example. if you insist always on driving by car to wherever you need to go. conducting business meetings. Benefits of Using Committed Time on Action Lists: 1.000 hours eating — the equivalent of 330 days and nights. Score out the completed tasks. It is estimated that modern man spends 3. reading.350 hours (that’s 19 weeks) of his life standing in front of a mirror. as in more primitive times. together with the growth of the previous day. Checking against their weekly plan to make sure all the deadlines will be hit. Today. writing. but have you considered using a tape recorder to learn or perfect a foreign language? Take eating. Some Examples of Committed Time Daily routines are in effect committed time. . Between the ages of 20 and 50 you will spend an estimated 8.
The participative management concepts that are developed always need to be considered within this context. timely managerial decisions in many instances determine promotional opportunities and ultimate career level for the manager. Decision Making It is often said that managers are paid to make decisions and their subordinates are paid to implement them. partially true. In fact. at least. Usually the staff professional must “sell” the line organization on the merits of a given decision or program before it will be implemented. it is. the line manager still has final accountability for decision outcomes. Although professional subordinates can and do offer valuable input. Professionals holding line management positions need to be aware of their responsibility for decision making and make sure they have the personal qualities to feel good about making decisions. the number of high-quality. . Professionals may make valuable inputs into the decision making process and/or they may actually determine particular choices but the ultimate responsibility for decision outcomes rests with their managers. participation often is the key to successful decision making among professionals. Many professionals hold staff positions in line organizations and have advisory rather than command authority in decision making. Since professional involvement in decision making tends to increase commitment to implementation. Thus many of the suggestions offered for building sound staff-line relationships are particularly applicable to decision making among professional staff.Committed Time And How To Use It 61 Remember that a day has a hundred pockets of time if you know where to look for them. While this statement is an oversimplification in the professional work environment.
The section devoted to successful boundary spanning is designed to help professional staff in getting their decisions implemented. Managers’ value systems and propensity for risk affect their approach to decision making. sponsored research firms. A cornerstone of effectively managing professionals is the leader’s ability to take a balanced view of the decision making process and to integrate specialty interests with total organizational needs. because the line managers usually determine whether or not their important decisions are properly implemented. The decision-making process may be the result of hunch or “gut feelings. Large amounts of specialized skill training among specific professionals often impede their visualization of the broader organizational environment. THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS A decision is the selection of the preferred course of action from two or more alternatives. Professionals need a perspective of the total organization to make quality decisions. This latter approach . This integration requires the application of strong human relations skills if dysfunctional conflict is to be avoided. Professionals need to manage line relationships well. As a consequence they may have a high propensity to take risks in areas that only promote their specialty within the organization. and governmental agencies. they are equally applicable to other professional work settings including social and health services. “ or may be based on a scientific approach.62 Time Management Staff specialists should make decisions with due consideration to line managers’ reaction to them. In most staff assignments it is helpful to pay specific attention to the needs and concerns of the line organization. Although specific examples and illustrations used in the ensuing discussion of decision making may appear to relate primarily to the corporate (profit making) environment.
payroll. Examples include facility design considerations. comparative alternatives. and policy establishment. Most programmed decisions can be computerized for essentially automatic handling. Examples include decisions for production scheduling. Many decisions require an acceptable solution to a problem. Some decisions are simple. Several decades ago Simon classified decisions as programmed and unprogrammed. there is usually more than one acceptable solution to any given problem. counter to the financial goals of the organization. Many decisions are made with inherent conflict concerning goals. A major concern of top management is to make decisions that resolve these types of conflicts and realize the best outcome for overall corporate objectives. For example. As with the selection of the “best” alternative. . namely. and product pricing. and decision making under uncertain conditions. The decision-making environment has two extremes: decision making under known conditions. and consistent priorities. new product development. Both may desire large inventories to provide rapid response to customer needs with minimum production delays. while manufacturing desires product standardization to minimize production costs. Nonprogrammed decisions are associated with nonroutine and poorly structured problems. Programmed decisions are those associated with routine and well-structured problems. risk increases with uncertainty. Nonprogrammed decisions may only be partially solved or assisted with computerization. Another example of goal conflict would be to team marketing and manufacturing against financial management. marketing would like extensive product features and diversity to enhance sales. while others are more complex. The amount of risk associated with the decision depends on the amount of uncertainty.Committed Time And How To Use It 63 considers a clear understanding of goals.
In any case. Systems Analysis Aids Decision Making The systems analysis approach structures a methodology for decision making that analyzes problems to find the most effective and efficient solution within certain constraints. but a large percentage of nonprogrammed decisions can be improved with creative input from management. analytical techniques. Define the criteria 7. While most researchers and practicing managers agree with this. Make assumptions concerning the system 5. Basic Steps in Systems Analysis The systems analysis methodology for decision making is composed of the following basic steps: 1. it is useful to remember that creativity is important in many decisions. Good managers should profit from their mistakes and from their successes. Understanding this concept will improve one’s decisionmaking ability. Define the objectives 3. or just serendipity (recognizing valuable things not specifically sought). Define the problem 2.64 Time Management The initial approach to problem solving is usually undertaken within the framework of one’s own experience. or a combination of two or more of these approaches. Other approaches include the experience of others. The input may be based on experience or science. One should not attempt to reinvent the wheel when a standard wheel will suffice. Collect the data . it should be remembered that innate ability is also required. An important point concerning the decision-making process is that judgement appears to improve with experience. Define the alternatives 4. Define the constraints 6.
The process of determining exactly what is wrong can be the most consuming part of the entire analysis and the most critical. Evaluate the alternatives. policies. including the required fiscal and physical resources. for the most perfect solution to the wrong problem does nothing to solve the real problem. This can be accomplished by modifying different assumptions and observing the effect on the desired output. However. The reasoning behind this is that some new constraints might arise. These alternatives represent the competing “systems” for accomplishing the objectives. but it is not always possible to know or predict precisely how things will be in the future. In the definition of the problem there must be an accurate description of the present situation showing some sort of disparity that must be eliminated. Clearly stated objectives are also useful for establishing limits and guidelines for the remaining basic steps. Objectives must be defined to provide a structural framework and overall goals for the systems analysis. Defining the problem may appear to be a needless step since this is the basic reason the analysis is being undertaken. The statistical sensitivity of these assumptions will need to be tested when the model is built. The definition of alternatives should be exhaustive. making the superior alternatives impossible to implement. facts are much more desirable than assumptions. Of course. Assumptions must be made about the larger system within which the alternatives will work. They represent opposing strategies. but it is probably the most important step in the procedure. even though some alternatives are obviously inferior. It is difficult to identify all constraints. Build the model 9. more information about problem restrictions will improve the . or specific actions. This system should include anything that affects the problem situation or the alternatives.Committed Time And How To Use It 65 8.
and. for these are the rules or standards by which the alternatives are ranked in order of desirability. It is important to remember that. The collection of data is somewhat mundane and even boring. One constraint that must be considered early in the analysis is top management’s philosophy toward scientific management. traditional. The first and most obvious constraint in most cases is money. a model is generally needed because experimenting with the real system is either impossible. and by a method that will not bias the solution. the list becomes hazy. in some cases. or quite dangerous. economically infeasible. Constraints do not have to be physical or even measurable. but in complex problems for which a vast amount of data exists for each. after this. It is mandatory that all pertinent data relating to each alternative be collected in a usable format. ideally. and. of course. the mere mention that analysis is being undertaken or action is under consideration may be enough impetus to significantly alter the problem situation. Building a model is not always necessary in every analysis. sociological. as in some defense projects. The perfect solution to an important problem could be arrived at through systems analysis. administrative. and an aid for control . be adaptable to meaningful quantification. A model can also serve as an aid to thought and communication. a tool for production. but they must be recognized.66 Time Management presentation of analysis and will prevent inappropriate evaluations. The definition of criteria is important to the analyst. Other constraints are psychological. include consideration of all major effects relative to the objectives. political. They must be relevant to the problem area. physical (personnel and equipment). technical. and yet never be implemented because of top management’s distrust (or fear) of scientific management. but it is obviously as important as any other part of the analysis.
Committed Time And How To Use It 67 purposes and for training and instruction. but usually the analysis is performed by someone on the staff of the decision maker. the decision maker should perform a final check to answer the following kinds of questions: Were the objectives of the problem stated correctly? Has the data changed? Are there any new assumptions or constraints? It is possible to expend considerable time performing this final check or review. The evaluation of the alternatives is the “putting everything together” step. the cost of implementing each alternative is compared with the dollar value of the benefits accrued from implementation. but in practical management situations the decision maker must come up with a timely solution for implementation. the decision maker must evaluate the constraints . if it is not acceptable. assumptions. the decision maker must identify the best solution by considering facts. the plan is implemented. Cost-effectiveness analysis compares the cost of implementation of each alternative with its real benefit. After the analyst has evaluated the alternatives. The constraints defined. using the predetermined criterion as a measuring stick. In certain situations. normally will not allow the decision maker to follow the well-known theoretical problem-solving model to the perfect solution without uncertainty. and uncertainties for the problem. THE DECISION-MAKING STEPS Following the basic steps of systems analysis. In costbenefit analysis. specifically time and money. Two of the most commonly used evaluation methods are cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. the systems analyst and the decision maker are the same person. If the alternative identified is considered acceptable by the decision maker. This can be done through many analytical tools.
the superior manager will work to eliminate unimportant constraints. the decision maker may be forced to implement a less than optimal plan. the constraints placed on the analyst are frequently so restrictive that the solution may be nothing better than an “intelligent guess. Something should be said about what systems analysis is not. All of the various components of the analysis are defined by humans and often based on many untested assumptions. There have been many examples in which an entire factory has been closed down by a strike called because one worker was fired. There is still a need for experienced judgement. As labour unions grew in strength.” Consequently. It is a method of investigating. Communication to the analyst that facilitates problem understanding is critical in the process of obtaining quality decisions. not solving. Importance of Quality Decision Making The constraints imposed upon the decision maker are often subtle and troublesome. they are not comparable with those that have been added during recent years. As implied earlier. which requires an employer to ensure . problems. management found that it could no longer assume that its employees were just another resource to be utilized in the production process. It is not a panacea for every decision maker. Any decision involving the labour force must be scrutinized to ensure that a contract has not been broken. Government legislation such as the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). A correct decision cannot be assured even if the analysis is carried out to perfection. Although there were many constraints imposed upon the decision makers of the early 1900s. In many cases. It does not tell the decision maker which alternative to choose.68 Time Management in order to determine if time and/or money is available to continue in the iterative model.
technology has moved so rapidly that no professional could . An agency. Decisions should not be made without knowing their full impact on the public as well as on the various markets. It is known in governmental circles that the public will view an area of government more critically if it discovers a major mistake within it.Committed Time And How To Use It 69 that employees have safe and healthy work environments. much of the public wants environmental improvements without product price increases. Most states have product liability laws that strongly favor the consumer. Increased Number of Alternatives Another area that has changed for the decision maker and complicated the decision process is the number of alternatives available to attain a certain objective. The Department of Defense can no longer give out lavish contracts to researchers for the investigation of meaningless ideas. “Consumerism” has come to light in the past several years. The increasing public concern and environmental laws have promoted most manufacturing industries to add pollution control equipment. the vastness of the federal government has become more and more evident to the general public. requires improved decision making. bureau. These are some examples of constraints placed upon decision makers that underscore the need for quality decision making. Recently. The cost of labour in itself is enough to warrant the careful analysis of all alternatives. Effective decision making will aid in the development of lower cost antipollution manufacturing operations. However. Regulatory agencies have found new strength and courage in the public outcry for better and safer products. obliging industry to recognize its responsibility to its customers. or even the President can no longer hide major mistakes from the public. Since the end of World War II and the introduction of television.
” Without a systematic method to evaluate all of the various alternatives presented. the decision maker may choose an alternative that fulfills the consultant’s objectives. a decision maker can ill afford not to take advantage of any tool that will speed up the decision-making process without adding uncertainty. In many cases. either as part of an alternative or in the analysis of the alternatives. The computer specialist who begins the conversation by asking what output is needed or what objectives are sought is the person who is going to help. because it can both improve some alternatives and expedite the analysis. To a decision maker less knowledgeable in the computer field.70 Time Management possibly remain completely up-to-date. even in his or her own field. Of course. if the best alternative is not known. the various design alternatives incorporating computer technology can boggle the mind. It is difficult to imagine a complex decision that does not involve a computer. but not the organization’s. . The other extreme (considering too many alternatives) is demonstrated by the fact that a new breed of professional has entered the scene-the consultant salesperson. a computer salesperson who begins to describe the various characteristics of hardware and software systems is talking about means and not ends. The most desirable process is the ability to make decisions in real time. these people could be called “alternative creators. Also. or in a world where total destruction could be complete within a day. But this should not cause rejection of the computer. the decision maker can only make an inferior decision. In a marketplace where fad products may have a lifecycle of six months. The basic factor to remember is that the computer is just another tool by which the analyst or decision maker obtains the desired objectives. Time is a constraint in most decisions.
Coping with stress means. Ultimately. coping with stress means taking a break from the worries of their daily lives through escapism such as a movie or playing a video game. Moreover. You can not be perfect and you can not do it all. Coping with stress begins with learning to give yourself permission to be happy. that people employ to minimize stressful events. you are easy when it comes to criticism. insisting other people make them feel stressed. coping positively with stress is about taking responsibility for your feelings and your reactions to stress. For some people. You do not expect too much from others or yourself. Other people’s idea of . It is not a sign of weakness to ask for help when you are overwhelmed and busy. both behavioural and psychological. Some people play the part of a victim. coping with stress is about being happy with what you have. Coping with stress means not trying to be a superwoman or a superman. People who are not skilled at coping with stress will say their career makes them feel stressed or their spouse adds stress to their lives.Coping With Stress 71 6 Coping With Stress Coping strategies refer to the specific efforts.
because each human thinks differently and has different ideas. A psychiatrist. Coping with stress is also about being flexible and living a balanced life. In addition to each person being unique. and is their own unique being. then think of a list of situations and things that you feel add stress to your life. social worker or qualified counselor may give you better ideas for coping with stress than what you have tried on your own. Think about the biggest hurdles of your life and your strategy to overcome it. When you actually make up your mind to seek professional help in coping with stress. your family. Talking to a friend or loved one after having a stressful day is a great way of coping with emotional stress. In terms of coping with emotional stress. listen to others and think it over before taking a decision. the best way to handle stress is by sharing your feelings. The interaction between multiple unique beings lends itself to conflict. Try to be patient instead of judgmental. Conflict can positively affect decision-making processes by allowing for the integration of multiple points . Each individual looks at goals and relationships differently. THE PROFESSIONAL WORK ENVIRONMENT Conflict is a part of life. it is necessary to allow conflict to occur but it is just as necessary to implement a management style that positively deals with the underlying problem. You don’t have to do it alone. seek professional help. Be prepared to explain how stress affects your career. Every individual has their own timetable. In most organizations. your physical health and your happiness. If your strategies for coping with stress are not working. if one exists. psychologist.72 Time Management coping with stress involves hobbies they enjoy such as gardening or drawing. Neither let others impose their points of view on you nor reject them altogether. everyone has some dependency on others to complete their own goals.
less productive workers are encouraged to change their direction or job and the firm is strengthened. 3. As more productive workers gain control of larger amounts of resources. When an individual or group finds its goal-directed activities are being blocked by other individuals.e. Conflict can be a leading cause . which is undesirable for any organization. Many of these negative views are related to the additional burdens placed on communication and ensuring stress that results from dysfunctional conflict. 2. 4. force upperlevel managers to make difficult personnel replacement decisions that are needed but would not otherwise be made. All conflict however. Early views of conflict in organizations were inherently negative and conflict was seen as a potential threat to overall effectiveness. or coalitions conflict occurs. For advancement conflict is necessary.. needed strategic change is more likely to occur.Coping With Stress 73 of view. Conflict can cause marginal employees to leave the organization. Conflict may force top management to take a more critical view of the organization and. productivity of the people involved is reduced. groups. Some conflict contributes to a more interesting work environment. Of course. as a consequence. Conflict may be an important motivational force that results in professionals seeking additional training and development in order to upgrade skills to remain or become more competitive. 5. not all conflict has positive outcomes for the manager and the organization. but when conflict becomes dysfunctional. Conflict may improve decision making. Among these are: 1. is not dysfunctional and managers are now becoming increasingly aware of positive outcomes that may be frequently associated with conflict. i.
Conflict as measured by grievance rates and disciplinary actions correlate with each other and impact on both behaviour and attitudes. Professionals. High mobility associated with skilled professionals increases their sensitivity within the work environment. conflict reduction systems have tended to include more formal representation procedures. In recent years. Similarly. are often relied on for a large measure of the creativity and innovation within the firm. in research and development as well as several other staff functions. When these systems are not working well and dysfunctional conflict increases. High conflict intensity among professionals will usually result in poor organizational performance. which often reduces tolerance levels and raises turnover rates for this valued employee group. Excessive conflict is likely to reduce their individual productivity levels in these important areas. the attitudes of salaried workers (including many professionals) is adversely affected. One of the major functions of good human resources management is to help managers establish procedures and policies for reducing levels of dysfunctional conflict. The complex problem of stress and individual deterioration in performance will be analyzed in detail later in this chapter. managers in the professional work environment that are able to manage conflict constructively will substantially increase their managerial effectiveness. they may also signal difficulties in the conflict resolution or problem solving systems within the organization.74 Time Management of stress which may contribute to health problems for the individual employee. . A large number of grievances and disciplinary actions may indicate either the success or failure of these formal procedures particularly in their early stages. Managers need to be aware of systems within the organization that are designed to reduce levels of conflict as well as specified managerial techniques that can be effective in conflict management. Consequently.
However. One way to accomplish this is to help employees focus on more important goals (superordinate) for the organization. Change the individuals involved. the manager of a sports team can show that winning the championship is most beneficial and important to all parties involved.Coping With Stress 75 TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE CONFLICT As with so many issues in management. In using this approach the manager’s objective is to make the issues less personal to the parties involved. Professionals as well as other employee groups are likely to cooperate if cooperation is seen as promoting their own interests. Since existing interpersonal conflict is interfering with the attainment of this important goal. they send clear messages to other professionals in the work group about how conflict is handled. Alter the issues in dispute. Although these alternatives are difficult to follow. thereby reducing the conflict. discharge may be appropriate. 3. if their attitude and/or performance is clearly detrimental to the organization. preferably through transfer. For example. It is most important . 2. Miles described several conflict resolution strategies that are particularly applicable to the professional work environment as follows: 1. Changing relationships can reduce conflict. Alter the context and/or relationships. the manager may be able to separate either the tasks or the two employees. Of course conflict is often resolved when one or more of the conflicting parties is removed from the situation. the basic means used to resolve conflict depend on the situation. if two professionals are fighting about jurisdiction over specific tasks. Potential conflict involving other employees is affected by how current conflict is being managed. it is in the interest of each player to cooperate and resolve it. For example.
Management plays a crucial role in avoiding these types of conflicts. if proper responsibility is not assigned. by claiming credit when good work is done or assigning blame to others when things go wrong. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility Organizations are entering a new frontier. where the potential for conflict is greater. The disputes that arise when one party does not play by the rules. These situations can lead to conflicts between departments. more people are contributing to decisions about what to do. the associated authority should be delegated to the individual or department. are a major source of dysfunction in organizations. two or more departments may try to take interest in the same task (especially if the task is being watched by top management). when.76 Time Management that managers of professionals take some action to resolve dysfunctional conflict. Functions for each department in the organization must be clearly identified. Issues involving conflict resolution are similar to most other issues confronting today’s manager in that preventing dysfunctional conflict is the most effective way to manage it. . There are several steps managers in the professional work environment can take that will help to prevent destructive conflict. While assigning responsibility to individuals or departments. In this environment. the potential for conflict increases. Inside many organizations today. Usually. As they blur (or disappear altogether). Business boundaries inside and outside organizations are changing. and how to do it. if top management does not notice a particular task both departments may omit it. or seems to be getting more than others. an empowered workforce is shifting decision making from a top-down process to a more democratic one. On the other hand.
some people are energized and others impaired. These nonverbal cues contribute to 50% or more of the received message. Open Lines of Communication Communication among individuals or departments is necessary for integration and understanding in any organization. Communication gets distorted while passing through a number of channels. In the same environment. if the room or the weather is warm. and thus it is necessary that communications be direct. Conflicts arise in communication because when you communicate. two managers approached a mediator. one at a time.Coping With Stress 77 Professionally trained people are likely to be jealous of their work assignments. the quality of communication is highly influenced by other factors. They had temporarily been able to put the conflict . body language. thoughts. mood. some feel blessed and others are irritated and uncomfortable. compliment the words that are said. Nonverbal cues like voice tone. In a certain organization. When task assignments are clear and organizational boundaries are well established the potential for conflict is reduced. Therefore. For example. They are often seeking greater challenges and are likely to assume tasks that appear to be especially interesting. different people react in different ways. personality factors. etc. it is absolutely essential that the speaker bear all these things in mind when communicating. feelings.. life history. facial expressions. Thus. Often improper or unclear communication leads to conflict. Even the decor of a room can make a difference. Environment plays a vital role in communication. to seek help for their long standing conflict. Communication is such a complex process that perfect interpersonal communication may be next to impossible to achieve. it involves much more than words. desires. physical conditions.
The mediator proposed a meeting for a conflict resolution session with himself as the third party facilitator. each blamed the other for the problem and listed many justifying reasons. When finished. the first manager had complained saying that the second manager discounted their views and did not listen. he observed the following pattern of communication: One of the managers would explain their viewpoint on an issue. When the mediator asked them to work on their issues in order. . a subsequent reorganization put them back into interdependent roles. the second manager’s response was a silent look and the first manager would continue repeating their points. Also it required a tremendous effort to communicate with them. The same conflict between them still existed. they first went through a process of posting all the grievances on sheets of newsprint so that they were visible to everyone. the second manager’s response was to simply sit and look at the first manager with no comment. then the grievances were prioritized. During the managers private meetings with the mediator. varying their approach each time while the second manager remained silent. However. assuming that the apparent lack of response meant the second manager did not understand. When a mediator heard each of their stories. the second manager had complained that the first manager talked too much and unnecessarily repeated explanations. The first manager. Likewise. each story was impeccably logical and made perfect sense. As usual in many conflicts. would repeat their views from a different perspective. Again.78 Time Management behind them because the company reorganization had physically separated them. When they met. prior to their next mutual session. The two stories were almost diametrically opposed and the mediator could not find any loophole in either story.
open lines of communication foster managerial effectiveness. steps should be taken to locate them closer to avoid distortion in communication. or lack of understanding. they tend to increase the level of motivation of the person completing the task. Employee Interdependency As people become more dependent on others to complete tasks. When their communication styles were explained to each other by the mediator. Unfortunately in today’s world it is nearly impossible to have people working independently. the conflict was immediately resolved and their personal relationship greatly improved. A single person with excellent communication skills from each department should be identified to liaison the communication. Open communications increase the probability that managers can learn about potentially dysfunctional conflict early and then take steps to reduce it.Coping With Stress 79 The mediator immediately understood that the personal communication style for each of the managers was totally different: the first manager’s style was to assume that silence of the listener indicated indifference. The conflict tends to center around task-related and person oriented incompatibilities among team members. so care needs to be taken when assigning people to teams. particularly if these differences are personal in nature. Employees may not talk openly about their differences with others. independent tasks not only reduce the likelihood of conflict. Deutsch’s interdependence theory states that conflict can either benefit or injure the decision-making process depending on whether the team members perceive the interdependence to be positive or negative. With professionals. disapproval. . In the case of conflict between departments in an organization. it is likely that conflict will arise. The style of the second manager was simply to listen without response if they had no questions. As has been stated throughout this book.
This is mainly due to the fact that each individual’s job varies greatly. The punishment system also needs to be perceived as objective. negative interdependency tends to arise because many team members feel that they are competing against each other to attain the individual’s goals. Reward and Discipline Processes Another way to prevent dysfunctional conflict is to establish predictability on the reward and discipline process. a manager should not allow one subordinate to wear jeans then punish another for wearing jeans (unless the ability to wear jeans in the office is a reward and one subordinate attained the reward while the other . the other subordinates will usually reduce their productivity toward their job under the assumption that there is no reason to work hard when the rewards or promotions are given to only favorites of the boss. Most organizations have rules in place for employee discipline. the reward system needs to be related to objective measures. But when a cross-functional team is created. If a manager starts handing out rewards to their subordinates that they like. if there is a rule that a subordinate cannot wear jeans in the office. If these systems are not perceived as objective. positive interdependency normally occurs. For example. The rules should be enforced consistently among the subordinates. creating a perception that to be successful the other parties involved must fail. As a manager. so that each team member needs the others to attain their own goals (completing the job at hand in a comprehensive and efficient manner).80 Time Management Positive interdependence issues exist when the team’s goals align with the individual’s goals and there is a mutual perception that the parties involved will stand or fall together. then it may look like the manager is playing favorites. With professionals in the same discipline. The negative interdependency arises when each party’s goals differ from the other’s.
even if there really is no favoritism. These disturbances. used to describe an individual’s response to environmental pressure. MANAGING STRESS Stress and Strain Defined The term stress. but is consistent in the enforcement toward a group of subordinates on the same level in the organization. Occupational stress is when these stressors are a result of the workplace. The easiest way to reduce this kind of conflict is to uniformly uphold the company rules as a manager (or change the rules). This may also create conflict when there are multiple managers who manage the same level of subordinates and these managers choose to enforce the rules differently. If the rules are not enforced consistently. clinically. and enforce rules in a predictable fashion with relative consistency. Stress has . Any perceived favoritism in the distribution of rewards or the allocation of punishments may create conflict among subordinates. The word “stress” was derived from either the Latin verb stringere meaning to draw tight. are referred to as “stressors” and lead to individual strains.Coping With Stress 81 did not). A manager may decide to enforce each rule to a different degree. stemmed from physics and engineering terminology relating to force applied over an area (pressure). Unfortunately each manager has different ideas on what rules need to be enforced and which ones do not. preferably performance related. The cause of the conflict is perceived favoritism. or the old French verb destresse meaning to be placed under narrowness or oppression and can be defined as an individual’s response to a disturbance. conflict will most likely occur. Managers need to base rewards on objective measures. These issues need to be addressed in a meeting with the upper level manager.
. body and skin surface temperature. and information overloads such as the continuous need for adaptation to new technology (psychological). dysfunctional conflict is a major source of increased stress levels among professionals. There are several measures of human strain. sinus arrhythmia.” They also defined human strain as “the ‘cost’ or effect or consequence on the individual. pulse volume/deficit. Psychological measures of strain include the following: Activity: Work rate. Sources of stress caused by the environment include excessive heat or cold.82 Time Management been defined by Sanders and McCormick as “any aspect of human activity or the environment acting upon the individual which results in some undesirable cost to. and the galvanic skin response (GSR). and noise or vibration (physiological). and eye blink rate. not cooperative. urine analysis. number of errors. and calorie intake. electromyograph (EMG). Chemical: Blood content. and respiratory rate. of stress. resistance to change. Sources of stress that emanate from work include high energy tasks (physiological). and strong preference to be left alone. Physiological measures include the following: Physical: Blood pressure. As previously indicated. and confinement or a threatening hazard (psychological).” Sources of stress can be physiological or psychological. heart rate. Electrical: Electroencephalogram (EEG). Sources of stress related to the circadian rhythm include traveling distances that span several time zones (jet-lag) and sleep loss. oxygen consumption/deficit. or reaction upon. Attitudes: Boredom. This stress affects both the physiological and psychological condition of the human. the individual. electrocardiogram (EKG).
Two major factors contributing to stress among professionals are short lead times for work completion and close supervision. if several occur at the same time or one (or a few) with great intensity. The author has observed this so much that he has formulated a nonscientific and somewhat humorous definition of stress as follows: “Stress sometimes can be defined as the confusion created when one’s mind overrides the body’s . those that directly influence other workers compound poor performance. as well as increased absenteeism and turnover. stress overload may cause noticeable deterioration in performance. high turnover may result from high stress. Ivancevich and Matteson identify many of these behavioral changes as follows: Working late more often than usual Difficulty in making decisions Significant decline in task performance Problems in interpersonal relationships Increased absenteeism. Since professionals often have work loyalties that extend well beyond their present organizational affiliation. The alert manager often can spot problems in early stages which makes correction more effective and easier. It is important to note that while all of the above behaviour changes are undesirable.Coping With Stress 83 Although limited amounts of stress contribute to improved performance. Stressful situations involving more than one individual should receive top priority for manager intervention. A knowledge of a professional employee’s customary behaviour patterns can help the manager to recognize changes that may indicate stress overload. Much of the stress created within organizations is people generated. corrective action is appropriate. While these changes may occur sporadically during an extended work period.
coronary heart disease usually does not occur before the age of seventy. However. and insecurity. competitiveness and achievement striving. job involvement. irritability. another important reason to handle stress properly and in a timely fashion is the possible connection between high stress and coronary artery and heart disease.84 Time Management natural desire to inflict physical injury on another person who truly deserves it!” Individual Reactions to Stress In addition to the desire to increase managerial effectiveness. this reaction produces higher than normal levels of hormone production and cholesterol. If regularly activated. “ which . and an increased tendency for the clotting elements of the blood to fall out and settle onto the walls of veins and arteries. type As react with a flight or fight response. Attempts to understand this relationship have led researchers to categorize individuals as either exhibiting Type A or Type B behaviour. Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman indicate that in the absence of a type A behaviour pattern. impatience and never having enough time. for type A individuals coronary heart disease can easily erupt in the thirties or forties. Parks found that Type A personalities are “characterized by impatience. Persons who experienced this behaviour response were more likely to develop hypertension. More recent studies have also found a positive correlation between Type A personalities and cardiovascular disease. It is important for managers in the professional work environment to reduce this possibility both for themselves and their subordinates. Two pioneering physicians who have done extensive research in this area. Traits associated with Type A behaviour include excessive competitiveness. hostility. When confronted with high stress. ulcers. headaches. as well as increased vulnerability to other diseases.
Appraisals of response capabilities are influenced by the extent the professional feels they control the work environment. as mentioned in earlier. COPING WITH STRESS Coping refers to an individual’s efforts to master life conditions or life demands that tax or exceeds one’s adaptive resources. less hostile. Externals see luck or others as primarily control factors. Stress occurs when a professional makes a cognitive appraisal that a significant imbalance exists between environmental demands and response capability. It has been estimated that 50% of the population is mostly Type A. psychological. Managers who grant more autonomy and control to their professional subordinates will give them a stronger basis for coping with stress and reducing anxiety. 40 percent mostly Type B and 10 percent having equal traits of both. internals handle information more effectively and are better at using their experience on a task to improve their performance. There are three major components in coping with stress: physiological. Type Bs are more relaxed. Of course. and behavioral. The physiological component encompasses life expectancy. Coping behaviour is related to how efficiently an individual is able to use available energy resources in handling a given stressful situation. and do not feel constantly pressed for time. Studies indicate that when internals and externals are exposed to tasks designed to be stressful. Stress arises from a perceived threat. Those who feel a strong sense of control are called internals. .Coping With Stress 85 may result in psychological problems as well as physical ailments associated with higher levels of stress. genetic make up. and those who perceive little environmental control are called externals. and predisposition to various health issues . there are many other positive benefits to the organization from involvement management. In contrast.
and absenteeism. For instance. Behavioral components consist of two types of resources useful in coping with stress. Stressors leading to individual strains usually lead to poor job performance. It is difficult to say whether or not these findings are a result of individual strain from job stressors or a direct result of job stressors.86 Time Management as well as diet. The first is marked by the social resources one has available in dealing with stress. . exercise. smoking. and other health problems. but their negative effect on industry is apparent. or watching a movie. Yoga and meditation are useful mental stress reducers for many individuals. or a combination. It is difficult to determine direct relations to organizational results. Effects of Stress on Industry In recent years. tardiness. turnover. Energy usurpers such as alcoholism. walking. Negative effects on an organization can include employee withdrawal. is all factors that can seriously hinder a person’s ability to deal with physical stress. cardiovascular disease. Positive energy refueling techniques include different forms of relaxation such as playing with kids. The important topic of stress reduction techniques for the longer-term is discussed in more detail later in this chapter. industry itself has also suffered the repercussions of stress in the workplace. and physical activities that are nonwork-related. lower overall productivity. and overall conditioning. attraction to another place. psychological withdrawal. for example a strong support group. tardiness and absenteeism might be a result of unhappiness in the workplace. The second is the development of interpersonal skills necessary for handling stressful situations. Psychological components have to do with coping mechanisms based on experience that have evolved over a period of years and include self-awareness and flexibility in thinking.
nonsupportive work.g. affective disturbances (e. Psychological disorders that can result from such factors may be classified as. Studies have shown that factors contributing to an unsatisfactory work environment may include work overload. lack of control over one’s work... as suggested by early studies of stress-related immunologic . psychiatric disorders (e. The professional is not immune to this potential problem. Xerox Corporation estimates the cost to replace one executive lost to a stress-induced illness is $600.000 middle-aged workers who leave their jobs due to cardiovascular disease each year.000. There is increasing evidence that an unsatisfactory work environment may contribute to psychological disorders. In addition. companies whose employees find themselves unable to cope with high levels of job stress generally have increased problems associated with absenteeism. headache. Also. anxiety. and somatic complaints (e. and machine-paced work. irritability). Psychological Disorders The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has developed a list of ten leading work-related diseases and injuries which includes psychological disorders.g. In addition to psychological disorders. substance abuse. In addition.g. it has been reported that 700 million dollars is expensed on an annual basis to cover the costs incurred in replacing the more than 200. and frequent and prolonged sick leaves. possibly affecting the etiology and/or prognosis of other disease states.Coping With Stress 87 It has been estimated that the price paid by industry due to stress exceeds an estimated 150 billion dollars per year. Stress on the job can result in an unmotivated workforce and increases in work-related accidents.. neuroses). behavioral problems (e.. sleep difficulties). gastrointestinal symptoms). stressful working conditions may have a systemic influence.g.
and stress. boredom. Groups experiencing the highest levels of job stressors and their resultant ill effects were assemblers and relief workers on machine paced assembly lines. Heading the list were jobs in health care. NIOSH investigators also ranked 130 occupations by rate of admission to community mental health centers in Tennessee to determine the relative risk of psychological or stress-related disorders by occupation. The most satisfied occupational groups were physicians. and stress. service occupations. repetitive job tasks. For example. and white-collar supervisors. Mergers. A recent study relating to the impact of added rest breaks showed an increase in productivity and enhanced well being of fixed pace assembly line workers. in a NIOSH questionnaire survey of over 2. Acquisitions and Stress It is uniformly accepted that loss of job or career change is a major source of stress. strong occupational differences were found in psychosocial job stressors and in somatic and affective complaints. Also.000 workers in 23 different occupations. professors. fatigue. Ratings of boring. repetitive work. and a responsibility for others. shift work. and role ambiguity were more prominent among several classes of blue-collar workers than among white-collar professionals. studies of video display terminals data entry personnel and knowledge workers indicated that performance variability was an indicator of fatigue. In many American firms a large . These jobs tend to be characterized by stress-producing conditions such as lack of control over the job by the worker. A number of recent studies strongly support the early research investigations of NIOSH concerning work. There is increasing data on the relationship between specific working conditions and psychological disorders. and blue-collar factory work.88 Time Management suppression.
3 billion in assets as reported by ABC News and the Enron web site. An attendant problem that may be associated with pending acquisition or merger is an extended period of organizational . and the uncertainties generated by mergers and acquisitions or a firm filing for bankruptcy or going out of business substantially raise stress among professional employees. and gained $123 million from exercising previous stock options. As mentioned earlier in this chapter. 2002.Coping With Stress 89 number of mergers and acquisitions are occurring. These uncertain outcomes may impact particularly on the professional staff. Enron’s move represents the largest bankruptcy case ever filed in the U. From a management perspective. and did not accept an $81 million golden parachute exit package. Lay received $18 million in pay.000 employees have lost their jobs. and restricted stock. New ownership and/or top management may change corporate strategy or direction both dramatically and quickly. Enron CEO Kenneth Lay resigned his position on January 23. however. The Enron Corporation is an example of a company that filed bankruptcy in December 2001. uncertain outcomes that are highly valued are a leading cause of stress.S. These changes are likely to alter many professional work assignments or actually eliminate some of these jobs. When an existing firm is acquired (bought out) or merges with another organization many uncertainties are created in the minds of current employees about their jobs and careers. Professionals are often most sensitive to the strategic direction and orientation of a firm because of their large investment in education and training which contributes to an intense orientation toward career identity and involvement. in 2002. This firm ranked as high as number seven on the Fortune 500 list with $47. In 2000. bonuses. that over one-half of Enron’s 19. It has also been reported by Enron.
the absence of extra resources during hard times tends to raise levels of conflict and associated stress. and loss of innovation and credibility clearly manifest themselves in periods of decline.” Also at the end of each work day.90 Time Management decline prior to takeover or during the bankruptcy period. In fact. resistance to change. One study involving professionals found that such dysfunctions as low morale. Stress reduction among professionals associated with organizational changes related to merger or acquisition can have high payoffs to the total organization. recommend regular periods of exercise alternated with relaxation and other activities previously identified in this chapter on “how to cope with stress. A detailed review of 19 studies examining evidence of gender differences in stress dynamics revealed . Stress and Strain Reduction Techniques Authorities on stress and strain reduction. Of course. even in sustained periods of stability (stagnation) the dearth of growth-generated resources within a given firm can provoke these same dysfunctional characteristics. employees should be encouraged to make a stress assessment of events that have occurred and individual reactions to them. Specific steps can then be taken to eliminate these conditions or to otherwise alter them. Many medical experts recommend some organized sports activity each week in order to keep the cardiovascular system in good condition. Since organizations often use slack resources to resolve conflict and reduce stress. These regular assessments will enable individuals to identify sources of stress and the conditions where stresses are most prevalent. in addition to differences in Type B personalities already developed. individual employees may react differently to stressors because of various other unique characteristics.
In their research into the stress on highly trained professionals. Also. These stress levels even exceed those associated with senior level management. It is becoming more and more the role of management to organize and promote programs in areas such as empowerment. can help lessen conflicts and stress with management. thus reducing stress. business travel. relaxation techniques. Daniels and Guppy suggest several methods for reducing occupational stress on a more long-term permanent basis. .Coping With Stress 91 women tend to report higher rates of psychological stress and that men are more prone to severe physical illness. and team building. Employees at higher management levels including many professionals report more stress from working long hours. they are likely to experience less job stress than their younger colleagues. Managers of professionals need a detailed knowledge of various stress reduction methods and their applicability. While older people often experience greater stress around health issues. A possible explanation for this is that older employees have developed coping mechanisms which increase their stress tolerance. having to spend leisure time on work. Changing job roles and giving all employees some experience in management positions. communication. Most managers and professionals primarily concerned with career development experience a very high incidence of stress. it is possible that a downward adjustment in job expectations occurs as one ages. and the conflict of work and home demands than to their junior colleagues. productive work atmosphere. The role of management is crucial in maintaining a healthy. Training in time management skills usually helps reduce workload related strains and giving general management training during the professional qualification period may also be effective.
Therapy may also be an option in helping workers feels more in control at work. thereby also helping the worker feel more secure. Management professionals are beginning to consider counseling less a luxury and more a useful tool in combating stress in the workplace. all types of therapy seem to have about the same level of success in reducing employee stress. who sets reasonable work standards and promotes stress management programs. who in turn tend to suffer less from stress. by providing “wellness” programs which aid workers in actively dealing with stress. Management can help ameliorate these types of stressors. provides a healthier working environment for employees. Management by example Managers who suffer from stress tend to create stressful office environments for their employees. however. psychological. . Empowerment programs. often times workers feel less stressed simply because someone is willing to spend time listening to their problems. and training programs may help the employee understand ways to secure an active role in changes taking place in the workplace. role clarification. downsizing and corporate restructuring such as mergers and acquisitions) can seriously disrupt an employee’s sense of stability and equilibrium on the job. Interestingly.92 Time Management Empowerment Macroscopic changes in the workplace (for example. A manager with strong physiological. On the contrary. a manager with a healthy mental attitude in handling stress can actually decrease the amount of stress perceived by their employees in the workplace. and behavioral energy resources.
After the industrial revolution. Extended emotional exhaustion has a variety of consequences including fatigue. The negative results of these . while others retreat into and indulge in more passive behaviour. Time management Finally.Coping With Stress 93 Group dynamics The entire group may often suffer under stressful working conditions. By promoting cohesive work groups and group leadership training. Group morale tends to be very low under heavily stressed working conditions. time became a commodity. withdrawal. management can help control the levels of office stress. productive meetings in which everyone contributes are more commonplace than those where workers feel heavily taxed by job-related stress. the quality completion of a given task overshadowed the amount of time it actually took to complete the task. Under healthy circumstances. meetings tend to be less productive in which some workers assume an aggressive. one of the most prevalent ways in which management can reduce the amount of stress in the workplace is through time-management techniques. Under these conditions. tension. overpowering role. and poor relations with spouses and children. Unions began forming and made time an issue by placing constraints on employers and forcing them to comply with limits placed on the number of hours per week that they could work employees. STRESS AND BURNOUT The effects associated with stress often lead to emotional exhaustion (severe strain) and lowered interest in one’s job. Today the work of professionals is highly time-based. Before the industrial revolution. Factories insisted upon time clocks and punctuality. These factors caused a shift in industry from a task-based to a time-based workforce.
consequences have been specifically associated with those professionals who deal with clients. Among this large group are physicians, nurses, social workers, firefighters, and law enforcement officers. One detailed study of a medium-sized police organization found that some of the stress in policing was the result of internal organization processes. Of particular importance to managers of professionals is the finding that promotional opportunity was the most powerful predictor of both frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Specifically, career advancement and promotional opportunities reduce occupational stress among professionals. As Gaines and Jermier point out, as organizations seek to recruit more professionals with high achievement expectations, increased amounts of emotional exhaustion can be expected unless viable career tracks are established. Since promotional opportunities are largely influenced by the size of the organization, managers of small professional units must look for other alternatives to combat this problem. Increasing challenge, learning opportunities, and flexibility are some of the alternatives that can be applied to reduce stress in professional work environments. Studies have shown that the presences of rules have no significant effect on professionals, but flexible rules positively correlate with the frequency of emotional exhaustion. Thus, rules may be perceived as a helpful guide to a professional’s work and career, but lack of flexibility in rules application often conflicts with the professional’s value system. There are many positive managerial steps that can be taken to make the organizational environment less stressful and more productive for today’s professional. Fortunately, these steps are supportive of the leadership and motivational concepts developed earlier in this book. Rule flexibility,
Coping With Stress
predictable work relationships, promotional opportunities, and pay equity will increase motivation and reduce harmful stress. STRESS AND DECISION MAKING The decision making activity associated with the managerial role is a contributor to additional stress. Thus, managers of professionals need to cope with all of the stressful situations already discussed in this chapter, and they also must adjust to decisional conflict and stress. Janis and Mann defined a stressful event as any change in the environment that is likely to induce a high degree of unpleasant emotion such as anxiety or guilt. These authors also indicate that several functional relationships exist between psychological stress and decisional conflict as discussed below. When a decision maker expects a given decision to leave many important needs and goals unfulfilled, stress is high. If a decision maker is firmly en-trenched in a present course of action, but faces new, attractive alternatives to this existing situation, stress tends to be high. Stress is also high when a decision maker faces a threat of serious loss and perceived time to take steps to avoid such loss is too short to properly evaluate each possible alternative. According to Janis and Mann, high stress situations are likely to result in faulty information processing which lowers the quality of the decision. Conversely, in low stress situations, the decision maker may not give adequate thought and attention to the possible alternatives, specifically, one or more of the important decision-making steps of systems analysis may have been neglected. In order to be effective and to derive personal satisfaction from the managerial job human relations knowledge and skills are more important now than at any time in the past.
Identifying and relating to employee needs is often the cornerstone of increasing the value of the organization’s human assets. Elements of the traditional approach to managing that tended to treat employees as malleable factors in the production process who could be molded easily into a productive segment of the organization is both outdated and impractical, and will not work with most professionals. In spite of the complexities of human behaviour in the organizational environment, generally, and in the technical and creative environment, specifically, managers must continually strive to understand individual behaviour. It is clear that while much more is still to be understood about stress, a great deal is already known. Managers who devote considerable time and effort to learning more about management and stress will have a distinct advantage over their counterparts who are unwilling to make this effort. In fact, a willingness to improve skills in both directing and understanding people may be both useful and necessary in today’s complex and competitive management setting. Conflict can be both positive and negative and it is more appropriate for leaders of professionals to manage it rather than attempt to eliminate it. Conflict can improve the organization by encouraging better decisions, making work more interesting and causing marginal performers to leave the organization. Several tips have been offered to more effectively manage conflict to help attain these benefits. However, intense conflict can have a very negative impact on professional work performance, particularly through the resulting stress. Stress often leads to emotional exhaustion and burnout among professionals, which can result in a deterioration of performance and increases in absenteeism and turnover. This chapter contained an overview of stress problems and suggested ways to reduce their negative impact.
Coping With Stress
It should be noted that in general, stress levels rise with uncertain outcomes that are regarded as important. Consequently, if managers can reduce the uncertainty associated with professional task assignments, stress levels will be lowered. Establishing effective two-way communication and using a predictable leadership style can be very helpful in reducing uncertainty among professional subordinates. Managers who continually provide educational opportunities to professionals will find lower incidences of negative stress. Additionally, two-way communication and education may signal professional employees that outcomes are not as critical as first perceived. Changed perceptions that reduce importance will lower stress levels, but there may be obvious dysfunctional consequences of reducing task importance among professionals. Managers should avoid excessive formalization, which is particularly dysfunctional among professionals. For example, clearly identifiable client relationships are often associated with important professional tasks. Physicians, nurses, and various types of staff advisors are good examples of professionals that continually work with clients. The resulting inflexibility associated with high formalization is likely to be perceived as interfering with client service. In many instances this perception is probably correct and in others the stress produced lowers professional effectiveness. Increased flexibility will have very positive payoffs for employees, management, and the organization. It must be emphasized, however, that formalization is not inherently bad. For example, it doesn’t inevitably result in increased alienation among professionals. Also, formalization produces positive effects as well, particularly for persons experiencing high personal stress. These effects include reducing role ambiguity and enhancing organizational identity among professionals. The problem is that excessive formalization creates rigidity and increases role conflict.
Finally. when individual stress levels rise. When this analysis suggests an incongruence is present corrective measures should be taken. Usually. professionals need to shift emphasis from “self” to system (formalization) in order to sustain effectiveness. one should make a conscious effort to achieve the right amount of rules and regulations for minimum stress and optimum performance. .98 Time Management Since formalization can enhance identity and increase effectiveness. all members of a professional work group should monitor their individual stress levels and be aware of their personality type. The trend toward greater amounts of competition for existing professional jobs coupled with global pressures on most industries suggest stress levels are likely to increase substantially in the decade ahead.
the art of leadership has held a basic fascination for people in many academic fields. There has been endless speculation by historians. Both those in authority and those under it strive increasingly to diagnose. by merciless dissection. the corpses of dead purposes and organizational goals that result when leadership is unproductive. STUDIES OF LEADERSHIP In the past half century. and social scientists concerning the qualities or conditions that have endowed some persons with successful leadership capabilities and excluded such capabilities from countless others. management specialists. philosophers. There is a growing demand for .Theory Of Leadership And Followers 99 7 Theory of Leadership And Followers Throughout the ages. the study of leadership has assumed critical importance because rapid growth in size and complexity of organizational structures has necessitated greater versatility and sophistication on the part of those in leadership positions.
and develop potential leaders for the insatiable maw of modern bureaucracies. and team leaders. though complex. Irresponsible leadership is one of the greatest hazards men and women are heir to. for they must survive in a world where often. History is strewn with the rubble of people and nations who have fallen victim to those who assumed leadership roles and then acted from unbridled self-interest or from ulterior motives. education. The resulting knowledge from this interdisciplinary approach has stimulated the development of new theories of leadership. educate. assembly-line supervisors. as Rabindranath Tagore wrote. innovative management and executive curricula in colleges and universities. is a most common and natural behavioral phenomenon. When the power that attends leadership is exercised in ethical blindness. Unfortunately. It occurs whenever one person influences the behaviour of others for a purpose. The exercise of leadership. and broader in-service training programs. Leadership is exercised by board members. toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals. irreparable harm may result.100 Time Management expanded knowledge of the techniques and processes of leadership. and management. Traditional concepts have been modified significantly by the combined results of research in the social sciences. commanding generals. It is present even without the trappings or sanction of rank or position. directed through the communication process. Better methods have been persistently sought to identify. There is something profoundly sad about large masses of people following the lead of individuals who do not believe in them. . the exercise of leadership may harbor inherent weaknesses. It has been formally described as an interpersonal influence exercised in a situation. “power takes as ingratitude the writhing of its victims”.
Theory Of Leadership And Followers 101 Every concerted work group effort involves effective leadership to pursue and achieve established objectives. Some of the fundamental perspectives and tools with which to probe the mysterious ingredients of leadership have been furnished by early advances in the behavioral sciences. and business and industry have inched forward on the shoulders of managers and supervisors who inspired subordinates to cooperate in moving the wheel of production for a common purpose. Increased urgency is added to these studies by the ravenous demands made by expanding multinational organizations that are the foundation of our technological world. Employees are social animals. The importance of this selection and preparation cannot be overestimated. His eyes make estates. A feeble man can see the farms that are fenced and tilled. and the growth of Frederick Taylor’s scientific management concept of the 1890s. Ever-increasing attention is being given to the critical nature of selection and preparation of those who will assume the responsibility for leading and directing others. and he makes room for many. the houses that are built. the use of empirical methods. as fast as the sun breeds clouds”. During . It has been conjectured that 90 percent of the forward progress of civilization has been accomplished by the 10 percent of our population who have pioneered leadership roles: “There is always room for a man of force. The strong man sees the possible homes and farms. the diversity of the human personality and group dynamics. and the best heads among them take the best places. and situational data used to describe the leadership phenomenon all make their contributions to the complexity of leadership studies. Larger and more complex structures involving more and more human and material resources are finding traditional methods of leader selection and training less and less adequate. The universality of the leadership phenomenon. Society is a troop of thinkers.
and government agencies. This manner of classification places great emphasis upon the . lies the wish to show ourselves men with a will. LEADERSHIP THEORIES Ralph Waldo Emerson (1860) quoted Napoleon I: “All great captains have performed vast achievements by conforming with the rules of the art—by adjusting efforts to obstacles”. Ralph Stogdill (1948). Nothing he does any longer seems a skill to be proud of in a world where someone else always hits the headlines. or amplify concepts of leadership.” Friedrich Nietzsche went even further and proposed that the “will to power” is the prime motive in life.102 Time Management the middle and late 1950s. the right to salute and be saluted”. Rollo May (1972) provided poetic support for Nietzsche’s theory: “At the heart of our violence. Some writers maintain that innate in every person is the wish to be the “upperdog”. no one wants to be the “underdog. But the complexity of society makes the man lose heart. and Robert Tannenbaum and William Schmidt (1958) have been incorporated into departments of management. Theories of leadership range over a wide spectrum—from Thomas Carlyle’s theory that great men determine the course of history to Vilfredo Pareto’s concept that situations permit certain types of persons to become leaders. and the elected or appointed leader. prominent researchers classify leaders according to the means by which they assume their leadership. industry. The classification categories are the emergent leader. Fred Fiedler (1967). add to. Donald Pelz (1952). the works performed by Bernard Bass (1960). in act or feeling. Many theories have been advanced to formulate. in despair of which men cheerfully join any private army which will offer them the ambivalent identity of a uniform. the charismatic leader. This is a plausible picture. In the development of leadership concepts.
the process of waiting for the . as compared with others in the group. Their leadership also has a quality of permanence that an emergent leader only rarely achieves. Most leaders have to work to attain their positions and hold them. but he emerges as the one who influences others to get the game started. a dozen or so boys may decide to play sandlot softball. Similar to the emergent leader is the charismatic leader. The degree of their technical competence to accomplish the task at hand. Such leaders possess some “mystical” personal power that causes their followers to bestow upon them the right to lead. In informal groups. The struggle to reach the top among men and nations is a never-ending one”. however. History provides many examples of such magnetic personalities and the sway they held over those who willingly. may initiate the choosing of sides and decide the ground rules that will govern the game. this leader may have to shout down or otherwise convince some of the opposition. poet. Initially. They are. perhaps because of his skill or experience. Within formally organized institutions or groups. and sometimes even fanatically. and prophet.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 103 process by which leadership is assumed within a formal or informal group. this kind of leadership extends beyond oracle. This is a normal procedure for establishing recognized leadership within unorganized. the ones to whom the group unhesitatingly looks for guidance. Joy Guilford concluded: “In almost any group of social animals one can find leaders and followers. Most religious leaders are possessed of this charismatic quality. leaders often emerge spontaneously from the group because they assert themselves and are accepted by others as being capable of directing whatever action is required to accomplish an objective. followed them. informal groups. is not the deciding factor. he is accepted as the emergent leader. One boy. For example. rather.
and their influence becomes increasingly modified by the more immediate influence of intermediate leaders. the leader must endeavour to achieve an acceptable balance among his or her unit’s mission. In instances where more orderly processes of leadership designations are required. The personalities of people at “the top” are perceived in an increasingly distorted manner. and the aims of subordinates. Frequently. In such instances. In business and industry. As an organizational hierarchy develops and as individuals reaches successively higher positions. Elected leadership in democratic nations is determined by the expressed will of the people. There are stringent corporate penalties for disobedience. leaders are appointed by formally recognized superiors. modification. They form relatively valid opinions and attitudes concerning the leader’s personality and capabilities and are directly influenced by his or her beliefs and actions. This presents an added burden. Such officials generally see their duty as taking those actions that will represent the people who chose them. the personal aims which he or she holds. formal institutional leaders are appointed or elected. or error between an original order and its execution are abundantly clear and present one of the most common problems in effective leadership. the leader’s vision becomes less well-known to those who are affected by it. Every leader deals either with a group or individuals in a face-to-face relationship. The possibilities of misunderstanding. It is evident that appointed leaders have very difficult roles. which may be distasteful. the objectives of those in higher authority are incompatible with the personal motives of appointed leaders and this thwarts their self-realization as persons and interferes with the fulfillment of their duties. The followers come to know their leader well.104 Time Management emergence of a leader is too imprecise to leave to chance. .
but some evidence indicates that if leaders are too much more intelligent than their followers. all successful leaders tend to agree on one thing—they are causationists. although some dominant characteristics have been found. . It has been the tendency of humans to set their leaders apart as somehow different from ordinary persons. It is based on the theory that history can only be explained in terms of the great leaders who have effected changes in the history of nations and organizations. carry nations with them. Those who espouse these theories see the personality as composed of many different characteristics or traits. and lead the activity of the human race”. the results have been inconclusive in that few consistent trait patterns have been discovered. it is only natural that prime consideration should be accorded leaders. However. Managers are supervisors who are similar to each other to the degree that they display clusters of traits. When attempts have been made by scientific research to isolate the traits of leadership. There is evidence that there is no single trait that consistently differentiates leaders from followers. however.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 105 CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP Emerson (1860) wrote: “There are men who. As an example. The institution of royalty and the science of genetics are frequently offered and cited as proof of leadership being hereditary. their effectiveness is impaired. Other leader-oriented theories focus on the personality of the leader. research data indicates that leaders tend to have higher intelligence than followers. They believe that they succeed not by luck but by hard work. This particular leader-focused approach of analysis has been called the great man concept. Another prevalent concept is that leadership is hereditary. by their sympathetic attractions. To probe the properties of leadership.
No person lives completely outside a group. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERS AND FOLLOWERS Leaders cannot be successfully studied apart from those who follow them. a leader must understand the significance of the group to its members. traits and characteristics provide a means for generalizing about the leadership personality. The traits or characteristics required of a leader tend to fall into two general categories. To achieve effective leadership.106 Time Management Although invariable leadership patterns have not been established. such qualities include integrity and maturity. which assist leaders in establishing the proper relationship and emotional climate with their followers. such as intelligence and judgment. and the characteristics typical of group action. Within the first category are those qualities required of people operating from a social and moral or ethical orientation. it is only recently that researchers have attempted to evaluate objectively and scientifically the interactions and dynamics that operate within groups. Though it is true that there are no universal traits. both leader and follower . While it has been recognized since the time of Aristotle that humans are essentially group-oriented. Attempts in recent years to move in this direction have been carried out through studies conducted by social and behavioral scientists. certain traits are required by leaders of specific groups or in specific situations. These studies have resulted in rapid progress. Every leader participates in a number of significant ways as a member of the group or the contingent he or she leads. In the second category are those qualities supporting the capacity to deal effectively with the problem-solving and task organization confronting the leader’s work group.
whether he or she is a leader or follower. every employee.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 107 contribute to. In the process of interacting with supervisors. Within such organizations. fulfillment of formal and informal roles that the group prescribes. not only is an individual within a group but also lives in a highly mobile society that changes from time to time. both leaders and followers learn characteristic ways of handling varying situations. If proper leadership is exercised. and contribution toward attainment of work goals. In return for these benefits. The bond between individual loyalty and group loyalty is a very tenuous one. will have a specific response to a situation that is in accordance with the sum total of their unique characteristics. each employee ideally gains a sense of belonging. . As individuals. which cause them to perceive their social and physical environment in a particular way. “The robe of mist worn by the spring—how thin the weft: by the mountain wind. as they interact with other group members. require a high degree of solidarity. In the same way that the leader contributes something of his or her personality and characteristics to the composite personality of the group. the group participation exacts individual compliance with group norms. frames of reference. individual workers come to identify closely with the work group and attain a sense of solidarity and oneness. or followers. Members of for-profit organizations. mutual confidence. because of the intense stress they must be able to withstand. and identification with other group members. and unique personality composites that are the result of past learning and experiences. Group members. they bring to these situations certain attitudes. so soon disordered!” As work groups develop. the group assists the leader in achieving identity and in defining his or her role. and absorb satisfaction from. the group of which each is a member. Ariwara Yukihira (1964) cautioned.
It can be theorized that it makes little difference what personality traits leaders possess as long as their followers have faith in them. “Everything the human race has done and thought is concerned with the satisfaction of deeply felt needs and the assuagement of pain. determine the direction and fulfillment of job performance. It is evident that the complex social interaction between supervisors and subordinates and also the interaction among subordinates with each other are vital factors. some employees look to co-workers for the satisfaction of many of their personal needs. with their motives and past experiences. and an analysis of the situation in which the organization exists. coupled with individual member characteristics and goal-orientation. and sometimes imperceptible. Understanding of group dynamics requires a considerable study of the personality of each group member. for in many cases their work schedules remove them from the societal setting where these needs would ordinarily be satisfied. An inclusive analysis of leadership must take into account factors external to leaders. In the corporate setting. They must mingle continually with their followers. . in which the affections color and infect the understanding”. the peculiar makeup of the group as a whole. These patterns of interaction. Whether a manager or a supervisor will be effective depends in part upon his or her clear understanding of the work group and its members. for humans are not fueled by pure reason. Analyses of work groups over a long period of time show that informal group norms are factors that should not be disregarded by managers and supervisors. Albert Einstein (1930) said. “Numberless in short are the ways. for they cannot operate in a vacuum. This is not an easy task. Or as Francis Bacon (1889) observed. and friendship patterns. communication.108 Time Management The interaction of group members determines workplace influence.
In the rush toward the goal of achieving objectives. and teamwork difficult. A salient point in this connection—and one too often neglected—is the fact that followers are not mere automatons carrying out the leader’s desires to the best of their abilities. These executives usually lose their jobs.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 109 One has to keep this constantly in mind if one wishes to understand”. leadership is a dynamic activity. the formal leaders may be replaced in the eyes of subordinates by informal ones. Such an . Morale will be low. Group dynamics theories are a requisite part of an integrated concept of leadership because a leader always operates in a leader-follower relationship. Traits and characteristics nonetheless have a strong influence on employees. In the leader-follower relationship. The success of managers and supervisors in satisfying employee needs is hampered by the requirement that leaders orient the goals of the work group so as to accomplish not only personal leadership goals but also externally assigned missions. for the drive to satisfy needs is one of the strongest human urges. Whereas leadership traits and characteristics are relatively static. They are human beings with motives and goals of their own. If employees must turn to someone else for need satisfaction. when executives prove ineffective at either task. if managers and supervisors fail to satisfy subordinates’ needs. they can motivate employees only at a minimum level. The consequences of failure are grave. INTEGRATED CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP The leadership trait theory is only a portion of the integrated concept of leadership. esprit de corps absent. someone else will be sought for this purpose. some managers and supervisors proceed as if it were proper that they sit in the saddle and ride their subordinates. and they serve as excellent guidelines for the development of a leadership paradigm.
the executive records the organization’s creation and growth and communicates the information to employees. and informal employee networks. The most logical method of analyzing the leadership process is an interrelational one that takes into account the interaction of three basic factors: the leader. and (8) healer. As an anthropologist. the executive identifies and communicates hopes and dreams for the organization’s future and continually revises. (2) anthropologist. The more effective CEOs are open-minded. Leadership is a dynamic interaction process involving the leader with his or her own personality. the group with its particular characteristics and needs. and the situation and its requirements in which the leader and group are operating. where necessary. Each situation will influence a good leader’s perspective and his or her management techniques.110 Time Management attitude does not foster the strong attachment of subordinates to their leaders. the executive shapes the organization’s rituals. and responsive. (5) potter. (4) role model. values. adaptable. As a poet. the work group. the executive affirms the values of the organization through his or her demeanor and behaviour. the executive assesses the existing norms. Leadership situations differ markedly from organization to organization. ceremonies. and symbols. Executives in particular must learn to play the following leadership roles: (1) historian. which ultimately is a factor that detracts from work goal accomplishments. (3) visionary. As an historian. As a potter. and the situation. The leadership styles appropriate for the many radically unique situations encountered by CEOs leave no room for a myopic or rigid personality. The supervisor must recognize the existence of a multiplicity of individual and group factors that highly affect his or her ability to influence subordinates. As a role model. (6) poet. (7) actor. beliefs. the executive . its purpose and mission. traditions. As a visionary.
Most subordinates want warmth. As an actor. Studies indicate that there is often a goal conflict between supervisors and subordinates. What do corporate board members. empathy. for example. messages. Leadership Constraints A number of constraints act on managers and supervisors during the course of their jobs that inhibit them from doing their jobs with maximum freedom. primarily because profits drive administrative decisions. and tragedies of the workplace. As a healer. sometimes eloquent. The following finding poses a problem: regardless of how many individual personality differences exist among administrators and subordinates. Unlike the society they serve. CEOs are not chosen by public ballot. most organizations are built upon executive authority. In their studies of leadership styles. there must . expect of CEOs? Do they expect them to be hard and rigid? It is also important that managers and supervisors know what their bosses expect of them. and consideration from their supervisors.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 111 communicates the values and beliefs of the organization and supports and sustains them through consistent. comedies. the executive is involved in the human dramas. Most supervisors want their subordinates to be task-oriented—to get the job done. There are certain features of operations that are not likely to be democratic. the executive helps abate employees’ physical and emotional pain. Good leadership includes accomplishing an objective by making the unit’s mission coincide with the goals and interests of its members. One of the constraints is the board of directors’ and/or stockholders’ expectations of leader performance. If managers and supervisors are to be mediators between themselves and subordinates. Fred Fiedler (1967) and Edwin Hollander (1964) found the supervisor’s competence to be more important in determining a leader’s influence than either style or position. most American organizations are not historically democratic.
A mediating framework should derive from conditions as they are perceived by the members of an organization. Identity: The degree to which employees believe that they are members of a cohesive work team and belong to the organization. Reward: The degree to which employees believe they are fairly rewarded for good work. Risk: The degree to which employees believe they can take risks in operating and improving their part of the overall mission.112 Time Management be parameters that are recognized at all levels of the organization structure and are translatable into general guidelines. Positive beliefs stimulate individuals to make sacrifices for the work group or the organization that otherwise would . with the emphasis placed on doing a good job. Unrealistic principles or ideals will not suffice. which may be used to formulate a framework for an effective leadership climate: Structure: The beliefs employees have about the constraints of their work situation. Warmth: The feeling of general “good fellowship” that prevails in the work atmosphere. not having to “run upstairs” every time a decision must be made. Conflict: The belief subordinates have that supervisors want to hear different opinions to get problems out in the open where they can be handled. Responsibility: The feeling of being one’s own boss. rather than only being punished when something goes wrong. Standards: The degree to which challenging goals are set for all employees. Some of the components for the mediating function are set forth in the following list. Support: The perceived helpfulness of supervisors and co-workers in accomplishing tasks.
All leaders must cope with individual circumstances of worker dissatisfaction and organizational inequalities. and include the good will of most employees and customers or clients. Despite efforts to insure equal opportunity. “in heart’s perspective the distance looms large”. efforts are being made by many employers to use more . To offset these handicaps. If the companies that purport to provide national or international leadership are to be considered the foundation upon which the global marketplace will be built. Large numbers of employers are reemphasizing the value of the person—individual dignity. Furthermore. Racism. To be effective. regardless of how much power or formal authority an organization “confers” on its managers and supervisors. many employees are burdened with the handicap of being a member of the underclass. Followers empower the leader. sexism. To employees who presently feel the sting of inequities between themselves and those who would lead them. Dynamics Of Oppression Many statistics are available that are eloquently translatable into some of the frustrations currently being expressed by employees regarding inequities in leadership opportunities.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 113 not be made. A paramount value of most followers is to have a fulfilling job. These appear to be excellent values from which to motivate employees toward excellence in their jobs. integrity. and ageism have kept some employees from capitalizing on job opportunities. It should be clear by now that. leaders must understand the value and beliefs of their followers. ethical. who in turn empowers them— the norm of reciprocity is constant. subordinates determine how much “useable” authority they will have. honesty. they must be personal. and compassion. such problems must be resolved with creative leadership.
personalized approaches that recognize and develop culturally diverse workers. A human relations approach to leadership is finding favor, and it is being implemented in some organizations to winnow common goals from apparently contradictory points of view. Encounter groups, films and speakers with well-defined messages, immersion in culturally alien situations, and role playing are but a few of the many training tools available to CEOs endeavoring to create a viable organization that will benefit from the diversity of its employees. But these tools must not be used to socially or psychologically debilitate majority-group employees. Workers can be oppressed by words, glances, or deeds of supervisors whose primary objective is to totally control them. In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Paulo Freire (1970) defined oppression as an act of overwhelming control or exploitation performed by one person to hinder or prevent the full development of another person. Conversely, liberation is freedom to develop one’s full potential. Oppressed workers are dehumanized to the point where their oppressors view them as being less than human; they become nonpersons. From this perspective, supervisors are endowed with characteristics to be emulated by their subordinates. If the indoctrination is culminated, the subordinates believe themselves to be inferior. When this happens, a primary task of oppressed workers is to liberate themselves-and their oppressors too. People who oppress others usually do so by virtue of their power over them. Further, powerless people can seldom muster enough courage or strength to liberate themselves without additional help. However, as Freire pointed out, freedom for both the oppressed and their oppressors will come by carefully unraveling—but not severing—this human relations Gordian knot. Within these parameters, the issue of oppression in the
Theory Of Leadership And Followers
workplace is not only relevant to management studies, but it is also a cause of declining quality of production. Perhaps the essence of oppressive behaviour in the workplace is the god-like delusion of some individuals in supervisory positions—the imagined ability to capriciously hire and fire people. In extreme cases, subordinates are expected to laugh, be silent, move, and apologize at the whim of their boss. Martin Buber (1958) described this condition as an It relationship, which is dehumanizing and destructive. Subordinates whose supervisors do not like them become It; they are treated as objects rather than subjects (Thou). In this instance, powerless employees are overwhelmed by powerful ones and therein treated ultimately as less than whole persons. The ramifications of such behaviour in the workplace were summarized by Anthony Storr (1961): “The personality can cease to exist in two ways—either by destroying the other, or by being absorbed by the other— and maturity in interpersonal relationships demands that neither oneself nor the other shall disappear, but that each shall contribute to the affirmation and realization of the other’s personality”. Oppressors seldom call their victims “the oppressed.” Instead, they refer to them as “those people” or “affirmative action tokens” or some other amorphous inferior group of people. From the perspective of oppressors, having more than “those people” is a birthright. In the egoistic pursuit of more money, more rank, and higher social status, oppressors are often oblivious to the needs of their subordinates. Consequently, it is believed by some managers and supervisors that oppression in the workplace is a natural order of things. Paraphrasing Freire: 1. Oppressive administrators train oppressed subordinates. 2. Oppressive administrators know everything; oppressed subordinates know very little or nothing.
3. Oppressive administrators talk; oppressed subordinates usually listen. 4. Oppressive administrators wish; oppressed subordinates carry out the wishes of oppressive administrators. 5. Oppressive administrators set policy and provide discipline; oppressed subordinates follow policy and are disciplined when they do not. 6. Oppressive administrators lay out the strategies for getting work done; oppressed subordinates do the work. 7. Oppressive administrators are the subject of success stories; oppressed subordinates are means used to achieve success. When carried out consistently, continuously, and credulously, the results are predictable: Oppressed workers engage in self-depreciatory behaviors and believe themselves to be inferior to their oppressors. In many instances, this can be characterized as the breaking of wills. It is also the diminution of human selves. Employees who are targets for such oppression are many and varied, but they are almost always defined by oppressors as deserving what happens to them. Instead of searching for persons to lay blame for oppression, it is more helpful for managers and supervisors to examine their own activities and find better ways for themselves and their subordinates to behave. The core material of effective supervision is interaction of the basic attitudes and emotions of administrators and their subordinates. Both parties need to be treated as individuals of merit. They both need to be allowed to express feelings; to receive empathic responses to problems; to be judged fairly; and to be treated with dignity and respect. The foregoing discussion has been but a brief sampling of the history, theories,
Theory Of Leadership And Followers
characteristics, relationships, styles, constraints, and problems of leadership. These comments simply point out that the need for effective leadership is more critical now than ever before. Studies disclose that there is a new spirit among those who dare innovation, risk folly, and deviate from the status quo to solve workplace problems that have no guiding precedent. The rigid authoritarian and the technocratic egoist are on the way out—as is the psychic distance between leaders and followers. VISION In its most basic sense, leadership is the process of getting people to implement an idea—giving them a vision of the future and then taking them there. Indeed, the most effective management strategies begin with visions that are continually updated and shared with everyone with whom the leader works. All employees must understand their leader’s vision if it is to be transformed into performance. Simply stated, corporate leaders must share and promote their organization’s vision of excellence. Visionary leaders are optimists who “see” possibilities based on realistic probability. And their visions are vividly etched into the minds of their followers. To create a practical vision, the leader must have accurate knowledge of the group dynamics in his or her organization, a keen sense of the marketplace for the goods or services to be produced, and a thorough grasp of best-in-class benchmarks of similar goods or services. Of course, the vision must be supported from the top down and the bottom up in the organization. That is why it is extremely difficult to operationalize visions. It is the process of doing things other people, if left to their own initiative, cannot or will not do. Revolutionary organization changes are more likely to succeed when:
they are acted upon immediately, thereby minimizing the effects of prolonged cynicism. they are clearly spelled out. they delineate each team member’s contributions. they identify the rewards for success, including organizational and individual ones. A well-conceptualized vision is important to any organization because it: identifies need. (Why is the organization important?) provides direction. (Where are the employees supposed to go?) provides clear objectives. (How will they get there?) provides order. (What organization structure will be used to accomplish the vision?) shares benefits. (What are the rewards for achieving the vision?) Needless to say, an ill-conceived vision can lead to an organization’s loss of profit or demise. Well-conceived visions are a synergy of ideas, motivation, and behaviors that can result in the organization becoming the benchmark by which others measure their success. Consequently, visions can separate the best leaders from those who are not. Initially, the morale of employees and customers or clients may be more significant in determining an organization’s success in achieving its vision than its product or service. Within this context, the behaviour of the leader can nurture or destroy an organization; for indeed, a company’s initial success almost always chronicles loyal employees and customers or clients who greatly outnumber backbiters and malcontents. But in order to sustain its success, an organization must, in the long run, have a top quality product complemented with excellent service.
too many exceptions to the rule. an obvious problem with this . It became apparent that some combination of these two variables held the key to effective leadership. Many initial studies focused on a two-dimensional behaviour scheme involving concern for the job and concern for people. . There would include such things as intelligence. many notable commentators feel that we suffer from a leadership crisis in our political and economic systems. researchers turned their attention to observing what effective leaders did. many different approaches have been employed in the search for the variables that comprise effective leadership.” The idea here was that perhaps there existed certain key traits that were more reflective of effective leaders. Rather than concentrating on who the leader was. . No sooner was a list of effective leadership traits identified than an effective leader emerged who did not fit the list. Giving up on the trait approach.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 119 THE QUEST FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP Effective leadership is the ability to influence others to work together in the pursuit of organizational success. and enthusiasm. In fact. We may sit back and laugh at this practice today but the obsession with the “great man” search can be exemplified by the actions of Nazi Germany and their crusade for the great race. Individuals who possessed the majority of these traits were believed to have a natural tendency to be leaders. . One of the first attempts was the search for the “great man. To deal with this dilemma. selfconfidence. It is the mannerisms and managerial style that enables an individual to be accepted by others. However. There was. efforts were now directed toward understanding what the leader did. Effective leadership is envisioning what the organization must do in order to be successful. an inadequate supply of effective leaders has prevailed through the ages. ability. however.
Consider the following scripts which will illustrate two diametrically opposed leadership styles. human motivation will suffer.120 Time Management However. the effective leader is an individual who can accurately assess the demands contingent in the situation and act accordingly by creating images of potential actions and results that fit the demands of a critical situation. Implementation of a New MIS System Assume you have been asked to help update your organization’s master information system. If too much emphasis is placed on getting the job done. What evolved from the difficulties experienced with these two-dimensional models was an “it depends” explanation for effective leadership. There are times when the situation calls for a lot of concern for the subordinates. but within the situation. While the dualfactor behaviour approach still serves as a basis for leadership research. if the office building is on fire the effective leader will become extremely task-oriented in getting the workers “the hell out of the building!” It is a currently held belief that the key to effective leadership exists not within the leader or in what the leader does per se. As the human resource professional responsible for the training and development at your organization. one has problems with the extremes. it is important that you consider different situations when you design leadership workshops. You should develop many different scenarios that will allow trainees to experience a multitude of varied leadership behaviors. your . in developing methods to implement major change. Therefore. In particular. If all of the emphasis is placed on human satisfaction. The situation dictates what an effective leader should do. it did not capture the composite image of leadership. However. for example. when defining complex behaviors in terms of continua. then productivity will suffer.
especially from those employees most directly affected. trying to prepare a plan that should ensure a successful implementation of the new system. Your main competitors are already in the process of upgrading their in house information processing capability. You envision the informative meetings that you plan to conduct so that everyone involved has a chance to voice their ideas on the project. you then envision yourself conducting training sessions to alleviate these anxieties. You assure them that in no time they will be performing like real pros. You are aware that many technological advances have been made since your system was installed several years ago. Your firm is extremely careful . exploring all available scenarios. You see yourself answering the many objections to making a major change. You see yourself helping to prepare a memorandum detailing the decision and the need for it. Since you are very sensitive to the natural resistance to change and the high level of uncertainty and fear that many employees will exhibit regarding a move of this magnitude. Now let’s look at another leadership situation. You will need to help advise managers of the need and benefits to be derived from the new system and the possible impacts on the use of human resources. you begin to envision how you might go about the process. Dealing with a Toxic Waste Spill Imagine that you are the human resource manager of a major chemical processing facility. Since you realize that making the decision to update the system and actually doing it are two different things. In these workshops you see yourself explaining how it will enable employees to be better able to perform their jobs.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 121 organization wants to ensure adequate attention to the human resource aspects of the intended changes. Enhancing your system at this time would also allow you to serve your clientele better. Painstakingly you and the MIS manager review many details.
In upgrading a management information system. you play over in your mind what steps you would take should disaster strike. You need to do everything in your power to overcome resistance to change gently. You see yourself quickly determining whether or not there are any injuries to employees. You direct the safety coordinator to contact local schools for evacuation. A major disaster has been averted. It is the foreman at line seven. Next. Having alerted all concerned you then rush to line seven. You need to make your personnel feel that they are a very vital part of the decision making process. A little time slippage up front in assuring everyone is . You need to hear from everyone involved. Fortunately. A spillover valve on a toxic waste tank has blown and a deadly cloud of gaseous waste product is rapidly dissipating into the air. You see yourself at work in your office going over normal production reports. however. a very participative leadership style is the key to success. In both of the above situations. To anticipate possible complications. you envisioned yourself as an effective leader. you are aware that there could always be complications.122 Time Management and cautious about every aspect of its chemical processing operation. you order the emergency maintenance crew to cut off pressure to the tank and seal it off immediately. The phone rings. in each case the behaviour was drastically different. You issue an immediate statement to the local radio and television stations with instructions for local residents. Although you and your staff have very detailed plans of what would be done in case of an emergency. but still the fear of a possible accident is always present in the back of your mind. Without wasting a breath you see yourself calling the local police and fire departments for assistance. The damage was quickly repaired with a minimal amount of leakage. all of the training and disaster rehearsal has paid off.
Once this assessment has been made then the effective leader takes the appropriate action in the appropriate manner. IMPROVING LEADERSHIP “There are none so blind as those who will not see. Next. it is important for the leader to see what the organization is. The effective leader utilizes these talents to envision many different scenarios that may exist in an environment that contains both opportunities and threats for the organization. simple but direct commands. in autocratic fashion to elicit behaviour. and based upon his or her perceptions of . The focal point of the model is the imagination and creative talents of the leader. A lot of the expected behaviour has already been rehearsed. can be the difference in saving lives. therefore. time is of the essence.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 123 on board with you will more than be made up for with a smooth start up of the new system. it is necessary to bark orders and pull rank. From these examples it is quite evident that the situation dictates what is required if a leader is to be effective. As we have mentioned above. the effective leader analyzes the key variables in the situation and then adopts a leadership style that is appropriate for the situation. However. Those leaders who chose to utilize their imagination and creativity have gone forward while those who relied on their power and dominance have not. What makes the difference is the leader’s ability to perceive accurately and make an assessment of the important variables that exist in the situation at the time. in the case of the toxic waste spillage. The traits of the leader can be different and the leader’s behaviour is obviously different.” Down through history the determining factor between leaders who were effective and leaders who were not has been the acuity of perception. Rather than asking for inputs and opinions.
The longer you sit and fantasize about this. When envisioning the future. the future also contains some threats that could harm the future prosperity of our organizations. perceiving his or her strengths and weaknesses and finally selects a leadership style that would be appropriate. . pocket size calculators.or herself. Then the leader mentally examines the complexity and desirability of the tasks to be accomplished in order to move the organization forward. the leader looks deep within his. This list will include such items as microwave ovens. given all of the above key variables. rather than being totally subject to it. However. To do this. ever mindful of time constraints existing in the situation. artificial hearts. Lastly. one should attempt to see what new opportunities will be there that will allow their organization to prosper and to grow. what the organization is to be. To illustrate this point. With these images focused in mind. personal computers. one must have an idea of where one wants to go and where one wants to be. and expectations.124 Time Management the future environment. and computer dating. an effective leader must anticipate the future in order that his or her organization may play a role in that future. we suggest this simple exercise. Future Environment To be an effective leader. We will now examine the major elements of the Envisionary Leader Model in detail. the longer your list will become. satellite television transmission. abilities. expertise. the leader then looks to his or her subordinates and reflects upon their needs. But you can bet that the majority of these new products and services began with an entrepreneurial leader who dared to make his or her dream a reality. Make a mental list of all the products and services that are currently available and are an accepted part of our current lifestyles.
Today. a new company name of Greyhound Lines. The once almost invincible Pennsylvania Railroad Company saw itself only as a railroad. the original organization named Greyhound no longer is in the people transporting business having sold its bus line to Buslease Inc. of Dallas. It is important to realize that the nature of organizations changes over time. a transportation service. What a firm may have been at its inception may not be what it is today. Although we do not find it a comfortable exercise to dwell on unpleasant events. or at least minimize their negative impact upon our well-being. eventually led to the deterioration of one of the greatest companies in history. Providing an economical means of transportation via large passenger buses was the initial service offered by the Greyhound Bus Company. This lack of understanding of what the organization really was. mandates that we try to anticipate worstcase scenarios and develop creative methods to manage them. Organization Once the effective leader has visions of what could happen in the future. The need for more fuel-efficient. There are many experts today why attribute the major loss of United States automobile market share to the industry’s failure to see it coming. (However. Texas. then it becomes imperative that he or she envision what their organization is and what it is to become. the future survival of our organizations and society. Some industry analysts even argue that the possibility of the OPEC embargo should have been expected and anticipated and dealt with in a much more prepared fashion. and not as a transportation service. we will be able to avoid them.) Thus actions taken by this firm’s leadership in the past would not currently be effective because of the different businesses that the . is used.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 125 If we can envision these threats well in advance. Inc. itself. smaller. and higher quality cars should have been recognized in ample time for Detroit to deal with it more successfully.
they must know where they are today and where they are headed in the future. Thus. Most major tobacco manufacturers have evolved into large organizations producing tobacco products. these firms have undertaken massive diversification tactics. effective leaders have one eye on today. All too often ineffective leaders think they know who their subordinates are and how they will behave. A good communication network with one’s subordinates will allow a leader to know his or her subordinates. and expectations. Time spent in reflecting on their expertise and abilities will allow for more success in assigning tasks to be accomplished. To illustrate this point we offer the following script. To guide their organization successfully. Subordinates An effective leader thoroughly perceives who his or her subordinates are and can accurately envision their needs. These mental images will provide an understanding of how to motivate them better. but they have a much different vision of who they want to be tomorrow. Imagine that your firm designs and builds custom packaging . While it is very important to understand what the organization is today. Using his or her imagination will allow for better understanding of how they will behave. which would allow them to have a future should the smokefree society become a reality.126 Time Management firm finds itself in today. expertise. and one eye on tomorrow. it is equally important to envision what the organization is to become. they really don’t know. abilities. The important word here is accurately. An effective leader will expend large amounts of energy trying to picture in his or her mind what the needs and expectations of his or her subordinates are. With the image of a smoke free society being a possibility. Different strategies are required because the nature of the business is different. when. in fact.
. while you enlist the energy of the junior engineer to successfully debug and implement the new design. In your imagination you see the value of the senior’s expertise in solving this problem without jeopardizing her expectations of her well-earned vacation. you see a possible solution. You have positive visions of the engineer successfully completing the task and your firm enjoying a major new customer. As you begin searching to find which one of the design engineers should be recommended for this task. and. as soon as she is finished with it. if you are successful in solving their problem. However. many images begin to appear. Your company’s president has been approached by another organization that has a major problem in packaging a new product item. you also see some very negative outcomes when you ask her to give up her well-deserved vacation time by assigning her more work. Finally. The engineers are satisfied. Your customer is happy. Your firm has tried unsuccessfully to obtain this account for a number of years and now you have an excellent opportunity to acquire a large share of their business. The only other design engineer available has a lot of enthusiasm but not enough experience to manage such a difficult assignment. is expecting to spend some well-deserved vacation time with her family. You see your junior engineer energetically tackling this important assignment and possibly failing to get it done thereby losing this major account for your firm and demoralizing his young ego. You see yourself asking the senior engineer to make the initial contact and to suggest some possible solutions. Your firm’s president has asked you to become involved.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 127 equipment. And your imagination has served you well again. Next you invite the junior engineer to follow through on this very important project. The most innovative senior design engineer is already immersed in a major job.
IMPROVING LINKAGES In order for an effective leader fully to utilize his or her imaginative and creative talents to envision differing scenarios. A very participative leadership style was employed in completing a rather novel task. it is imperative for a leader to develop a network of sensors that detect information from every pertinent source existing in the environment that impacts the leader’s organization. the leadership was quite autocratic. Thus. and the time allowed to get the job done. the effective leader will envision the level of quality needed as well as how familiar the subordinates are with the task that is to be completed.128 Time Management Task and Situation The effective leader will perceive the complexity of the task to be performed as well as the quantity of the task needed to satisfy the given situation. One cannot be creative in a vacuum. the effective leader will then imagine what leadership style will be the most successful in influencing his subordinates to complete the task in the time allowed. it is important that as much information as possible is accessible. time was a factor but was not the major factor. In addition. Actions had been rehearsed just in case this crisis did arise. In dealing with the toxic waste spill. Subordinate inputs were solicited and considered in order to overcome resistance to change. With all of these images in mind. One-way communications and directions were essential in order to save lives. In both cases the effective leadership style was dictated by the task to be accomplished. different leadership styles were required depending upon the task and the situation. its complexity. In the script involving the implementation of the new MIS system. . In reflecting upon the scripts we presented above involving the implementation of a new MIS system and dealing with a toxic waste spill.
Theory Of Leadership And Followers 129 As a human resource professional. Some firms have gone so far as to establish their own Political Action Committees (PACs). This system of linkages serves as the organization’s lifelines with its environment. Failure to maintain an effective information link to this dominant force in one’s environment can only have detrimental consequences to the organization. which is. therefore. employment figures. Without this lifeline to valuable information. Social issues and trends determine the opening of new markets and the closing of existing ones. Here again there are services that provide current status reports on major political developments. The sources are by no means all inclusive but do provide a good working example of the type of information linking network to which a leader must subscribe. the leader cannot effectively utilize his or her imagination and creativity and. Involvement in local civic groups offers timely information about such activities. in this case. The linking system provides information from the environment to the organization. the leader. you are in the ideal position to provide information to your organization’s managers to help them become more effective leaders. will have a difficult time surviving. The effective leader will have access to major environmental indicators. There are many services today that provide a more than adequate menu of these various economic indicators. This network of information gathering sensors is referred to as a linking system. Political developments inform the leader of how government directives could possibly affect the leader’s organization. . and capital expenditures to give him or her an idea of future economic conditions. to try to shape political developments to their benefit. such as projected interest rates. the leader has a vested interest in the area’s community affairs. On a more local level. It is the communication channel between the environment sensors and the decisionauthority center.
your boss thinks it’s a great idea. Sure. The effective leader will maintain a truly open door policy. You reply only some . Reading professional journals and attending trade conventions will provide state of-the-art knowledge in this vital area. you are still not really sure how you feel about it. You awake one morning with your manager’s latest directive still on your mind. A lot of benefits could accrue to the company if you are able to accomplish this task successfully. The life support of any organization is its customers. and personal visits helps to maintain a healthy communication network with them. but will also provide information about new materials and equipment that could be of benefit to your organization. In these workshops. but most certainly not least. customer surveys.130 Time Management Keeping abreast of technological innovations can mean the difference between a profitable business and a nonprofitable business. Here is a sample script you can use for this purpose. not one in name only. An effective leader can never know too much about them. Imagine that you are one of your key employees. but then he doesn’t have to carry it out. Keeping in touch with suppliers not only provides valuable knowledge about the well-being of your suppliers. Regular contact with them through the sales force. one of the most effective workshops you can utilize to enable your organization’s managers to be more sensitive to the needs and wants of their employees centers around role reversal. but what if you fail? Your wife notices that you are unusually tense at breakfast and asks if there is anything wrong. Last. As a human resource professional. Suggestion incentive programs and regular informative meetings provide a very efficient information generation link to the organization’s vital assets. have them envision themselves in the roles of their employees. is the organization’s employees.
and by providing an environment that minimizes job stress among his or her employees. The synergistic effect often manifests itself in very cohesive groups affording greater productivity. To . This definition strongly suggests the importance of maintaining good working relationships with other individuals. therefore it was an accepted practice to do whatever was necessary to break up these groups. How will you ever get it all done? THE LEADER’S PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Throughout this chapter we have defined leadership as the ability to influence others to generate efforts toward the accomplishment of organizational goals successfully. and that effective leadership techniques dictate that we actually encourage subordinates to work in groups. The leader is often referred to as the glue that holds the productive work group together. As you ride to work you ask the other guys in the car pool what they think about this situation.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 131 extra problems at work. An effective leader accomplishes this by actively improving group cohesiveness. Today we realize that group formation is a very natural phenomenon. Not only do you have your normal duties that take up almost all of your time. the more productive the group should be. You earnestly listen to their comments. It is this obtainment of full. The tighter the group is held together. Improving Group Cohesiveness Years ago it was a common belief that group formation was the root of many problems. but now you must find a way to accomplish this new assignment. At work you sit at your desk trying to decide how all of this work will get done. by positively managing group conflict. cooperative effort of all of the individuals involved that yields the synergy necessary to obtain the successful attainment of organizational goals.
Managing Group Conflict Just like group formation. When there is more than one group involved in the work environment.” or comes from local sports teams such as “The Buckeyes.” this identity legitimizes the group in the eyes of others and provides a focal point around which the members form an allegiance. . not only pulls the group members closer together. it is often of value to create some friendly competition. for example.132 Time Management improve the cohesiveness of the work group there are many things the effective leader should do. we now realize that group conflict is also inevitable and on some occasions can actually be beneficial to the greater well-being of the organization. To begin with. praise and rewards should be presented to the group as a whole. each work group should have an identity. However. When goals and objectives are met. was also believed to be of no benefit whatsoever to an organization and was to be prevented at any cost. but at the same time must not be allowed to grow so large that subgroups begin to develop. with differing rewards for those who exceed quotas. This action will further solidify the group increasing its esprit de corps. group conflict. but quite often results in a greater generation of sales volume. earlier on. The effective leader will consistently influence the group’s behaviour in order to ensure that there is common agreement on the purpose of the group and its goals. Whether the identity comes from the workplace such as “A shift” or “Department 6. Size is also a very important factor for the leader to consider. One final factor that the leader should be cognizant of is the need for agreement among the group members concerning the group’s goals. Creating a game-like atmosphere among your sales teams. The group must be of adequate size to be able to effectively accomplish its mission.
or not enough human resources available to accomplish the work often are the culprits that give rise to group conflict. For example in an accounts payable office the disbursement clerk cannot process checks for payment until the receiving clerk has verified receipt of product. This often results in friction because the prior tasks may be tardy or not completed satisfactorily. Limited equipment to complete the necessary tasks. or develop common goals for the parties involved that will encourage them to work together. which gives rise to conflict when another individual sees the same situation from a totally different point of view or set of values. insufficient budget funding for major appropriations.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 133 While it is still a good course of action to prevent conflict. To be effective in these situations. Group conflict can also arise when there exists job interdependence among a group of individuals. The effective leader can minimize the occurrence of these types of conflicts by using imagery to open up the communication channels and airing these differences. One party cannot complete higher tasks until they receive some tasks from another party. Here the leader needs to intervene and either change existing procedures to preclude the conflict. Group conflict often arises over differences in perception. the effective leader must use all of his or her envisionary skills to see ways of obtaining more resources or better ways to utilize existing ones. To utilize imagery in managing conflict we suggest the following approach: . Scarce resources are also a primary source of conflict. when it does arise the effective leader needs to understand the nature and the causes of the conflict and then choose an appropriate action to deal with it. Often this opportunity to “clear the air” will be sufficient to allow both sides to understand each other better and thereby reduce the conflict. one individual analyzes a situation from one point of view or set of values.
Hold a summit session with all of the parties involved and discuss the findings. Conduct the same sessions with the opposing parties. Have them also envision areas where they need to work harder. or one of the parties involved decides to leave the organization. Next. Step 7. In this case the leader must channel all of this confrontation energy into positive outcomes. have them envision what steps they would take to resolve the conflict. Either the individuals involved are then able to see the causes of their conflict and are willing to correct them. Have them envision the conflict situation. Have follow-up sessions where the groups envision where they are making progress. There will be occasions when the individual dynamics are such that a confrontation is the only answer.134 Time Management Step 1. Step 3. This was apparently the situation at the . in these cases. conflict should not be prevented. We strongly feel you will find the use of imagery to be a very powerful tool with which to manage conflict. Step 5. there are times when the best of efforts cannot prevent conflict and. Assemble one or more of the parties involved who share the same opinion. Step 6. Step 4. probably for the best interest of the organization. Select a course of action in which they will mutually strive to resolve the conflict. However. Have them envision what they feel they are doing to cause the other party to be in conflict with them. Now have them do a role reversal and assume the position of the party with whom they are experiencing the conflict. and take appropriate action. What role do they see themselves playing in the conflict? What are the sources of the conflict? Step 2. Summarize the findings from these sessions.
role ambiguity. . the symptoms are quite negative on the individual and co-workers. job boredom. In addition. seeing that people are properly trained and that they understand their job responsibilities is also a very important stress reduction technique. modernized organizational society is commonly called stress. zealous. Productivity begins to suffer as the individual becomes lackadaisical about his or her duties. In addition. or job overload.e.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 135 Ford Motor Company that resulted in the departure of Lee Iacocca to join Chrysler. The individual then becomes habitually tardy and incurs a much higher than normal level of absenteeism. Although it comes in many varieties and is caused by any number of events or circumstances. Stress is also caused by not really understanding what it is that is really expected from a particular position. All of the efforts mentioned above that encourage group cohesiveness and minimize group conflict will have a positive effect in reducing stress. Reducing Job Stress One of the by-products of our fast-paced. stress can be linked to job frustration resultant from lack of proper training. The symptoms begin with the individual becoming difficult to work with and irritable. Whatever the causes. it is normally thought of as any form of negative tension arising from an unpleasant situation existing in the work environment. Stress is normally the first discomfort felt by individuals when the above-mentioned causes of conflict begin to become apparent. i. Eventually the stress can push a person into a situation of alcohol or drug abuse. Obviously the effective leader must do everything possible in his or her power to eliminate the sources of stress that prevail in the work environment. It can be caused by insensitive coworkers or time constraints..
You see yourself arriving at work for your first day on the new job. If you are to live up to their expectations you will need the help of your entire staff and their full cooperation. As you settle down in your new office you realize how important it is for you to succeed in this new position. You make mental notes of who sits where and what kinds of interactions seem to be taking place . we offer the following script. You are aware that you received this promotion due to your success in your old job and that upper management is expecting big things from you. . You see yourself walking through the organization and introducing yourself to everyone. you have moved to a brand new home in a brand new city. To allow you some practice on using mental imagery to enhance your interpersonal relations leadership skills. You see yourself often visiting them informally during their breaks. You emphasize your open door policy and encourage them to use it.136 Time Management Probably the most effective means of encouraging a healthful work environment is to maintain an open communication channel that people are invited to utilize knowing that they can find a sensitive ear to their problems. You have finally received that big promotion you always dreamed of and are now the new vice president of human resources of your organization. You inform them that you would like to have some formal meetings for brainstorming and troubleshooting purposes and some informal meetings just as an excuse to get together.who seems to work together more closely and who seems to be distant. You see yourself having an informative meeting with employees. Having said goodbye to all of your old acquaintances. How will you pull this off? The major reason for your past success was your open communication policy and your ability to get people to work together as a team.
religion. EFFECTIVE LEADERS Although we have mentioned many ways in which an individual can improve his or her leadership effectiveness by utilizing their imaginative and creative talents. You hear people stating that this is going to be fun! Finally. Henry Ford’s dream of the common man owning his own car gave birth to a middle class of society. You then see yourself building work teams among logical work units trying to include those folks that have a common attraction. the leader of this country’s civil rights movement. the one most important thing that characterizes all great leaders is their desire to dream! Effective leaders are not afraid to dream. The teams adopt their favorite sports logo as their team logo.” Just like King. John F.. You suggest better ways of working smarter. The dreams of Thomas Jefferson and Karl Marx have directed the destinies of nations. all great leaders openly admit that they do have a dream. No matter what arena they happen to be in — whether it be in politics.Theory Of Leadership And Followers 137 You do more listening than talking and see yourself being welcome at these gatherings. Jr. You stay involved by helping and offering suggestions while watchful of potential problems. business. . or the military — great leaders are not afraid to dream. you see yourself acting as a coach while maintaining a watchful vigil. Kennedy’s dream of putting a man on the moon breathed new life into a space program that had fallen behind the Soviet Union. This script can help you better understand your role as facilitator and coach in helping to achieve teamwork. Everyone can remember those immortal words of Martin Luther King. You set mutually accepted goals for these teams and try to build in some form of friendly competition. who proclaimed to the world “I have a dream.
good leaders have visions of the future that inspire performance. still leads this corporate giant with dreams of being number one or two in every business in which GE engages. Good leaders are able to effectively communicate their visions to others while relating to others on an interpersonal level to ensure the achievement of their visions. Thomas Alva Edison’s proclivities for dreaming gave birth to many inventions. The company that would manufacture his products would one day become the General Electric Corporation. As we mentioned earlier.138 Time Management Ray Kroc’s dream of clean and efficient hamburger shops was to be the beginning of the now famous McDonald’s. At the time of this book’s publication. Jack Welch. GE’s chief executive officer. They are able to see bigger and better ways of doing things. Nothing is impossible for the leader who is not afraid to dream! .
Imagery In Decision Making 139 8 Imagery In Decision Making Imagine this: you have just received notification from your supervisor that your unit will adopt a new computer system to manage the human resource function. While you are familiar with various computer approaches to human resource management (HRM). although you have been given full responsibility for implementing the system in the next thirty days . Thirty days seems like a long time. but you are also expected to continue your regular responsibilities during that period. Mental imagery and related processes can be quickly and effectively applied to the management of many types of problems within organizations. . While . What images come to mind as you ponder this problem set? This is the type of problem where imaginal techniques can be applied to solve the dilemma better. Human resource professionals can train employees to use imaginal processes to scan problem dynamics and to develop a rich list of alternatives to test for problem solution. . . . without the assistance of representatives from the computer leasing company. the new system is one that you are unfamiliar with .
These are the organizations that will survive and prosper in the information age of the future. the federal budget deficit. Organizations that actively scan their environments. Your organization’s environment includes all of the political. and demographic . Just as is true in other applications within this book. international trade imbalances. or the precarious geopolitical situation in the Middle East. Scripts show various ways that these techniques can be integrated with more traditional and rational means of problem-solving and decision making. To survive. the value of the dollar in reference to foreign currency. trainer competency in the development and presentation of imaginal scripts and scenarios is critical in making imaginal techniques powerful tools in problem-solving and decision making. organizational members must be taught to appreciate and alter their mental models of the future so that surprises are prepared for before their impact on the organization. international. legal. Organizations that ignore these environmental realities. sociocultural. economic. geopolitical. once familiar with the techniques.140 Time Management people sometimes resist using their imagery in problemsolving. Very few organizations are immune from influences of such things as the possibility of another fuel crisis. technological. anticipate emergent problems and take advantage of opportunities that may arise over time. PREVENTING PROBLEMS In today’s turbulent societal and business environment. This chapter provides information on and guidelines for the use of imaginal techniques in the problem-solving realm. value-based. impact on their operations and strategies are suffering from a form of corporate myopia. organizations face challenges and search for opportunities in their environments. they usually overcome their resistance.
Further. as the number of entering workers goes down. This responsibility falls to the HRM unit because it works with the human dimension of organizational functioning.Imagery In Decision Making 141 trends and changes that affect its ability to function effectively and efficiently over your strategic planning horizon. One of the key functions of the HRM unit is to serve as a scanning unit that watches the environment for patterns of change that affect the organization. The HRM unit is in contact with many sources of current information about the future and the market place. For example. Twenty years ago. the social environment will become more complex and will present all organizations with novel problems that demand creative and anticipatory problemsolving skills. we truly live in a world economy. and as the technological sophistication of work increases. As time passes. Most current business decisions are affected by international events. One creative way to accomplish the problem definition task is to use imaginal techniques to develop clear and explicit scenarios of the future as well as strategies your organization can apply to the hypothetical. one problem that organizations will face in the future is the problem of recruiting qualified personnel. As the age of the population goes up. and maintaining competent work forces. organizations will face the critical problem of finding. but potential future environment. one may find that these techniques don’t function in the future environment defined by emerging trends. For example. so that the total organization expands and articulates its visions of the future in preparation for that future. If traditional manpower planning methods are used solely. there was more stability in this environment than there is today. attracting. . you can share this expertise with other managers and planners. we can no longer assume away the rest of the world economically.
projective problem-solving. they can build scenarios of future conditions. stretch out. 2. the planning group would take part in a process that involves the following procedures. how conditions will affect manpower planning over time. imagery can be used to supplement traditional manpower planning. Individual Problem Brainstorming: After arriving at consensus on the nature of the problem. but not to replace it. carrying both tension and routinized thinking with them.142 Time Management However. Become aware of any physical or emotional sources of tension or anxiety that you may be experiencing. A suitable definition here would be: “How do we acquire talented and qualified employees in the future as the number of qualified applicants decreases and as the technological requirements of the workplace increase?” This definition presupposes that the HRM staff have prescreened the problem by using available forecasting and trend analysis information. . and let relaxation 7 flow throughout your body. staff can be placed in a relaxed state and given imaginal cues to promote creative scanning of the problem and the potential ways that the problem can be solved. if HRM personnel are schooled in the use of creative. the group discusses the nature of the problem that is anticipated and develops consensus about the dynamics. A possible script for this activity might go something like this. Take a moment now to close your eyes. imagine yourself converting negative or tense energies into black balloons — see yourself blowing these balloons up and watching them sail away from you. You are totally relaxed and open to using your imaginal and creative talents to handle the problem we are studying. 1. and how the organization can adapt its recruitment and selection techniques to accommodate these trends. of the problem. Consensual Definition of the Problem: Herein. In other words. In this example. As you scan your mind and body.
What types of skills and abilities will we need? What types of attitudes and characteristics will you be looking for in your employees?” What information sources and recruiting channels will you use to find potential employees who best fit the needs of the organization. Where you have created an interesting idea. try not to edit or delete your thoughts. Take a moment now to reflect on your ideas and impressions. Shortly we’ll come back together as a group to look at the issue through the multiple and creative visions we have generated. Imagine yourself writing your ideas down on a mental notebook for safekeeping and sharing. Relax and let your creative powers help you further develop potential solutions to this future problem.” . take some time now to play with the idea. That’s good. Imagine yourself as ready to record and share your good ideas. take another moment to collect your varied images and thoughts. View the problem as an opportunity for you to exercise your creative problem solving skills on a challenge. How will you influence prospective employees to see our organization as the type of place in which they prosper. Now. See yourself as using your creative problem-solving skills to deal with our current problem. Imagine that you have carefully scanned the employment environment as you ponder how to attract and retain employees so that we remain effective and profitable in the future. See yourself as able to handle the most complex future problem in an intelligent and creative manner. Be confident that your ideas will contribute to our overall problem solving efforts. Envision the types of employees we will need to meet the challenges of this dynamic future. Try not to edit or screen any of your ideas. Now imagine that you’re responsible for recruitment and selection of competent personnel five years from now. Once again.Imagery In Decision Making 143 Now envision yourself as adept and creative at problemsolving.
Free Imaginal Excursion: During this phase. This reiteration would serve as the basis for the fourth step in this process.] Now take another moment to review the ideas of your colleagues. This process of “expanded effort” generates a great number of potential ideas that may be creative and feasible solutions’ options. [Pause. Once again. place yourself in the position of recruiting and selecting employees ten years from now.] Take a few . take a relaxed attitude and posture. [Pause. Take a moment to review these ideas. [Pause.] That’s good. [Pause. Consider the following script. Research has shown that the more elaborate the information generation process.] Place yourself in a creative state and review the materials we have just covered.] Given all of the ideas that you have now experienced. A short. 4. 3.] You have expressed your ideas from the first script. Reconstitution: Herein. how would you go about recruiting and selecting new employees for the firm in this dynamic future? [Pause. Someone in the group would record the ideas and at the close of this exercise would reiterate the ideas to the group. [Pause. Now.144 Time Management This script gives personnel the opportunity to evaluate freely the problem from a variety of views and to share their ideas with others. and ideas generated during the imaginal script exercise. once again. they will use this broad-based cognitive structure to further study and solve the problem. insights. staff uses the collective creativity of the group as a basis for further elaborating potential problem solutions. provocative image set allows staff to once again access and explore their creative ideas. the group would come back together and share collective experiences. the greater the degree of creativity and originality that is promoted. It also gives them practice in reframing their conceptions of the problem and building freely creative depictions of potential solution paths. All staff have an expanded view of the problem from others’ perspectives.
The important process within this step is to consolidate the various perspectives on the problem and to generate strategies that take into account the dynamics that have previously been identified. modified. These mental models are the recurrent images. Only by encouraging and rewarding people for envisioning the future can we actually begin to deal with the probable contingencies that will emerge. [Pause.Imagery In Decision Making 145 moments now to develop a scenario for managing this problem. the likelihood that the organization can anticipate and manage very different future problems is greatly inhibited. Frequently. Problems can only be identified and proactively managed if they are anticipated by and considered within the mental models that organizational personnel hold about the future. If the mental models of personnel are overly focused on the short-term present. Your strategies may focus on either training current personnel to be more adaptive in the future. depictions. [Pause.] Try not to be limiting or judgmental in developing your strategy. and scenarios that we hold of our organizations and the action paths of these organizations. and improved by educating personnel to work comfortably with these models during imaginal practice sessions. or you may focus on an increase in manpower scanning efforts. staff evaluates the various options that are present and develops an anticipatory recruiting strategy for dealing with work force changes of the future. . which you decide is critical to recruitment and selection in the competitive future. Mental models are highly imaginal in nature and can best be reviewed.] 5. personnel are so tied to self-limiting and reactive future images of their organizations that little true anticipatory mindwork is done to prepare the organization for its challenges or its opportunities. Problem Elaboration and Solution: After bringing staff back into the present and once again elaborating ideas.
Such problems are solved when individuals go beyond habitual thinking patterns. we must activate the imaginal powers of personnel to depict. Our research has clearly shown that matching an inappropriate problem solving approach with a creative or challenging problem leads to less productivity and creativity in problem-solving. you can help educate other personnel in anticipatory-projective imaginal exercises that allow them to move beyond the routinized thinking that often governs many facets of organizations. Problem-solving is a skill area.146 Time Management In order to promote more long-term thinking. alter. Unique problems cannot be solved through retrospection or through routinization. acquisition and use of sound methods in problem-solving occurs through practice. and improve our organization’s response to inevitable changes. If we are to adapt a method of preventative problem-solving in the future. As with any other skill area. .
You have a strong synergy of individual contributions. But there are two critical factors in building a high performance team. but can compensate for each other’s weaknesses. When different personality types balance and complement each other. The first factor in team effectiveness is the diversity of skills and personalities. the team goals. In real . And even if you are not in a management or leadership role yet. This relies heavily on good communication in the team and the harmony in member relationships. better understanding of team work can make you a more effective employee and give you an extra edge in your corporate office. When people use their strengths in full. The other critical element of team work success is that all the team efforts are directed towards the same clear goals. A team building success is when your team can accomplish something much bigger and work more effectively than a group of the same individuals working on their own.Time Effectiveness 147 9 Time Effectiveness Team building skills are critical for your effectiveness as a manager or entrepreneur.
Make sure that the team goals are totally clear and completely understood and accepted by each team member. Here are some additional team building ideas. may build up conflicts. For example. if there is a risk that two team members will be competing for control in certain area. Allow your office team members build trust and openness between each other in team building activities . Make sure there is complete clarity in who is responsible for what and avoid overlapping authority.148 Time Management life. and tips you can try when managing teams in your situation. team work success rarely happens by itself. some people with similar personalities may start fighting for authority and dominance in certain areas of expertise. This is why every team needs a good leader who is able to deal with all such team work issues. instead of complementing and balancing each other. Build trust with your team members by spending oneon-one time in an atmosphere of honesty and openness. Or even worse. And on and on. according to those individual’s strengths and personal inclinations. techniques. Be loyal to your employees. Even if the team goals are clear and accepted by everyone. try to divide that area into two distinct parts and give each more complete control in one of those parts. For example. There is simply too much space for problems. if you expect the same. different personalities. without focused team building efforts and activities. there may be no team commitment to the group goals or no consensus on the means of achieving those goals: individuals in the team just follow their personal opinions and move in conflicting directions. There may be a lack of trust and openness that blocks the critical communication and leads to loss of coordination in the individual efforts.
give positive feedback as well. or idea. Though be careful with those corporate team building activities or events in which socializing competes too much with someone’s family time. make sure there are no blocked lines of communications and you and your people are kept fully informed. For example in a group lunch on Friday. solution. though team work and team building can offer many challenges. When managing teams. Don’t limit yourself to negative feedback.Time Effectiveness 149 and events. . try to involve the whole team in the decision making process. Say thank you or show appreciation of an individual team player’s work. Whenever there is an opportunity. Finally. Even when your team is spread over different locations. via group goal setting or group sessions with collective discussions of possible decision options or solution ideas. Be fare. Give them some opportunities of extra social time with each other in an atmosphere that encourages open communication. For example. Recognize them early and deal with them in full. Don’t miss opportunities to empower your employees. you can still maintain effective team communication. the more likely he or she is to agree with and commit to the decided line of action. For issues that rely heavily on the team consensus and commitment. Be careful with interpersonal issues. the more you build team commitment to the goals and decisions. What you want to achieve here is that each team member feels his or her ownership in the final decision. And the more he or she feels this way. the pay off from a high performance team is well worth it.
cognitive outcomes include verbal knowledge. and formal courses) and a review of the current research conducted on each of the types of development activity are provided.150 Time Management ISSUES IN CONSTRUCT DEFINITION To advance research and practice of employee development practices. self-efficacy. or affective learning outcomes. Skill-based outcomes relate to the development of technical or motor skills. This chapter attempts to increase our understanding of these issues. how development activities should be measured. Next. The first section concludes with a discussion of how different types of development activity influence learning processes and outcomes. Individual and organizational antecedents affect individuals’ decisions regarding the type and amount of participation in development activities. Ford. as well . skill-based. This chapter discusses the theoretical and empirical literature supporting the linkages. one needs to understand what types of activities are considered to be developmental. how development activities facilitate learning. Each type of development activity requires a specific type of learning environment for the learning outcomes to be achieved. and Salas (1993). The first section discusses issues concerning the construct validity and measurement of employee development. job experiences. Affective outcomes include attitudes (such as self-awareness or values) and motivational outcomes (including motivational disposition. relationships. In the second section. and goal setting). Each development activity affects one or more cognitive. the individual and organizational antecedents of employee development are discussed. how knowledge is organized. and the development and application of strategies for problem solving. a typology of development activities (assessment. According to Kraiger. and what individual and organizational characteristics influence the amount and type of development activities that employees participate in.
London defined development as courses.Time Effectiveness 151 as several different theoretical frameworks that might be useful for understanding individuals’ decisions regarding participation in development activities. The objectives of employee development are not necessarily tied to a specific job. behaviors. Some of the possible dimensions that are useful . it is necessary to differentiate employee development from training. Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate the learning of specific knowledge. and assignments that influence personal and professional growth. and identify the types of development activities. Development From Training Most attempts at defining employee development focus on how it differs from training. Issues related to how developmental activity is measured. and that contribute to the company’s ability to remain competitive by providing high-quality goods and services to its customers. Directions for future research on employee development are provided at the end of each part. skills. but instead on skills. identify dimensions on which development activities might differ. and the temporal dimensionality of development activity must also be considered. seminars. or behaviors that employees need to be successful in their current job. For example. the validity and reliability of the source of information regarding development activity. Dimensionality of Development Activity Development activities can be defined along several dimensions. Development opportunities are likely less focused on skills or behaviors tied to a certain position. THE EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT To understand the construct of employee development. and abilities that are necessary for long-term personal effectiveness. workshops.
For example. Voluntary Versus Involuntary Employee participation in development activities might be dictated by organizational policy or prescription. Formal development activities are sponsored by the organization. These development activities are not formally prescribed by the organization. current versus future oriented. such as courses or job experiences. skills. or behaviour through a variety of means. For example. many employees are asked to participate in job-rotation programs. employees who have been identified by the organization as having high management potential often participate in a prescribed set of courses related to the development of management skills. incremental versus frame breaking. usually to target the development of specific skills. employees in the accounting department may decide to apply for a job assignment in human resources or take a class in leadership skills to confirm their interest in working with people.152 Time Management for understanding the construct of employee development include voluntary versus involuntary. For example. or an interest in confirming (or disconfirming) their interest in gaining knowledge. and introspective versus interactive. knowledge bases. in which the length and function involved in job assignments have been predetermined by the organization. knowledge. Also. or behaviors. or behaviors in a ceratin area. Employees may also participate in development activities simply because of a personal interest in acquiring knowledge or skills in a particular area. Informal Versus Formal Employees can develop skills. employees might be rotated from the marketing to finance function to improve their understanding of financial . informal versus formal.
skills. requiring the acquisition of a large number of skills to be successful. but that helps them develop the skill base needed to move into another position. abilities. . Employees might actively try to develop new skills and knowledge bases by deciding to participate in extracurricular activities (such as coaching a soccer team). One of the dilemmas of organizations that hope to facilitate a continuous learning environment is how to persuade employees to participate in development activities that are not immediately rewarded.Time Effectiveness 153 practices in the organization. employees might chair a task force designed to understand work and family issues to develop leadership and organizational ability that might not be applicable for their current job assignment (engineer). In many organizations. For example. Incremental Versus Framebreaking London distinguished incremental learning from framebreaking situations. Framebreaking learning experiences place individuals in difficult positions. Informal development activities are not sponsored by the organization. or attitudes that employees need to be successful in their current job versus preparing them for a future assignment or anticipated changes to their current job. participation in development activities has been linked with employees enhancing their salary or their chances for achieving promotions. Current Versus Future Oriented This dimension deals with the degree to which the development activity is related to the knowledge. which can help develop skills (sensitivity and providing feedback. for the coaching example) that may be transferable to the workplace. Incremental situations are those in which time to clarify role expectations is provided and flexibility for self-paced learning is available.
but not create a situation where the risk for failure is high. In other types of development activity. assessment). Operationalization of Development Various operationalizations of development activity are possible.e. such as mentoring and job experiences. or learning style preferences. the individual acquires skills or experiences attitude and behaviour changes directly through interacting with others or the work experience. switching roles within a team. but also a high risk for failure. Researchers must identify the operationalization of development activity that is relevant to the purpose of the study (Does the research question involve trying to predict the rate of participation in development activity or predicting the type of development activities that persons with certain characteristics will participate in?). or subordinates. including development plans. . career goals. Giving employees the opportunity to develop skills or experiences through enlarging the domain of their current job might be considered incremental learning. peers. historic developmental records. attitudes. Activities such as temporary project assignments. In one type of development activity (i. or researching new ways to serve clients and customers might “stretch” the employees’ current skill base. Introspective Versus Interactive Development activities also differ in the extent to which they require the individual to interact with other persons and the work environment. and number of hours spent in development activities.. individuals are involved in exploring their own values. The personal insights gained occur without any assistance from supervisors.154 Time Management Framebreaking experiences require considerable individual investment with a high potential for learning. interests.
Organizations may not systematically collect this information. The expectancy model (which is often used as the theoretical basis for understanding participation in development activity) focuses on predicting future effort levels. Data collected from personnel files may appear to be the most valid and reliable source of information regarding development activities. there are several dimensions that the researcher needs to consider in defining the domain of development activities: Are mandatory activities considered to be development activities? Does development activity include just formal courses and seminars? Are work experiences such as job rotation also considered to be developmental assignments? Sources of Information Self-report data using employee surveys and objective data from information systems or personnel records are potential sources of information regarding development activity. and programs is not reimbursed or rewarded. researchers collecting archival development information need to make sure that the data collected match the types of development activity they are interested in studying. Also. As a result. longitudinal . However. Temporal Dimensionality Researchers must determine whether study hypotheses have to do with predicting future versus current rates of participation in development activity. many employees may not report participation in development activities if involvement in courses.Time Effectiveness 155 A key issue is to decide what development means. As noted earlier. seminars. As a result. Noe and Wilk found a lack of convergence between self-report and objective measures of development activity. organizational records may not differentiate between formal and informal or voluntary and involuntary development activities. Recently. or if development activities are informal.
Carnevale. Although an individual’s awareness of their strengths and weaknesses can be considered developmental. In many organizations. and more discretion regarding the types of formal programs and experiences they want to participate in than nonmanagerial employees.and organizational-level characteristics may artificially influence employees’ participation in development activity. and Villet reported that there are large differences across positions in the degree to which employees are provided with development opportunities. Self-report information as well as information from peers. assessments typically stimulate a person to engage in other types of developmental activities designed to strengthen skills. or skills. Types of Development Activity Our review of the practitioner and academic literature suggests that there are four types of development activities: employee assessment. Potential Covariates Individual. job experiences. and relationships. managerial-level employees have a larger menu of development activities to choose from. or attitudes. and customers can be collected. Employee Assessment Assessment involves collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their behaviour. Employees may have more opportunities to participate in development activities simply as a result of organizational tenure. communication style. Gainer. behaviors. managers. formal courses and seminars. .156 Time Management studies that investigate the relationship between attitudes and perceptions and development activity participation rate are required at a later point in time.
Several different types of professionally developed. feeling). Hence.Time Effectiveness 157 Typically. as well as “home-grown. Based on the work of Carl Jung. extroversion). The organization can also use assessment information to determine what other types of development activities might benefit the employee. employees are provided with a summary of their strengths and weaknesses. some estimates are that 2 million people take the MBTI in the United States each year). Validity studies have shown that the ratings managers receive on the various Benchmarks scales are related to independent assessment of the managers’ promotion potential and job performance. acquiring resources. Because of page limitations. Benchmarks are designed to assess managerial skill strengths and weaknesses. assessment centers.” measures are available for assessment purposes. as seen by the different rating groups. this chapter discusses Benchmarks. Myers-Briggs Type Inventory. this chapter cannot possibly discuss all available assessment measures that might be used for development purposes. and lifestyle. and programs designed to improve dysfunctional managers. performance appraisals. Sixteen unique personality types result from the combination of the four MBTI preferences. which they can use to direct development activities. The Benchmarks instrument includes a series of items designed to measure managers’ skills in dealing with subordinates. Research studies comparing Benchmarks to other assessment tools (such as the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory and the California Psychological Inventory) have provided evidence of the construct validity of the instrument. the MBTI identifies individual preferences for energy (introversion vs. . information gathering (sensing vs. The most popular psychological test for employee development is the MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI. intuition). and creating a productive work climate. decision making (thinking vs.
comparisons of judgments made by analysts who are familiar with the Jungian philosophy underlying the instrument. although there appears to be some relationship between type preference and different occupations (sales persons have higher percentages of extraverts than introverts). The MBTI can purportedly help develop teams by matching team members with job assignments that allow them to capitalize on their preferences. reliability. Validity studies of the MBTI conducted to date have examined the relationship between MBTI scores and behaviour in experimental situations. Second. no evidence has indicated a relationship between type and performance in an occupation. and correlations with other instruments. Besides . Individuals react positively to taking the MBTI. Research on the validity. show varying degrees of agreement depending on the preference being considered. The research base supporting the validity of assessment centers for employee selection is well established. workstyles. relationship between instrument and self-typing. Test-retest reliability analyses of the MBTI have found that as few as 24% of individuals who took the MBTI were classified as the same type at a later time. The validity of the MBTI has been questioned for several reasons. and to help employees understand how the different personality types of team members can lead to useful problem solving. First. and leadership. with the personality typing determined by the MBTI. and effectiveness of the MBTI is inconclusive. motivation. Third. the sensing-intuition and thinking-feeling dimensions do not correlate with measures designed to assess similar constructs. and report that it helps them change their behaviour. differences in MBTI profile by occupation. teamwork. One concern with the MBTI is that personality types may not be stable over time.158 Time Management The MBTI has been used for understanding such things as communication.
but not to development activities completed. An innovation in the use of performance appraisals for employee development has been the development of 360degree feedback systems. The manager and employees jointly discuss the appraisal results and develop an action plan. participation in assessment centers has been shown to be related only to changes in self-perceptions and intentions to develop. or performance improvement. (b) developing performance standards. the manager provides ratings of employees’ behaviour. However. (c) providing periodic performance feedback. In the typical performance appraisal system. assessment centers are believed to serve an important development function by providing assesses with feedback on administrative and interpersonal skills believed to be related to managerial success.Time Effectiveness 159 selection. (d) diagnosing and coaching employee performance. There are several excellent discussions of practical and theoretical issues related to 360-degree feedback systems. and (e) reviewing overall performance. Performance appraisals can be useful for employee development under certain conditions. or customers may interact with the employee and see their work products more frequently than does their manager. subordinates. employees may not be motivated to develop weaknesses identified through the appraisal process. Silverman ( 1991) suggested that performance appraisal that stimulates employee development includes five steps: (a) clarifying the employee’s major job responsibilities. Therefore. or competencies. London and Smither (1995) . performance. behaviour change. Many employees may question the validity of appraisal information collected from only one source because peers. The use of only one source of ratings—the manager—assumes that the manager is aware of each employee’s behaviour and competencies.
in many cases. peers. These 360-degree feedback systems would be expected to motivate more development activity than traditional appraisal systems for several reasons. A special type of assessment program involves helping managers who are otherwise good performers. Second. re-evaluation of self-image. typical. and customers. One example of this type of program is the Individual Coaching for Effectiveness (ICE) program. As Festinger noted in his theory of social comparison. employees are provided with normative information summarizing the best. employees involved in 360-degree feedback systems would be expected to be more motivated to develop weaknesses than employees in traditional appraisal systems. such as insensitivity. arrogance. Many organizations use some type of 360-degree assessment inventory.160 Time Management have developed the most comprehensive model of the effects of multisource feedback on perceptions of goal accomplishment. peer. and worst scores for each appraisal dimension. subordinates. but who have dysfunctional behaviors. including managers. goals. The 360-degree feedback provides employees with credible information regarding differences in self. and changes in outcomes such as development. . employees are more likely to feel the appraisal information is valid because it comes from multiple perspectives. in which the employee is provided with feedback information from persons with whom they come in contact with at the workplace. and poor conflict-management skills. Differences between one’s abilities and those of others create pressure to reduce the discrepancy. people need to compare themselves to others to evaluate their abilities. inability to be a team player. along with a report summarizing self. and performance. First. As a result. and manager evaluations.and others’ perceptions of strengths and weaknesses. behaviour.
downward moves. and employee exchanges. The psychologist and manager also develop action plans that outline how the manager should try to use new behaviour in his or her daily work activities. promotions. Job Experiences Most employee development is believed to occur through job experiences. Interviews and assessments completed by the manager. To be developmental. An important issue in the use of job experiences for employee development is the need to identify the developmental potential of jobs. The coaching phase of the program involves presenting the manager with information gathered in the assessment phase. psychologists conduct the diagnosis. transfers. a job experience must require employees to stretch their skills. skills. peers. The support phase of the program involves creating conditions under which the manager is able to use new behaviors on the job. and psychological counseling. participation of the manager in behaviour modeling training designed to improve skill deficiencies identified in the assessment phase. coach and counsel the manager. job rotation. and assist in the development of action plans for implementing new skills on the job. The DCP has been found to . and supervisor are used to gather this information. and personality. The manager’s supervisor is asked to provide feedback to the manager and the psychologist overseeing the manager’s development. Diagnosis involves collecting information related to the manager’s interests. Job experiences can be used for employee development through enlarging the job. The Development Challenge Profile (DCP) was created to identify the developmental components of managerial jobs. A major assumption of using job experiences for development is that development is most likely to occur when there is a mismatch between employees’ skills and experience base and the skills required for the job.Time Effectiveness 161 In the ICE program.
First Chicago National Bank and Kodak have participated in an employee-exchange program. Obstacles (adverse business conditions. test-reset reliability) as well as being related to reports of on-the-job learning. job transitions. Cheraskin. The employee from First Chicago helped the business-imaging division of Kodak to identify applications for computer disc technology. Campion. Job rotation involves providing employees with a series of assignments in various functional areas of the organization or movement among jobs in a single functional area or department. Experiencing job transitions and task-related characteristics (creating change.162 Time Management have solid psychometric characteristics (internal consistency. lack of top management support. executive . short courses offered by consultants or universities. high levels of responsibility. The exchange typically occurs between companies that are customers for each others’ products or services. lack of personal support. Formal Courses and Programs Formal education programs include off and on-site programs designed specifically for the organization’s employees. and Stevens (1991) found a positive relationship between rates of job rotation and self-reported benefits. and nonauthority relationships) were found to be related to learning. construct validity of the factor structure. The Kodak employee helped First Chicago understand areas within the bank that could benefit from imaging technology. In one of the few studies to investigate the effectiveness of job rotation for employee development. including stimulating work and a greater understanding of the relationship between jobs in the organization. having a difficult boss) were negatively related to learning. A relatively new approach to employee development is for two organizations to exchange employees. and objective features of jobs.
. There has been little research on the effectiveness of formal education programs for employee development. These activities are designed to stimulate participants’ use of teamwork.Time Effectiveness 163 Master’s of Business Administration (MBA) programs. Both individual and group problem-solving challenges are used. such as lectures by business experts. In a study of Harvard University’s Advanced Management Program. Evidence supporting the effectiveness of adventure learning is based on self report data and positive testimonials. These programs may involve various types of activities. and university programs in which participants are housed at the university while taking classes. middle managers. trust. and support networks. and executives. Hollenbeck found that participants reported that they had acquired valuable knowledge from the program. Richards. For example. There are usually separate education programs offered for supervisors. and Barnes found that participation in adventure learning resulted in a true reduction of anxiety and improvements in self-concept. Studies have not yet addressed whether the experiences influence individuals’ use of new skill sets in the work setting or stimulate the development of skill weaknesses realized during the exercises. business games and simulations. They also reported that the program helped them gain a broader perspective on issues facing the company. and helped them learn new ways to think about and look at problems. Ewert and Marsh. risk-management strategies. and meetings with customers. increased their self-confidence. Adventure learning continues to be a popular development activity either by itself or in conjunction with other educational activities. Adventure learning involves groups who are exposed to difficult and unfamiliar physical and mental challenges in an outdoor environment. adventure learning.
Also. the benefits that the protégé receives from the relationship. it is clear from the literature that mentors might not be available for all organizational members. including mentors. Although most of the research regarding developmental relationships has focused on mentoring relationships. Individuals who are active participants of professionally oriented groups are . providing valuable information. Serving as a mentor might be useful for stimulating plateaued employees to develop their skills and feel that they make a contribution to the organization’s mission. A mentoring relationship involves a more experienced employee (mentor) and a less experienced employee (protégé) who interact with the primary purpose of promoting the personal and professional development of the protégé. mentors might also receive benefits from the relationship. sponsors. Most of the research regarding developmental relationships has focused on mentoring relationships. group mentoring is becoming popular. and the functions that the mentor serves. Most of the research regarding mentoring relationships has focused on the development of the relationship.164 Time Management Relationships Interactions with other members of the organization. With the movement toward work designs involving teams. and access to social networks. can influence employee development. Peer relationships are more accessible to most employees. and research indicates that individuals receive the same types of vocational and psychological benefits. Groups can provide the same type of support to their members as is found in traditional one-on-one mentoring relationships through communications of social norms. Although mentoring has historically been viewed as only valuable to the protégé. peers are often called on to provide training to other team members. and peers.
A symbolically oriented environment is characterized by activities designed to help the learner master a skill or concept to solve a problem. and courses to be successful. This type of environment is necessary for assessment activities to meet affective outcomes. Each development activity needs to occur in a specific type of learning environment for the learning outcomes to be realized. An affectively oriented environment is characterized by activities designed to help learners realize their opinions. examples. as well as receive feedback. A perceptually oriented environment involves activities focused on understanding a concept or a relationship between events. . perceptual.Time Effectiveness 165 likely to experience outcomes that are similar to career and psychosocial mentoring functions. Kolb and Lewis (1986) suggested that there are four types of learning environments: affective. and unbiased toward the feedback they receive. A symbolically oriented environment is especially important for formal courses to be effective. key behaviors. symbolic. Theories. Learning Environments and Development Research suggests that the environment plays an important role in learning. and values. Individuals must be willing to be open. particularly if the individuals are selfregulated learners who are motivationally. Each learning environment has unique characteristics that facilitate the attainment of one or more of the learning outcomes. and behavioral. or principles are provided to the learner. A perceptually oriented environment is critical for relationships. behaviorally. and cognitively active in the learning process. job experiences. feelings. This environment encourages the learner to experiment with new perspectives or ways of thinking. truthful. Learners need to receive appropriate theory and principles within a meaningful framework (such as job-related problems).
166 Time Management A behaviorally oriented environment is characterized by having learners apply knowledge and skills to solve workrelated problems. Managers should provide advice and resources. view learning as a continuous process.e. Assessment through participating in assessment centers. Courses and programs are usually targeted at developing specific cognitive skills or attitudes. Managers need to provide expertise and coaching as desired by the employee. valuing diversity. or completing instruments designed to assess interpersonal style. values. or personality type likely result in an increase in awareness of attitudes. or thinking strategically. This type of learning environment is needed for job experiences to be effective. each development activity will result in specific learning outcomes. . provide advice. Employees with a mastery orientation are more likely to take responsibility for learning. competencies. receiving performance feedback. Relationships primarily relate to motivational outcomes. and should refer the employee to sources that might be useful. Managers need to be sure to not tell employees how to solve work-related issues they may be unfamiliar with. mentors help provide an interpersonal environment (i. None of the development activities likely influence motor skill development. As Kraiger et al. and skill strengths and weaknesses.. executive development programs might involve developing executive skills in managing change. Learners are forced to take responsibility for their actions. but responsibility for learning is completely up to the learner. coaching) that helps employees develop a mastery orientation toward work. interaction styles. For example. visibility. Activity and Learning Outcomes Given the appropriate learning environment. (1993) noted. and take responsibility for success and failure.
Directions for Future Research Understanding the Construct of Employee Development To better understand the antecedents of employee development. and effective problem-solving strategies. and then the categories of developmental experiences were constructed. addition of new responsibilities to the current job. such as a person’s self-efficacy. job assignments may increase employees’ awareness of their personal values and affect their concern and tolerance for others. As a result. Similarly. Job experiences may also affect motivational outcomes. job assignments likely involve interacting with persons from different technical or cultural backgrounds (particularly for international assignments). as a result of a new job. Currently. It might be useful to see if research utilizing a deductive approach would lead to similar conclusions . apply current skills and competencies in a different way. The experiences identified were based on this process: Midto upper level managers were asked to identify events that led to a lasting change in their approach to management. that if met. one needs to have a better understanding of the characteristics of developmental activities. or improve problem-solving skills or interpersonal strategies. employees may be forced to acquire new skills.Time Effectiveness 167 Mentors may also provide employees with information needed to understand acceptable patterns of behaviour in the organization (how to deal with vendors). Job experiences provide employees with challenges. or committee assignment. increase their beliefs that they can be successful in similar situations. what is known about the use of job experiences for employee development is based on research using the interview methodology developed by the Center for Creative Leadership.
These questions include: (a) What are the assessor behaviour and skills required for developmental assessment centers? (b) Does participation in an assessment center lead to more accurate self perceptions of ability? (c) Which individual characteristics influence participants’ use of feedback for development? (d) What types of development activities do . but need to be investigated. but also a high risk for failure. and evaluating the construct validity of the categories. It was noted earlier that one dimension that development activities might vary on is the extent to which they involve framebreaking versus incremental learning. Framebreaking experiences require considerable individual investment with a high potential for learning. For example. or interpersonal relationships).168 Time Management regarding the importance and types of job experiences related to development. Assessment as Development Activity More than 10 years ago. individuals with high levels of self-efficacy may respond more positively to framebreaking experiences than individuals with low self-efficacy. Thornton and Byham published a critical evaluation of assessment center theory. They identified several research questions regarding the use of assessment centers for employee development that remain unanswered. developing items related to each category. technology. According to London. coursework. research. Research needs to identify the characteristics of framebreaking experiences and the types of persons most likely to respond positively from them. A deductive approach would involve identifying critical categories of learning experiences (such as job assignments. framebreaking learning experiences place individuals in difficult positions requiring the acquisition of a large number of skills to be successful. and practice.
not necessarily with improving their competence. However. Persons with a feedback-seeking orientation are more likely to detect discrepancies between self-perceptions and others’ perceptions of behaviour and subsequently correct behaviour others believe needs improvement. Persons with a performance orientation are more concerned with gaining favorable judgments of their competence. Multirater feedback systems have been shown to have a positive impact on managerial behaviour and performance.. Persons with a learning orientation are more concerned with increasing their competence and less concerned with others’ evaluations of them. meet with raters to clarify weaknesses they identified. Research investigating the relationship between the sigh. This suggests that managers with a learning orientation or who actively seek feedback may demonstrate higher levels of development activity (e. and Redmon suggested that managers’ acceptance of subordinate feedback is enhanced when . Bernardin. few studies have addressed the relationship between participation in multirater feedback systems and development. and consistency of feedback that managers receive and participation in development activity is needed. Dweck and Leggett proposed that persons have either a learning or performance orientation. considerable research has investigated the role of learning orientation and feedback-seeking orientation on behaviour.Time Effectiveness 169 individuals participate in as a result of assessment? (e) For established assessment centers that supposedly involve assessment and development. does development really occur? For example. Dahmus. enroll in courses and seminars) following participation in a 360-degree feedback system than persons with a performance orientation or low feedbackseeking orientation.g. specificity.
and use of time. role. (b) having the managers observe and record actual incidents from their work lives and recall their thoughts and feelings during the incident. activities. Self-report data regarding behaviour change resulting from receiving MBTI feedback need to be verified by collecting behaviour change data from supervisors and peers. Several studies suggest that positive feedback provides less of an incentive for persons to change behaviour than negative feedback because positive feedback focuses attention on the self-concept rather than on the task. the choices they made. or the orientations they adopted as a result of the incidents. The researchers evaluated “learning” as occurring when the managers qualitatively changed the way they conceived . and documenting activities that people engage in to bring about change. and (c) following up with interviews regarding the actions that managers took. Most of the work on job experiences for development has utilized managers or white-collar employees. A useful area of research would be to investigate whether persons with introversion personality types learn more in structured (courses) rather than unstructured (committee work) experiences. Experiences as Development Activity More needs to be known about how job experiences can be beneficial for nonmanagerial employees.170 Time Management managers receive feedback from both their managers and subordinates. MBTI preferences might have some relationship to development activity preferences. Burgoyne and Hodgson provided an example of how qualitative methodology might be used to understand the characteristics of job experiences that employees consider to be developmental. Their method included: (a) conducting general interviews exploring the managers’ work.
there has not been a direct test of the assumptions underlying this relationship. and behaviors needed to be rewarded and promoted in the organization. role expectations. and feedback from the protégés regarding ideas and rough drafts of projects. The major assumptions are that job demands create challenge for the job incumbent. and a “stretched” or challenged incumbent will learn and develop in response to the challenge provided. the characteristics of a developmental peer relationship. One potentially useful study would be to identify teams that are known to be successful. Mentors also have the opportunity to obtain information from the protégés. or do job demands only influence development indirectly through the amount of challenge that the job incumbent perceives? Relationships as a Developmental Activity It might be useful to view the mentoring relationship from an information-exchange perspective. Protégés receive information from the mentor regarding the organizational norms. Research is needed to investigate the types of benefits that employees obtain from peer and group relationships. Morrison provided a typology of information that might be useful in pursuing research that views mentoring from an information-exchange perspective. That is.Time Effectiveness 171 something. This type of developmental relationship is probably critical for the success of teams. Although researchers have found relationships between job demands and learning. do job demands have a direct effect on development. Empirical research needs to investigate if challenge mediates the relationship between job demands and development. and . and what organizations can do to facilitate the development of effective peer relationships. Such information might include current technical information related to their job. information regarding how they are perceived by others in the organization (social feedback).
These protocols could be analyzed looking for evidence of Kolb’s four learning capabilities. For example. create concepts that integrate observations gained from the activity into a theory. abstract conceptualization skills. Protocol analysis might be useful to gain a better understanding of how development experiences influence learning and vary in the degree to which they require the learners to utilize Kolb’s four capabilities. and active experimentation skills. This type of study would allow for a comparison of individual differences in learning skills both within and across development activities. PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES This section begins with a brief overview of the individual and organizational antecedents of development activity. the individual must be able to be fully involved in the activity. Employees who are participating in development activities could be required to keep a diary or record on audiotape the types of cognitive activities they are engaging in. reflect on and interpret experiences..172 Time Management collect information regarding the development activities that the team members provide for each other. Influence of the Learning Environment on the Development Activity-Learning Outcome Relationship. and use theories to make decisions and solve problems. job experiences) more conducive for attitudinal and motivational changes than others? Kolb suggested that an effective learner needs four capabilities: concrete experience skills. That is. It then examines how the antecedents are hypothesized to influence participation in development activity via various . Several issues need to be examined regarding the relationship between development activity and learning outcomes. reflective observation skills.e. are certain types of developmental experiences (i.
Immutable characteristics. certain groups (White males) may receive more encouragement and opportunities to participate in development than others. gender. race. the role of occupational choice on the type of development activity a person participates in is discussed.Time Effectiveness 173 theoretical frameworks. and gender. may play a role in an individual’s level of participation in development activities. it is important to examine the role. Little research has been done in . and of trainee motivation and perceived pressure from supervisors on training session attendance. if any. such as age. In addition. using Holland typology. It concludes with directions for future research.” they are organized into the following groups. However. this section examines the role of immutable individual characteristics. on participation in development. and even cognitive ability. the effect of perceived climate and age and commitment level on attitudes regarding participation in development activities has been examined. Second. Research focusing specifically on participation in formal developmental courses has examined the effects of choice of training course on trainee motivation. Certain groups are not less able to participate in development. Third. Immutable Characteristics Given the rapidly changing makeup of today’s workforce. Individual Antecedents Many proposed models focus on individual-level characteristics believed to influence participation in development. Because of the diversity of factors that fall under the guise of “individuallevel characteristics. First. it discusses the influence of individual attitudes and beliefs on participation. race. such as age. of workplace diversity on development participation.
Powell and Mainiero observed that women’s career patterns are much more complex and do not follow the traditional (male) models. as well as older workers’ attitudes about themselves (fear of failure).. their career progression lagged behind that of men. Brett. It may be that the climate for development for older workers is different than that for younger workers. Absent from most of the employee development literature is the role of both race and gender on development program participation. .174 Time Management this area. Cleveland and Shore found a negative relationship between age and participation in development activity. Similarly. Chronological age was the most consistent predictor of both self ratings and managers’ ratings of participation in development activity. Negative perceptions may inhibit older persons’ confidence in their ability to handle new challenges and. As London and Bassman stated: “Many organizations do not view older workers as able to learn or accept new technologies and function in an increasingly competitive environment”. subsequently. McEnrue found that younger workers were more willing to engage in self development than older workers to prepare for increased levels of organizational responsibility. making it easier for younger workers to develop. including changing the attitudes of managers or supervisors about the training and development of older workers. even when women do “all the right stuff” (e.g. Most of the current research focuses on the potential bias that exists in terms of the career development processes of women. similar career patterns as men). Stroh. and Reilly pointed out that. with most focusing on the older worker. decrease active participation in development opportunities. Sterns and Doverspike pointed out that motivating older workers to engage in development activities may require special efforts. Additionally.
with few minorities or women making it into mid. Department of Labour defined a glass ceiling as “artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias” that serve to inhibit the advancement of minorities and women. race. Older employees placed slightly greater value on social support as well as on having access to a career counselor than younger employees.Time Effectiveness 175 The differences observed in career progression could be influenced by a lack of support for women’s development program participation. Development opportunities.to senior-level management. or gender. A study conducted observed that the glass ceiling seems to occur after the first levels of management. The U. including education and special projects and assignments. The glass ceiling has been offered as a reason that the career patterns of minorities and women do not follow those of White men. “which are traditional precursors to advancements—were often not as available to minorities and women”. Some empirical support has been found for the latter. One explanation offered for this phenomena is that minorities and women were not offered the same opportunities to develop within the organization. Maurer and Tarulli found that African Americans placed less value on social support (peer and manager) for development in comparison to Whites. An additional individual characteristic that may influence development program participation is cognitive ability. A potentially important emerging area of research is attempting to identify the extent to which persons from different demographic groups value similar (and different) aspects of a development climate. Unlike age. which may influence participation because of the perceptions of others.S. Hunter found that cognitive ability predicted training success across a wide spectrum . cognitive ability may influence individuals’ own perceptions of their development needs and/or capabilities to develop.
cognitive ability may be a moderator between an employee’s attitudes and perceptions and participation in development activities.176 Time Management of jobs. Ferris. The assumption is that individuals who have had positive experiences in development activities are more likely to participate in the future than individuals who have had negative experiences. . motivation to learn. and Gilmore found that mental ability was a predictor of training program success. This section focuses on two types of attitudes and beliefs. The second group includes attitudes and beliefs that are tied to the individual’s present organization. Noe and Wilk found that individuals’ perceptions of constraints on their participation in development activities influenced their future plans to participate. Individuals who had negative development experiences were less likely to participate in development activities in the future. That is. Peters and O’Connor suggested that situational constraints may be more detrimental to the job performance of highability rather than low-ability employees. namely job satisfaction and organizational commitment. motivation to transfer. Looking specifically at flight attendants. researchers have examined the role of past experiences in development activities on beliefs and attitudes toward future participation. Although many things affect an individual’s attitudes. Bergin. Attitudes and Beliefs An individual’s attitudes and beliefs regarding development activities is believed to be an important determinant of participation. One group includes those attitudes and beliefs that are more directly related to decisions to participate in development activities—namely. Current empirical research has not simultaneously investigated the influence of ability and other antecedents (attitudes) on participation in development activities. and self-efficacy.
skills. These findings have resulted in a variety of organizational models intended to increase the effectiveness of developmental activities. belief in applicability of the new skill on the job. confidence. participation in development. and. Self-efficacy is defined as individuals’ confidence that they can cope with challenging situations. If individuals believe that the content of the development activity is important for their job. and support (MASS) model involves the following steps: (a) increase employees’ motivation to learn. motivation to transfer. Gist and Mitchell listed mobilization as one of the components of the construct of self-efficacy. Keller developed the attention. . Self-efficacy could potentially impact motivation to learn. For example. they may be more likely to participate in order to learn and. However. may be an important factor for training participation and effectiveness. (c) enable employees to master and apply the new skill. Motivation to transfer requires confidence in the new skill. awareness. and satisfaction (ARCS) model to help organizations and designers of developmental programs stimulate employees’ motivation to learn. it is unclear how such a model would work in situations where the new “skill” is more ambiguous (a challenging job assignment during which an employee is expected to “develop”). and support on the job to use the new skill. Motivation to transfer involves employees’ desire to use the knowledge and skills acquired in development activities on the job. Yelon proposed a model to promote the transfer of training that incorporates these aspects. defined as employees’ desire to learn the content of the developmental program. subsequently use the new skill(s). relevance. The motivation.Time Effectiveness 177 Motivation to learn. subsequently. and (d) give employees support on the job. (b) teach employees when and how to use the new skill. Studies have shown that motivation to learn is related to learning and program completion.
Individuals’ attitudes toward an organization may also impact their participation in development. Fisher and Locke. In an overview of new job satisfaction research. In one study. Outcomes most often associated with low levels of job satisfaction are withdrawal behaviors. absenteeism. and turnover. and persistence in achievement of the task. Therefore. McEnrue found that employees’ level of organizational commitment correlated positively with their willingness to self-develop. effort toward the task. the next two— job satisfaction and organizational commitment—are more reflective of employees’ current situation. Individuals who expressed higher levels of organizational commitment were more likely to also express a desire to voluntarily participate in development activities. individuals with high levels of self-efficacy are more likely to participate in new and challenging situations than individuals with low levels of self-efficacy. Researchers often look at training and development activities as antecedents to job satisfaction. Previous research has identified self-efficacy as an important determinant of an individual’s motivation to participate in development activities. Although the three previous attitudes and beliefs are those that employees may have developed before entering their present organization. Job satisfaction models assume that certain behaviour changes are influenced by current levels of satisfaction.178 Time Management They concluded that self-efficacy is an important part of motivation through its influence on choice of task. . Although researchers have used participation in development activities as an indicator of organizational commitment. little research has looked at the role of organizational commitment on development program participation. provided results from studies that attempt to go beyond the typical job satisfaction outcomes. such as slacking off.
found that those who had choice.Time Effectiveness 179 One study they examined labeled a category of job satisfaction outcomes constructive protest or problem solving. In one of the few articles examining choice in participation. Baldwin et al. employees may either: (a) reduce development program participation because of a lack of desire to remain in their current situation. But what determines the type of development program an employee chooses to participate in? It may be that individuals’ choice of what type of development activity to participate in is based on their occupational preference. occupational preference influences both the type of development activities employees participate in. Individuals with high job satisfaction may be inclined to participate in development activities to increase the probability of retaining their current job or remaining a member of the organization. If job satisfaction is low. as well as their rate of participation. but who were told they did not receive their choice of training. the focus was on the effect of choice on motivation to learn. (b) increase development program participation if they see it as a chance to avoid regular work activities. were less motivated to learn than either those with no choice or those who received their choice. . Occupational Preference Unlike the other individual-level antecedents of participation in development activities. Employees’ participation in development activities may be influenced by their level of job satisfaction in several additional ways. Research on the type of development activity chosen by employees is limited. or (c) increase development program participation to improve their opportunities to change jobs or occupations. which includes participation in training as one way for employees low in job satisfaction to act in a positive manner.
No research has directly examined the link between occupational preferences and choice of development activity. Individuals will most prefer an occupation (environment) that best matches their own interests and competencies. enterprising. One of the outcomes of this pairing of individuals and environments is the development of individuals’ vocational choice or preference. Individuals who are congruent in their occupation may choose development activities that will improve their competencies in and chance to remain in that occupation. A discussion of these firm-level characteristics follows. and conventional. environments can be categorized by the same six types. and the structure of pay and benefit systems may influence the level of participation in development activities.180 Time Management Holland model of vocational choice argued that individuals can be characterized into six different personality types: realistic. the characteristics of the organization likely impact participation in development activities. An organization’s strategy or philosophy regarding development. artistic. the climate for development (or at least perceived climate). Organizational Antecedents Because development activities often occur in the organizational context. investigative. and individuals search for an environment that is most congruent to their own personality. This “theory of careers” might also be extended to explain choice of development activities. individuals who are not congruent with their occupation may choose development activities that improve their chance of moving into an occupation or situation that allows them to use preferred competencies and skills. However. Likewise. . social.
They found that the effect of the organizational environment or context on performance and participation in development activities was mediated by job and climate perceptions. The emphasis in many of these studies was on ways to combat obsolescence. the importance of updating may vary by field. Therefore. Keeping up to date on new technological advances requires individual’s to access the work of others in their field (courses. using a sample of engineers. Dubin defined technical obsolescence as the difference between what a professional should know and an individual’s capabilities to perform tasks both now and in the future. developed and tested a model of updating behaviour. Given that an individual’s knowledge can become obsolete in anywhere from 1 year (computers) to approximately 8 years (business management).Time Effectiveness 181 Business Strategy Firms in high-technology fields. making development either more or less important to success in the company. Others prefer to hire less experienced and less skilled workers and develop them in-house. For example. Kozlowski and Farr. professional journals). Likewise. may place a higher priority on development behaviors and may encourage their employees to participate. such as those in the computer industry. an organization may have a philosophy regarding entry into the organization. Some organizations prefer to hire individuals who already possess the requisite skills and abilities needed to succeed in their job. Miles and Snow referred . This is supported by the fact that many studies on participation in development have focused on employees in technical occupations. organizations involved in more technical fields with a shorter “shelf life” of knowledge may make updating behaviors a priority.
including supervisor or manager encouragement and feedback. Eulberg. as set up by the internal labour market. They indicated that. Peters. and Watson found that constraints present in the workplace resulted in decreased satisfaction. equipment. and extensive development opportunities are available to employees. Sonnenfeld and Peiperl suggested that firms that are considered the dominant competitor in their market—so called “academy” firms—often restrict organizational entry to early career and emphasize promotion from within. or time are believed to inhibit individuals’ participation in development activities. the training and development function is valued by top management. Research has looked at constraints’ effects on various types of behaviors. in creased frustration. For those organizations that fill vacancies in upper level positions from an internal pool of applicants. Climate Research has shown that the perceived presence of supports and constraints to develop what are collectively referred to as the development “climate” impact employees’ development program participation. and increased thoughts of leaving. may also influence the strategic role of development. Noe and Wilk found that employees’ perceptions of the supportiveness of their work environment influenced their . However. supports.182 Time Management to these two types of organizations as the “buy”-oriented versus the “make”-oriented. O’Connor. Progression patterns in the organization. Situational constraints have also been used in training and development research as a predictor of participation. such as performance. in these types of firms. development may be important to facilitate a fluid change in position. are believed to promote participation in development activities. Constraints like lack of money.
Pay system attributes may also be used to influence employee development activities. are given regular feedback regarding development needs. .g. “Pay structure refers to the array of pay rates for different work or skills within a single organization. The key components of an organization’s compensation system—pay structure.. encourage teamwork. increase job satisfaction and organizational commitment). or are encouraged to implement behaviour. and shirking. motivate high individual performance. absenteeism. and criteria used to determine those pay rates”. and pay mix—can either directly (pay for skill acquisition) or indirectly (pay for promotion attained through skill development) encourage employees’ development activities. It focuses attention on the levels. or skills acquired in development activities from their supervisor or peers. differentials. These pay systems are expected to do many different things.Time Effectiveness 183 rate of participation in development activities. often with competing goals (e. attract and retain qualified workers. A supportive environment for participation in development activities is often characterized in terms of social support. Dubin argued that a work environment that involves manager and peer support better facilitates updating behaviour than one that lacks such support. whereas situational constraints negatively influenced future plans to participate in development activities. where employees are encouraged to participate. pay level. Dubin also included such things as salary and promotion recommendations as examples of managerial support. reduce turnover. Pay Systems The compensation system of an organization reflects the various strategic objectives of the firm with regard to labour. A supportive climate positively influenced participation. knowledge.
Clear communication of skills required for promotions and higher paying jobs can direct the employee into developmental channels. Although it is difficult to imagine examples of pay level directly encouraging employee development activities. paying job. which may indirectly encourage skill development to gain future promotions or job opportunities. This is accomplished because the higher pay (a) attracts higher ability individuals. An example of a job evaluation structure acting like a skill-based structure is the dual-career ladder or path. . Job evaluation-based structures are believed to induce job. These skill-based structures either link pay to the breadth of a set of skills an employee can perform. or to the depth of knowledge possessed in a specific occupation or field of expertise. Pay level refers to the average wage paid by a firm in relation to its competitors. However.or skill-based structures signal employees about the importance of skill acquisition and directly reward the development of those skills. it may be as effective. individual. a dual-career ladder with wide pay ranges allows technical personnel to move up in their position and receive higher pay for their growing expertise. which is the traditional approach.184 Time Management Structures can be job evaluation-based. Instead of forcing technically skilled employees into managerial positions to obtain promotions and pay increases. Although this influence is not as direct as specifically paying for skill acquisition. several indirect influences of pay level on participation in development activities can be suggested. An efficiency wage model contends that employers realize higher levels of efficiency and productivity by paying above the average market rate. some based on efficiency wage models. The developmental influence of pay level has not been explored.or promotion-seeking behaviors.or skill-based. or individual. and (b) reduces shirking behaviors and turnover because individuals fear losing their high.
and thus seek out. Benefits. Base pay is the wage or salary an employee receives in return for the labour he or she provides. First. individuals receiving efficiency wages should be more willing to pursue opportunities to develop skills and knowledge in order to keep their current job. Base pay increases tied to promotions could indirectly influence employees to develop new skills to secure a position in the next level of the hierarchy. tuition reimbursement. unemployment insurance. seem unlikely to . incentives. workers compensation) and discretionary payments and services (such as insurance. Pay mix (also known as pay form) refers to the relative proportion of compensation made up of base pay. child care. evidence linking base pay directly to employee motivation or development activities is lacking. is evident in many traditional pay systems. which now make up about a third of the typical employee’s compensation. Incentives are specified rewards for specific performance outcomes. Noe makes the point that higher ability individuals are more likely to recognize the need for. or that are tied to outcomes that do not require development of new skills. are those mandatory payments (such as Social Security. paid time off) provided by an employer conditional on employment.Time Effectiveness 185 Two indirect influences on development can be hypothesized from the attraction ability and the fear of job loss components of the model. and can be given on an individual or group basis. often called a merit increase. Much discussion has centered around whether merit increases actually link pay to performance (and therefore serve a motivational function). development activities. Second. and benefits. base pay increases that are not tied to specific performance outcomes. or whether merit increases reward organizational commitment. Although increases to base pay can be considered a reward for cumulative past performance. Heavy reliance on annual increases to base pay. However.
when new skills are not directly related to the performance of the current job for which individuals receive incentive pay. Individual incentives. and stock ownership plans.186 Time Management encourage employee development. Interest in group incentives has grown as teamwork. For example. they may be less likely to pursue development opportunities. “Effective pay for performance systems motivate learning and development because individuals perceive that they must develop their skills in order to perform effectively. commissions. if individuals feel they already have the requisite skills. However. total quality management (TQM). gain sharing. then a pay for performance system may not have this impact”. Of course. These may induce employees to pursue development activities that will make goal attainment (and reward acquisition) more likely in the future. The three general types of group incentives are profit sharing. the system may actually discourage employees from learning new skills. such as lump sum payments or bonuses. . Of the three. gainsharing plans may have some direct influence on employees’ participation in development activities by fostering participation and information exchange among work group members. and worker participation strategies have been adopted by more organizations. If employees perceive the potential pay-back of development activities to be risky or far in the future. link recent performance to the rewards received. in a piece-rate system. As noted by Lawler. or piece-rate payments. there is no indication that the development activities the work group members participate in extends their knowledge and skills beyond those required for the groups’ assignments. However. the cost of time away from the job to pursue developmental activities reduces current income for employees. The link between incentive portions of the pay mix and employee development is more clearly defined than that of base pay.
which includes health insurance benefits. downsizing. Employees may develop hobbies into a career opportunity (e.. where a frequent port of entry is the part-time job. expectancy theory. other benefits can directly encourage employees to make use of developmental opportunities. bait-and tackle shop. Anecdotal evidence supporting this example comes from retailing. and restructuring. theory of reasoned action. completely retrain for a new career. such as paid time off to attend developmental seminars and events travel stipends subscriptions to professional/industrial journals and corporate sponsorship of membership in professional organizations. and contract theory are frameworks used to better understand individuals’ decision to participate in development activities. consulting).Time Effectiveness 187 The final type of incentive is retirement incentives. goal setting theory.g. One of the most frequently noted benefits that directly influence employees’ participation in development activities is tuition reimbursement. In the wake of mergers. or remain retired and develop nonwork goals. These theories can be differentiated from one another on how each would answer the following question: Given a set of individual and organizational antecedents. For example. Studying Development Activities Social learning theory. part-time employees who need health insurance may seek to develop firm-specific skills and knowledge to compete and obtain full-time employment. Benefits can indirectly influence employee development when eligibility for certain benefits is tied to a job or employment level. However. Early retirement packages may encourage employees to pursue developmental opportunities not related to their current position or current employer. but where most benefits are tied to full-time employment. how does an individual decide to participate in development activities? . the developmental aspects of early retirement plans cannot be ignored.
If an organization hires externally for low-level positions and promotes from within for higher level positions. If the organization rewards those who are actively developing. These reinforcers can encourage or discourage the behaviour. expecting the same or similar outcomes—which serve as reinforcers of the behaviour. The employee mimics the model’s behaviour. For example. and others emphasize the internal or individual characteristics in employees’ choice to participate in development activities. a newcomer may mimic that behaviour to advance. a newcomer may observe others to see what warrants a promotion to higher levels. participation in development activities is the result of employees mimicking the behaviour of an organizational agent. and provide valuable information on which the individual can modify his or her behaviour. employees who observe their peers receiving interesting and challenging job assignments as a result of their development participation may be influenced to participate if such an outcome is desired. Expectancy Theory According to expectancy theory. Social Learning Theory According to social learning theory. as well . participation in development is dependent on an individual’s beliefs regarding effortperformance and performance-outcome relationships. A brief description of each theory’s tenets regarding participation decisions follows. An individual observes the behaviour of the agent(s) of the organization and the subsequent outcomes that result from the behaviour. One way internal labour market structures may influence participation decisions is through modeling behaviour.188 Time Management Some emphasize the role of external or organizational characteristics.
This framework may help explain how occupational preference may influence decisions to participate in development activities. their goal . Goal Setting Theory According to goal setting theory. If the expectations of the linkages between effort-performance and performance-outcome are positive. Using an expectancy theory framework. and that increasing competencies will result in outcomes such as promotions and salary increases (instrumentalities). Employees who perceive a supportive climate for development may be more apt to believe that their participation will result in increased competence (expectancy). Individuals must invest effort now in the hopes that their behaviour will lead to goal achievement. instrumentalities. For example. Farr and Middlebrooks suggested that supervisor and peer support may positively influence motivation because it positively impacts expectancies. By definition. and if the outcome has value. and valences. Individuals may participate in development activities if they believe that this will increase their chances of achieving personal goals. One potential reason that perceptions of supervisor or peer support are important to participation decisions is that it may impact individuals’ expectations and beliefs regarding the value of updating behaviour. an individual will be motivated. the impetus to participate in development activities is motivation to achieve a goal.Time Effectiveness 189 as the value placed on outcomes related to participation in development. It requires commitment on the part of the individual holding it for any action toward goal attainment to take place. The catalyst for an individual to choose to participate in development activities is motivation through expectation. a goal is something individuals desire and strive for. if individuals are not well matched to their current occupation or job.
may be to attain a different job. One way to accomplish that goal is to participate in development activities that may increase the probability of goal achievement.
Theory of Reasoned Action
Fishbein and Ajzen theory of reasoned action proposes that both an individual’s attitude toward a behaviour (development) and perceptions of the wants and wishes of important others (supervisor or peers) determine behavioral intentions. The theory of reasoned action explains participation behaviour by both the wishes of others and by the strength of the individual’s intention to develop. Fishbein and Stasson hypothesized that the wishes or wants of the important others would be mediated by the intentions of the individual. The intentions, then, would be directly related to the behaviour. The theory of reasoned action may help explain how social support in organizations influence’s an individual’s decision to participate in development activities. Research showing a positive relationship between social support and participation decisions has been well documented. In studying training session attendance, Fishbein and Stasson found a direct relationship between both an individual’s motivation or intention to attend and supervisory influence and actual attendance. It may be that the support of important others (supervisors and peers) influences an individual’s own intentions to develop, tipping the scale as to whether an individual will develop.
Psychological contracts explain an individual’s participation in development primarily as a fulfillment of an obligation. Rousseau characterized a psychological contract as individual beliefs in reciprocal obligations between the individual and the organization.
According to Rousseau: “It is an individual’s belief that promise of future return has been made, a consideration or contribution has been offered (and accepted), and an obligation to provide future benefits exists”. Because psychological contracts are a relatively new research area, little is known about their effects on organizational behaviors (performance, participation in development). Primarily, behaviour will be related to the terms and conditions of the contract. The incentive to perform these contract-related behaviors, then, is the perceived obligation to the other party of the contract. Individuals’ perceptions of reciprocity between themselves and their employer regarding development create a responsibility to fulfill the terms of the contract that exists between them. Employees may perceive an obligation to develop in exchange for rewards that they perceive the organization is obligated to supply. The obligations regarding issues of training and development that exist between an employee and employer have been included in previous research as part of the psychological contract. Sims examined the role of psychological contracts in developing a learning climate to facilitate the development of a shared responsibility for training and learning. Additionally, Scott and Meyer argued that training is becoming institutionalized as employees acquire certain “membership rights” or contractual rights from organizations. After gaining an “elite” position in the organization, for instance, rights that serve to legitimize the employee’s new standing in the hierarchy are conferred. These rights may include increased training and development opportunities. Directions for Future Research
The influence of age, race, and gender should be examined in future research on participation in development activities.
Certain groups may have different opportunities or different perceptions of opportunities to develop, which may directly limit their actual rate of participation. Further, this may limit the advancement opportunities of these group members. These characteristics may work with other antecedents to limit participation decisions. Looking at developmental job experiences, Ohlott, Ruderman, and McCauley found gender differences in perceived personal support (networks, relationships). Women reported having less support from others in the work environment than men. They argued that this type of obstacle may actually serve as a developmental experience. Research has identified self-efficacy—belief in one’s ability to handle challenging situations—as an important determinant of an individual’s participation in development activities. Future research should examine the relationship between an individual’s self-efficacy and perceived obstacles for development. It may be that women with high self-efficacy are more able to turn an obstacle into a developmental experience than women with low self-efficacy. Current empirical research has not simultaneously investigated the influence of ability and attitudes on development activities. Given the importance of awareness of development needs in participation in development activities, future research should examine the effect of cognitive ability on individuals’ awareness of their own development deficiencies, as well as on their beliefs about solving them through development programs. The Baldwin et al. model of trainee choice includes ability, but only as a factor in training outcomes. They also statistically controlled for ability to assess the impact of trainee choice on pretraining motivation and training outcomes. In the future, research should examine how ability is related to an individual’s awareness of developmental needs, as well as participation choice.
Expectancy theory may provide the proper framework for examining this question. Individuals’ perceptions of their own ability and training needs may impact effort-performance perceptions, thus influencing future behaviour. Research on participation in development activities often focuses on the role of individuals’ attitudes and beliefs that are specific to development participation—namely, motivation to learn, motivation to transfer, and self-efficacy. Specifically, researchers often look for ways to increase these attitudes and beliefs with the assumption that they will translate into higher participation rates. However, the type of skill(s) to be developed may influence this attitude— behaviour relationship. Future research should examine how the characteristics of the skill to be developed (ambiguity) impact an individual’s perception of transfer and, subsequently, interest in participation in development activities. A highly ambiguous skill (managerial leadership) versus a more concrete skill (handling customer complaints) may appear to be more difficult for an employee to transfer, and may reduce not only motivation to transfer, but motivation to learn and, subsequently, attendance in those types of courses. There has been less focus on the role of job- and organization-specific attitudes—namely, job satisfaction and organizational commitment on participation in development activities. Research often looks at opportunities to develop as an antecedent to job satisfaction, but neglect’s to look at participation in development activities as an outcome of it. Future research should take into account both the antecedent and outcome role of development activities on job satisfaction. As the presence of and importance of development opportunities change over the course of an individual’s tenure with an organization, a longitudinal study could best capture these changes and the changes in both
organizationallevel characteristics are not regularly examined as antecedents of development program participation. Individuals’ current fit with their occupation may impact the type of career goals set and the methods by which they attempt to achieve them. Research is needed for employees in more varied occupational categories. Kaufman and Kozlowski and Farr both examined updating activities of specifically technical employees (engineers).194 Time Management participation rates and job satisfaction over time. a study that measures employees’ occupational match and their career goals would be able to test: (a) if fit impacts the career goal set. These types of macro. An individual’s occupational preference and perceived match with their occupation may influence participation in development activities. Organizational Antecedents The type of field or industry and the internal labour market of an organization likely impact both the opportunities and encouragement given to employees to participate in development activities. Research should examine the relationship between congruence of the type of development activities an individual participates in and the individual’s current occupation and tenure in that occupation. Specifically. A goal setting framework may be used to examine these issues. and (b) if development participation is used as a means to improve their chances of goal attainment. Research often focuses on employees in certain occupational types. A contract theory perspective may provide a framework for examining the perceived obligations of an employer to provide development opportunities to a newcomer. Perceived violations of the contract may help explain changes in job satisfaction and participation rates over time. For example. Future research needs to move beyond the individual level .
& Kavanagh developed a reliable and valid measure of continuous learning culture. One important issue for future research may be to examine whether the . Although the construct of continuous learning has been fashionable in the practitioner literature. employees may believe that development activities are an important way to increase promotability. future research on employee development needs to assess continuous learning culture and other macro level variables. Employees’ perceptions of the organizations’ development “climate” (constraints and supports) may impact their development program participation. For example. until this instrument was developed there were no measures available with acceptable psychometric characteristics. If an organization’s policy or norms regarding entry and promotion are to hire low and promote from within. Certain types of organizational policies may impact an individual’s beliefs that development activities are worth the time and effort. In their study of the influence of organizational climate and culture on the transfer of supervisory behaviors learned in a training program. not just through formal training programs. whereas an individual who is new may see participation as a worthwhile endeavour. Tracey et al. Tracey. Because of the pervasive effect that the organizational culture can have on employees’ behaviour. Tannenbaum. an individual who is plateaued may believe that participation in development is futile for promotion. and such a culture demonstrates the importance of the acquisition and application of new knowledge and skills gained in many ways. argue that a continuous learning culture is based on an organizational frame of reference.Time Effectiveness 195 to include organizational strategy antecedents of development activity participation. A researcher may want to gather information on these types of policies or norms that exist within an organization from individuals of varying tenure levels.
can provide a framework for future research investigating the impact that pay systems may have on employees’ decisions to pursue development activities based on rewards and labour market conditions.196 Time Management constraints or supports perceived to be present in the environment are actually present. motivate. Additionally. Pay systems in organizations perform many functions. and executives) at various levels and areas in the organization may be useful to determine whether there is congruence between perceived and actual constraints and supports. Research that surveys both employees and other organizational representatives (supervisors. managers. retain. certain worker (race or gender) or departmental characteristics may be examined as influencing the discrepancy. Theories of motivation. Future research should include basic descriptive information on both the explicit and incidental use of pay systems as a driving force behind employee development. often with competing priorities and goals. . If not. In addition to serving to attract. pay systems may encourage or discourage employee development. future research needs to examine the relationship between these perceptions and both attitudes toward development activities and actual participation in development activity. and reward employees. such as expectancy theory and efficiency wage theory.
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